Definitions for neuron
This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word neuron.
nerve cell, neuronnoun
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
(Cell Biology) The characteristic specialized cell that is part of the nervous system, serving to conduct electrical impulses to and from the brain, and also between other parts of the body, and composed of a main cell body, the axon, with a varying number of processes of varying length, the dendrites; a nerve cell. The movement and behavior of higher animals depends on the signals tranmsitted by such nerve cells.
A cell of the nervous system, which conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are connected by synapses.
title of a peer reviewed journal established in 1988 by publisher Cell Press
A neuron, neurone, or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via synapses - specialized connections that commonly use minute amounts of neurotransmitters to pass the electric signal from the presynaptic neuron to the target cell through the synaptic gap. The neuron is the main component of nervous tissue in all animals except sponges and placozoa. Non-animals like plants and fungi do not have nerve cells. Neurons are typically classified into three types based on their function. Sensory neurons respond to stimuli such as touch, sound, or light that affect the cells of the sensory organs, and they send signals to the spinal cord or brain. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to control everything from muscle contractions to glandular output. Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. When multiple neurons are connected together, they form what is called a neural circuit. A typical neuron consists of a cell body (soma), dendrites, and a single axon. The soma is a compact structure, and the axon and dendrites are filaments extruding from the soma. Dendrites typically branch profusely and extend a few hundred micrometers from the soma. The axon leaves the soma at a swelling called the axon hillock and travels for as far as 1 meter in humans or more in other species. It branches but usually maintains a constant diameter. At the farthest tip of the axon's branches are axon terminals, where the neuron can transmit a signal across the synapse to another cell. Neurons may lack dendrites or have no axon. The term neurite is used to describe either a dendrite or an axon, particularly when the cell is undifferentiated. Most neurons receive signals via the dendrites and soma and send out signals down the axon. At the majority of synapses, signals cross from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. However, synapses can connect an axon to another axon or a dendrite to another dendrite. The signaling process is partly electrical and partly chemical. Neurons are electrically excitable, due to maintenance of voltage gradients across their membranes. If the voltage changes by a large enough amount over a short interval, the neuron generates an all-or-nothing electrochemical pulse called an action potential. This potential travels rapidly along the axon and activates synaptic connections as it reaches them. Synaptic signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, increasing or reducing the net voltage that reaches the soma. In most cases, neurons are generated by neural stem cells during brain development and childhood. Neurogenesis largely ceases during adulthood in most areas of the brain.
A neuron, also known as a nerve cell, is a specialized cell that functions as the fundamental unit of the nervous system in many living organisms. It is responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information through electrical and chemical signals. Neurons are composed of a body (called soma), axon, and dendrites, and interact with each other through synapses. Their basic role is to coordinate and regulate cognitive, physical, and emotional responses in the body.
the brain and spinal cord; the cerebro-spinal axis; myelencephalon
Etymology: [NL., from Gr. ney^ron nerve.]
A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. A chemical signal occurs via a synapse, a specialized connection with other cells. Neurons connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. A number of specialized types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli affecting cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to the spinal cord and brain. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord, cause muscle contractions, and affect glands. Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. A typical neuron possesses a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. Dendrites are thin structures that arise from the cell body, often extending for hundreds of micrometres and branching multiple times, giving rise to a complex "dendritic tree". An axon is a special cellular extension that arises from the cell body at a site called the axon hillock and travels for a distance, as far as 1 meter in humans or even more in other species. The cell body of a neuron frequently gives rise to multiple dendrites, but never to more than one axon, although the axon may branch hundreds of times before it terminates. At the majority of synapses, signals are sent from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. There are, however, many exceptions to these rules: neurons that lack dendrites, neurons that have no axon, synapses that connect an axon to another axon or a dendrite to another dendrite, etc.
Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
nū′ron, n. the cerebro-spinal axis in its entirety: a nervure of an insect's wing.
A form of energy.
The neurons work in partnership with the brain and mind to produce the various chemicals required to maintain balance.
Submitted by MaryC on January 2, 2020
The numerical value of neuron in Chaldean Numerology is: 3
The numerical value of neuron in Pythagorean Numerology is: 6
Developmental dyspraxia impacts additional motor skills such as ocular, short-term memory issues, judgment, processing and function delays, sensory concerns and language, with the condition comes many (other) disorders, which can be more debilitating as dyspraxia impacts neuron development.
As a major natural antioxidant in the body, uric acid has been estimated to account for more than 50 percent of the antioxidant capacity of plasma, with these potentially neuro-protective properties, uric acid has been hypothesized to protect against oxidative stress, a prominent contributor to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease, which may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that doesn't like to stay put. It's able to move from neuron to neuron, and it has been shown that it can travel.
It's critical to diagnose early and to begin treatment as early as possible to stop the irreversible motor neuron loss, and make the achievement of motor milestones such as crawling, sitting and walking possible.
Your whole nose is lined with mucous membranes ... and in the upper part of the nose, there's this very specialized mucous membrane, and that's where you sense smells. And this is really a unique kind of tissue in the body, first of all, it's the only place in the body where a neuron that's coming from the brain directly contacts the outside world … and the part that sticks out in the environment can is what actually can detect an [odor molecule]. … And then and then it sends a signal like straight to the brain.
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Translations for neuron
From our Multilingual Translation Dictionary
- خلية عصبية, الخلايا العصبية, عصبونArabic
- neuronaCatalan, Valencian
- Nervenzelle, NeuronGerman
- یاخته عصبیPersian
- neuroni, hermosoluFinnish
- neurone, cellule nerveuseFrench
- 신경 세포, 神經細胞Korean
- zenuwcel, neuronDutch
- нервная клетка, нейронRussian
- sinir hücresi, nöronTurkish
- 細胞神經, tế bào thần kinhVietnamese
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"neuron." Definitions.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2023. Web. 7 Dec. 2023. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/neuron>.