What does solvatochromism mean?

Definitions for solvatochromism
sol·va·tochromism

This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word solvatochromism.

Wiktionary

  1. solvatochromismnoun

    A change in colour (due to changes in position and/or intensity of absorption or emission bands) that accompanies a change in the polarity of a solvent

Wikipedia

  1. Solvatochromism

    In chemistry, solvatochromism is the phenomenon observed when the colour due to a solute is different when that solute is dissolved in different solvents. The solvatochromic effect is the way the spectrum of a substance (the solute) varies when the substance is dissolved in a variety of solvents. In this context, the dielectric constant and hydrogen bonding capacity are the most important properties of the solvent. With various solvents there is a different effect on the electronic ground state and excited state of the solute, so that the size of energy gap between them changes as the solvent changes. This is reflected in the absorption or emission spectrum of the solute as differences in the position, intensity, and shape of the spectroscopic bands. When the spectroscopic band occurs in the visible part of the spectrum solvatochromism is observed as a change of colour. This is illustrated by Reichardt's dye, as shown in the image. Negative solvatochromism corresponds to a hypsochromic shift (or blue shift) with increasing solvent polarity. An examples of negative solvatochromism is provided by 4-(4′-hydroxystyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, which is red in 1-propanol, orange in methanol, and yellow in water. Positive solvatochromism corresponds to a bathochromic shift (or red shift) with increasing solvent polarity. An example of positive solvatochromism is provided by 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)fuchsone, which is orange in toluene, red in acetone. The main value of the concept of solvatochromism is the context it provides to predict colors of solutions. Solvatochromism can in principle be used in sensors and in molecular electronics for construction of molecular switches. Solvatochromic dyes are used to measure solvent parameters, which can be used to explain solubility phenomena and predict suitable solvents for particular uses. Solvatochromism of the photoluminescence/fluorescence of carbon nanotubes has been identified and used for optical sensor applications. In one such application, the wavelength of the fluorescence of peptide-coated carbon nanotubes was found to change when exposed to explosives, facilitating detection. However, more recently the small chromophore solvatochromism hypothesis has been challenged for carbon nanotubes in light of older and newer data showing electrochromic behavior. These and other observations regarding non-linear processes on the semiconducting nanotube suggest colloidal models will require new interpretations that are in line with classic semiconductor optical processes, including electrochemical processes, rather than small molecule physical descriptions. Conflicting hypotheses may be due to the fact the nanotube is only a single atom thick material interface unlike other "bulk" nanomaterials.

Wikidata

  1. Solvatochromism

    Solvatochromism is the ability of a chemical substance to change color due to a change in solvent polarity. Negative solvatochromism corresponds to hypsochromic shift with increasing solvent polarity. The corresponding bathochromic shift is termed positive solvatochromism. The sign of the solvatochromism depends on the difference in dipole moment between the ground and excited states of the chromophore. The Solvatochromic effect or solvatochromic shift refers to a strong dependence of absorption and emission spectra with the solvent polarity. Since polarities of the ground and excited state of a chromophore are different, a change in the solvent polarity will lead to different stabilization of the ground and excited states, and thus, a change in the energy gap between these electronic states. Consequently, variations in the position, intensity, and shape of the absorption spectra can be direct measures of the specific interactions between the solute and solvent molecules. Due to the Franck-Condon principle, the excited state solvent shell is not in equilibrium with the excited state molecule. In fact, charge-transfer transitions of ground state ion-pairs give the largest changes in absorption spectra, and are thus, the most useful for measuring solvent polarity.

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Numerology

  1. Chaldean Numerology

    The numerical value of solvatochromism in Chaldean Numerology is: 6

  2. Pythagorean Numerology

    The numerical value of solvatochromism in Pythagorean Numerology is: 4


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"solvatochromism." Definitions.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2024. Web. 2 Mar. 2024. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/solvatochromism>.

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