What does FORTIFICATION mean?
Definitions for FORTIFICATION
ˌfɔr tə fɪˈkeɪ ʃənfor·ti·fi·ca·tion
This dictionary definitions page includes all the possible meanings, example usage and translations of the word FORTIFICATION.
defensive structure consisting of walls or mounds built around a stronghold to strengthen it
the art or science of strengthening defenses
the addition of an ingredient for the purpose of enrichment (as the addition of alcohol to wine or the addition of vitamins to food)
The act of fortifying; the art or science of fortifying places to strengthen defence against an enemy.
That which fortifies; especially, a work or works erected to defend a place against attack; a fortified place; a fortress; a fort; a castle.
Etymology: From fortificatio.
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary
Etymology: fortification, French, from fortify.
Fortification is an art shewing how to fortify a place with ramparts, parapets, moats, and other bulwarks; to the end that a small number of men within may be able to defend themselves, for a considerable time, against the assaults of a numerous army without; so that the enemy, in attacking them, must of necessity suffer great loss. It is either regular or irregular; and, with respect to time, may be distinguished into durable and temporary. John Harris.
The Phœacians, tho’ an unwarlike nation, yet understood the art of fortification. Notes on the Odyssey.
Excellent devices were used to make even their sports profitable; images, battles, and fortifications being then delivered to their memory, which, after stronger judgments, might dispense some advantage. Philip Sidney, b. ii.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make").From very early history to modern times, defensive walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae (famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls). A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, and is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress. These constructions mainly served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads, passes, and borders. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border. The art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castrametation" since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were largely made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so the walls were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes to improve protection. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification. Star forts did not fare well against the effects of high explosives, and the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the carefully constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be rapidly disrupted by explosive shells. Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
the act of fortifying; the art or science of fortifying places in order to defend them against an enemy
that which fortifies; especially, a work or works erected to defend a place against attack; a fortified place; a fortress; a fort; a castle
Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defense in warfare and military bases. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. The art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castramentation" since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that it describes a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific defensive territory. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were also fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire.The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were largely made obsolete by the arrival of cannons on the 14th century battlefield. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes.
Dictionary of Nautical Terms
The art by which a place is so fortified that a given number of men occupying it may advantageously oppose a superior force. The same word also signifies the works that cover and defend a place. Fortification is defensive when surrounding a place so as to render it capable of defence against besiegers; and offensive when comprehending the various works for conducting a siege. It is natural when it opposes rocks, woods, marshes, ravines, &c., to impede the progress of an enemy; and artificial, when raised by human ingenuity to aid the advantages of the ground. The latter is again subdivided into permanent and field fortification: the one being constructed at leisure and of permanent materials, the other raised only for temporary purposes.
Military Dictionary and Gazetteer
Is the art of fortifying a town, or other place; or of putting it in such a posture of defense that every one of its parts defends, and is defended by some other parts, by means of ramparts, parapets, ditches, and other outworks; to the end that a small number of men within may be able to defend themselves for a considerable time against the assaults of a numerous army without; so that the enemy in attacking them must of necessity suffer great loss. There are various kinds of fortification, as defensive and offensive, natural, artificial, and permanent. Defensive fortification is the art of surrounding a place by works so disposed as to render it capable of a lasting defense against a besieging army. Offensive fortification comprehends the various works employed in conducting a siege. Natural fortification consists of those obstacles which nature affords to retard the progress of an enemy; such as woods, deep ravines, rocks, marshes, etc. Artificial fortification is that which is raised by human ingenuity to aid the natural advantages of the ground, or supply its deficiencies. It is divided into permanent and field fortification. Permanent fortification is intended for the defense of towns, frontiers, and seaports, and is constructed of durable materials in time of peace; while field fortification being raised only for the temporary purpose of protecting troops in the field, its materials are those afforded by local circumstances and a limited time. For the principal parts of a regular fortress, see Banquette, Bastion, Batardeau, Berm, Caponniere, Cavalier, Citadel, Cordon, Counterscarp, Covered Way, Crown-work, Cunette, Curtain, Ditch, Embrasures, Enceinte, Envelope, Epaulement, Escarp, Esplanade, Faces, Flank, Flèche, or Arrow, Fraises, Glacis, Hornwork, Lines, Loop-holes, Lunettes and Tenaillons, Outworks, Palisades, Parallels, or Places of Arms, Parapet, Ramps, Rampart, Ravelin, Redan, Redoubt, Revetment, Sallyports, Slope Interior, Star Fort, Tenaille, Terre-plein, Têtes de Pont, Traverses, Zigzags, or Boyaux of Communication.
The numerical value of FORTIFICATION in Chaldean Numerology is: 7
The numerical value of FORTIFICATION in Pythagorean Numerology is: 1
Examples of FORTIFICATION in a Sentence
Some of the alternative milks are not fortified with calcium or vitamin D -- and the same is true for plant-based yogurts, like those made from soy, coconut or almonds, while it's great that there are alternative products available for those switching to a more vegan diet, it's important to look for the fortification of calcium and vitamin D in these products.
The hedgerows provided an ideal fortification for the Germans and this created a layer of defense that wasnt considered in the planning stages, it provided an ideal terrain for the defenders.
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Translations for FORTIFICATION
From our Multilingual Translation Dictionary
- укрепване, укрепления, усилванеBulgarian
- opevnění, pevnostCzech
- Festung, Befestigen, Festungsbau, FortGerman
- οχύρωση, οχύρωμαGreek
- linnoitus, linnoittaminen, linnoiteFinnish
- fortification, renforcementFrench
- mūnītiō, mūnīmentum, fortificātiōLatin
- fortyfikacja, umocnieniePolish
- укрепление, фортификация, укрепленияRussian
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