Definitions for halteres
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balancers; the rudimentary hind wings of Diptera
Halteres are small knobbed structures modified from the hind wings in some two-winged insects. They are flapped rapidly and function as gyroscopes, informing the insect about rotation of the body during flight. The word 'halter' comes from Greek ἁλτήρ, a double knobbed device used in Ancient Greece by athletes during training in jumping. In Diptera, the formation of the haltere during metamorphosis is dependent on the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax. If this gene is experimentally deactivated, the haltere will develop into a fully developed wing. This is an excellent illustration of an important mechanism of a simple homeotic gene change can result in a radically different phenotype. Halteres flap up and down as the wings do and operate as vibrating structure gyroscopes. Every vibrating object tends to maintain its plane of vibration if its support is rotated, a result of Newton's first law. If the body of the insect changes direction in flight or rotates about its axis, the vibrating halteres thus exert a force on the body. The insect detects this force with sensory organs known as campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres. The planes of vibration of the two halteres are orthogonal to each other, each forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the axis of the insect; this increases the amount of information gained from the halteres.
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