### What does **closed universe** mean?

# Definitions for closed universe

closed uni·verse

#### This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word **closed universe**.

### Princeton's WordNet

closed universenoun

(cosmology) a universe that is spatially closed and in which there is sufficient matter to halt the expansion that began with the big bang; the visible matter is only 10 percent of the matter required for closure but there may be large amounts of dark matter

### Wikipedia

closed universe

The shape of the universe, in physical cosmology, is the local and global geometry of the universe. The local features of the geometry of the universe are primarily described by its curvature, whereas the topology of the universe describes general global properties of its shape as a continuous object. The spatial curvature is described by general relativity, which describes how spacetime is curved due to the effect of gravity. The spatial topology cannot be determined from its curvature, due to the fact that there exist locally indistinguishable spaces that may be endowed with different topological invariants.Cosmologists distinguish between the observable universe and the entire universe, the former being a ball-shaped portion of the latter that can, in principle, be accessible by astronomical observations. Assuming the cosmological principle, the observable universe is similar from all contemporary vantage points, which allows cosmologists to discuss properties of the entire universe with only information from studying their observable universe. The main discussion in this context is whether the universe is finite, like the observable universe, or infinite. Several potential topological and geometric properties of the universe need to be identified. Its topological characterization remains an open problem. Some of these properties are: Boundedness (whether the universe is finite or infinite) Flatness (zero curvature), hyperbolic (negative curvature), or spherical (positive curvature) Connectivity: how the universe is put together as a manifold, i.e., a simply connected space or a multiply connected space.There are certain logical connections among these properties. For example, a universe with positive curvature is necessarily finite. Although it is usually assumed in the literature that a flat or negatively curved universe is infinite, this need not be the case if the topology is not the trivial one. For example, a multiply connected space may be flat and finite, as illustrated by the three-torus. Yet, in the case of simply connected spaces, flatness implies infinitude.To this day, the exact shape of the universe remains a matter of debate in physical cosmology. In this regard, experimental data from various independent sources (WMAP, BOOMERanG, and Planck for example) confirm that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error. Yet, the issue of simple versus multiple connectivity has not yet been decided based on astronomical observation. On the other hand, any non-zero curvature is possible for a sufficiently large curved universe (analogously to how a small portion of a sphere can look flat). Theorists have been trying to construct a formal mathematical model of the shape of the universe relating connectivity, curvature and boundedness. In formal terms, this is a 3-manifold model corresponding to the spatial section (in comoving coordinates) of the four-dimensional spacetime of the universe. The model most theorists currently use is the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model. Arguments have been put forward that the observational data best fit with the conclusion that the shape of the global universe is infinite and flat, but the data is also consistent with other possible shapes, such as the so-called Poincaré dodecahedral space, the multiply connected three-torus, and the Sokolov–Starobinskii space (quotient of the upper half-space model of hyperbolic space by a 2-dimensional lattice).Physical cosmology is based on the theory of General Relativity, a physical picture cast in terms of differential equations. Therefore, only the local geometric properties of the universe become theoretically accessible. Thus, Einstein's field equations determine only the local geometry but have absolutely no saying on the topology of the universe. At present, the only possibility to elucidate such global properties relies on observational data, especially the fluctuations (anisotropies) of the temperature gradient field of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).

### Numerology

Chaldean Numerology

The numerical value of closed universe in Chaldean Numerology is:

**4**Pythagorean Numerology

The numerical value of closed universe in Pythagorean Numerology is:

**9**

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"closed universe." *Definitions.net.* STANDS4 LLC, 2023. Web. 7 Jun 2023. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/closed+universe>.

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