Definitions for dication
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Any cation, of general formula X, formed by the removal of two electrons from a neutral species
A dication is any cation, of general formula 2+, formed by the removal of two electrons from a neutral species. Diatomic dications corresponding to stable neutral species often decay quickly into two singly charged particles, due to the loss of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals. Energy levels of diatomic dications can be studied with good resolution by measuring the yield of pairs of zero-kinetic-energy electrons from double photoionization of a molecule as a function of the photoionizing wavelength. The He22+ dication is kinetically stable. An example of a stable diatomic dication which is not formed by oxidation of a neutral diatomic molecule is the dimercury dication Hg22+. An example of a polyatomic dication is S82+, formed by oxidation of S8 and unstable with respect to further oxidisation over time to form SO2. Many organic dications can be detected in mass spectrometry for example CH42+ and the acetylene dication C2H22+. The adamantyl dication has been synthesized.
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