Definitions containing t'ai chi ch'uan

We've found 88 definitions:

T'ai chi ch'uan

T'ai chi ch'uan

T'ai chi ch'uan or Taijiquan, often shortened to t'ai chi, taiji or tai chi in English usage, is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits. It is also typically practiced for a variety of other personal reasons: its hard and soft martial art technique, demonstration competitions, and longevity. As a result, a multitude of training forms exist, both traditional and modern, which correspond to those aims. Some of t'ai chi ch'uan's training forms are especially known for being practiced at what most people categorize as slow movement. Today, t'ai chi ch'uan has spread worldwide. Most modern styles of t'ai chi ch'uan trace their development to at least one of the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu, Wu, and Sun.

— Freebase

Future Chi-Chi

Future Chi-Chi

Future Chi-Chi, or Chi-Chi of the Future (未来のチチ, Mirai no Chichi), is the alternate timeline counterpart of Chi-Chi where Future Trunks came from, (where Goku died of his heart disease and the world is dominated by the Androids). She is shown at the age of 43 and still lives in her house in the mountains with her father still visiting her often. She eventually loses her 23 year old son, Gohan (her only son in this time-line) to the Androids and is not seen after this.

— Freebase

tai chi chuan

tai chi chuan

Alternative name for tai chi.

— Wiktionary

Chi-Square Distribution

Chi-Square Distribution

A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Cholon

Cholon

the Chinese district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

— Wiktionary

chi-rho

chi-rho

A combination of the Greek letters chi and rho, displayed u2627.

— Wiktionary

iodoform

iodoform

A halogenated hydrocarbon, CHI; a yellow crystalline compound, formerly used as a mild antiseptic

— Wiktionary

reiki

reiki

A Japanese form of alternative medicine believed to involve transferring chi through one's palms.

— Wiktionary

Chi-squared distribution

Chi-squared distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the chi-squared distribution with k degrees of freedom is the distribution of a sum of the squares of k independent standard normal random variables. It is one of the most widely used probability distributions in inferential statistics, e.g., in hypothesis testing or in construction of confidence intervals. When there is a need to contrast it with the noncentral chi-squared distribution, this distribution is sometimes called the central chi-squared distribution. The chi-squared distribution is used in the common chi-squared tests for goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one, the independence of two criteria of classification of qualitative data, and in confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation. Many other statistical tests also use this distribution, like Friedman's analysis of variance by ranks. The chi-squared distribution is a special case of the gamma distribution.

— Freebase

chi-square

chi-square

A test statistic used in the chi-square test.

— Wiktionary

iodomethane

iodomethane

The aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbon, CHI, that is used in organic synthesis to introduce a methyl group into compounds.

— Wiktionary

iodoethane

iodoethane

The aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbon CHI that is used in organic synthesis to introduce an ethyl group into compounds

— Wiktionary

iodobenzene

iodobenzene

Any iodinated derivative of benzene, but especially the mono-substitution compound CHI that is used in organic synthesis

— Wiktionary

Tighty Whities

Tighty Whities

"So tight... you can see skin. There's plenty of hot man action here with some of your favorite video stars. It's the kind of male action you've come to expect from the legendary Chi Chi LaRue." From the liner notes.

— Freebase

Labarum

Labarum

The labarum was a vexillum that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" — Chi and Rho. It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine I. Since the vexillum consisted of a flag suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize the crucifixion of Christ. Later usage has sometimes regarded the terms "labarum" and "Chi-Rho" as synonyms. Ancient sources, however, draw an unambiguous distinction between the two.

— Freebase

Ho Chi Minh

Ho Chi Minh

The biggest city of Viet Nam, formerly known as Saigon. Also called "Ho Chi Minh City".

— Wiktionary

labarum

labarum

The Roman military standard adopted by Constantine I. The banner was known for its Christian chi-rho sign - u2627.

— Wiktionary

iodoacetic acid

iodoacetic acid

The iodinated derivative of acetic acid CHI-COOH that is used in organic synthesis, and in protein sequencing

— Wiktionary

iodoacetamide

iodoacetamide

The halogenated derivative of acetamide, CHI-CO-NH, that is used, in peptide mapping, to bind to cysteine

— Wiktionary

T.O.K.

T.O.K.

T.O.K. is a dancehall group hailing from Kingston, Jamaica. The group consists of Alistaire "Alex" McCalla, Roshaun "Bay-C" Clarke, Craig "Craigy T" Thompson, and Xavier "Flexx" Davidson. They are best known for such hits as "Footprints", "Gal You Ah Lead", "Chi Chi Man", "Eagles Cry", "Guardian Angel", "Money 2 Burn", "She's Hot", "Hey Ladies", "The Voice" and "I Believe",

— Freebase

Kata

Kata

Kata is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practised either solo or in pairs. The term form is used for the corresponding concept in non-Japanese martial arts in general. Kata are used in many traditional Japanese arts such as theater forms like kabuki and schools of tea ceremony, but are most commonly known for the presence in the martial arts. Kata are used by most traditional Japanese and Okinawan martial arts, such as aikidō, iaidō, jōdō, jūdō, jūjutsu, kenjutsu, kendō and karate. Other arts such as t'ai chi ch'uan and taekwondo feature the same kind of training, but use the respective Chinese and Korean words taolu and hyeong, respectively.

— Freebase

Wi-Chi

Wi-Chi

Wi-Chi designs, manufacturers, and sales efficient nano-inverters for solar PV systems.

— CrunchBase

Christogram

Christogram

A monogram that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbol, such as the chi-rho (u2627).

— Wiktionary

chi-square test

chi-square test

any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a chi-square distribution if the null hypothesis is true

— Wiktionary

Saigon

Saigon

The former name of Ho Chi Minh City, the biggest city of Viet Nam.

— Wiktionary

Pitch A Tent

Pitch A Tent

"The wilderness is a great place to kick back with a few buddies. Partying under the stars. Poppin' up a few tents. And just think of the things that could happen when all the guys are alone in the great outdoors. It kinda brings out the animal in you. Sounds hot? You bet! See the wilderness get a little wilder in Chi Chi LaRue's oral suckfest." From the press notes.

— Freebase

Inner peace

Inner peace

Inner peace refers to a state of being mentally and spiritually at peace, with enough knowledge and understanding to keep oneself strong in the face of discord or stress. Being "at peace" is considered by many to be healthy and the opposite of being stressed or anxious. Peace of mind is generally associated with bliss, happiness and contentment. Peace of mind, serenity, and calmness are descriptions of a disposition free from the effects of stress. In some cultures, inner peace is considered a state of consciousness or enlightenment that may be cultivated by various forms of training, such as prayer, meditation, T'ai Chi Ch'uan or yoga, for example. Many spiritual practices refer to this peace as an experience of knowing oneself. Finding inner peace is often associated with traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, emphasizes the importance of inner peace in the world:

— Freebase

F distribution

F distribution

A probability distribution of the ratio of two variables, each with a chi-square distribution; used in analysis of variance, especially in the significance testing of a correlation coefficient (R squared).

— Wiktionary

sifu

sifu

A pair of Cantonese terms, homophones, used in English to mean "master" or "teacher" in the context of martial arts, especially kung fu and tai chi, also used to denote "spiritual father" in esoteric uses.

— Wiktionary

Chi

Chi

Chi is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced or in English.

— Freebase

Koma

Koma

Koma is a 2004 Hong Kong psychological thriller directed by Law Chi-Leung, starring Karena Lam and Angelica Lee.

— Freebase

Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named Prey Nokor, Saigon, is the largest city in Vietnam. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochin-china and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam from 1955–75. South Vietnam, as an anti-communist, capitalist republic, fought against the communist North Vietnamese and Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, with aid from the United States and countries including Australia, New Zealand and South Korea. Saigon fell when it was captured by the communists on 30 April 1975, ending the war with a Communist victory. Vietnam was then turned into a communist state with the South overtaken. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after Hồ Chí Minh. The metropolitan area, which consists of the Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area, Thủ Dầu Một, Dĩ An, Biên Hòa and surrounding towns, is populated by more than 9,000,000 people, making it the most populous metropolitan area in Vietnam. The city's population is expected to grow to 13.9 million in 2025. The Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area, a metropolitan area covering most parts of Đông Nam Bộ plus Tiền Giang and Long An provinces under planning, will have an area of 30,000 square kilometers with a population of 20 million inhabitants by 2020. According to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Economist Intelligence Unit and ECA International, Ho Chi Minh City is ranked 132 on the list of world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees.

— Freebase

Boot Black

Boot Black

"One of Chi Chi's best early achievements. While the fab drag director has certainly gotten a lot nastier as time went on (see the harsh-n-hot Link series for proof), this one still stands as a raunchy ode to the 'good old days'. Meaning, lots of leather play, sex in a sex club, and an unbridled torrent of hot men poking, prodding, pulling, and plunging. There's no plot whatsoever (again a precursor to the Link films), just a series of hot men in various situations. Shot in a sex club in West Hollywood, this type of flick wasn't really being done too much in the mid 90s. It also seems as though Chi Chi was trying to recreate an era gone by, as most of the men are buff but not steroidal, and most have left their natural chest, leg and facial hair intact. (Zak Spears and co-cover model Jake Andrews are the biggest beneficiaries!) Alert to jockstrap and vacuum pump fans, too. From a terrific circle jerk, to leather play, to full-on butthole poking, to actual boot slobbering and spitting, this one is most certain to please one and all. Production values are top-notch (although it gets a tad too dark to see at times), and there's no denying that this was the flick that many swooned over Wolff for the first time. Whether you're a fan of Chi Chi, Wolff, sex clubs, leather play, or just plain old hot gay porn, Boot Black is worth owning." Quoting a review by Mr. Powerbar

— Freebase

Ho Chi Minh trail

Ho Chi Minh trail

The Hồ Chí Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel, to the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam and the People's Army of Vietnam, or North Vietnamese Army, during the Vietnam War. It was named by the Americans for North Vietnamese president Hồ Chí Minh. Although the trail was mostly in Laos, the communists called it the Trường Sơn Strategic Supply Route, after the Vietnamese name for the Annamite Range mountains in central Vietnam. According to the United States National Security Agency's official history of the war, the Trail system was "one of the great achievements of military engineering of the 20th century."

— Freebase

Ōdachi

Ōdachi

An ōdachi was a type of long traditionally made Japanese sword used by the samurai class of feudal Japan. The term nodachi refers to the same type of sword. The character for ō means "big" or "great". The characters for da and chi are the same as tachi, the older style of sword/mounts that predate the katana. The chi is also the same character as katana and the tō in nihontō, originally from the Chinese character for a knife, dāo. To qualify as an ōdachi, the sword in question would have a blade length of around 3 shaku however, as with most terms in Japanese sword arts, there is no exact definition of the size of an ōdachi.

— Freebase

Advanced Life Wellness Institute

Advanced Life Wellness Institute

Advanced Life Wellness Institute Inc., hereby referred to as ALWII, was founded in 2011 by Dr. Chi C. Mao. With the belief that the importance of preventive medicine has largely been neglected, Dr. Mao created ALWII to provide comprehensive wellness evaluations that are thoughtful, proactive, and visionary in addressing the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of health.

— CrunchBase

Kenshi

Kenshi

Kenshi is a video game character from the Mortal Kombat series, first appearing in Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance. Kenshi is a rogue swordsman of Eurasian heritage. He is a blind, gruff man who has mastered the arts of Tai Chi, San Shou and Judo. Kenshi also possesses psychokinesis, able to throw opponents off-balance or across the room when necessary. He nurses a bitter hatred for the sorcerer Shang Tsung, whose trickery had blinded him. He is currently allied with Sonya Blade and Jax Briggs, and has also found a friend in Sub-Zero as well as Ermac. Kenshi appears in the 2011 Mortal Kombat game as downloadable content, making him the one of the two post-Mortal Kombat 3 returning characters in the game to be playable, the other being Quan Chi.

— Freebase

Thao people

Thao people

The Thao/Ngan are a small group of Taiwanese aborigines who have lived near Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan for at least a century, and probably since the time of the Qing dynasty. In the year 2000 the Thao/Ngan tribe numbered only 281, making them the smallest of all of the recognized aboriginal tribes in Taiwan. They are the smallest of the Taiwanese aborigine group in terms of population and the smallest ethnic group in Taiwan. Despite their small group size, the Thao/Ngan have retained their customs, beliefs and traditional culture and language up until now, though they have been assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture as well. Most of the members of this ethnic group work today as menial workers, cooks and vendors in the tourism industry at Sun Moon Lake. The Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 damaged or destroyed 80% of the houses of the Thao/ngan tribe and made many of them lose employment.

— Freebase

Strapped

Strapped

Strapped is a 1993 television crime-thriller/drama, produced by HBO Films for HBO, directed by Forest Whitaker and starring, William James Stiggers, Jr., Chi Ali and was the debut film of Bokeem Woodbine and rapper Fredro Starr.

— Freebase

Chitungwiza

Chitungwiza

Chitungwiza — known colloquially as Chi Town — is a high-density dormitory town in Zimbabwe. The town is approximately 30 kilometres south of the capital, Harare. It was formed in 1978 from three townships: Seke, Zengeza, and St Marys.

— Freebase

iZ3D

iZ3D

iZ3D, LLC designs and develops stereoscopic 3D visualization systems.The company™s products include 3D monitors and 3D glasses. It operates an online store, as well as distributes its products through online and retail outlets.The company was incorporated in 2007 and is based in San Diego, California. iZ3D, LLC operates as a subsidiary of Chi Mei Optoelectronics Corp. and Neurok Optics, LLC.

— CrunchBase

Pete Cooper

Pete Cooper

Richard Bernice "Pete" Cooper was an American professional golfer on the PGA Tour in the 1940s and 1950s; he was best known for winning the 1976 PGA Seniors' Championship. Cooper turned professional in 1938. In the ten-year span between 1949 and 1958, he won five official PGA Tour events and had runner-up finishes in the 1950 Houston Open and the 1955 Tournament of Champions. His best finish in a major was T-4 at the 1953 U.S. Open. He helped a young Chi Chi Rodriguez improve enough to secure a spot on the PGA Tour. Cooper won the 1976 PGA Seniors' Championship at the age of 61 with a four-day total of 283 over runner-up Fred Wampler. The tournament was held at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. Cooper lived in Lakeland, Florida, where he owned the Par 3 and Lone Palm Golf Club. He was also active in golf course design.

— Freebase

Ho Chi Minh

Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969, born Nguyễn Sinh Cung and also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyen That Thanh and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War. He led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems, but remained a highly visible figurehead and inspiration for those Vietnamese fighting for his cause—a united, communist Vietnam—until his death. After the war, Saigon, capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City.

— Freebase

Isle

Isle

Isle is a city in Mille Lacs County, Minnesota, United States. The population was 751 at the 2010 census. Its name in the Ojibwe language is "Chi-minising", due to being located right by Malone Island of Mille Lacs Lake, the largest island of that lake.

— Freebase

Qigong

Qigong

Qigong, chi kung, or chi gung is a practice of aligning breath, movement, and awareness for exercise, healing, and meditation. With roots in Chinese medicine, martial arts, and philosophy, qigong is traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi or what has been translated as "intrinsic life energy". Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized repetition of fluid movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi through the body. Qigong is now practiced throughout China and worldwide, and is considered by some to be exercise, and by others to be a type of alternative medicine or meditative practice. From a philosophical perspective qigong is believed to help develop human potential, allow access to higher realms of awareness, and awaken one's "true nature". The overall evidence for the health effects of qigong has been largely inconclusive. Many of the underlying clinical trials have not been performed in accordance with the rules of modern scientific convention, and therefore it is not yet possible to come to any firm conclusions as to the health effects of qigong.

— Freebase

Smoot

Smoot

The smoot is a nonstandard unit of length created as part of an MIT fraternity prank. It is named after Oliver R. Smoot, a fraternity pledge to Lambda Chi Alpha, who in October 1958 lay on the Harvard Bridge, and was used by his fraternity brothers to measure the length of the bridge.

— Freebase

Fall of Saigon

Fall of Saigon

The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam on April 30, 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam into a Socialist Republic governed by the Communist Party. North Vietnamese forces under the command of the General Văn Tiến Dũng began their final attack on Saigon, with South Vietnamese forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn, on April 29, suffering heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhứt Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterward. The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh City, after the Democratic Republic's President Ho Chi Minh. The fall of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians associated with the southern regime. The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population.

— Freebase

Quarry Bay

Quarry Bay

Quarry Bay is an area beneath Mount Parker in the Eastern District of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. The western portion of the area was also formerly known as Lai Chi. Traditionally being an industrial and residential area, there is an increased number of commercial buildings in this district over the past 2 decades.

— Freebase

Alpha and Omega

Alpha and Omega

Alpha and Omega, alpha and omega, are the first and the last letters of the Greek alphabet and are an appellation of Christ or of God in the Book of Revelation. These couple of letters are used as Christian symbols, and are often combined with the Cross, Chi-rho, or other Christian symbols.

— Freebase

Xi

Xi

Xi is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. It is pronounced in Modern Greek, and generally or in English. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 60. Xi was derived from the Phoenician letter samekh . Xi is not to be confused with the letter chi, which gave its form to the Latin letter X.

— Freebase

Taiji

Taiji

Taiji is a Chinese cosmological term for the "Supreme Ultimate" state of undifferentiated absolute and infinite potentiality, contrasted with the Wuji. The term Taiji and its other spelling T'ai chi are most commonly used in the West to refer to Taijiquan, an internal martial art, Chinese meditation system and health practice. This article, however, refers only to the use of the term in Chinese philosophy and Daoist spirituality.

— Freebase

Kha

Kha

Kha or Ha is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It looks the same as the Latin letter X, in both uppercase and lowercase, both roman and italic forms, and was derived from the Greek letter Chi, which also bears a resemblance to both the Latin X and Kha. It commonly represents the voiceless velar fricative, like the Scottish pronunciation of ⟨ch⟩ in "loch". Kha is romanized as ⟨kh⟩.

— Freebase

Adapa

Adapa

Adapa, the first of the Mesopotamian seven sages, was a mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality. The story is first attested in the Kassite period, in fragmentary tablets from Tell el-Amarna, and from Assur, of the late second millennium BCE. Mesoptamian myth tells of seven antediluvian sages, who were sent by Ea, the wise god of Eridu, to bring the arts of civilisation to humankind. The first of these, Adapa, also known as Uan, the name given as Oannes by Berossus, introduced the practice of the correct rites of religious observance as priest of the E'Apsu temple, at Eridu. The sages are described in Mesoptamian literature as 'pure parādu-fish, probably carp, whose bones are found associated with the earliest shrine, and still kept as a holy duty in the precincts of Near Eastern mosques and monastries. Adapa as a fisherman was iconographically portrayed as a fish-man composite. The word Abgallu, sage, survived into Nabatean times, around the time of Christ, as apkallum, used to describe the profession of a certain kind of priest

— Freebase

Sonny Seiler

Sonny Seiler

Frank W. "Sonny" Seiler is an attorney from Savannah, Georgia, who, despite success in the courtroom and a prominent role in the bestselling book Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, is best known as the owner of University Georgia bulldog mascots. Since the 1950s, he and his family have cared for and maintained the unbroken line of mascots of the University of Georgia English Bulldogs, known successively as Uga I - IX. Seiler is a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, Gridiron Secret Society, and a founder of the Order of the Greek Horsemen.

— Freebase

Rodin

Rodin

Rodin is an impact crater on the planet Mercury, 229 kilometers in diameter. It is located at 21.1°N, 18.2°W, north of the craters Abu Nuwas and Moliere, and east of the crater Ts'ai Wen-chi. Inside Rodin are two craterlets, one to the east of the center and one to the north. The rim is even and circular, except where it is broken in two places toward the north and south. It is named for the French sculptor Auguste Rodin. Its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1976.

— Freebase

Be My Guest

Be My Guest

Be My Guest is an ongoing television programme produced by Television Broadcasts Limited in Hong Kong. It is originally broadcast on TVB Lifestyle Channel of TVB Pay Vision in 2006. It is also aired on certain Cathay Pacific flights. TVB released the VCD, DVD, and books. Stephen Chan Chi Wan, General Manager of TVB, is the host of this show and he interviews notable performing celebrities, politicians, business people in Hong Kong. There are also stage and ball shows of the programme but they are not released.

— Freebase

Stav

Stav

Stav is a martial art taught by Ivar Hafskjold. It uses runes and Norse Mythology in its teaching based on oral tradition which he claims was preserved in his family. In the 1990s, Ivar Hafskjold took on four personal apprentice students; Shaun Brassfield-Thorpe, Kolbjorn Märtens, David Watkinson and Graham Butcher. All contemporary Stav teachers belong to a teaching lineage directly from either Ivar Hafskjold and/or one of his first four students, each of whom are recognized as masters. Stav resembles T'ai chi, with the student beginning with ritualized stances resembling the sixteen runes of the Younger Futhark.

— Freebase

Celosia cristata

Celosia cristata

Celosia cristata [Celosia in Greek means burning] is a member of the genus Celosia, and is commonly known as cockscomb, since the flower looks like the head on a rooster. It is called Chi Kuan in China. The plants are hardy and resistant to most diseases, and grow equally well indoors or out, though the perfect place is one with no shade and a well drained soil, as the plant is susceptible to fungal diseases. The plant is used frequently as an ornamental plant indoors. Their leaves and flowers can be used as vegetables. They are often grown as foods in India, Western Africa, and South America.

— Freebase

Xmas

Xmas

Xmas is a common abbreviation of the word Christmas . It is sometimes pronounced, but it, and variants such as Xtemass, originated as handwriting abbreviations for the typical pronunciation. The "-mas" part is from the Latin-derived Old English word for Mass, while the "X" comes from the Greek letter Chi, which is the first letter of the Greek word Χριστός which comes into English as "Christ". There is a common misconception that the word Xmas stems from a secular attempt to remove the religious tradition from Christmas by taking the "Christ" out of "Christmas", but its use dates back to the 16th century.

— Freebase

religion of CHI

religion of CHI

[Case Western Reserve University] Yet another hackish parody religion (see also Church of the SubGenius, Discordianism). In the mid-70s, the canonical “Introduction to Programming” courses at CWRU were taught in Algol, and student exercises were punched on cards and run on a Univac 1108 system using a homebrew operating system named CHI. The religion had no doctrines and but one ritual: whenever the worshiper noted that a digital clock read 11:08, he or she would recite the phrase “It is 11:08; ABS, ALPHABETIC, ARCSIN, ARCCOS, ARCTAN.” The last five words were the first five functions in the appropriate chapter of the Algol manual; note the special pronunciations /obz/ and /ark´sin/ rather than the more common /ahbz/ and /ark´si:n/. Using an alarm clock to warn of 11:08's arrival was considered harmful.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Shaku

Shaku

The shaku is a traditional unit of measure used throughout Asia with a length approximately equal to a foot. It is variously called shaku in Japanese, ja in Korean, chi in Mandarin, and chek in Cantonese, and is written as "呎" in Hong Kong. As with other measurements, it was originally derived from nature: the average length between nodes on bamboo. The actual length varies slightly by country. The shaku may be divided into ten smaller units, known as either cun in Mandarin, sun in Japanese, or tsun in Cantonese. Ten shaku are equal to a jō in Japanese, a zhang in Mandarin, and a jeung in Cantonese, and is traditionally written as "丈".

— Freebase

Footbag

Footbag

A footbag is both a small, round bag, and the term for the various sports played with one – characterized by controlling the bag by using one's feet. Although often referred to generically as a Hacky Sack, that is the trademarked name of one specific brand. Footbag-like activities have existed for many years. There are documented examples like Wu Style Tai Chi Chuan practice and policemen are seen playing it using a shuttlecock in the 1955 movie To Catch a Thief, but the current Western incarnation of the sport was invented in 1972 by Mike Marshall and John Stalberger of Oregon City, Oregon with the Hacky Sack, the rights to which are now owned by Wham-O.

— Freebase

Battle of the Milvian Bridge

Battle of the Milvian Bridge

The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle. According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision of the Christian God promising victory if they daubed the sign of the Chi-Rho, the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek, on their shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine's success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism.

— Freebase

Frat House

Frat House

Frat House is a documentary film exploring the darker side of fraternity life. The film was directed by Todd Phillips and Andrew Gurland, and largely filmed at Allentown, Pennsylvania's Muhlenberg College; the majority of the film was shot in the house of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, whose charter was revoked in 2000. The opening fraternity, that drove the filmmakers out of the college and the town, is the Beta Chi fraternity on the State University of New York College at Oneonta campus in Oneonta New York. Beta Chi is an unrecognized fraternity in Oneonta, and was kicked off the Oneonta campus after reports of severe hazing. It continues to operate as a rogue, unrecognized chapter in the town to this day. Other unrecognized fraternities from SUNY Oneonta shown in the film include Sigma Alpha Mu, also known as "Sammy", and Tau Kappa Epsilon, which was recognized in the spring of 2007 but shortly thereafter lost their recognition from the campus. Frat House won two Sundance Film Festival awards in 1998, but has been attacked for containing sequences that were staged for the cameras. Frat House was originally intended to be shown on the HBO TV channel, but was never aired after receiving allegations that much of the final portion of the film was staged. The sequences concerned involved 'hazing', in which aspiring members of the fraternity are seen undergoing humiliating initiation rites. The allegation is that the pledges who appear on screen were in fact already members of the fraternity: the fraternity chapter was paid $1500 to film the events, and several members were paid $50 each to pretend to be pledges and re-enact things that were rumored to happen during fraternity pledging rituals. The filmmakers signed non-binding forms stating that the school and fraternity names would not be used, and that the events did not reflect the behavior of the fraternity. The deceit was noticed because the film was shot in the Spring, but Muhlenberg College did not rush during the Spring.

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Gabelle

Gabelle

The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. The term gabelle derives from the Italian gabella, itself from the Arabic qabala. In France, Gabelle was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the tax on salt. In time it became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal taxes in the country. It was abolished in 1790, then reinstated by Napoleon in 1806; abolished briefly by the French Second Republic, and then finally abolished permanently in 1945. The gabelle existed outside France, even after 1790. In the 1919 Paris Treaties, Ho Chi Minh described the oppressiveness of taxes, forced labor, and exploitation that the gabelle symbolized.

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Triglochin

Triglochin

Triglochin is a genus in the family Juncaginaceae containing around 18 species. North America has four species, two of which can also be found in Europe: Triglochin palustris and Triglochin maritima. Australia has many more. The most widely used common name for the genus is arrowgrass, although these plants are not really grasses. Many of the common names for species make use of the term arrowgrass, although there are exceptions: T. procera, for example, is commonly known as water ribbons. Arrowgrasses are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Grey Chi. Species include: ⁕Triglochin alcockiae - Australia ⁕Triglochin barrelieri ⁕Triglochin maritima ⁕Triglochin palustris ⁕Triglochin procera - Australia ⁕Triglochin striata - Australia

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North Vietnam

North Vietnam

North Vietnam was a communist state that ruled the northern half of Vietnam from 1954 until 1976. It was officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in 1945. Vietnam was partitioned following the Geneva Conference at the end of the First Indochina War. During World War II, Vietnam was a French colony under Japanese occupation. Soon after Japan surrendered in 1945, the DRV was proclaimed in Hanoi, government for the entire country. Viet Minh leader Hồ Chí Minh became head of the government while former emperor Bảo Đại became "supreme advisor." Non-communist figures were ousted from the DRV on October 30 and fled to the South. In November, the French reoccupied Hanoi and the French Indochina War followed. Bảo Đại became head of the Saigon government in 1949, which was then renamed the State of Vietnam. Following the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel. The DRV became the government of North Vietnam while the State of Vietnam retained control in the South. The Geneva Accords promised elections in 1956 to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. The French accepted the proposal of Viet Minh delegate Pham Van Dong, who proposed that Vietnam eventually be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions". The United States countered with what became known as the "American Plan," with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom. It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation. During the Vietnam War, North Vietnam and its communist allies, including the Soviet Union and China fought against the military of the Republic of Vietnam government, the U.S. and its Free World Military allies, including Australia, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand and various smaller players. At one point, the U.S. had 600,000 troops in the South. The war ended with the total victory of the North Vietnamese forces, about 2 years after American troops withdrew from the South. The two halves of Vietnam were united into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976.

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Jian

Jian

The jian is a double-edged straight sword used during the last 2,500 years in China. The first Chinese sources that mention the jian date to the 7th century BCE during the Spring and Autumn Period; one of the earliest specimens being the Sword of Goujian. Historical one-handed versions have blades varying from 45 to 80 centimeters in length. The weight of an average sword of 70-centimetre blade-length would be in a range of approximately 700 to 900 grams. There are also larger two-handed versions used for training by many styles of Chinese martial arts. In Chinese folklore, it is known as "The Gentleman of Weapons" and is considered one of the four major weapons, along with the Gun, Qiang, and the Dao. These swords are also sometimes referred to as taijijian or "t'ai chi swords", though there were no historical jian types created specifically for taijiquan.

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p-value

p-value

In statistical significance testing, the p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. A researcher will often "reject the null hypothesis" when the p-value turns out to be less than a certain significance level, often 0.05 or 0.01. Such a result indicates that the observed result would be highly unlikely under the null hypothesis. Many common statistical tests, such as chi-squared tests or Student's t-test, produce test statistics which can be interpreted using p-values. In a statistical test, the p-value is the probability of getting the same value for a model built around two hypotheses, one is the "neutral" hypothesis, the other is the hypothesis under testing. If this p-value is less than or equal to the threshold value previously set, one rejects the neutral hypothesis and accepts the test hypothesis as valid . In general, considering the following thresholds: : very strong presumption against neutral hypothesis : very strong presumption against neutral hypothesis : strong presumption against neutral hypothesis : low presumption against neutral hypothesis

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Hanoi

Hanoi

Hanoi, is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyen dynasty, but Hanoi served as the capital of French Indochina from 1902 to 1954. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Việt Nam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam war. The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is located at 1,760 km north of Ho Chi Minh City and at 120 km west of Hai Phong city. October 2010 officially marked 1000 years since the establishment of the city. The city will host the 2019 Asian Games.

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50s

50s

This is a list of events occurring in the 50s, ordered by year. Cologne is raised to the status of a city. Romans learn the use of soap from the Gauls. Utrecht is founded, a Roman fortification is constructed at the Rhine border in the present-day Netherlands. Claudius adopts Nero. In Judea a Roman soldier seized and burned a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus had the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula begins his campaign against the recalcitrant Silures of south Wales, who are led by the former Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus. London, Exeter, Tripontium and the fort of Manduessedum are founded. Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. Romans built a wooden bridge across the Thames in the London area. The Iazyges settle in the Hungarian plain to the east of the Tisza River. The Tocharian or Yue-Chi tribes are united under the Kushan leader Kujula Kadphises, thus creating the Kushan Empire in Afghanistan and northern India. San Bartolo pyramid is completed around this time.

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Cun

Cun

The cun is a traditional Chinese unit of length. Its traditional measure is the width of a person's thumb at the knuckle, whereas the width of the two forefingers denotes 1.5 cun and the width of all fingers side-by-side is three cuns. In this sense it continues to be used to chart acupuncture points on the human body in various uses of traditional Chinese medicine. The cun was part of a larger system, and represented one-tenth of a chi. In time the lengths were standardized, although to different values in different jurisdictions.. In Hong Kong, using the traditional standard, it measures ~3.715 cm and is called a "tsun". In the twentieth century in the Republic of China, the lengths were standardized to fit with the metric system, and in current usage in People's Republic of China and Taiwan it measures 3 ¹⁄3 cm. In Japan, the corresponding unit, sun, was standardized at 1000⁄33 mm.

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Tumbuka people

Tumbuka people

The Tumbuka are a Bantu ethnic group living in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia and Southern Tanzania. Their chief god is called Chiuta, who is all-powerful, omniscient and self-created, just like the God of the Abrahamic religions. The language of the Tumbuka is called chiTumbuka – the 'chi' in front of Tumbuka meaning 'the language of the' just like 'ki' in 'kiSwahili' or 'se' in 'seTswana'. A Tumbuka will call another watumbuka, meaning one of the tribe of Tumbukas. In northern Malawi the Tumbuka are ruled by village chiefs. Since the 1700s chiefs from the Chikulamayembe Dynasty are traditional supreme leaders of the Tumbuka people there. The World Almanac estimates approximately 2,000,000 Tumbuka speakers exist in the aforementioned three countries. Ethnologue estimates a total of 1,332,000 Tumbuka speakers, including 940,000 in Malawi and 392,000 in Zambia, with no Tumbuka presence listed for Tanzania. Tumbuka is a Bantu language, similar to Swahili in structure and vocabulary.

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Paskha

Paskha

Paskha, Pascha, Pashka, or Pasha is a festal dish made in Eastern Orthodox countries of those foods which are forbidden during the fast of Great Lent. It is made during Holy Week and then brought to church on Great Saturday to be blessed after the Paschal Vigil. The name of the dish comes from Pascha, the Eastern Orthodox celebration of Easter. Pascha is a traditional Easter dish made from tvorog, which is white, symbolizing the purity of Christ, the Paschal Lamb{{Disambiguation jkbhIn the Russian Orthodox tradition, pascha is usually molded in the form of a truncated pyramid. It is traditionally made in a wooden mould assembly called пасочница that can be taken apart for cleaning; but more modern materials, such as plastics, are used nowadays. The pascha is decorated with traditional religious symbols, such as the "Chi Ro" motif, a three-bar cross, the letters X and B, eggs, and a lance, all symbolizing Christ's Passion and Resurrection.

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50-59

50-59

This is a list of events occurring in the 50s, ordered by year. ⁕Cologne is raised to the status of a city. ⁕Romans learn the use of soap from the Gauls. ⁕Utrecht is founded, a Roman fortification is constructed at the Rhine border in the present-day Netherlands. ⁕Claudius adopts Nero. ⁕In Judea a Roman soldier seized and burned a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus had the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt ⁕In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula begins his campaign against the recalcitrant Silures of south Wales, who are led by the former Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus. London, Exeter, Tripontium and the fort of Manduessedum are founded. ⁕Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. ⁕Romans built a wooden bridge across the Thames in the London area. ⁕The Iazyges settle in the Hungarian plain to the east of the Tisza River. ⁕The Tocharian or Yue-Chi tribes are united under the Kushan leader Kujula Kadphises, thus creating the Kushan Empire in Afghanistan and northern India.

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French Indochina

French Indochina

French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina, as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and Kouang-Tchéou-Wan in 1900. The capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939 until 1945, when it moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by Vichy France and was under Japanese supervision until a brief period of full Japanese control between March and August 1945. Beginning in May 1941, the Viet Minh, a communist army led by Ho Chi Minh, began a revolt against French rule known as the First Indochina War. In Saigon, the anti-Communist State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was granted independence in 1949. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the Viet Minh became the government of North Vietnam, although the Bảo Đại government continued to rule in South Vietnam.

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Chiro

Chiro

Chiro is a Flemish youth organisation, founded on Christian values, now only tenuously held, with 94,311 members. While mainly focusing on having fun, it also aims at developing youngsters' responsibility and skills. The name Chiro is a combination of the Greek letters chi and rho, which are the first letters of Christos, the Greek form of Christ. It was introduced by Jos Cleymans in an issue of Het Katholiek Patronaat, describing the youth of Chiro. At first, it was only about a new way to entertain children on Sunday, while also teaching Catholic values. In 1941 Jos and some of his fellow priests founded the organization. The members are divided into several sections according to their age. This division is not strict and not always applied in every individual group. ⁕Ribbels: 6–8 years old ⁕Speelclub: 8–10 years old, if there are ribbels, else 6–9 years old ⁕Rakwi: 10–12 years old, if there are ribbels, else 9–12 years old ⁕Tito: 12–14 years old ⁕Keti: 14–16 years old ⁕Aspi: 16–18 years old

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New Territories

New Territories

New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River which is the border between Hong Kong and Mainland China, as well as over 200 outlying Islands including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, and Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. Later, after New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, and the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was gradually urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon. In modern times New Kowloon is almost always considered part of Kowloon and instead of the New Territories – except statutorily. Hence, the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km². Nevertheless, New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.

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Hans Werner Henze

Hans Werner Henze

Hans Werner Henze was a German composer of prodigious output best known for "his consistent cultivation of music for the theatre throughout his life". His music is extremely varied in style, having been influenced by serialism, atonality, Stravinsky, Italian music, Arabic music and jazz, as well as traditional schools of German composition. Henze was also known for his political convictions. He left Germany for Italy in 1953 because of a perceived intolerance towards his leftist politics and homosexuality. Late in life he lived in the village of Marino in the central Italian region of Lazio, and in his final years still travelled extensively, in particular to Britain and Germany, as part of his work. An avowed Marxist and member of the Communist Party of Italy, Henze produced compositions honoring Ho Chi Minh and Che Guevara. At the 1968 Hamburg premiere of his requiem for Che Guevara, titled Das Floß der Medusa, the placing of a red flag on the stage sparked a riot and the arrest of several people, including the librettist. Henze spent a year teaching in Cuba, though he later became disillusioned with Castro. Hans Werner Henze died in Dresden on 27 October 2012 at the age of 86. He was buried near his home, outside Rome.

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Pop Shop

Pop Shop

The Pop Shop were stores that sold voluminous memorabilia of artist Keith Haring's designs. Haring originally opened two Pop Shops; one at 292 Lafayette Street in SoHo and one in Tokyo. Every area of the store was devoted to Haring's work including floor-to-ceiling murals, which provided a clubhouse atmosphere. The Tokyo Pop Shop, shipped from Tokyo to Europe was recently restored and exhibited in Saint Tropez, France by art publisher George Mulder of Berlin. Keith Haring's Pop Shop served to fulfill the artist's desire to make his iconic and beloved imagery accessible to the widest possible range of people both during his lifetime and posthumously through the Keith Haring Foundation, Inc. Haring, who viewed the Pop Shop as an extension of his work, stated: "Here's the philosophy behind the Pop Shop: I wanted to continue the same sort of communication as with the subway drawings. I wanted to attract the same wide range of people and I wanted it to be a place where, yes, not only collectors could come, but also kids from the Bronx … this was still an art statement." Graffiti kids from the Bronx did hang out at the New York Pop Shop, along with Soho art types, Madonna, and others. Photographer Tseng Kwong Chi recorded many events related to the creation of the Tokyo Pop Shop.

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GEH statistic

GEH statistic

The GEH Statistic is a formula used in traffic engineering, traffic forecasting, and traffic modelling to compare two sets of traffic volumes. The GEH formula gets its name from Geoffrey E. Havers, who invented it in the 1970s while working as a transport planner in London, England. Although its mathematical form is similar to a chi-squared test, is not a true statistical test. Rather, it is an empirical formula that has proven useful for a variety of traffic analysis purposes. Using the GEH Statistic avoids some pitfalls that occur when using simple percentages to compare two sets of volumes. This is because the traffic volumes in real-world transportation systems vary over a wide range. For example, the mainline of a freeway/motorway might carry 5000 vehicles per hour, while one of the on-ramps leading to the freeway might carry only 50 vehicles per hour. The GEH statistic reduces this problem; because the GEH statistic is non-linear, a single acceptance threshold based on GEH can be used over a fairly wide range of traffic volumes. The use of GEH as an acceptance criterion for travel demand forecasting models is recognised in the UK Highways Agency's Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 12, Section 2, the Wisconsin microsimulation modeling guidelines, and other references.

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Nguyen Van Thieu

Nguyen Van Thieu

Nguyễn Văn Thiệu was president of South Vietnam from 1965–75. He was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, became head of a military junta, and then president after winning a scheduled election. He established rule over South Vietnam until he resigned and left the nation a few days before the fall of Saigon and the ultimate communist victory. Born in Phan Rang-Tháp Chàm, Thiệu was a descendent of the Tran Dinh dynasty of Annamese nobles. Thiệu initially joined the communist-dominated Việt Minh of Hồ Chí Minh but quit after a year and joined the Vietnamese National Army of the French-backed State of Vietnam. He gradually rose up the ranks and, in 1954, led a battalion in expelling the communists from his native village. Following the withdrawal of the French, the VNA became the ARVN and Thiệu was the head of the Vietnamese National Military Academy for four years before becoming a division commander and colonel. In November 1960, he helped put down a coup attempt against President Ngô Đình Diệm. During this time, he also converted to Roman Catholicism and joined the regime’s secret Cần Lao Party; Diệm was thought to give preferential treatment to his co-religionists and Thiệu was accused of being one of many who converted for political advancement, although he claimed to have converted because his wife was a Catholic.

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South Vietnam

South Vietnam

South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state which governed southern Vietnam until 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", and later as the "Republic of Vietnam". Its capital was Saigon. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam and was a subdivision of French Indochina. After World War II, the Vietminh, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Communist nation in Hanoi. In 1949, non-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. After Diem was deposed in a military coup in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyen Van Thieu led the country from 1967 until 1975. The Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces supplied by North Vietnam. Fighting climaxed during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese army overran Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Azo of Bologna

Azo of Bologna

Azo of Bologna or Azzo or Azolenus was an influential Italian jurist and a member of the school of the so-called glossators. Born circa 1150 in Bologna, Azo studied under Joannes Bassianus and became professor of civil law at Bologna. He is sometimes known as Azo Soldanus, from his father's surname, and also Azzo Porcius, to distinguish him from later famous Italians named Azzo. He died circa 1250. Azo wrote glosses on all parts of the Corpus Iuris Civilis. His most influential work is his Summa Codicis, a commentary of the civil law organized according to the order of Justinian's Code. The Summa Codicis, and Apparatus ad codicim, collected by his pupil, Alessandro de Santo Aegidio, and amended by Hugolinus and Odofredus, formed a methodical exposition of Roman law. As one of the very few medieval legal texts in Latin, the Summa Codicis has been translated into Old French. Azo's works enjoyed great authority among generations of continental lawyers, such that it used to be said, Chi non ha Azzo, non vada al palazzo, roughly translated: "Who hasn't Azo on his side, will not go to court", neither as a plaintiff nor as judge. Azo's Summa Codicis, was also used by Henry Bracton in his account of English law. Azo's many glosses were ultimately incorporated into the Great Gloss of his pupil, Accursius.

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Seinen manga

Seinen manga

Seinen manga is a subset of manga that is generally targeted at a 18–30 year old male audience, but the audience can be older with some manga aimed at businessmen well into their 40s. In Japanese, the word Seinen means "young man" or "young men" and is not suggestive of sexual matters. It has a wide variety of art styles and more variation in subject matter, ranging from the avant-garde to the mundane and to the pornographic. Because of the emphasis on storyline and character development instead of action, some seinen series are often confused with shōjo, or girls' manga. This is especially true of seinen comedy series such as Chobits, and Chi's Sweet Home, or seinen drama such as Twin Spica. Other examples of seinen manga include: Akira, Monster, Gantz, 20th Century Boys, Berserk, Battle Royale, Blame!, Vagabond, Ghost in the Shell, Hellsing, Black Lagoon, Ikigami, Elfen Lied, Another, Battle Angel Alita, Zetman, Drifters and Maison Ikkoku. A common way to tell if a manga is seinen is by looking at whether or not furigana is used over the original kanji text: if there are furigana on all kanji, the title is generally aimed at a younger audience. The title of the magazine it was published in is also an important indicator. Usually Japanese manga magazines with the word "young" in the title are seinen. Other popular seinen manga magazines include Ultra Jump, Afternoon, and Big Comic.

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Kifu

Kifu

Kifu is the Japanese term for a game record for a game of Go or shogi. Kifu is traditionally used to record games on a grid diagram, marking the plays on the points by numbers. This term is originally from China. In China, people named this kind of record "Ch'i-p'u". The earliest surviving kifu is collected by the ancient book "I Chi", written by Pan Ku. A large corpus — many thousands of games — of kifu records from the Edo period has survived. Quite a low proportion was published in book form; strong players used to make their own copies by hand of games to study. This accounts for one feature of the records passed down: they often omit much of the endgame, since for a strong player reconstructing the smaller endgame plays is routine. This explains the survival of some games in different versions, and possible discrepancies in the final margin. The early Western Go players found the method of kifu inconvenient, probably because as chess players they were more familiar with algebraic notation, and because as new players they found it difficult to locate moves. But they quickly discovered the advantages of kifu-style notation—as much as an entire game can be visually displayed in one diagram—and now virtually all Go books and magazines use some modification of the kifu to display games, variations and problems. While a typical piece of chess literature is in algebraic notation punctuated by occasional diagrams, Go literature mostly consists of diagrams with a sequence of plays marked, and prose commentary.

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Melodica

Melodica

The melodica, also known as the pianica, blow-organ or key-flute, is a free-reed instrument similar to the melodion and harmonica. It has a musical keyboard on top, and is played by blowing air through a mouthpiece that fits into a hole in the side of the instrument. Pressing a key opens a hole, allowing air to flow through a reed. The keyboard is usually two or three octaves long. Melodicas are small, light, and portable. They are popular in music education, especially in Asia. The modern form of the instrument was invented by Hohner in the 1950s, though similar instruments have been known in Italy since the 19th century. The melodica was first used as a serious musical instrument in the 1960s by composers such as Steve Reich, in his piece titled Melodica and jazz musician Phil Moore, Jr., on his 1969 Atlantic Records album Right On. Brazilian multi-instrumentalist Hermeto Pascoal developed a technique consisting in singing while playing the melodica, resulting in a wide tonal and harmonical palette. It is associated with Jamaican dub and reggae musician Augustus Pablo who popularized it in the 1970s. It was featured on the 1972 #1 Billboard Hot 100 hit "Oh Girl" by the Chi-Lites. In the 1980s, electronic rock band New Order featured the melodica prominently in songs such as "Truth," "Your Silent Face," "Love Vigilantes," and others. Melodicas have also been used in indie folk music by artists such as Rabbit of Steam Powered Giraffe and Paul Duncan of Warm Ghost and Emmanuel Del Real of Café Tacvba.

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Common House Gecko

Common House Gecko

The Common House Gecko, scientific name Hemidactylus frenatus, is a native of southeastern Asia. It is also known as the Pacific house gecko, the Asian house gecko, or simply, the house lizard. Most geckos are nocturnal, hiding during the day and foraging for insects at night. They can be seen climbing walls of houses and other buildings in search of insects attracted to porch lights, hence their name "House Gecko". Spread around the world by ships, these geckos are now common in the Deep South of the United States, large parts of tropical and sub-tropical Australia, and many other countries in South and Central America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. They grow to a length of between three to six inches, and live for about five years. These small geckos are non-venomous and harmless to humans. Medium to large geckos may bite if distressed, however their bite is gentle and will not pierce skin. A tropical gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus thrives in warm, humid areas where it can crawl around on rotting wood in search of the insects it eats. The animal is very adaptable and may prey on insects and spiders, displacing other reptiles. Like many geckos, this species can lose its tail when alarmed. Its call or chirp rather resembles the sound "gecko, gecko". However, this is an interpretation, and the sound may also be described as "tchak tchak tchak". In Asia/South East Asia, notably Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, geckos have local names onomatopoetically derived from the sounds they make: Hemidactylus frenatus is called "chee chak" or "chi chak", said quickly. Also commonly spelled as "cicak" in Malay dictionaries. In the Philippines they are called "butiki" in Tagalog, or "tiki" in Visayan, and in Thailand "jing-jok". In India and Pakistan they are called "chhipkali", from chhipkana, to stick. In India they are called "Jhiti piti" in Oriya language, "Gawli" or "Palli" in Malayalam language: ଝିଟିପିଟି. In Bangladesh they are called "tiktiki" as they make sound like "tik tik tik". In Central America they are sometimes called "Limpia Casas" because they reduce the amount of insects and other arthropods in homes.

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