Definitions for buchnera
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Buchnera aphidicola a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Buchnera is believed to have had a free-living, Gram-negative ancestor similar to a modern Enterobacteriaceae, such as Escherichia coli. Buchnera is 3 µm in diameter and has some of the key characteristics of their Enterobacteriaceae relatives, such as a Gram-negative cell wall. However, unlike most other Gram-negative bacteria, Buchnera lacks the genes to produce lipopolysaccharides for its outer membrane. The long association with aphids and the limitation of crossover events due to strictly vertical transmission has seen the deletion of genes required for anaerobic respiration, the synthesis of amino sugars, fatty acids, phospholipids, and complex carbohydrates. This has resulted not only in one of the smallest known genomes of any living organism, but also one of the most genetically stable. The symbiotic relationship with aphids began between 160 million and 280 million years ago, and has persisted through maternal transmission and cospeciation. Aphids have developed bacteriocyte cells to house Buchnera. A mature aphid may carry an estimated 5.6 × 106 Buchnera cells. Buchnera has lost regulatory factors, allowing continuous overproduction of tryptophan and other amino acids. Each bacteriocyte contains multiple vesicles, symbiosomes derived from the plasma membrane.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
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