What does viroid mean?

Definitions for viroid
ˈvaɪ rɔɪdvi·roid

This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word viroid.

Princeton's WordNet

  1. viroid, virusoidnoun

    the smallest of viruses; a plant virus with its RNA arranged in a circular chromosome without a protein coat

Wiktionary

  1. viroidnoun

    plant pathogens, of the order Viroidales, that consist of just a short section of RNA but without the protein coat typical of viruses

  2. viroidnoun

    human pathogen, most notably hepatitis D.

Wikipedia

  1. Viroid

    Viroids are small single-stranded, circular RNAs that are infectious pathogens. Unlike viruses, they have no protein coating. All known viroids are inhabitants of angiosperms (flowering plants), and most cause diseases, whose respective economic importance to humans varies widely.The first discoveries of viroids in the 1970s triggered the historically third major extension of the biosphere—to include smaller lifelike entities —after the discoveries in 1675 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (of the "subvisible" microorganisms) and in 1892–1898 by Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky and Martinus Beijerinck (of the "submicroscopic" viruses). The unique properties of viroids have been recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, in creating a new order of subviral agents.The first recognized viroid, the pathogenic agent of the potato spindle tuber disease, was discovered, initially molecularly characterized, and named by Theodor Otto Diener, plant pathologist at the U.S Department of Agriculture's Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland, in 1971. This viroid is now called potato spindle tuber viroid, abbreviated PSTVd. The Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) was discovered soon thereafter, and together understanding of PSTVd and CEVd shaped the concept of the viroid.Although viroids are composed of nucleic acid, they do not code for any protein. The viroid's replication mechanism uses RNA polymerase II, a host cell enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA, which instead catalyzes "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA using the viroid's RNA as a template. Viroids are often ribozymes, having catalytic properties that allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates.Diener initially hypothesized in 1989 that viroids may represent "living relics" from the widely assumed, ancient, and non-cellular RNA world, and others have followed this conjecture. Following the discovery of retrozymes, it is now thought that viroids and other viroid-like elements may derive from this newly found class of retrotransposon.The human pathogen hepatitis D virus is a subviral agent similar in structure to a viroid.

ChatGPT

  1. viroid

    A viroid is an infectious, pathogenic agent that affects plants. It is much smaller than a virus and consists solely of a short strand of circular, single-stranded RNA without protein coat. Viroids do not code for any proteins and are replicated by host plant cells through their RNA polymerase enzymes. They cause various diseases in plants, leading to significant agricultural losses.

Wikidata

  1. Viroid

    Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA. In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2 kilobases in size. The human pathogen Hepatitis D Virus is similar to viroids. Viroid genomes are extremely small in size, ranging from 246 to 467 nucleotides, and consisting of fewer than 10,000 atoms. Viroids were discovered and named by Theodor Otto Diener, a plant pathologist at the Agricultural Research Service in Maryland, in 1971. Viroid RNA does not code for any protein. The replication mechanism involves RNA polymerase II, an enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA, which instead catalyzes "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA using the viroid's RNA as template. Some viroids are ribozymes, having catalytic properties which allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates. The first viroid to be identified was Potato spindle tuber viroid. Some 33 species have been identified.

Matched Categories

How to pronounce viroid?

How to say viroid in sign language?

Numerology

  1. Chaldean Numerology

    The numerical value of viroid in Chaldean Numerology is: 3

  2. Pythagorean Numerology

    The numerical value of viroid in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5

Popularity rank by frequency of use

viroid#100000#231684#333333

Translation

Find a translation for the viroid definition in other languages:

Select another language:

  • - Select -
  • 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified)
  • 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional)
  • Español (Spanish)
  • Esperanto (Esperanto)
  • 日本語 (Japanese)
  • Português (Portuguese)
  • Deutsch (German)
  • العربية (Arabic)
  • Français (French)
  • Русский (Russian)
  • ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada)
  • 한국어 (Korean)
  • עברית (Hebrew)
  • Gaeilge (Irish)
  • Українська (Ukrainian)
  • اردو (Urdu)
  • Magyar (Hungarian)
  • मानक हिन्दी (Hindi)
  • Indonesia (Indonesian)
  • Italiano (Italian)
  • தமிழ் (Tamil)
  • Türkçe (Turkish)
  • తెలుగు (Telugu)
  • ภาษาไทย (Thai)
  • Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)
  • Čeština (Czech)
  • Polski (Polish)
  • Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian)
  • Românește (Romanian)
  • Nederlands (Dutch)
  • Ελληνικά (Greek)
  • Latinum (Latin)
  • Svenska (Swedish)
  • Dansk (Danish)
  • Suomi (Finnish)
  • فارسی (Persian)
  • ייִדיש (Yiddish)
  • հայերեն (Armenian)
  • Norsk (Norwegian)
  • English (English)

Word of the Day

Would you like us to send you a FREE new word definition delivered to your inbox daily?

Please enter your email address:


Citation

Use the citation below to add this definition to your bibliography:

Style:MLAChicagoAPA

"viroid." Definitions.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2024. Web. 28 Feb. 2024. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/viroid>.

Discuss these viroid definitions with the community:

0 Comments

    Are we missing a good definition for viroid? Don't keep it to yourself...

    Image or illustration of

    viroid

    Credit »

    Free, no signup required:

    Add to Chrome

    Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web!

    Free, no signup required:

    Add to Firefox

    Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web!

    Browse Definitions.net

    Quiz

    Are you a words master?

    »
    be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.
    • A. attend
    • B. observe
    • C. doom
    • D. fudge

    Nearby & related entries:

    Alternative searches for viroid: