Definitions containing Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Begin·ners All Pur·pose Sym·bol·ic In·struc·tion Code
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In computing, the instruction register (IR) or current instruction register (CIR) is the part of a CPU's control unit that holds the instruction currently being executed or decoded. In simple processors each instruction to be executed is loaded into the instruction register which holds it while it is decoded, prepared and ultimately executed, which can take several steps. Some of the complicated processors use a pipeline of instruction registers where each stage of the pipeline does part of the decoding, preparation or execution and then passes it to the next stage for its step. Modern processors can even do some of the steps out of order as decoding on several instructions is done in parallel. Decoding the op-code in the instruction register includes determining the instruction, determining where its operands are in memory, retrieving the operands from memory, allocating processor resources to execute the command (in super scalar processors), etc. The output of the IR is available to control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. In the instruction cycle, the instruction is loaded into the instruction register after the processor fetches it from the memory location pointed to by the program counter.
In sociology and anthropology, symbolic capital can be referred to as the resources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition, and serves as value that one holds within a culture. A war hero, for example, may have symbolic capital in the context of running for political office. Theorists have argued that symbolic capital accumulates primarily from the fulfillment of social obligations that are themselves embedded with potential for prestige. Much as with the accumulation of financial capital, symbolic capital is 'rational' in that it can be freely converted into leveraging advantage within social and political spheres. Yet unlike financial capital, symbolic capital is not boundless, and its value may be limited or magnified by the historical context in which it was accumulated. Symbolic capital must be identified within the cultural and historical frame through which it originated in order to fully explain its influence across cultures.Objects, as abstract representations of their environments, may also possess symbolic capital. This capital may be embedded in the built environment, or urban form of a city, as a symbolic representation of that land's cultural value. For example, landmarks usually have symbolic value and utility. They become landmarks precisely because they have symbolic value. This reciprocal relationship provides the landmark with cultural or environmental meaning, while at the same time lending its environment a layer of prestige.
awl, adj. the whole of: every one of: any whatever.—adv. wholly: completely: entirely: (Shak.) only, alone.—n. the whole: everything: the totality of things—the universe.—n. All′-Fath′er, God.—All (obs.), entirely, altogether, as in 'all to-brake' (Judges, ix. 53). The prefix to- originally belonged to the verb (tó brecan), but as verbs with this prefix were rarely used without all, the fact was forgotten, and the to was erroneously regarded as belonging to the all. Hence came into use all-to = wholly, utterly; All but, everything short of, almost; All in all, all things in all respects, all or everything together—(adverbially) altogether; All over, thoroughly, entirely; All over with, finished, done with (also coll., All up with); All right, a colloquial phrase expressing assent or approbation; All's one, it is just the same; All to one (obs.), altogether.—After all, when everything has been considered, nevertheless; And all, and everything else; And all that, and all the rest of it, et cetera; At all, in the least degree or to the least extent.—For all, notwithstanding; For good and all, finally.—Once for all, once only. [A.S. all, eal; Ger. all, Gael. uile, W. oll.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
In computing, a symbolic link is a special type of file that contains a reference to another file or directory in the form of an absolute or relative path and that affects pathname resolution. Symbolic links were already present by 1978 in mini-computer operating systems from DEC and Data General's RDOS. Today they are supported by the POSIX operating-system standard, most Unix-like operating systems such as FreeBSD, GNU/Linux, and Mac OS X, and also Windows operating systems such as Windows Vista, Windows 7 and to some degree in Windows 2000 and Windows XP in the form of Shortcut files. Symbolic links operate transparently for most operations: programs that read or write to files named by a symbolic link will behave as if operating directly on the target file. However, programs that need to handle symbolic links specially may identify and manipulate them directly. A symbolic link contains a text string that is automatically interpreted and followed by the operating system as a path to another file or directory. This other file or directory is called the "target". The symbolic link is a second file that exists independently of its target. If a symbolic link is deleted, its target remains unaffected. If a symbolic link points to a target, and sometime later that target is moved, renamed or deleted, the symbolic link is not automatically updated or deleted, but continues to exist and still points to the old target, now a non-existing location or file. Symbolic links pointing to moved or non-existing targets are sometimes called broken, orphaned, dead, or dangling.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law. Typically a criminal code will contain offences which are recognised in the jurisdiction, penalties which might be imposed for these offences and some general provisions (such as definitions and prohibitions on retroactive prosecution).Criminal codes are relatively common in civil law jurisdictions, which tend to build legal systems around codes and principles which are relatively abstract and apply them on a case by case basis. Conversely they are not as common in common law jurisdictions. The proposed introduction of a criminal code in England and Wales was a significant project of the Law Commission from 1968 to 2008. Due to the strong tradition of legal precedent in the jurisdiction and consequently the large number of binding legal judgements and ambiguous 'common law offences', as well as the often inconsistent nature of English law, the creation of a satisfactory code became very difficult. The project was officially abandoned in 2008 although as of 2009 it has been revived.A statutory Criminal Law Codification Advisory Committee for Irish criminal law met from 2007 to 2010 and its Draft Criminal Code and Commentary was published in 2011.In the United States, a Model Penal Code exists which is not itself law but which provides the basis for the criminal law of many states. Individual states often choose to make use of criminal codes which are often based, to a varying extent on the model code. Title 18 of the United States Code is the criminal code for federal crimes. However, Title 18 does not contain many of the general provisions concerning criminal law that are found in the criminal codes of many so-called "civil law" countries. Criminal codes are generally supported for their introduction of consistency to legal systems and for making the criminal law more accessible to laypeople. A code may help avoid a chilling effect where legislation and case law appears to be either inaccessible or beyond comprehension to non-lawyers. Alternatively critics have argued that codes are too rigid and that they fail to provide enough flexibility for the law to be effective. The term "penal code" (code pénal) derives from the French Penal Code of 1791.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status. For example, a string instruction may do so to indicate whether the instruction terminated because it found a match/mismatch or because it found the end of the string. The flags are read by a subsequent conditional instruction so that the specified action (depending on the processor, a jump, call, return, or so on) occurs only if the flags indicate a specified result of the earlier instruction. Some CPU architectures, such as the MIPS and Alpha, do not use a dedicated flag register. Others do not implicitly set and/or read flags. Such machines either do not pass implicit status information between instructions at all, or they pass it in an explicitly selected general purpose register. A status register may often have other fields as well, such as more specialized flags, interrupt enable bits, and similar types of information. During an interrupt, the status of the thread currently executing can be preserved (and later recalled) by storing the current value of the status register along with the program counter and other active registers into the machine stack or some other reserved area of memory.
The program counter, commonly called the instruction pointer in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register, the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence. In most processors, PC is incremented after fetching an instruction, and holds the memory address of the next instruction that would be executed. Instructions are usually fetched sequentially from memory, but control transfer instructions change the sequence by placing a new value in PC. These include branches, subroutine calls, and returns. A transfer that is conditional on the truth of some assertion lets the computer follow a different sequence under different conditions. A branch provides that the next instruction is fetched from somewhere else in memory. A subroutine call not only branches but saves the preceding contents of PC somewhere. A return retrieves the saved contents of PC and places it back in PC, resuming sequential execution with the instruction following the subroutine call.
Business software (or a business application) is any software or set of computer programs used by business users to perform various business functions. These business applications are used to increase productivity, to measure productivity and to perform other business functions accurately. By and large, business software is likely to be developed to meet the needs of a specific business, and therefore is not easily transferable to a different business environment, unless its nature and operation is identical. Due to the unique requirements of each business, off-the-shelf software is unlikely to completely address a company's needs. However, where an on-the-shelf solution is necessary, due to time or monetary considerations, some level of customization is likely to be required. Exceptions do exist, depending on the business in question, and thorough research is always required before committing to bespoke or off-the-shelf solutions. Some business applications are interactive, i.e., they have a graphical user interface or user interface and users can query/modify/input data and view results instantaneously. They can also run reports instantaneously. Some business applications run in batch mode: they are set up to run based on a predetermined event/time and a business user does not need to initiate them or monitor them. Some business applications are built in-house and some are bought from vendors (off the shelf software products). These business applications are installed on either desktops or big servers. Prior to the introduction of COBOL (a universal compiler) in 1965, businesses developed their own unique machine language. RCA's language consisted of a 12-position instruction. For example, to read a record into memory, the first two digits would be the instruction (action) code. The next four positions of the instruction (an 'A' address) would be the exact leftmost memory location where you want the readable character to be placed. Four positions (a 'B' address) of the instruction would note the very rightmost memory location where you want the last character of the record to be located. A two digit 'B' address also allows a modification of any instruction. Instruction codes and memory designations excluded the use of 8's or 9's. The first RCA business application was implemented in 1962 on a 4k RCA 301. The RCA 301, mid frame 501, and large frame 601 began their marketing in early 1960. Many kinds of users are found within the business environment, and can be categorized by using a small, medium and large matrix:
In computing, traditionally cycle stealing is a method of accessing computer memory (RAM) or bus without interfering with the CPU. It is similar to direct memory access (DMA) for allowing I/O controllers to read or write RAM without CPU intervention. Clever exploitation of specific CPU or bus timings can permit the CPU to run at full speed without any delay if external devices access memory not actively participating in the CPU's current activity and complete the operations before any possible CPU conflict. Such systems are nearly dual-port RAM without the expense of high speed RAM. Most systems halt the CPU during the steal, essentially making it a form of DMA by another name. For example, a system with separate instruction and data memory banks can allow external devices one memory access to the data bank while the CPU was fetching an instruction from the instruction bank if both accesses are initiated simultaneously. A memory management unit is not essential, for example, the Zilog Z80's M1 line can be used to distinguish instruction from data access, so while the CPU is reading an instruction from instruction-RAM or ROM, the data RAM is available to other devices without interfering with CPU processing.
the whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, quality, or degree of; the whole; the whole number of; any whatever; every; as, all the wheat; all the land; all the year; all the strength; all happiness; all abundance; loss of all power; beyond all doubt; you will see us all (or all of us)
— Webster Dictionary
skōōl, n. a place for instruction: an institution of learning, esp. for children: the pupils of a school: exercises for instruction: the disciples of a particular teacher, or those who hold a common doctrine: a large number of fish migrating together, a shoal: a system of training: any means of knowledge, esp. (mus.) a treatise teaching some particular branch of the art: a large hall in English universities, where the examinations for degrees, &c., are held—hence, one of these examinations (gen. pl.) also the group of studies taken by a man competing for honours in these: a single department of a university: (pl.) the body of masters and students in a college.—v.t. to educate in a school: to instruct: to admonish, to discipline.—adj. School′able, of school age.—ns. School′-board, a board of managers, elected by the ratepayers, whose duty it is to see that adequate means of education are provided for the children of a town or district; School′-boy, a boy attending a school: one learning the rudiments of a subject; School′-clerk, one versed in the learning of schools; School′-craft, learning; School′-dame, a schoolmistress.—n.pl. School′-days, the time of life during which one goes to school.—ns. School′-divine′; School′-divin′ity, scholastic or seminary theology; School′-doc′tor, a schoolman; School′ery (Spens.), something taught, precepts; School′-fell′ow, one taught at the same school: an associate at school; School′girl a girl attending school.—n.pl. School′-hours, time spent at school in acquiring instruction.—ns. School′-house, a house of discipline and instruction: a house used as a school: a schoolmaster's house; School′ing, instruction in school: tuition: the price paid for instruction: reproof, reprimand; School′-inspec′tor, an official appointed to examine schools; School′-ma'am, a schoolmistress; School′-maid, a school-girl; School′man, one of the philosophers and theologians of the second half of the middle ages; School′master, the master or teacher of a school, a pedagogue:—fem. School′mistress, a woman who teaches or who merely governs a school; School′-mate, one who attends the same school; School′-name, an abstract term, an abstraction; School′-pence, a small sum paid for school-teaching; School′-point, a point for scholastic disputation; School′-room, a room for teaching in: school accommodation; School′-ship, a vessel used for teaching practical navigation.—adj. School′-taught, taught at school or in the schools.—ns. School′-teach′er, one who teaches in a school; School′-teach′ing; School′-time, the time at which a school op
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
a popular programming language that is relatively easy to learn; an acronym for beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code; no longer in general use
— Princeton's WordNet
Farmall was a model name and later a brand name for tractors manufactured by the American company International Harvester (IH). The Farmall name was usually presented as McCormick-Deering Farmall and later McCormick Farmall in the evolving brand architecture of IH. Farmalls were general-purpose tractors. Their origins were as row-crop tractors, a category that they helped establish and in which they long held a large market share. During the decades of Farmall production (1920s to 1980s), most Farmalls were built for row-crop work, but many orchard, fairway, and other variants were also built. Most Farmalls were all-purpose tractors that were affordable for small to medium-sized family farms and could do enough of the tasks needed on the farm that the need for hired hands was reduced and the need for horses or mules was eliminated. Thus Farmall was a prominent brand in the 20th-century trend toward the mechanization of agriculture in the US. The original Farmall is widely viewed as the first tractor to combine a set of traits that would define the row-crop tractor category, although competition in the category came quickly. Although it was not the first tractor to have any one of these traits, it was early in bringing the winning combination to market. The traits included (a) 'tricycle' configuration (a single front wheel or narrowly spaced pair), high ground clearance, quickly adjustable axle track, excellent visibility all around and under the machine, and light weight; (b) sufficient power for plowing and harrowing, and a belt pulley for belt work; and (c) all at low cost, with a familiar brand and an extensive distribution and service network. The first group of traits allowed for more nimble maneuvering and accurate cultivation than most other tractors of the day; additionally, because of the second group, the Farmall could also, like previous tractors, perform all the other duties a farmer would have previously achieved using a team of horses. A tractor could yield lower overall operating costs than horses as long as it was priced right and reliable (and its fuel supply as well). The Farmall, mass-produced with the same low-cost-and-high-value ethos as the Ford Model T or Fordson tractor, could meet that requirement. The Farmall was thus similar to a Fordson in its capabilities and affordability, but with better cultivating ability. Descriptions of tractors as "general-purpose" and "all-purpose" had been used loosely and interchangeably in the teens and early twenties; but a true all-purpose tractor would be one that not only brought power to ploughing, harrowing, and belt work but also obviated the horse team entirely. This latter step is what changed the financial picture to heavily favor the mechanization of agriculture. The Farmall was so successful at total horse replacement that it became a strong-selling product. With the success of the Farmall line, other manufacturers soon introduced similar general- to all-purpose tractors with varying success. In later decades, the Farmall line continued to be a leading brand of all-purpose tractors. Its bright red color was a distinctive badge. During the 1940s and 1950s, the brand was ubiquitous in North American farming. Various trends in farming after the 1960s—such as the decline of cultivating in favor of herbicidal weed control, and the consolidation of the agricultural sector into larger but fewer farms—ended the era of Farmall manufacturing. However, many Farmalls remain in farming service, and many others are restored and collected by enthusiasts. In these respects, the Farmall era continues. As predicted in the 1980s and 1990s, the growing public understanding of environmental protection, and of sustainability in general, have brought a corollary resurgence of interest in organic farming and local food production. This cultural development has brought a limited but notable revival of cultivating and of the use of equipment such as Farmalls.
In computer programming, an arithmetic shift is a shift operator, sometimes termed a signed shift (though it is not restricted to signed operands). The two basic types are the arithmetic left shift and the arithmetic right shift. For binary numbers it is a bitwise operation that shifts all of the bits of its operand; every bit in the operand is simply moved a given number of bit positions, and the vacant bit-positions are filled in. Instead of being filled with all 0s, as in logical shift, when shifting to the right, the leftmost bit (usually the sign bit in signed integer representations) is replicated to fill in all the vacant positions (this is a kind of sign extension). Some authors prefer the terms sticky right-shift and zero-fill right-shift for arithmetic and logical shifts respectively.Arithmetic shifts can be useful as efficient ways to perform multiplication or division of signed integers by powers of two. Shifting left by n bits on a signed or unsigned binary number has the effect of multiplying it by 2n. Shifting right by n bits on a two's complement signed binary number has the effect of dividing it by 2n, but it always rounds down (towards negative infinity). This is different from the way rounding is usually done in signed integer division (which rounds towards 0). This discrepancy has led to bugs in more than one compiler.For example, in the x86 instruction set, the SAR instruction (arithmetic right shift) divides a signed number by a power of two, rounding towards negative infinity. However, the IDIV instruction (signed divide) divides a signed number, rounding towards zero. So a SAR instruction cannot be substituted for an IDIV by power of two instruction nor vice versa.
kōd, n. a collection or digest of laws: a system of rules and regulations: a system of signs used in the army.—ns. Codificā′tion; Codi′fīer, Cod′ist, one who codifies.—v.t. Cod′ify, to put into the form of a code: to digest: to systematise:—pr.p. cod′ifying; pa.p. cod′ified.—Code telegram, a telegram whose text in itself has no meaning, but where the words are merely arbitrary symbols for other words known to the receiver.—The Code, esp. the rules and regulations regarding government schools and teachers. [Fr. code—L. codex.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary