A conflict between secular and religious authorities, especially the struggle between the Roman Catholic Church and the German government under Bismarck.
Origin: From Kulturkampf.
The German term Kulturkampf refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck. The Kulturkampf did not extend to the other German states such as Bavaria. As one scholar put it, "the attack on the church included a series of Prussian, discriminatory laws that made Catholics feel understandably persecuted within a predominantly Protestant nation." Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and other orders were expelled in the culmination of twenty years of anti-Jesuit and antimonastic hysteria. In 1871, the Catholic Church comprised 36,5% of the population of the German Empire. In this newly founded Empire, Bismarck sought to appeal to liberals and Protestants by reducing the political and social influence of the Catholic Church. Priests and bishops who resisted the Kulturkampf were arrested or removed from their positions. By the height of anti-Catholic legislation, half of the Prussian bishops were in prison or in exile, a quarter of the parishes had no priest, half the monks and nuns had left Prussia, a third of the monasteries and convents were closed, 1800 parish priests were imprisoned or exiled, and thousands of laypeople were imprisoned for helping the priests.
The numerical value of kulturkampf in Chaldean Numerology is: 1
The numerical value of kulturkampf in Pythagorean Numerology is: 6
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