Definitions containing Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Begin·ners All Pur·pose Sym·bol·ic In·struc·tion Code
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In computing, the instruction register (IR) or current instruction register (CIR) is the part of a CPU's control unit that holds the instruction currently being executed or decoded. In simple processors each instruction to be executed is loaded into the instruction register which holds it while it is decoded, prepared and ultimately executed, which can take several steps. Some of the complicated processors use a pipeline of instruction registers where each stage of the pipeline does part of the decoding, preparation or execution and then passes it to the next stage for its step. Modern processors can even do some of the steps out of order as decoding on several instructions is done in parallel. Decoding the op-code in the instruction register includes determining the instruction, determining where its operands are in memory, retrieving the operands from memory, allocating processor resources to execute the command (in super scalar processors), etc. The output of the IR is available to control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. In the instruction cycle, the instruction is loaded into the instruction register after the processor fetches it from the memory location pointed to by the program counter.
awl, adj. the whole of: every one of: any whatever.—adv. wholly: completely: entirely: (Shak.) only, alone.—n. the whole: everything: the totality of things—the universe.—n. All′-Fath′er, God.—All (obs.), entirely, altogether, as in 'all to-brake' (Judges, ix. 53). The prefix to- originally belonged to the verb (tó brecan), but as verbs with this prefix were rarely used without all, the fact was forgotten, and the to was erroneously regarded as belonging to the all. Hence came into use all-to = wholly, utterly; All but, everything short of, almost; All in all, all things in all respects, all or everything together—(adverbially) altogether; All over, thoroughly, entirely; All over with, finished, done with (also coll., All up with); All right, a colloquial phrase expressing assent or approbation; All's one, it is just the same; All to one (obs.), altogether.—After all, when everything has been considered, nevertheless; And all, and everything else; And all that, and all the rest of it, et cetera; At all, in the least degree or to the least extent.—For all, notwithstanding; For good and all, finally.—Once for all, once only. [A.S. all, eal; Ger. all, Gael. uile, W. oll.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
In computing, a symbolic link is a special type of file that contains a reference to another file or directory in the form of an absolute or relative path and that affects pathname resolution. Symbolic links were already present by 1978 in mini-computer operating systems from DEC and Data General's RDOS. Today they are supported by the POSIX operating-system standard, most Unix-like operating systems such as FreeBSD, GNU/Linux, and Mac OS X, and also Windows operating systems such as Windows Vista, Windows 7 and to some degree in Windows 2000 and Windows XP in the form of Shortcut files. Symbolic links operate transparently for most operations: programs that read or write to files named by a symbolic link will behave as if operating directly on the target file. However, programs that need to handle symbolic links specially may identify and manipulate them directly. A symbolic link contains a text string that is automatically interpreted and followed by the operating system as a path to another file or directory. This other file or directory is called the "target". The symbolic link is a second file that exists independently of its target. If a symbolic link is deleted, its target remains unaffected. If a symbolic link points to a target, and sometime later that target is moved, renamed or deleted, the symbolic link is not automatically updated or deleted, but continues to exist and still points to the old target, now a non-existing location or file. Symbolic links pointing to moved or non-existing targets are sometimes called broken, orphaned, dead, or dangling.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status. For example, a string instruction may do so to indicate whether the instruction terminated because it found a match/mismatch or because it found the end of the string. The flags are read by a subsequent conditional instruction so that the specified action (depending on the processor, a jump, call, return, or so on) occurs only if the flags indicate a specified result of the earlier instruction. Some CPU architectures, such as the MIPS and Alpha, do not use a dedicated flag register. Others do not implicitly set and/or read flags. Such machines either do not pass implicit status information between instructions at all, or they pass it in an explicitly selected general purpose register. A status register may often have other fields as well, such as more specialized flags, interrupt enable bits, and similar types of information. During an interrupt, the status of the thread currently executing can be preserved (and later recalled) by storing the current value of the status register along with the program counter and other active registers into the machine stack or some other reserved area of memory.
The program counter, commonly called the instruction pointer in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register, the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence. In most processors, PC is incremented after fetching an instruction, and holds the memory address of the next instruction that would be executed. Instructions are usually fetched sequentially from memory, but control transfer instructions change the sequence by placing a new value in PC. These include branches, subroutine calls, and returns. A transfer that is conditional on the truth of some assertion lets the computer follow a different sequence under different conditions. A branch provides that the next instruction is fetched from somewhere else in memory. A subroutine call not only branches but saves the preceding contents of PC somewhere. A return retrieves the saved contents of PC and places it back in PC, resuming sequential execution with the instruction following the subroutine call.
the whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, quality, or degree of; the whole; the whole number of; any whatever; every; as, all the wheat; all the land; all the year; all the strength; all happiness; all abundance; loss of all power; beyond all doubt; you will see us all (or all of us)
— Webster Dictionary
skōōl, n. a place for instruction: an institution of learning, esp. for children: the pupils of a school: exercises for instruction: the disciples of a particular teacher, or those who hold a common doctrine: a large number of fish migrating together, a shoal: a system of training: any means of knowledge, esp. (mus.) a treatise teaching some particular branch of the art: a large hall in English universities, where the examinations for degrees, &c., are held—hence, one of these examinations (gen. pl.) also the group of studies taken by a man competing for honours in these: a single department of a university: (pl.) the body of masters and students in a college.—v.t. to educate in a school: to instruct: to admonish, to discipline.—adj. School′able, of school age.—ns. School′-board, a board of managers, elected by the ratepayers, whose duty it is to see that adequate means of education are provided for the children of a town or district; School′-boy, a boy attending a school: one learning the rudiments of a subject; School′-clerk, one versed in the learning of schools; School′-craft, learning; School′-dame, a schoolmistress.—n.pl. School′-days, the time of life during which one goes to school.—ns. School′-divine′; School′-divin′ity, scholastic or seminary theology; School′-doc′tor, a schoolman; School′ery (Spens.), something taught, precepts; School′-fell′ow, one taught at the same school: an associate at school; School′girl a girl attending school.—n.pl. School′-hours, time spent at school in acquiring instruction.—ns. School′-house, a house of discipline and instruction: a house used as a school: a schoolmaster's house; School′ing, instruction in school: tuition: the price paid for instruction: reproof, reprimand; School′-inspec′tor, an official appointed to examine schools; School′-ma'am, a schoolmistress; School′-maid, a school-girl; School′man, one of the philosophers and theologians of the second half of the middle ages; School′master, the master or teacher of a school, a pedagogue:—fem. School′mistress, a woman who teaches or who merely governs a school; School′-mate, one who attends the same school; School′-name, an abstract term, an abstraction; School′-pence, a small sum paid for school-teaching; School′-point, a point for scholastic disputation; School′-room, a room for teaching in: school accommodation; School′-ship, a vessel used for teaching practical navigation.—adj. School′-taught, taught at school or in the schools.—ns. School′-teach′er, one who teaches in a school; School′-teach′ing; School′-time, the time at which a school op
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
a popular programming language that is relatively easy to learn; an acronym for beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code; no longer in general use
— Princeton's WordNet
kōd, n. a collection or digest of laws: a system of rules and regulations: a system of signs used in the army.—ns. Codificā′tion; Codi′fīer, Cod′ist, one who codifies.—v.t. Cod′ify, to put into the form of a code: to digest: to systematise:—pr.p. cod′ifying; pa.p. cod′ified.—Code telegram, a telegram whose text in itself has no meaning, but where the words are merely arbitrary symbols for other words known to the receiver.—The Code, esp. the rules and regulations regarding government schools and teachers. [Fr. code—L. codex.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
The Aiken code (also known as 2421 code) is a complementary binary-coded decimal (BCD) code. A group of four bits is assigned to the decimal digits from 0 to 9 according to the following table. The code was developed by Howard Hathaway Aiken and is still used today in digital clocks, pocket calculators and similar devices. The Aiken code differs from the standard 8421 BCD code in that the Aiken code does not weight the fourth digit as 8 as with the standard BCD code but with 2. The following weighting is obtained for the Aiken code: 2-4-2-1. One might think that double codes are possible for a number, for example 1011 and 0101 could represent 5. However, here one makes sure that the digits 0 to 4 are mirror image complementary to the numbers 5 to 9.
Differentiated instruction and assessment, also known as differentiated learning or, in education, simply, differentiation, is a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing all students within their diverse classroom community of learners a range of different avenues for understanding new information (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender, motivation, ability/disability, personal interests and more, and teachers must be aware of these varieties as they plan curriculum. By considering varied learning needs, teachers can develop personalized instruction so that all children in the classroom can learn effectively. Differentiated classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student variety in readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. It is a classroom that includes all students and can be successful. To do this, a teacher sets different expectations for task completion for students based upon their individual needs.Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson (as cited by Ellis, Gable, Greg, & Rock, 2008, p. 32), is the process of "ensuring that what a student learns, how he or she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he or she has learned is a match for that student's readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning." Teachers can differentiate in four ways: 1) through content, 2) process, 3) product, and 4) learning environment based on the individual learner. Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners, how they learn, learning preferences, and individual interests (Algozzine & Anderson, 2007). Therefore, differentiation is an organized, yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning methods to accommodate each child's learning needs and preferences to achieve maximum growth as a learner. To understand how students learn and what they know, pre-assessment and ongoing assessment are essential. This provides feedback for both teacher and student, with the ultimate goal of improving student learning. Delivery of instruction in the past often followed a "one size fits all" approach. In contrast, differentiation is individual student centred, with a focus on appropriate instructional and assessment tools that are fair, flexible, challenging, and engage students in the curriculum in meaningful ways.
In computer science, source code is any collection of computer instructions written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by a compiler program into low-level machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, an interpreter can be used to analyze and perform the effects of the source code program directly on the fly. Most computer applications are distributed in a form that includes executable files, but not their source code. If the source code were included, it would be useful to a user, programmer, or system administrator, who may wish to modify the program or understand how it works. Aside of its machine-readable forms, source code also appears in books and other media; often in the form of small code snippets, but occasionally complete code bases; a well-known case is the source code of PGP.
The Crusoe is a family of x86-compatible microprocessors developed by Transmeta. Crusoe was notable for its method of achieving x86 compatibility. Instead of the instruction set architecture being implemented in hardware, or translated by specialized hardware, the Crusoe runs a software abstraction layer, or a virtual machine, known as the Code Morphing Software. The CMS translates machine code instructions received from programs into native instructions for the microprocessor. In this way, the Crusoe can emulate other instruction set architectures. Currently, this is used to allow the microprocessors to emulate the Intel x86 instruction set. In theory, it is possible for the CMS to be modified to emulate other ISAs. Transmeta demonstrated Crusoe executing Java bytecode by translating the bytecodes into instructions in its native instruction set. The addition of an abstraction layer between the x86 instruction stream and the hardware means that the hardware architecture can change without breaking compatibility, just by modifying the CMS. For example, Transmeta Efficeon — a second-generation Transmeta design — has a 256-bit-wide VLIW core versus the 128-bit core of the Crusoe.
Nakaz, or Instruction, of Catherine the Great was a statement of legal principles written by Catherine II of Russia, and permeated with the ideas of the French Enlightenment. It was compiled as a guide for the All-Russian Legislative Commission convened in 1767 for the purpose of replacing the mid-17th-century Muscovite code of laws with a modern law code. Catherine believed that to strengthen law and institutions was above all else to strengthen the monarchy. The Instruction proclaimed the equality of all men before the law and disapproved of death penalty and torture, thus anticipating some of the issues raised by the later United States Constitution and the Polish Constitution. Although the ideas of absolutism were emphatically upheld, the stance towards serfdom is more blurry: the chapter about peasants was retouched a number of times, as Catherine's views on the subject evolved. Catherine worked on the Instruction for two years. In 1766, she showed the manuscript to her closest advisors, Nikita Panin and Grigory Orlov, asking them to make changes as they thought necessary. In its final version, the Instruction consists of 22 chapters and 655 articles, which embrace various spheres of state, criminal, and civil law and procedure. More than 400 articles are copied verbatim from the works of Montesquieu, Beccaria, and other contemporary thinkers.
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells. Biological decoding is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by mRNA, using transfer RNA molecules to carry amino acids and to read the mRNA three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms, and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries. The code defines how sequences of these nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. Because the vast majority of genes are encoded with exactly the same code, this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though in fact some variant codes have evolved. For example, protein synthesis in human mitochondria relies on a genetic code that differs from the standard genetic code. Not all genetic information is stored using the genetic code. All organisms' DNA contains regulatory sequences, intergenic segments, chromosomal structural areas, and other non-coding DNA that can contribute greatly to phenotype. Those elements operate under sets of rules that are distinct from the codon-to-amino acid paradigm underlying the genetic code.