Definitions containing tĂ pffer, rudolf
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A spiritual movement inaugurated by Rudolf Steiner (also capitalized as Anthroposophy).
|dame margot fonteyn|
Fonteyn, Dame Margot Fonteyn
English dancer who danced with Rudolf Nureyev (born in 1919)
— Princeton's WordNet
Fonteyn, Dame Margot Fonteyn
English dancer who danced with Rudolf Nureyev (born in 1919)
— Princeton's WordNet
Rudolf is a musical conceived for the stage by Frank Wildhorn and Steve Cuden, with a book by Jack Murphy and Phoebe Hwang, lyrics by Murphy, additional lyrics by Nan Knighton, and music by Frank Wildhorn. Arrangements by Koen Schoots and orchestrations by Kim Scharnberg. It is about Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria and his extramarital relationship with Baroness Mary Vetsera. Their 1889 deaths at his Mayerling hunting lodge apparently were the result of a murder-suicide pact, although historians have debated this explanation. Loosely based on the book A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888-1889 by Frederic Morton, the musical was developed under the working titles Vienna, AffĂ€re Mayerling, and Rudolf - The Last Kiss. The pressures of the monarchy have fallen upon Rudolf's shoulders, he is in political and personal conflict with his father, Emperor Franz Joseph, and his marriage to Princess StĂ©phanie of Belgium is crumbling when he meets and falls in love with the 17-year-old baroness. Their secret liaison doesn't escape the attention of prime minister Eduard Taaffe, who hopes to use his knowledge of the affair to destroy Rudolf's political career.
DORMA is a German company that produces door technology systems and allied products. It was first founded as the DĂ¶rken & Mankel KG in Ennepetal, Germany, in 1908. The family business is managed by owner Karl-Rudolf Mankel in third generation. As part of succession planning, previous sole DORMA proprietor Karl-Rudolf Mankel transferred the majority of his shareholding to his daughters Christine and Stephanie in March 2009. The DORMA Group had a workforce of approximately 6500 employees and closed fiscal year 2009/10 with a business volume of 856,4 Mill. EUR.
|Gustav Ludwig Hertz|
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine.
Rudolf Serkin was a Bohemian-born pianist. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest Beethoven interpreters of the twentieth century.
emperor of Germany from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate, and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him in a boat, May 1, 1308."
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Otto Robert Frisch|
Otto Robert Frisch
Otto Robert Frisch FRS, was an Austrian-British physicist. With his German-British collaborator Rudolf Peierls he designed the first theoretical mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in 1940.
Faust are a German krautrock band. Formed in 1971 in WĂŒmme, the group was originally composed of Werner "Zappi" Diermaier, Hans Joachim Irmler, Arnulf Meifert, Jean-HervĂ© PĂ©ron, Rudolf Sosna and Gunther WĂŒsthoff, working with record producer Uwe Nettelbeck and engineer Kurt Graupner.
|Walter Rudolf Hess|
Walter Rudolf Hess
Walter Rudolf Hess was a Swiss physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for mapping the areas of the brain involved in the control of internal organs. He shared the prize with Egas Moniz.
Thauera is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria named after the German Microbiologist Rudolf Thauer. Most species of this genus are motile by flagellas and are mostly rod-shaped. The species occur in wet soil and polluted freshwater.
In thermodynamics, a thermodynamicist is one who studies thermodynamic processes and phenomena, i.e. the physics that deals with mechanical action and relations of heat. Among the well-known number of famous thermodynamicists, include Sadi Carnot, Rudolf Clausius, Willard Gibbs, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Max Planck.
Rudolf Ludwig MĂ¶ssbauer was a German physicist best known for his 1957 discovery of recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics. This effect, called the MĂ¶ssbauer effect, is the basis for MĂ¶ssbauer spectroscopy.
Adidas AG is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports clothing and accessories based in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany. Frequently mispronounced as. It is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade-Adidas golf company, and Rockport. Besides sports footwear, Adidas also produces other products such as bags, shirts, watches, eyewear, and other sports- and clothing-related goods. Adidas is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Germany and Europe and the second biggest sportswear manufacturer in the world. Adidas was founded in 1948 by Adolf Dassler, following the split of GebrĂŒder Dassler Schuhfabrik between him and his older brother Rudolf. Rudolf later established Puma, which was the early rival of Adidas. Registered in 1949, Adidas is currently based in Herzogenaurach, Germany. Puma is also based in Herzogenaurach. The company's clothing and shoe designs typically feature three parallel bars, and the same motif is incorporated into Adidas's current official logo. The company revenue for 2012 was listed at âŹ14.48 billion.
In control theory, observability is a measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs. The observability and controllability of a system are mathematical duals. The concept of observability was introduced by American-Hungarian scientist Rudolf E. Kalman for linear dynamic systems.
a Swedish astronomer, of noble birth; spent his life in the study of the stars; discovered a new star in Cassiopeia; had an observatory provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king, where he made observations for 20 years; he was, on the king's death, compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles; accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. to Prague, where he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil (1546-1601).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Rudolf Hermann Lotze was a German philosopher and logician. He also had a medical degree and was unusually well versed in biology. He argued that if the physical world is governed by mechanical laws, relations and developments in the universe could be explained as the functioning of a world mind. His medical studies were pioneering works in scientific psychology.
The German satirical magazine Ulk was printed from 1872 until 1933 by the publisher Rudolf Mosse. Initially it was an independent weekly paper as Wochenblatt fĂŒr Humor und Satire. It was a supplement to the Berliner Tageblatt and the Berliner Volks-Zeitung, both published by Mosse. Contributors to the Ulk included Hans Reimann, Kurt Tucholsky, Lyonel Feininger, and Heinrich Zille.
Rudolf Friml was a composer of operettas, musicals, songs and piano pieces, as well as a pianist. After musical training and a brief performing career in his native Prague, Friml moved to the United States, where he became a composer. His best-known works are Rose-Marie and The Vagabond King, each of which enjoyed success on Broadway and in London and were adapted for film.
The hertz is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications, such as the frequency of musical tones. The word "hertz" is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, who was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves.
In medicine, Aschoff bodies are nodules found in the hearts of individuals with rheumatic fever. They result from inflammation in the heart muscle and are characteristic of rheumatic heart disease. These nodules were discovered independently by Ludwig Aschoff and Paul Rudolf Geipel, and for this reason they are occasionally called Aschoff-Geipel bodies.
Boehmeria is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to Asia and North America. The species include herbaceous perennials, shrubs and small trees. Although related to nettles, this genus does not have stinging hairs. Some species are known commonly as false nettle. This genus is named in honor of the German botanist, Georg Rudolf Boehmer.
Sensors is a monthly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that is published by MDPI. It was established in June 2001. The editors-in-chief are Vittorio M.N. Passaro, Assefa M. Melesse, Mohamed F. Younis, W. Rudolf Seitz, and Alexander Star. Sensors covers research on all aspects of sensors and biosensors. The journal publishes original research articles, short notes, review articles, book reviews, product reviews, and announcements related to academia.
Amyloid degeneration is a type of degeneration with the deposit of lardacein in the tissues. It indicates impairment of nutritive function and is seen in wasting diseases. âAlso sometimes called Abercrombie's disease, Abercrombie's syndrome, Virchow's syndrome, bacony disease, cellulose disease, hyaloid disease, lardaceous disease, and waxy disease. It's alternate names honour Scottish physician John Abercrombie and German physician Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow.
As Above... was an album released in 1982 by Ăeyr, a legendary Icelandic New Wave and rock group and it was issued through Shout on a 12" vinyl record. Formed by 12 tracks, As above... contained English versions of the groupâs hits. A song that outstands from the rest is "Killer Boogie", a work deemed as an attempt by the group to achieve the international market. "Killer Boogie" and "RĂșdolf" are featured again in Rokk Ă ReykjavĂk, a concert compilation released in 1982 with the presence of other renowned Icelandic bands. There is also a video for this compilation which was edited on VHS format only. "RĂșdolf" contains a sample of Hitler saying "Around us is Germany. In us Germany marches. And behind us Germany follows". It was a fragment taken from Triumph des Willens, a propaganda film directed by Leni Riefenstahl in 1934. However, the record inserts credit A. Schicklgruber as the impersonator of Hitlerâs voice. The title of the album is thought to be inspired by Killing Joke's What's THIS For...! from 1981 and with sarcasm refers either to the band's name or their previous works. It is more generally considered to be half of the maxim "As Above, So Below" that is quoted by every occultist and originates in the second line of the ancient alchemical tract Tabula Smaragdina.
|Nicolas LĂ©onard Sadi Carnot|
Nicolas LĂ©onard Sadi Carnot
Nicolas LĂ©onard Sadi Carnot was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics". In his only publication, the 1824 monograph Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, Carnot gave the first successful theory of the maximum efficiency of heat engines. Carnot's work attracted little attention during his lifetime, but it was later used by Rudolf Clausius and Lord Kelvin to formalize the second law of thermodynamics and define the concept of entropy.
Ochronosis is the syndrome caused by the accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues. The phenomenon was first described by Rudolf Virchow in 1865. The condition was named after the yellowish discoloration of the tissue seen on microscopic examination. However, macroscopically the affected tissues appear bluish grey because of a light scattering phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. The condition is most often associated with alkaptonuria but can occur from exogenous administration of phenol complexes like hydroquinone.
Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century. Primarily a performance art, it is also used in education, especially in Waldorf schools, and as a movement therapy. The word eurythmy stems from Greek roots meaning beautiful or harmonious rhythm; the term was used by Greek and Roman architects to refer to the harmonious proportions of a design or building.
Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev was a dancer of ballet and modern dance, one of the most celebrated of the 20th century. Nureyev's artistic skills explored expressive areas of the dance, providing a new role to the male ballet dancer who once served only as support to the women. Originally a Soviet citizen, Nureyev defected to the West in 1961, despite KGB efforts to stop him. According to KGB archives studied by Peter Watson, Nikita Khrushchev personally signed an order to have Nureyev killed.
Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet was an English surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours and Lectures on Surgical Pathology. While most people recall Paget's disease refers to bone, two other diseases were also named after him: Paget's disease of the nipple, and extramammary Paget's disease. Also named for him is Paget's abscess.
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius, was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, On the mechanical theory of heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced virial theorem which applied to heat.
|Honest to God|
Honest to God
Honest to God is a book written by the Anglican Bishop of Woolwich John A.T. Robinson, criticising traditional Christian theology. It aroused a storm of controversy on its original publication by SCM Press in 1963. Robinson had already achieved notoriety by his defence of the publication of Lady Chatterley's Lover. Robinson's own evaluation of Honest to God, found in the subsequent Exploration into God stated that the chief contribution of this book was its successful synthesis of the work of seemingly opposed theologians Paul Tillich, Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Rudolf Bultmann.
Rudolph Carl Virchow was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician, known for his advancement of public health. Referred to as "the father of modern pathology", he is considered one of the founders of social medicine. In 1861, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1892, he was awarded the Copley Medal. Among his most famous students was anthropologist Franz Boas, who became a professor at Columbia University. The Society for Medical Anthropology gives an annual award in Virchow's name, the Rudolf Virchow Award.
Albert Steffen was a poet, painter, dramatist, essayist, and novelist. He joined the Theosophical Society in Germany in 1910, and the Anthroposophical Society in 1912 and became its president after the death of its founder, Rudolf Steiner, in 1925. Steffen was chief editor of the society's journal, Das Goetheanum, from 1921-1963. His earliest works, predating his encounter with anthroposophy, already manifest a spiritual awareness. His later works, which reflect a vision of the world permeated by metaphysical powers of good and evil, draw on a wide range of esoteric European and Asian traditions.
In the history of thermodynamics, disgregation was defined in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as the magnitude of the degree in which the molecules of a body are separated from each other. This term was modeled on certain passages in French physicist Sadi Carnot's 1824 paper On the Motive Power of Fire that characterized the "transformations" of "working substances" of an engine cycle, namely "mode of aggregation", which was a precursor to the concept of entropy, which Clausius coined in 1865. It was also a precursor to that of Ludwig Boltzmann's 1870s theories of entropy and order and disorder.
Erkenntnis is a journal of philosophy that publishes papers in analytic philosophy. Its name is derived from the German word for knowledge recognition. The journal was founded by Hans Reichenbach and Rudolf Carnap in 1930, and circulated under its original title, Erkenntnis, in 1930-1938. Renamed The Journal of Unified Science and interrupted after the beginning of World War II in 1940. The journal was "refounded" by Wilhelm K. Essler, Carl G. Hempel and Wolfgang StegmĂŒller in 1975. The current editors are Hans Rott, Wilhelm K. Essler, Patrick Suppes and Wolgang Spohn.
Vril, the Power of the Coming Race is an 1871 novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, originally printed as The Coming Race. Among its readers have been those who have believed that its account of a superior subterranean master race and the energy-form called "Vril" is accurate, to the extent that some theosophists, notably Helena Blavatsky, William Scott-Elliot, and Rudolf Steiner, accepted the book as truth. A popular book, The Morning of the Magicians suggested that a secret Vril Society existed in pre-Nazi Berlin. However, there is no historical evidence for the existence of such a society.
Labanotation or Kinetography Laban is a notation system for recording and analyzing human movement. It is one type of Laban Movement Study, originating from the work of Rudolf Laban and having been developed and extended by many practitioners, notably Ann Hutchinson Guest. Labanotation is used in a variety of settings including Laban Movement Analysis, dance notation, documentation and reconstruction, Movement analysis, Robotics, Human movement simulation and Human movement synthesis. Labanotation and Laban Movement Analysis have both developed from Laban's investigations into movement, but each has specialized in different directions and are now separate systems regulated by separate professional bodies.
|Oscar Hammerstein II|
Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was an American librettist, theatrical producer, and theatre director of musicals for almost forty years. Hammerstein won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Many of his songs are standard repertoire for singers and jazz musicians. He co-wrote 850 songs. Hammerstein was the lyricist and playwright in his partnerships; his collaborators wrote the music. Hammerstein collaborated with composers Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Richard A. Whiting and Sigmund Romberg; but his most famous collaboration, by far, was with Richard Rodgers, which included The Sound of Music.
Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola, more commonly Rudolf Caracciola, was a racing driver from Remagen, Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship, the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship, an unsurpassed three times. He also won the European Hillclimbing Championship three times â twice in sports cars, and once in Grand Prix cars. Caracciola raced for Mercedes-Benz during their original dominating Silver Arrows period, named after the silver colour of the cars, and set speed records for the firm. He was affectionately dubbed Caratsch by the German public, and was known by the title of Regenmeister, or "Rainmaster", for his prowess in wet conditions. Caracciola began racing while he was working as apprentice at the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen during the early 1920s, first on motorcycles and then in cars. Racing for Mercedes-Benz, he won his first two Hillclimbing Championships in 1930 and 1931, and moved to Alfa Romeo for 1932, where he won the Hillclimbing Championship for the third time. In 1933, he established the privateer team Scuderia C.C. with his fellow driver Louis Chiron, but a crash in practice for the Monaco Grand Prix left him with multiple fractures of his right thigh, which ruled him out of racing for more than a year. He returned to the newly reformed Mercedes-Benz racing team in 1934, with whom he won three European Championships, in 1935, 1937 and 1938. Like most German racing drivers in the 1930s, Caracciola was a member of the Nazi paramilitary group National Socialist Motor Corps, but never a member of the Nazi Party. He returned to racing after the Second World War, but crashed in qualifying for the 1946 Indianapolis 500. A second comeback in 1952 was halted by another crash, in a sports car race in Switzerland.
Numinous is an English adjective, taken from the Latin Numen, and used to describe the power or presence of a divinity. The word was popularised in the early twentieth century by the German theologian Rudolf Otto in his influential book Das Heilige. According to Otto, the numinous experience has in addition to the tremendum, which is the tendency to invoke fear and trembling, a quality of fascinans, the tendency to attract, fascinate and compel. The numinous experience also has a personal quality, in that the person feels to be in communion with a wholly other. The numinous experience can lead in different cases to belief in deities, the supernatural, the sacred, the holy and/or the transcendent.
Bogen is a town in the district of Straubing-Bogen in Bavaria, Germany. It has a population of 10,105. Bogen is located between the southern slopes of the Bavarian Forest and the Danube River. The town lies on the foot of the Bogenberg, a hill directly placed by the Danube. The church of pilgrimage MariĂ€ Himmelfahrt on the Bogenberg is the destination of one of the oldest pilgrimages for Mary in Bavaria. Since 1958 the German army runs the Graf-Aswin-Kaserne in Bogen. The barracks, are home of pioneer forces and used for training medics. Bogen is also home to Dr. Rudolf Bertagnoli's Pro Spine, who is known worldwide for his advances in spine surgery.
Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.
Scorpions are a German heavy metal band formed in 1965 by guitarist Rudolf Schenker, who is the band's only constant member. They are known for their 1980s rock anthem "Rock You Like a Hurricane" and many singles, such as "No One Like You", "Send Me an Angel", "Still Loving You", and "Wind of Change". The band was ranked No. 46 on VH1's Greatest Artists of Hard Rock program. "Rock You Like a Hurricane" is also No. 18 on VH1's list of the 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs. The band is one of the worldâs best-selling bands of all time, with claims sales between 75- to over 100 Million records worldwide.
BeckwithâWiedemann syndrome is an overgrowth disorder usually present at birth characterized by an increased risk of childhood cancer and certain congenital features. Originally, Dr. Hans-Rudolf Wiedemann coined the term exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome to describe the combination of congenital abdominal wall defects as hernia, large tongues, and large bodies and/or long limbs. Over time, this constellation was renamed BeckwithâWiedemann syndrome following the autoptical observations of Prof. John Bruce Beckwith, who observed also severe increase in the size of the adrenal glands in some of these patients. Five common features used to define BWS are: macroglossia, macrosomia, midline abdominal wall defects, ear creases or ear pits, and neonatal hypoglycemia.
A functor is a type of mapping between categories, which is applied in category theory. Functors can be thought of as homomorphisms between categories. In the category of small categories, functors can be thought of more generally as morphisms. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects are associated to topological spaces, and algebraic homomorphisms are associated to continuous maps. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are generally applicable in areas within mathematics that category theory can make an abstraction of. The word functor was borrowed by mathematicians from the philosopher Rudolf Carnap, who used the term in a linguistic context.
Janq'u Uma is the third highest mountain in Bolivia. It is located in the northern section of the Cordillera Real, part of the Andes, east of Lake Titicaca. It lies just south of the slightly lower Illampu, near the town of Sorata. Despite being higher than Illampu, Janq'u Uma is a gentler peak, with less local relief, and it is a somewhat easier climb. The peak was first climbed in 1919, by Rudolf Dienst and Adolf Schulze. Their route, still the easiest, climbs the southwest face, and is rated PD. Other routes exist on the northwest ridge and the west face. Depending on the route desired, the mountain is approached either from the west or from the northeast; each approach requires two to three days from Sorata.
Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world accessible to direct experience through inner development. More specifically, it aims to develop faculties of perceptive imagination, inspiration and intuition through cultivating a form of thinking independent of sensory experience, and to present the results thus derived in a manner subject to rational verification. In its investigations of the spiritual world, anthroposophy aims to attain the precision and clarity attained by the natural sciences in their investigations of the physical world. Anthroposophical ideas have been applied practically in many areas including Steiner/Waldorf education, special education, agriculture, medicine, ethical banking, organizational development, and the arts. The Anthroposophical Society has its international center at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland.
"Some Day" is a song, with music by Rudolf Friml and words by Brian Hooker, originally published in 1925. It was included in Friml's operetta The Vagabond King, sung by Caroline Thomas in the role of Katherine de Vaucelles. The song was sung by Jeanette MacDonald in the first musical film version of The Vagabond King, made in 1930, and by Kathryn Grayson in the 1956 remake. The song was recorded a number of times afterward, but the only version popular enough to chart in Billboard was recorded in 1954 by Frankie Laine. His recording was released by Columbia Records as catalog number 40235. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on June 23, 1954 and lasted 6 weeks on the chart, peaking at #18.
Fred Astaire was an American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer, musician and actor. His stage and subsequent film and television careers spanned a total of 76 years, during which he made 31 musical films, several award winning television specials, and issued numerous recordings. He was named the fifth Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute. He is particularly associated with Ginger Rogers, with whom he made ten films. Gene Kelly, another major innovator in filmed dance, said that "the history of dance on film begins with Astaire". Beyond film and television, many classical dancers and choreographers, Rudolf Nureyev, Sammy Davis, Jr., Michael Jackson, Gregory Hines, Mikhail Baryshnikov, George Balanchine and Jerome Robbins among them, also acknowledged his importance and influence.
The German Tanztheater grew out of German expressionist dance in Weimar Germany and 1920s Vienna. The term first appears around 1927 to identify a particular style of dance emerging from within the new forms of 'expressionist dance' developing in Central Europe since 1917. Its main exponents include Rudolf Laban, Kurt Jooss, and Mary Wigman. The term reappears in critical reviews in the 1980s to identify the work of primarily German choreographers who were students of Jooss and Wigman. The development of the form and its concepts was influenced by Bertolt Brecht and Max Reinhardt, and the cultural ferment of the Weimar Republic. Tanztheater is more than a mere âblendâ of dance and dramatic elements. Both Birringer and Schlicher argue that the particular artistic and historical context of post-war Germany informed the genesis of Tanztheater.
|Ideal gas law|
Ideal gas law
The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behaviour of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Ămile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of Boyle's law and Charles's law. The ideal gas law is often introduced in its common form: where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the amount of substance of gas, T is the temperature of the gas and R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant. It can also be derived from kinetic theory, as was achieved by August KrĂ¶nig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857. Universal gas constant was discovered and first introduced into the ideal gas law instead of a large number of specific gas constants by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1874.
Myelin is a dielectric material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination. In humans, the production of myelin begins in the 14th week of fetal development, although little myelin exists in the brain at the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly and continues through the adolescent stages of life. Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons, whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the interfascicular type, myelinate the axons of the central nervous system. Myelin is considered a defining characteristic of the vertebrates, but myelin-like sheaths have also arisen by parallel evolution in some invertebrates, although they are quite different from vertebrate myelin at the molecular level. Myelin was discovered in 1854 by Rudolf Virchow.
Rudolf Karl Bultmann was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of New Testament at the University of Marburg. He was one of the major figures of early 20th century biblical studies and a prominent voice in liberal Christianity. Bultman is known for his belief that the historical analysis of the New Testament is both futile and unnecessary, given that the earliest Christian literature showed little interest in specific locations. Bultman argued that all that matters is the "thatness", not the "whatness" of Jesus, i.e. only that Jesus existed, preached and died by crucifixion matters, not what happened throughout his life. Bultman's approach relied on his concept of demythology, and interpreted the mythological elements in the New Testament existentially. Bultmann contended that only faith in the kerygma, or proclamation, of the New Testament was necessary for Christian faith, not any particular facts regarding the historical Jesus.
Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy. Its principal exponents were the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, the early work of his Austrian-born pupil and colleague Ludwig Wittgenstein, and his German counterpart Rudolf Carnap. The theory holds that the world consists of ultimate logical "facts" that cannot be broken down any further. Having originally propounded this stance in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittgenstein rejected it in his later Philosophical Investigations. The name for this kind of theory was coined in 1918 by Russell in response to what he called "logical holism"; i.e. the belief that the world operates in such a way that no part can be known without the whole being known first. This belief is commonly called monism, and in particular, Russell were reacting to the absolute idealism dominant then in Britain.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander SchrĂ¶dinger, was an Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics. SchrĂ¶dinger proposed an original interpretation of the physical meaning of the wave function and in subsequent years repeatedly criticized the conventional Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. In addition, he was the author of many works in various fields of physics: statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, physics of dielectrics, color theory, electrodynamics, general relativity, and cosmology, and he made several attempts to construct a unified field theory. In his book What Is Life? SchrĂ¶dinger addressed the problems of genetics, looking at the phenomenon of life from the point of view of physics. He paid great attention to the philosophical aspects of science, ancient and oriental philosophical concepts, ethics and religion. He also wrote on philosophy and theoretical biology.
Capriccio is the final opera by German composer Richard Strauss, subtitled "A Conversation Piece for Music". The opera received its premiere performance at the Nationaltheater MĂŒnchen on 28 October 1942. Clemens Krauss and Strauss wrote the German libretto. However, the genesis of the libretto came from Stefan Zweig in the 1930s, and Joseph Gregor further developed the idea several years later. Strauss then took on the libretto, but finally recruited Krauss as his collaborator on the opera. Most of the final libretto is by Krauss. The opera originally consisted of a single act lasting close to two and a half hours. This, in combination with the work's conversational tone and emphasis on text, has prevented the opera from achieving great popularity; however, at Hamburg in 1957, Rudolf Hartmann, who had directed the opera at its premiere in Munich, inserted an interval at the point when the Countess orders chocolate, and other directors have often followed suit. The final scene for Countess Madeleine can often be heard as an excerpt.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher. At the beginning of the 20th century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, as an esoteric philosophy growing out of idealist philosophy and with links to theosophy. Steiner led this movement through several phases. In the first, more philosophically oriented phase, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and mysticism; his philosophical work of these years, which he termed spiritual science, sought to provide a connection between the cognitive path of Western philosophy and the inner and spiritual needs of the human being. In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media, including drama, the movement arts and architecture, culminating in the building of the Goetheanum, a cultural centre to house all the arts. In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I, Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, and anthroposophical medicine.
Mikhail Nikolaevich Baryshnikov, nicknamed "Misha", is a Russian dancer, choreographer, and actor, often cited alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Rudolf Nureyev as one of the greatest ballet dancers in history. After a promising start in the Kirov Ballet in Leningrad, he defected to Canada in 1974 for more opportunities in western dance. After freelancing with many companies, he joined the New York City Ballet as a principal dancer to learn George Balanchine's style of movement. He then danced with the American Ballet Theatre, where he later became artistic director. Baryshnikov has spearheaded many of his own artistic projects and has been associated in particular with promoting modern dance, premiering dozens of new works, including many of his own. His success as a dramatic actor on stage, cinema and television has helped him become probably the most widely recognized contemporary ballet dancer. In 1977, he received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and a Golden Globe nomination for his work as "Yuri Kopeikine" in the film The Turning Point.
The Hellschreiber or Feldhellschreiber is a facsimile-based teleprinter invented by Rudolf Hell. Compared to contemporary teleprinters that were based on typewriter systems and were mechanically complex and expensive, the Hellschreiber was much simpler and more robust, with only two moving parts. It has the added advantage of being capable of providing intelligible communication even over very poor quality radio or cable links, where voice or other teledata would be unintelligible. The device was first developed in the late 1920s, and saw use starting in the 1930s, chiefly being used for land-line press services. During WW2 it was sometimes used by the German military in conjunction with the Enigma encryption system. In the post-war era, it became increasingly common among newswire services, and was used in this role well into the 1980s. In modern times Hellschreiber is used as a communication mode by amateur radio operators using computers and sound cards; the resulting mode is referred to as Hellschreiber, Feld-Hell, or simply Hell.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by Rudolf Virchow in 1858. A common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, used as a screening tool, to detect precancerous cervical lesions and prevent cervical cancer. Cytopathology is also commonly used to investigate thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities, and a wide range of other body sites. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues. Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination. However, cytology samples may be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation. Different types of smear tests may also be used for cancer diagnosis. In this sense, it is termed a cytologic smear.
Georg Meissner was a German anatomist and physiologist born in Hanover. He studied medicine at the University of GĂ¶ttingen, where he worked closely with Rudolf Wagner. In 1851 he accompanied Wagner and Theodor Billroth on an expedition to Trieste, where he performed scientific studies of torpedo fish. In 1852 he earned his doctorate at GĂ¶ttingen, and was later a university professor at Basel, Freiburg and GĂ¶ttingen. His name is associated with Meissner's corpuscles, which are mechanoreceptors that are responsible for sensitivity to light touch. They were first described in 1852, with Meissner and Wagner each feeling that he alone should be given priority as to discovery of the corpuscles. A controversy took place between the two men, causing a strained relationship that lasted for several years. His name is also associated with Meissner's plexus, being described as the plexus submucosus of the alimentary tract. He also conducted research of physiological-chemical problems, in particular studies on the nature and the breakdown of proteins in the digestive system.
Logical positivism or logical empiricism are variants of neopositivism that embraced verificationism, a theory of knowledge combining strong empiricismâbasing all knowledge on sensory experienceâwith mathematical logic and linguistics so that scientific statements could be conclusively proved false or true. Verificationism was inextricably tied with the covering law model of scientific explanation. As variants of analytic philosophy, verificationism dominated Anglo-American philosophy from the 1930s into the 1960s. In the early 1920s, appalled both by the racism, bigotry, and nationalism flaring in Western societyâas in the negative eugenics movement and World War Iâand by the countermovement toward metaphysics, mysticism, and intuition, a group of scientists and philosophers were inspired by developments in mathematics, logic, linguistics, and physics, especially relativity theory, and sought to offer the world a transparent, meaningful, universal language. Hans Reichenbach led the Berlin Circle, while Moritz Schlick led the Vienna Circle, gathered around the University of Vienna and the CafĂ© Central. A 1929 pamphlet written by Otto Neurath, Hans Hahn, and Rudolf Carnap summarized the Vienna Circle's positions.
|Franz Josef Land|
Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land, or Francis Joseph's Land is an archipelago located in the far north of Russia. It is found in the Arctic Ocean north of Novaya Zemlya and east of Svalbard, and is administered by Arkhangelsk Oblast. Franz Josef Land consists of 191 ice-covered islands with a total area of 16,134 kmÂČ. It is currently uninhabited. At latitudes between 80.0Â° and 81.9Â° north, it is the most northerly group of islands associated with Eurasia. The extreme northernmost point is Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island. The archipelago is only 900 to 1,110 km from the North Pole, and the northernmost islands are closer to the Pole than any other land except for Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland. The archipelago was possibly first discovered by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik RĂžnnbeck and Johan Petter AidijĂ€rvi aboard the schooner Spidsbergen in 1865 who, according to scarce reports, sailed eastward from Svalbard until they reached a new land, denoted NordĂžst-Spitsbergen. It is not known if they went ashore, and the new islands were soon forgotten.
Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf KjellĂ©n, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.
The field of social medicine seeks to: âunderstand how social and economic conditions impact health, disease and the practice of medicine and âfoster conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society. This type of study began formally in the early 19th century. The Industrial Revolution and the subsequent increase in poverty and disease among workers raised concerns about the effect of social processes on the health of the poor. Prominent figures in the history of social medicine include Rudolf Virchow, Salvador Allende, and more recently Paul Farmer and Jim Yong Kim. More specifically, Farmer et al. state that "Biosocial understandings of medical phenomena [such as the social determinants of health] are urgently needed ". Paul Farmer's view is that modern medicine is focused at the molecular level, and there is a "gap" between social analysis and everyday clinical practices. Moreover, Farmer, Nizeye, Stulac and Keshavjee view social medicine with increasing importance as scientific inquiry is increasingly "desocialized". The latter refers to "...a tendency to ask only biological question about what are in fact biosocial phenomena ". The field of social medicine is most commonly addressed today by public health efforts to understand what are known as social determinants of health.
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine or gas engine, which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by German inventor Rudolf Diesel in 1893. The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any standard internal or external combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel engines can have a thermal efficiency that exceeds 50%. Diesel engines are manufactured in two-stroke and four-stroke versions. They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electric generating plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA increased. As of 2007, about 50% of all new car sales in Europe are diesel.
The Zeughaus in Berlin, Germany is the oldest structure on the Unter den Linden. It was built by the Brandenburg Elector Frederick III between 1695 and 1730 in the baroque style, to be used as an artillery arsenal for the display of cannons from Brandenburg and Prussia. The first building master was Johann Arnold Nering. After his death in 1695, he was followed by Martin GrĂŒnberg, then Andreas SchlĂŒter and finally Jean de Bodt. Andreas SchlĂŒter designed the keystones above the round-arch windows in the form of heads of giants. Georg Friedrich Hitzig constructed the monumental flight of steps to the upper floor of the north wing and also a roof over the courtyard. The building was converted into a military museum in 1875. In March 1943, Rudolf von Gersdorff tried, but failed to assassinate by suicide bombing Adolf Hitler, during the opening of an exhibition in this museum. From 1949-65 the Zeughaus was restored after heavy war losses, the interior being completely redesigned. In 1952, the government of the German Democratic Republic opened the Museum of German History in the Zeughaus, which presented the history of Germany, especially in the modern era, from a Communist point of view. Today, the Zeughaus is the site of the Deutsches Historisches Museum.
In mechanics, the virial theorem provides a general equation that relates the average over time of the total kinetic energy, of a stable system consisting of N particles, bound by potential forces, with that of the total potential energy, where angle brackets represent the average over time of the enclosed quantity. Mathematically, the theorem states where Fk represents the force on the kth particle, which is located at position rk. The word "virial" derives from vis, the Latin word for "force" or "energy", and was given its technical definition by Rudolf Clausius in 1870. The significance of the virial theorem is that it allows the average total kinetic energy to be calculated even for very complicated systems that defy an exact solution, such as those considered in statistical mechanics; this average total kinetic energy is related to the temperature of the system by the equipartition theorem. However, the virial theorem does not depend on the notion of temperature and holds even for systems that are not in thermal equilibrium. The virial theorem has been generalized in various ways, most notably to a tensor form. If the force between any two particles of the system results from a potential energy V = Î±r n that is proportional to some power n of the inter-particle distance r, the virial theorem takes the simple form
Aa Rchb.f. 1854, is a genus of plants belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Species in this genus can be found growing terrestrially in cold habitats near the snowline in the Andes and also in Costa Rica; they are usually found close to small streams. The elongated inflorescence grows from a basal rosette of leaves, terminating in a small white non-resupinate flower. This lip is fringed and hood-shaped. The flower gives off a pungent smell that attracts flies. This genus has often been included in the orchid genus Altensteinia. The first scientific description of a species of this genus was made in 1815 by Karl Sigismund Kunth, naming it first Ophrys paleacea Kunth., and later Altensteinia paleacea. In 1854 Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach separated Aa from Altensteinia, to include two species Aa argyrolepis and Aa paleacea. The genus name apparently was rendered by the author to always appear first in alphabetical listings. Another - disputed - explanation, is that Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach named this genus after Pieter van der Aa; the printer of the Dutch botanist Paul Herman's "Paradisus Batavus". A few years later, Reichenbach reviewed the name of the genus and named it again Altensteinia. Finally in 1912 Rudolf Schlechter switched the name again to Aa, as more species were being discovered making the new name more significant.
Eugenia is a genus of flowering plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. It has a worldwide, although highly uneven, distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The bulk of the approximately 1,000 species occur in the New World tropics, especially in the northern Andes, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. Other centers of diversity include New Caledonia and Madagascar. Many species new to science have been and are in the process of being described from these regions. For example, 37 new species of Eugenia have been described from Mesoamerica in the past few years. At least 20 new species are currently in the process of being described from New Caledonia, and approximately the same number of species new to science may occur in Madagascar. Despite the enormous ecological importance of the myrtle family in Australia, only one species of Eugenia, E. reinwardtiana, occurs on that continent. The genus also is represented in Africa south of the Sahara, but it is relatively species-poor on that continent. In the past some botanists included the morphologically similar Old World genus Syzygium in Eugenia, but research by Rudolf Schmid in the early 1970s convinced most botanists that the genera are easily separable. Research by van Wyk and colleagues in South Africa suggests the genus may comprise at least two major lineages, recognizable by anatomical and other features.
Rudolf Walter Richard HeĂ, also spelled Hess, was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany. Appointed Deputy FĂŒhrer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, he served in this position until 1941, when he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom during World War II. He was taken prisoner and eventually was tried for war crimes, serving a life sentence. Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment as an infantryman at the outbreak of World War I. He was wounded several times over the course of the war, and won the Iron Cross, second class, in 1915. Shortly before the war ended, Hess enrolled to train as an aviator, but he saw no combat in this role. He left the armed forces in December 1918 with the rank of Leutnant der Reserve. In autumn 1919 Hess enrolled in the University of Munich, where he studied geopolitics under Karl Haushofer, a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum, which later became one of the pillars of Nazi Party ideology. Hess joined the NSDAP on 1 July 1920, and was at Hitler's side on 8 November 1923 for the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed Nazi attempt to seize control of the government of Germany. Whilst serving time in jail for this attempted coup, Hess helped Hitler write his opus, Mein Kampf, which became a foundation of the political platform of the NSDAP.
A pilaster is a slightly projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile. Rounded examples are more often called engaged columns. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall. It may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value." A pilaster appears with a capital and entablature, also in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. In contrast, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. Pilasters often appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, and are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico. These vertical elements can also be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway.
Pyramidology is a term used, sometimes disparagingly, to refer to various pseudoscientific speculations regarding pyramids, most often the Giza Necropolis and the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Some "pyramidologists" also concern themselves with the monumental structures of pre-Columbian America, and the temples of Southeast Asia. Pyramidology is regarded as pseudoscience by scientists today, who regard such hypotheses as sensationalist, inaccurate and/or wholly deficient in empirical analysis and application of the scientific method. Some pyramidologists claim that the Great Pyramid of Giza has encoded within it predictions for the exodus of Moses from Egypt, the crucifixion of Jesus, the start of World War I, the founding of modern-day Israel in 1948, and future events including the beginning of Armageddon; discovered by using what they call "pyramid inches" to calculate the passage of time. The study of Pyramidology reached its peak by the early 1980s. Interest was rekindled when in 1992 and 1993 Rudolf Gantenbrink sent a miniature remote controlled robot rover, known as upuaut, up one of the air shafts in the Queen's Chamber. He discovered the shaft closed off by a stone block with decaying copper hooks attached to the outside. In 1994 Robert Bauval published the book The Orion Mystery attempting to prove that the Pyramids on the Giza plateau were built to mimic the stars in the belt of the constellation Orion, a claim that came to be known as the Orion correlation theory. Both Gantenbrink and Bauval have spurred on greater interest in pyramidology.
Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, with its far northern end crossing into Ethiopia. It is the world's largest permanent desert lake and the world's largest alkaline lake. By volume it is the world's fourth-largest salt lake after the Caspian Sea, Issyk-Kul, and Lake Van, and among all lakes it ranks 24th. The water is potable, but not palatable. It supports a rich lacustrine wildlife. The climate is hot and very dry. The rocks of the surrounding area are predominantly volcanic. Central Island is an active volcano, emitting vapors. Outcrops and rocky shores are found on the east and south shores of the lake, while dunes, spits and flats are on the west and north, at a lower elevation. On-shore and off-shore winds can be extremely strong, as the lake warms and cools more slowly than the land. Sudden, violent storms are frequent. Three rivers flow into the lake, but lacking outflow, its only water loss is by evaporation. Lake volume and dimensions are variable. For example, its level fell by 10 metres between 1975 and 1993. Due to temperature, aridity and geographic inaccessibility, the lake retains its wild character. Nile crocodiles are found in great abundance on the flats. The rocky shores are home to scorpions and carpet vipers. Although the lake and its environs have been popular for expeditions of every sort under the tutelage of guides, rangers and experienced persons, they certainly must be considered hazardous for unguided tourists.
Rudolf John Frederick Lehmann was an English poet and man of letters. He founded the periodicals New Writing and The London Magazine. Born in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, the fourth child of journalist Rudolph Lehmann, and brother of Helen Lehmann, novelist Rosamond Lehmann and actress Beatrix Lehmann, he was educated at Eton and read English at Trinity College, Cambridge. He considered his time at both as "lost years". After a period as a journalist in Vienna, he returned to England to found the popular periodical New Writing in book format, which proved a great influence on literature of the period and an outlet for writers such as Christopher Isherwood and W. H. Auden. Lehmann included many of these authors in his anthology Poems for Spain which he edited with Stephen Spender. With the onset of the Second World War and paper rationing, New Writing's future was uncertain and so Lehmann wrote New Writing in Europe for Pelican Books, one of the first critical summaries of the writers of the 1930s in which he championed the authors who had been the stars of New Writing - Auden and Spender - and also his close friend Tom Wintringham and Wintringham's ally, the emerging George Orwell. Wintringham reintroduced Lehmann to Allen Lane of Penguin Books, who secured paper for The Penguin New Writing a monthly book-magazine, this time in paperback. The first issue featured Orwell's essay Shooting an Elephant. Occasional hardback editions combined with the magazine Daylight appeared sporadically, but it was as Penguin New Writing that the magazine survived until 1950.
Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.
|Rudolf von Bennigsen|
Rudolf von Bennigsen
Rudolf von Bennigsen was a German politician descended from an old Hanoverian family. His father, Karl von Bennigsen, was an officer in the Hanoverian army who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments. The anthropologist Moritz von Leonhardi was his nephew. After studying at the University of GĂ¶ttingen, where he became member of the Corps Hannovera, Bennigsen entered the Hanoverian civil service. In 1855, he was elected a member of the second chamber, and because the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties, he resigned his post in the public service. He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Alexander Levin, Count of Bennigsen, a member of the same family and son of the distinguished Russian General Bennigsen, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time, serving as Hanover's minister-president between 1848 and 1850 and afterwards as president first of the first chamber, then of the second chamber of the Estates Assembly of the Kingdom of Hanover. What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the German National Association, which was due to him, and of which he was president. This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the Austro-Sardinian War, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland. It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of King George V of Hanover to suppress it. Bennigsen was also one of the founders of the Protestantenverein in 1863.
Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who in 1950 was convicted of supplying information from the American, British and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after the Second World War. While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fuchs was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first nuclear weapons and later the early models of the hydrogen bomb. The son of a Lutheran pastor, Fuchs attended the University of Leipzig, where his father was a professor of theology, and became involved in student politics, joining the student branch of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, and the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the SPD's paramilitary organisation. He was expelled from the SPD in 1932, and joined the Communist Party of Germany. He went into hiding after the Reichstag fire, and fled to England, where he received his PhD from the University of Bristol under the supervision of Nevill Mott, and his DSc from the University of Edinburgh, where he worked as an assistant to Max Born. After the Second World War broke out in Europe, he was interned on the Isle of Man, and later in Canada. After he returned to Britain in 1941, he became an assistant to Rudolf Peierls, working on "Tube Alloys" â the British atomic bomb project. He began passing information on the project to the Soviet Union through Ruth Kuczynski, codenamed "Sonia", a German communist and a major in Soviet Military Intelligence who had worked with Richard Sorge's spy ring in the Far East. In 1943, Fuchs and Peierls went to Columbia University, in New York City, to work on the Manhattan Project. In August 1944 Fuchs joined the Theoretical Physics Division at the Los Alamos Laboratory, working under Hans Bethe. His chief area of expertise was the problem of imploding, necessary for the development of the plutonium bomb. After the war he worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as the head of the Theoretical Physics Division.
A baluster â also called spindle or stair stick â is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc. The earliest examples are those shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and apparently had Ionic capitals. As an architectural element the balustrade did not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but baluster forms are familiar in the legs of chairs and tables represented in Roman bas-reliefs, where the original legs or the models for cast bronze ones were shaped on the lathe, or in Antique marble candelabra, formed as a series of stacked bulbous and disc-shaped elements, both kinds of sources familiar to Quattrocento designers. The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance: late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and Verona. These quattrocento balustrades are likely to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents; they form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading. Rudolf Wittkower withheld judgement as to the inventor of the baluster but credited Giuliano da Sangallo with using it consistently as early as the balustrade on the terrace and stairs at the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, with employing balustrades even in his reconstructions of antique structures, and, importantly, with having passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Wittkower distinguished two types, one symmetrical in profile that inverted one bulbous vase-shape over another, separating them with a cushionlike torus or a concave ring, and the other a simple vase shape, whose employment by Michelangelo at the Campidoglio steps, noted by Wittkower, was preceded by very early vasiform balusters in a balustrade round the drum of Santa Maria delle Grazie, and railings in the cathedrals of Aquileia and Parma, in the cortile of San Damaso, Vatican, and Antonio da Sangallos crowning balustrade on the Santa Casa at Loreto, finally installed in 1535., and liberally in his model for the Basilica of Saint Peter Because of its low center of gravity, this "vase-baluster" may be given the modern term "dropped baluster".