### What does **quadratic reciprocity** mean?

# Definitions for quadratic reciprocity

qua·drat·ic rec·i·proc·i·ty

#### This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word **quadratic reciprocity**.

### Wiktionary

quadratic reciprocitynoun

Mathematical theorem relating the Jacobi symbol to the inverted , essentially relating the question of whether a is a square modulo b to the opposite question of whether b is a square modulo a (or modulo the prime factors).

**Etymology:**Quadratic refers to the squaring in the question addressed.

### Wikipedia

Quadratic reciprocity

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard statement is: This law, together with its supplements, allows the easy calculation of any Legendre symbol, making it possible to determine whether there is an integer solution for any quadratic equation of the form x 2 ≡ a mod p {\displaystyle x^{2}\equiv a{\bmod {p}}} for an odd prime p {\displaystyle p} ; that is, to determine the "perfect squares" modulo p {\displaystyle p} . However, this is a non-constructive result: it gives no help at all for finding a specific solution; for this, other methods are required. For example, in the case p ≡ 3 mod 4 {\displaystyle p\equiv 3{\bmod {4}}} using Euler's criterion one can give an explicit formula for the "square roots" modulo p {\displaystyle p} of a quadratic residue a {\displaystyle a} , namely, ± a p + 1 4 {\displaystyle \pm a^{\frac {p+1}{4}}} indeed, ( ± a p + 1 4 ) 2 = a p + 1 2 = a ⋅ a p − 1 2 ≡ a ( a p ) = a mod p . {\displaystyle \left(\pm a^{\frac {p+1}{4}}\right)^{2}=a^{\frac {p+1}{2}}=a\cdot a^{\frac {p-1}{2}}\equiv a\left({\frac {a}{p}}\right)=a{\bmod {p}}.} This formula only works if it is known in advance that a {\displaystyle a} is a quadratic residue, which can be checked using the law of quadratic reciprocity. The quadratic reciprocity theorem was conjectured by Euler and Legendre and first proved by Gauss, who referred to it as the "fundamental theorem" in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae and his papers, writing The fundamental theorem must certainly be regarded as one of the most elegant of its type. (Art. 151)Privately, Gauss referred to it as the "golden theorem". He published six proofs for it, and two more were found in his posthumous papers. There are now over 240 published proofs. The shortest known proof is included below, together with short proofs of the law's supplements (the Legendre symbols of −1 and 2). Generalizing the reciprocity law to higher powers has been a leading problem in mathematics, and has been crucial to the development of much of the machinery of modern algebra, number theory, and algebraic geometry, culminating in Artin reciprocity, class field theory, and the Langlands program.

### Wikidata

Quadratic reciprocity

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic which gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. There are a number of equivalent statements of the theorem, which consists of two "supplements" and the reciprocity law: ⁕² ⁕² ⁕***²²* Although the law can be used to tell whether any quadratic equation modulo a prime number has a solution, it does not provide any help at all for actually finding the solution. The theorem was conjectured by Euler and Legendre and first proven by Gauss. He refers to it as the "fundamental theorem" in the Disquisitiones Arithmeticae and his papers; privately he referred to it as the "golden theorem." He published six proofs, and two more were found in his posthumous papers. There are now over 200 published proofs. The first section of this article does not use the Legendre symbol and gives the formulations of quadratic reciprocity found by Legendre and Gauss. The Legendre-Jacobi symbol is introduced in the second section.

### Numerology

Chaldean Numerology

The numerical value of quadratic reciprocity in Chaldean Numerology is:

**6**Pythagorean Numerology

The numerical value of quadratic reciprocity in Pythagorean Numerology is:

**1**

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"quadratic reciprocity." *Definitions.net.* STANDS4 LLC, 2024. Web. 20 Sep. 2024. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/quadratic+reciprocity>.

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