Definitions containing rückert, friedrich

We've found 223 definitions:

Wolffian

Wolffian

Relating to Caspar Friedrich Wolff

— Wiktionary

dialectical materialism

dialectical materialism

the materialistic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

— Princeton's WordNet

Gaussian

Gaussian

Of or pertaining to Carl Friedrich Gauss.

— Wiktionary

Wolffian

Wolffian

discovered, or first described, by Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), the founder of modern embryology

— Webster Dictionary

Hayekian

Hayekian

Of or pertaining to economic theories of Friedrich Hayek.

— Wiktionary

Hayekian

Hayekian

The proponent of economic theories of Friedrich Hayek.

— Wiktionary

Hegelian

Hegelian

Of or pertaining to the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

— Wiktionary

Nietzschean

Nietzschean

A supporter of the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche.

— Wiktionary

Marxism

Marxism

The socialist philosophy and political program founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; scientific socialism.

— Wiktionary

alfred krupp

Krupp, Alfred Krupp

German arms manufacturer and son of Friedrich Krupp; his firm provided ordnance for German armies from the 1840s through World War II (1812-1887)

— Princeton's WordNet

krupp

Krupp, Alfred Krupp

German arms manufacturer and son of Friedrich Krupp; his firm provided ordnance for German armies from the 1840s through World War II (1812-1887)

— Princeton's WordNet

Nietzschean

Nietzschean

Of, pertaining to or characteristic of Friedrich Nietzsche or his writings.

— Wiktionary

Krupp gun

Krupp gun

a breech-loading steel cannon manufactured at the works of Friedrich Krupp, at Essen in Prussia. Guns of over eight-inch bore are made up of several concentric cylinders; those of a smaller size are forged solid

— Webster Dictionary

marxism

Marxism

the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism

— Princeton's WordNet

Kindergarten

Kindergarten

a school for young children, conducted on the theory that education should be begun by gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play, observation, imitation, and construction; -- a name given by Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in rooms opening on a garden

— Webster Dictionary

August Kekulé

August Kekulé

August Kekulé, born Friedrich August Kekule, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekule was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially in theoretical chemistry. He was the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure.

— Freebase

existentialism

existentialism

A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).

— Wiktionary

Friedrich August Wolf

Friedrich August Wolf

Friedrich August Wolf was a German philologist and critic.

— Freebase

Christian Friedrich Hebbel

Christian Friedrich Hebbel

Christian Friedrich Hebbel, was a German poet and dramatist.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Gesenius

Wilhelm Gesenius

Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius was a German orientalist and Biblical critic.

— Freebase

Boustrophe`don

Boustrophe`don

an ancient mode of writing from right to left, and then from left to right, as in ploughing a field.

Bouterwek, Friedrich

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang is a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play Sturm und Drang, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang, with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger also significant figures. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was also a notable proponent of the movement, though he and Friedrich Schiller ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

— Freebase

Ghazal

Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi and Hafiz, the Azeri poet Fuzûlî, as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert and August von Platen. The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

— Freebase

Jean Paul

Jean Paul

Jean Paul, born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.

— Freebase

Novalis

Novalis

Novalis was the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, a poet, an author and philosopher of early German Romanticism.

— Freebase

Friedrich Krupp

Friedrich Krupp

Friedrich Carl Krupp was a German steel manufacturer and founder of the Krupp family commercial empire that is now subsumed into ThyssenKrupp AG.

— Freebase

Helminthology

Helminthology

Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ἕλμινς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich Müller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.

— Freebase

Christian Friedrich Schönbein

Christian Friedrich Schönbein

Christian Friedrich Schönbein was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.

— Freebase

Tilsit

Tilsit

a manufacturing town of East Prussia, on the Memel or Niemen, 65 m. NE. of Königsberg; here was signed in 1807 a memorable treaty between Alexander I. of Russia and Napoleon, as the result of which Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia was deprived of the greater part of his dominions.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Eschscholzia

Eschscholzia

Eschscholzia is a genus of 12 annual or perennial plants in the Papaveraceae family. The genus was named after the Baltic German botanist Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz.

— Freebase

Bernhard Riemann

Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was an influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity.

— Freebase

Ahlfeldite

Ahlfeldite

Ahlfeldite is a mineral of secondary origin. It's named after Friedrich Ahlfeld, a German-Bolivian mining engineer and geologist. It's type locality is Virgen de Surumi mine, Pakajake Canyon, Chayanta Province, Potosí Department, Bolivia.

— Freebase

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, because it was discovered in 1884 by German bacteriologists Edwin Klebs and Friedrich Löffler.

— Freebase

Engels, Saratov Oblast

Engels, Saratov Oblast

Engels, named after Friedrich Engels, is a city in Saratov Oblast, Russia. It is a port on the Volga River, located across from Saratov and since 1965 connected to it with a bridge. Population: 202,419.

— Freebase

Friedrich

Friedrich

Friedrich is a strategic board game about the events of the Seven Years' War. It was created by Richard Sivél, published in 2004, and won the prize for the Best Historical Simulation by Games magazine in 2006.

— Freebase

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was a German poet. His best known work is his epic poem Der Messias. His service to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models.

— Freebase

Kolbeckite

Kolbeckite

Kolbeckite is a mineral with formula: ScPO4·2H2O. It was discovered originally at Schmiedeberg, Saxony, Germany in 1926 and is named after Friedrich L. W. Kolbeck, a German mineralogist. Kolbeckite is usually found as small clusters of crystals associated with other phosphate minerals.

— Freebase

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. He is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking, and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment. He was a fierce critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Emanuel Swedenborg, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, as well as Danish pastors Jacob Peter Mynster and Hans Lassen Martensen and Danish poet Johan Ludvig Heiberg. His theological work focuses on Christian ethics, on the institution of the Church, and on the differences between purely objective proofs of Christianity and the individual's subjective relationship to Jesus Christ, the God-Man, which came through faith. Much of his work deals with the art of Christian love. He was extremely critical of the practice of Christianity as a state religion, primarily that of the Church of Denmark. His psychological work explored the emotions and feelings of individuals when faced with life choices.

— Freebase

Old Catholics

Old Catholics

a section of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany and Switzerland that first announced itself in Münich on the declaration in 1870 of the dogma of the infallibility of the Pope, the prime movers in the formation of the protestation against which were Dr. Döllinger and Professor Friedrich, backed by 44 professors of the university; the movement thus begun has not extended itself to any considerable extent.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Max Bruch

Max Bruch

Max Christian Friedrich Bruch, also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.

— Freebase

Undine

Undine

Undine is a fairy-tale novella by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué in which Undine, a water spirit, marries a knight named Huldebrand in order to gain a soul. It is an early German romance, which has been translated into English and other languages.

— Freebase

Astronium fraxinifolium

Astronium fraxinifolium

Astronium fraxinifolium is a timber tree, which is native to Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, and Cerrado vegetation in Brazil. This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. It is also used to make hardwood such as Tigerwood.

— Freebase

Parrotia

Parrotia

'Persian Ironwood is a deciduous tree in the family Hamamelidaceae, the sole species in the genus Parrotia but closely related to the witch-hazel genus Hamamelis. It is native in north and north west of Iran, where it is endemic in the Alborz mountains. Parrotia is named for the German naturalist Friedrich Parrot.

— Freebase

Erwin Piscator

Erwin Piscator

Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator was a German theatre director and producer and, along with Bertolt Brecht, the foremost exponent of epic theatre, a form that emphasizes the socio-political content of drama, rather than its emotional manipulation of the audience or on the production's formal beauty.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister was a German biologist and botanist. He "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel." He was largely self-taught.

— Freebase

Progne

Progne

Progne is a genus of birds. Created by Friedrich Boie in 1826, it contains nine American swallows. ⁕Purple Martin Progne subis ⁕Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis ⁕Cuban Martin Progne cryptoleuca ⁕Sinaloa Martin Progne sinaloae ⁕Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea ⁕Galapagos Martin Progne modesta ⁕Peruvian Martin Progne murphyi ⁕Southern Martin Progne elegans ⁕Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera

— Freebase

José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset was a Spanish liberal philosopher and essayist working during the first half of the 20th century while Spain oscillated between monarchy, republicanism and dictatorship. He was, along with Friedrich Nietzsche, a proponent of the idea of perspectivism, which was pioneered in European thought by Immanuel Kant.

— Freebase

Johann Friedrich Herbart

Johann Friedrich Herbart

Johann Friedrich Herbart was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. Herbart is now remembered amongst the post-Kantian philosophers mostly as making the greatest contrast to Hegel; this in particular in relation to aesthetics. That does not take into account his thought on education.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Ostwald

Wilhelm Ostwald

Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, and Svante Arrhenius are usually credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry.

— Freebase

Fritz Pfeffer

Fritz Pfeffer

Friedrich "Fritz" Pfeffer was a German dentist and Jewish refugee who hid with Anne Frank during the Nazi Occupation of the Netherlands, and who perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp in Northern Germany. Pfeffer was given the pseudonym Albert Dussel in Anne's diary, and remains known as such in many editions and adaptations of the publication.

— Freebase

Kohlrausch's Law

Kohlrausch's Law

A law of the rate of travel of the elements and radicals in solutions under the effects of electrolysis. It states that each element under the effects of electrolysis has a rate of travel for a given liquid, which is independent of the element with which it was combined. The rates of travel are stated for different elements in centimeters per hour for a potential difference of one or more volts per centimeter of path.

[Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch (1840-1910)]

— The Standard Electrical Dictionary

Stromeyerite

Stromeyerite

Stromeyerite is a sulfide mineral of copper and silver, with the chemical formula AgCuS. It forms opaque blue grey to dark blue orthorhombic crystals. It was discovered in 1832 in Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic, and named after the German chemist, Friedrich Stromeyer who performed the first analysis of the mineral.

— Freebase

Parrotia persica

Parrotia persica

Parrotia persica is a deciduous tree in the family Hamamelidaceae, the sole species in the genus Parrotia but closely related to the witch-hazel genus Hamamelis. It is native to northern Iran, where it is endemic in the Alborz mountains. Parrotia is named for the German naturalist Friedrich Parrot.

— Freebase

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the “kindergarten” and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts.

— Freebase

Mesonephros

Mesonephros

The mesonephros is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. It serves as the main excretory organ of aquatic vertebrates and as a temporary kidney in reptiles, birds, and mammals. The mesonephros is included in the Wolffian body after Caspar Friedrich Wolff who described it in 1759.

— Freebase

Übermensch

Übermensch

The Übermensch is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche posited the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 book Thus Spoke Zarathustra. There is no overall consensus regarding the precise meaning of the Übermensch, nor on the importance of the concept in Nietzsche's thought.

— Freebase

David Strauss

David Strauss

David Friedrich Strauss was a German theologian and writer. He scandalized Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied. His work was connected to the Tübingen School, which revolutionized study of the New Testament, early Christianity, and ancient religions. Strauss was a pioneer in the historical investigation of Jesus.

— Freebase

Krupp

Krupp

The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their steel production and for their manufacture of ammunition and armaments. The family business, known as Friedrich Krupp AG, was the largest company in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1999 it merged with Thyssen AG to form ThyssenKrupp AG, a large industrial conglomerate.

— Freebase

Spanheim, Friedrich

Spanheim, Friedrich

a theological professor at Geneva (1631), and afterwards at Leyden (1641); author of the work on "Universal Grace" (1600-1648). His son, Ezechiel Spanheim (1629-1710) became professor of Eloquence in his native town, Geneva, and after acting as tutor to the sons of the Elector Palatine was employed on several important diplomatic missions to Italy, England, and France; meanwhile devoted his leisure to ancient law and numismatics, publishing learned works on these subjects. Friedrich Spanheim, brother of preceding, was a learned Calvinistic professor of Theology at Heidelberg (1685), and afterwards at Leyden (1632-1701).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Diamond net

Diamond net

"Diamond net" is a metaphor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel uses in his Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences for “the entire range of the universal determinations of thought…into which everything is brought and thereby first made intelligible.” In other words, the diamond net of which Hegel speaks is the logical categories according to which we understand our experience, making our empirical observations intelligible.

— Freebase

Wilhelmine

Wilhelmine

Wilhelmine Germany is the period running from the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Kaiser at Versailles in 1871 to the abdication of his grandson Wilhelm II in 1918. Although the father of Wilhelm II, Friedrich III, was not named Wilhelm, he was only Kaiser for three months, and hence almost the entire period 1871-1918 saw a Kaiser named Wilhelm.

— Freebase

Disenchantment

Disenchantment

In social science, disenchantment is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society. The concept was borrowed from Friedrich Schiller by Max Weber to describe the character of modernized, bureaucratic, secularized Western society, where scientific understanding is more highly valued than belief, and where processes are oriented toward rational goals, as opposed to traditional society where for Weber "the world remains a great enchanted garden".

— Freebase

Pissa River

Pissa River

The Pissa is a river in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia near Chernyakhovsk. The Pissa, Inster and Angerapp are tributaries to the Pregel river. These names, of Old Prussian origin, were used by Germans of East Prussia until 1945. According to an anecdote, the inhabitants of Gumbinnen were embarrassed by the name and asked King Friedrich Wilhelm IV for a name change. He is said to have replied "Approved. Recommend Urinoco."

— Freebase

Sophie Charlotte

Sophie Charlotte

wife of Friedrich I. of Prussia, born in Hanover, daughter of Electress Sophia; famous in her day both as a lady and a queen; was, with her mother, of a philosophic turn; "persuaded," says Carlyle, "that there was some nobleness for man beyond what the tailor imparts to him, and even very eager to discover it had she known how"; she had the philosopher Leibnitz often with her, "eagerly desirous to draw water from that deep well—a wet rope with cobwebs sticking to it often all she got—endless rope, and the bucket never coming to view" (1668-1705).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Classical period

Classical period

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1730 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense to describe a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1750 to 1820. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic. Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.

— Freebase

Perspectivism

Perspectivism

Perspectivism is the philosophical view developed by Friedrich Nietzsche that all ideations take place from particular perspectives. This means that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made. This is often taken to imply that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively "true", but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid.

— Freebase

Sensualism

Sensualism

Sensualism is a philosophical doctrine of the theory of knowledge, according to which sensations and perception are the basic and most important form of true cognition. It may oppose abstract ideas. The basic principle of sensualism is "there is not anything in mind, which hasn't been in the sensations." The great philosophers of sensualism are: ⁕Aristotle ⁕Thomas Aquinas ⁕John Locke ⁕George Berkeley ⁕David Hume ⁕Étienne Bonnot de Condillac ⁕William James ⁕Friedrich Nietzsche

— Freebase

A Dangerous Game

A Dangerous Game

A Dangerous Game is a 1956 novel by the Swiss writer Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Its original German title is Die Panne, which means "The breakdown". It is known as Traps in the United States. It tells the story of a traveller who, when his car breaks down, is invited for dinner by a former judge, after which nightmarish developments follow. The work was initially written as a radio play, but was adapted into prose almost immediately. It won the 1956 Blind War Veterans’ Prize for best radio play and the literary award of the newspaper Tribune de Lausanne.

— Freebase

Panethite

Panethite

Panethite (Na,Ca)2(Mg,Fe)2(PO4)2 is a rare phosphate mineral that was only found in one meteorite on Earth. It was originally found in the Dayton meteorite in Ohio. It is classified as H-M Symbol with space group of P 21/n. It is amber in color. It was named in the honor of Friedrich Adolf Paneth, a German chemist who made many contributions toward the discovery of the origin of the universe, and especially studies of meteorites.

— Freebase

Castroism

Castroism

Castroism is a left-wing ideology, lined with and created by Fidel Castro. Castroism is influenced by many ideologies but particularly the theories of Cuban revolutionary José Martí, and after 1961, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and according to some, fellow 26th of July Movement partner Che Guevara. Castroism's main focus is the practice and theory behind revolution and revolutionary government in Cuba and promotes Cuban nationalism, Latin American solidarity, social justice and people's democracy.

— Freebase

Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism is a strand of Marxism, synthesizing Hegel's dialectics, which proposes that every economic order grows to a state of maximum efficiency, while simultaneously developing internal contradictions and weaknesses that contribute to its systemic decay. Philosophically, dialectical materialism — that Man originates History through active consciousness — was originated by Moses Hess, and developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Moreover, Joseph Dietzgen developed the hypotheses of dialectical materialism independent of Marx, Engels, and Hess.

— Freebase

Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hole punch

Hole punch

A hole punch is a common office tool that is used to create holes in sheets of paper, often for the purpose of collecting the sheets in a binder or folder. The origins of the hole punch date back to Germany via Matthias Theel, where two early patents for a device designed to "punch holes in paper" have since been discovered. Friedrich Soennecken made his patent on November 14, 1886, for his Papierlocher für Sammelmappen.

— Freebase

After All

After All

"After All" is a song written by David Bowie in 1970 for the album The Man Who Sold the World, released later that year in the United States and in April 1971 in the UK. One of a number of Bowie songs from the early 1970s reflecting the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche and Aleister Crowley, it has been described by biographer David Buckley as "the album's hidden gem", and by Nicholas Pegg as "one of Bowie's most underrated recordings".

— Freebase

Kegelite

Kegelite

Kegelite is a complex silicate mineral with formula Pb8Al4Si8O20(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8. It was first described in 1975 for an occurrence in the Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region, Namibia and named for Friedrich Wilhelm Kegel, Director of mining operations at Tsumeb. It occurs in a deeply oxidized polymetallic ore deposits in Tsumeb. Associated minerals include quartz, galena, mimetite, hematite, leadhillite, anglesite, fleischerite, melanotekite and alamosite. It has also been reported from the Zeehan district in Tasmania and from Tune, Sarpsberg, Østfold, Norway.

— Freebase

Trendelenburg position

Trendelenburg position

In the Trendelenburg position the body is laid flat on the back with the feet higher than the head by 15-30 degrees, in contrast to the reverse Trendelenburg position, where the body is tilted in the opposite direction. This is a standard position used in abdominal and gynecological surgery. It allows better access to the pelvic organs as gravity pulls the intestines away from the pelvis. It was named after the German surgeon Friedrich Trendelenburg. It is not recommended for the treatment of hypovolemic shock.

— Freebase

Benzaldehyde

Benzaldehyde

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde and one of the most industrially useful. This colorless liquid has a characteristic pleasant almond-like odor. In fact, benzaldehyde is the primary component of bitter almond oil and can be extracted from a number of other natural sources. Benzaldehyde was first extracted from bitter almonds in 1803 by the French pharmacist Martrès. In 1832 German chemists Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig first synthesized benzaldehyde.

— Freebase

Max Müller

Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller, generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life. He was one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian studies and the discipline of comparative religion. Müller wrote both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology and the Sacred Books of the East, a 50-volume set of English translations, was prepared under his direction. He also put forward and promoted the idea of a Turanian family of languages and Turanian people.

— Freebase

Dolia

Dolia

Dolia is a Catholic titular see in Sardinia, Italy, instituted in 1969. The diocese with see at Dolia, now Dolianova, in Sardinia was suppressed in 1503, its territory going to the diocese of Cagliari. It was set up around the year 1100; the date 1112 is given, but Benedetto of Dolia was bishop from around 1095, and 1112 is the year of his death. The earlier date 1089, for bishop Virgilio, is attested. The current bishop is Friedrich Ostermann.

— Freebase

Fritz Kreisler

Fritz Kreisler

Friedrich "Fritz" Kreisler was an Austrian-born violinist and composer. One of the most famous violin masters of his or any other day, and regarded as one of the greatest violinists of all time, he was known for his sweet tone and expressive phrasing. Like many great violinists of his generation, he produced a characteristic sound which was immediately recognizable as his own. Although he derived in many respects from the Franco-Belgian school, his style is nonetheless reminiscent of the gemütlich lifestyle of pre-war Vienna.

— Freebase

Pfaffian

Pfaffian

In mathematics, the determinant of a skew-symmetric matrix can always be written as the square of a polynomial in the matrix entries. This polynomial is called the Pfaffian of the matrix. The term Pfaffian was introduced by Cayley who named them after Johann Friedrich Pfaff. The Pfaffian is nonvanishing only for 2n × 2n skew-symmetric matrices, in which case it is a polynomial of degree n. Explicitly, for a skew-symmetric matrix A, which was first proved by Thomas Muir in 1882.

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Chincha people

Chincha people

The Chincha were a Native American people of the Andes. They are discussed by Maria Rostworowski de Diez Canseco in "History of the Inca Realm" and by Justo Caceres Macedo in "Prehispanic Cultures of Peru". Friedrich Ratzel in The History of Mankind reported in 1896 that Francisco Pizarro met with the Chinchas who had traditions of a distant home across the sea. They have given their name to the Chincha Islands, off the coast of Peru, as well as the animal known as the chinchilla. The Chincha were eventually overrun by the Incas.

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Rammelsbergite

Rammelsbergite

Rammelsbergite is a nickel arsenide mineral with formula NiAs2. It forms metallic silvery to tin white to reddish orthorhombic prismatic crystals, and is usually massive in form. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 7.1. It was first described in 1854 from its type locality in the Schneeberg District in Saxony, Germany. It was named after the German chemist and mineralogist, Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. It occurs as a hydrothermal mineral in medium temperature veins association with skutterudite, safflorite, lollingite, nickeline, native bismuth, native silver, algodonite, domeykite and uraninite.

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Henotheism

Henotheism

Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling to depict early stages of monotheism, however Max Müller, a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism, focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are large biological molecules essential for all known forms of life. They include DNA and RNA. Together with proteins, nucleic acids are the most important biological macromolecules; each is found in abundance in all living things, where they function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information. Nucleic acids were discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Experimental studies of nucleic acids constitute a major part of modern biological and medical research, and form a foundation for genome and forensic science, as well as the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

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Degaussing

Degaussing

Degaussing is the process of decreasing or eliminating a remnant magnetic field. It is possibly named after the Gauss unit of magnetism, which in turn is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. Due to magnetic hysteresis it is generally not possible to reduce a magnetic field completely to zero, so degaussing typically induces a very small "known" field referred to as bias. Degaussing was originally applied to reduce ships' magnetic signatures during WWII. Degaussing is also used to reduce magnetic fields in CRT monitors and to destroy the data on magnetic media.

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Heldenbuch

Heldenbuch

Heldenbücher is the conventional title under which a group of manuscripts and prints of the 15th and 16th centuries has come down to us. Each Heldenbuch contains a collection of primarily German epic poetry, typically including material from the Theodoric cycle, and the cycle of Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit. The Heldenbuch texts are thus based on medieval German literature, but adapted to the tastes of the Renaissance, remodelled in rough Knittelvers or doggerel. The Heldenbücher group was edited in 19th-century German scholarship, by Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, Müllenhoff, Simrock and A. von Keller.

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Geotrichum

Geotrichum

Geotrichum is a genus of fungi found worldwide in soil, water, air, and sewage, as well as in plants, cereals, and dairy products; it is also commonly found in normal human flora and is isolated from sputum and feces. It was first described in 1809 by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link. The genus Geotrichum includes several species: The most common species is Geotrichum candidum. Geotrichum clavatum and Geotrichum fici are among other Geotrichum species. Geotrichum fici has an intense smell resembling that of pineapple. Yeast-like and mold-like strains have been identified.

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Gunnar Myrdal

Gunnar Myrdal

Karl Gunnar Myrdal was a Swedish Nobel Laureate economist, sociologist, and politician. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for "their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena." He is best known in the United States for his study of race relations, which culminated in his book An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. The study was influential in the 1954 landmark U.S. Supreme Court Decision Brown v. Board of Education.

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Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics is a growing field of semiotics and biology that studies the production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm. Biosemiotics attempts to integrate the findings of biology and semiotics and proposes a paradigmatic shift in the scientific view of life, demonstrating that semiosis is one of its imminent and intrinsic features. The term "biosemiotic" was first used by Friedrich S. Rothschild in 1962, but Thomas Sebeok and Thure von Uexküll have done much to popularize the term and field. The field, which challenges normative views of biology, is generally divided between theoretical and applied biosemiotics.

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Voluntarism

Voluntarism

Voluntarism is a school of thought that regards the will as superior to the intellect and to emotion. This description has been applied to various points of view, from different cultural eras, in the areas of metaphysics, psychology, sociology, and theology. The term voluntarism was introduced by Ferdinand Tönnies into the philosophical literature and particularly used by Wilhelm Wundt and Friedrich Paulsen. The etymology of the word is from Latin. Will Durant, in the glossary to The Story of Philosophy, defines voluntarism as "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct."

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Meconic acid

Meconic acid

Meconic acid, also known as acidum meconicum and poppy acid, is a chemical substance found in certain plants of the Papaveraceae family such as Papaver somniferum and Papaver bracteatum. Meconic acid constitutes about 5% of opium and can be used as an analytical marker for the presence of opium. Meconic acid has erroneously been described as a mild narcotic, but it has little or no physiological activity, and is not used medicinally. Meconic acid forms salts with alkaloids and metals. These salts as well as meconic acid esters are called meconates. Meconic acid was first isolated by Friedrich Sertürner in 1805.

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Barmen

Barmen

Barmen is a former industrial metropolis of the region of Bergisches Land, Germany, which merged with four other towns in 1929 with the city of Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia. Barmen was the birthplace of Friedrich Engels and together with the neighbouring town of Elberfeld founded the first electric suspended monorail tramway system, the Schwebebahn floating tram. Barmen was a pioneering centre for both the early industrial revolution on the European mainland, and for the socialist movement and its theory. It was the location of one of the first concentration camps in Nazi Germany, KZ Wuppertal-Barmen, later better known as Kemna concentration camp.

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Concertina

Concertina

A concertina is a free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica. It has a bellows, and buttons typically on both ends of it. When pressed, the buttons travel in the same direction as the bellows, unlike accordion buttons, which travel perpendicularly to the bellows. Also, each button produces one note, while accordions typically produce chords with a single button. The concertina was developed in England and Germany, most likely independently. The English version was invented in 1829 by Sir Charles Wheatstone, who filed a patent for an improved version in 1844. Carl Friedrich Uhlig announced the German version in 1834.

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Bessel function

Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions y(x) of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number α. The most important cases are for α an integer or half-integer. Although α and −α produce the same differential equation for real α, it is conventional to define different Bessel functions for these two values in such a way that the Bessel functions are mostly smooth functions of α. Bessel functions are also known as cylinder functions or the cylindrical harmonics because they appear in the solution to Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates.

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Fletschhorn

Fletschhorn

The Fletschhorn is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between the Saas Valley and the Simplon Valley, in the canton of Valais. It lies in the Weissmies group, north of the Lagginhorn. The Fletschhorn is shown to be 3,993 metres high on the 1:200'000 Swisstopo map. However, the largest-scale map indicates a precise elevation of 3,984.5 metres above sea level. It was first climbed by Michael Amherdt and his guides Johannes Zumkemmi and Friedrich Clausen in August 1854. The imposing north face was first ascended by E. R. Blanchet with guides Oskar Supersaxo and Kaspar Mooser on 25 July 1927.

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Fulminic acid

Fulminic acid

Fulminic acid is a chemical compound with a molecular formula HCNO. Its silver salt was discovered in 1800 by Edward Charles Howard and later investigated in 1824 by Justus von Liebig. It is an organic acid and an isomer of isocyanic acid, the silver salt of which was discovered one year later by Friedrich Woehler. The free acid was first isolated in 1966. Fulminic acid and its salts, for instance mercury fulminate, are very dangerous, and are often used as detonators for other explosive materials, and are examples of primary explosives. The vapors also are toxic.

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Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, PC CC FRSC FRS was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals". Herzberg's main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals which are difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects. Herzberg served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada from 1973 to 1980.

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Breithauptite

Breithauptite

Breithauptite is a nickel antimonide mineral with the simple formula NiSb. Breithauptite is a metallic opaque copper-red mineral crystallizing in the hexagonal - dihexagonal dipyramidal crystal system. It is typically massive to reniform in habit, but is observed as tabular crystals. It has a Mohs hardness of 3.5 to 4 and a specific gravity of 8.23. It occurs in hydrothermal calcite veins associated with cobalt–nickel–silver ores. It was first described in 1840 from the Harz Mountains, Lower Saxony, Germany and in 1845 for occurrences in the Cobalt and Thunder Bay districts of Ontario, Canada. It was named to honor Saxon mineralogist Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organized Marx's notes on the "Theories of Surplus Value" and this was later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. He has also made important contributions to family economics.

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Röcken

Röcken

Röcken is a village and a former municipality in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 July 2009, it has been part of the town Lützen. Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was born there in 1844, and the house where he was born still exists. His father was the pastor. Nietzsche was also buried in Röcken. In 2006 the Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mining company disclosed plans to demolish the village to mine for coal, but their met the opposition of the Coalition for Action with the motto "future instead of lignite"; in a public hearing, 64% of the residents voted against drilling on community-owned land. In April 2008 the plans were officially dropped.

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Cloud Cuckoo Land

Cloud Cuckoo Land

Cloud Cuckoo Land refers to an unrealistically idealistic state where everything is perfect. It hints that the person referred to is naïve, unaware of reality or deranged in holding such an optimistic belief. The reference comes from The Birds, a play by Aristophanes in which Tereus helps Pisthetairos and Euelpides erect a perfect city in the clouds, to be named Cloud Cuckoo Land. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer used the word in his publication On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason in 1813, as well as later in his main work The World as Will and Representation and in other places. Here, he gave it its figurative sense by reproaching other philosophers for only talking about Cloud-cuckoo-land. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche refers to the term in his essay "On Truth and Lying in a Nonmoral Sense."

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Franz Mesmer

Franz Mesmer

Franz Anton Mesmer sometimes incorrectly referred to as Friedrich Anton Mesmer, was a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism. The theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, and continued to have some influence until the end of the century; it is now almost entirely forgotten. In 1843 the Scottish physician James Braid proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from animal magnetism; today this is the usual meaning of mesmerism.

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Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

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Max Born

Max Born

Max Born was a German-British physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle. In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.

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Ivan Franko

Ivan Franko

Ivan Yakovych Franko was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language. He was a political radical, and a founder of the socialist and nationalist movement in western Ukraine. In addition to his own literary work, he also translated the works of such renowned figures as William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Dante Alighieri, Victor Hugo, Adam Mickiewicz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller into the Ukrainian language. Along with Taras Shevchenko, he has had a tremendous impact on modern literary and political thought in Ukraine.

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F major

F major

The F major scale consists of the pitches F, G, A, B♭, C, D, and E. Its key signature has one flat. Its relative minor is D minor and its parallel minor is F minor. F major key is the home key of the English horn, the basset horn, the horn in F, the trumpet in F and the bass Wagner tuba. Thus, music in F major for these instruments is written in C major key. Most of these sound a perfect fifth lower than written, with the exception of the trumpet in F which sounds a fourth higher. Of the six Overtures Francesco Maria Veracini wrote for Prince Friedrich Augustus in Dresden, most are in either F major or B-flat major because of the limitations of the winds in the Prince's orchestra.

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Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that October, Johann Friedrich Böttger, continued his work and brought porcelain to the market. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. It dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

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Allamanda cathartica

Allamanda cathartica

Allamanda cathartica is an ornamental plant of Allamanda genus in the Apocynaceae family, which is native from Brazil. This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. It is mainly used to treat malaria. Its large flowers are very fragrant. This South American plant is thought to blossom best in full sunshine, and well drained soil. Growing The golden trumpet is a vine that requires a trellis or a fence to support it. It does not twine, nor does it have tendrils or aerial roots. This vine could also be pruned so that it grows as a shrub. If not pruned, it could rapidly grow to a height of 20 feet.

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Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana, commonly known as pampas grass, is a flowering plant native to southern South America, including the pampas after which it is named. It is a tall grass, growing in dense tussocks that can reach a height of 3 m. The leaves are evergreen, long and slender, 1–2 m long and 1 cm broad, with very sharp edges. The leaves are usually bluish-green, but can be silvery grey. The flowers are produced in a dense white panicle 20–40 cm long on a 2–3 m tall stem. It was named by Alexander von Humboldt in 1818, after the German botanist and naturalist Friedrich Sellow, who studied the flora of South America, especially that of Brazil.

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Hausmannite

Hausmannite

Hausmannite is a complex oxide of manganese containing both di- and tri-valent manganese. The formula can be represented as Mn2+Mn3+2O4. It belongs to the spinel group and forms tetragonal crystals. Hausmannite is a brown to black metallic mineral with Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 4.8. The type locality is Oehrenstock, Ilmenau, Thuringian Forest, Thuringia, Germany. Locations include Batesville, Arkansas, USA; Ilfeld, Germany; Langban, Sweden; and the Ural Mountains, Russia. The best samples have been found in South Africa and Namibia where it is associated with other manganese oxides, pyrolusite and psilomelane and the iron-manganese mineral bixbyite. Wilhelm Haidinger named it in honour of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, professor of mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany.

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Xenien

Xenien

Xenien is a Germanization of the Greek Xenia "host gifts", a title originally applied by the Roman poet Martial to a collection of poems which were to accompany his presents. Following this precedent, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe named a collection of distichs, which he wrote together with Friedrich Schiller, Die Xenien, in which the two friends avenged themselves on opposing critics. They were first published in the Musenalmanach. The Xenien were prompted by the indifference and animosity of contemporary criticism, and its disregard for what the two poets regarded as the higher interests of German poetry. The Xenien succeeded as a retaliation on the critics, but the masterpieces which followed them proved in the long run much more effective weapons against the prevailing mediocrity.

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Skeletal formula

Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, sometimes called line-angle formula, of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its bonding and some details of its molecular geometry. The technique was developed by the organic chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. Skeletal formulae have become ubiquitous in organic chemistry, partly because they are relatively quick and simple to draw. Carbon atoms are usually depicted as line ends or vertices with the assumption that all carbons have a valence of 4 and carbon-hydrogen bonds, usually not shown explicitly, are assumed to complete each C valence. A skeletal formula shows the skeletal structure or skeleton of a molecule, which is composed of the skeletal atoms that make up the molecule.

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Henry I

Henry I

Henry was archbishop of Mainz from 1142 to 1153. In his early years as archbishop he was assisted by Anselm of Havelberg. He supported Friedrich von Staufen as successor to Konrad III of Germany. At the time of the Second Crusade, he tried to prevent a repetition of the 1096 violence against the Jews of Mainz. He called in Bernard of Clairvaux, to counter inflammatory preaching by a monk, Radulphe. He was a supporter and correspondent of Hildegard of Bingen. He consecrated the church of her convent at Rupertsberg in 1152. He has been portrayed showing her works to Pope Eugene III and Bernard of Clairvaux. He was archchancellor of Germany, ex officio, but also of Burgundy at the end of his life.

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Natural order

Natural order

In philosophy, the natural order is the moral source from which natural law seeks to derive its authority. It encompasses the natural relations of beings to one another, in the absence of law, which natural law attempts to reinforce. In contrast, divine law seeks authority from God, and positive law seeks authority from government. The term is used by Hans-Hermann Hoppe in his book Democracy: The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy, and Natural Order to designate Anarcho-capitalism. The term is used by Friedrich von Hayek in his writings to designate divine law. It starts with god, then the monarch. Keywords: Cosmos

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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots is a 1971 Universal Pictures biographical film based on the life of Mary, Queen of Scots. Leading an all-star cast are Vanessa Redgrave as the titular character and Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I. In the same year, Jackson played the part of Elizabeth in the TV drama Elizabeth R. The screenplay was written by John Hale and the film directed by Charles Jarrott. Like the play by Friedrich Schiller and the opera by Gaetano Donizetti, it takes considerable liberties with history in order to achieve increased dramatic effect, in particular two fictitious face-to-face encounters between the two Queens. The film received a less than enthusiastic review from the New York Times, but was nominated for several awards.

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Eternal return

Eternal return

Eternal return is a concept that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. The concept is found in Indian philosophy and in ancient Egypt and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity, the concept fell into disuse in the Western world, though Friedrich Nietzsche resurrected it as a thought experiment to argue for amor fati. In addition, the philosophical concept of eternal recurrence was addressed by Arthur Schopenhauer. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation, but the return of beings in the same bodies. Time is viewed as being not linear but cyclical.

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Chemical structure

Chemical structure

A chemical structure includes molecular geometry, electronic structure and crystal structure of molecules. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. Molecular geometry can range from the very simple, such as diatomic oxygen or nitrogen molecules, to the very complex, such as protein or DNA molecules. Molecular geometry can be roughly represented using a structural formula. Electronic structure describes the occupation of a molecule's molecular orbitals. The theory of chemical structure was first developed by Aleksandr Butlerov, which stated that the chemical compounds are not a random cluster of atoms and functional groups but structures with definite order formed according the valency of the composing atoms. Other important contributors were Archibald Scott Couper and Friedrich August Kekule.

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The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto, originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party, is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the Communist League, it laid out the League's purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The book contains Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.

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Bessel

Bessel

Bessel is a small lunar crater that is located in the southern half of the Mare Serenitatis. Despite its small size, this is the largest crater to lie entirely within the mare. It lies to the north-northeast of the crater Menelaus. This crater is circular and bowl-shaped with a rim that has a higher albedo than the floor or the surrounding mare. The outer rim is not significantly worn, and there are no features of note on the interior, apart from some slumping of material from the inner walls to the floor. Bessel is not of sufficient size to have developed the terrace structures of larger craters. It was named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A large ray, most likely from Tycho, crosses the mare from north to south, passing Bessel's western side.

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Disilane

Disilane

Disilane is a chemical compound with chemical formula Si2H6 that was identified in 1902 by Henri Moissan and Samuel Smiles. Moissan and Smiles reported disilane as being among the products formed by the action of dilute acids on metal silicides. Although these reactions had been previously investigated by Friedrich Woehler and Heinrich Buff between 1857 and 1858, Moissan and Smiles were the first to explicitly identify disilane. They referred to disilane as silicoethane. Higher members of the homologous series SinH2n+2 formed in these reactions were subsequently identified by Carl Somiesky and Alfred Stock. At standard temperature and pressure, disilane is a colourless, acrid gas. Disilane and ethane have similar structures, although disilane is much more reactive. Other compounds of the general formula Si2X6 are called disilanes.

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Quercus wislizeni

Quercus wislizeni

Quercus wislizeni, known by the common names Interior Live Oak, and Sierra Live Oak, is an evergeen oak, highly variable and often shrubby, found in areas of California in the United States. It also occurs south into northern Baja California in Mexico. It generally occurs in foothills, being most abundant in the lower altitudes of the Sierra Nevada, but also widespread in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the San Gabriel Mountains. It was named for its collector, Friedrich Adolph Wislizenus. It is a large shrub or tree growing to 22 m tall. The dark-green leaves are usually small, 2.5-7 cm long and 2-5 cm broad, thick and often spiny-toothed, particularly on young trees. The flowers are catkins. The acorns are 1-2 cm long, and mature in about 18 months after flowering.

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Plagioclase

Plagioclase

Plagioclase is an important series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar family. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series. This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel in 1826. The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers, where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic twinning or 'record-groove' effect. Plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earth's crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition, origin and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is also a major constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earth's moon.

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Hypotrich

Hypotrich

The hypotrichs are a group of ciliate protozoa, included among the spirotrichs. Most are oval in shape, with a rigid pellicle, and have cirri distributed in isolated tufts on the ventral surface of the cell. Some also have dorsal cilia, which function as sensory bristles. Euplotes and Aspidisca are common genera. Like other ciliates, hypotrichs reproduce by cell division and conjugation. The hypotrichs were first defined by Friedrich von Stein in 1859. Originally the stichotrichs, which also have cirri, were included here, but they were separated out by Small & Lynn, 1981, who placed the restricted hypotrichs among the Nassophorea because of various peculiarities in their infraciliature. More recent schemes reverse this move, and some molecular studies suggest they may be paraphyletic to the stichotrichs as currently defined.

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Ludwig's angina

Ludwig's angina

Ludwig's angina, otherwise known as angina ludovici, is a serious, potentially life-threatening cellulitis, or connective tissue infection, of the floor of the mouth, usually occurring in adults with concomitant dental infections and if left untreated, may obstruct the airways, necessitating tracheotomy. It is named after the German physician, Wilhelm Friedrich von Ludwig who first described this condition in 1836. Other names include "angina Maligna" and "Morbus Strangularis". Ludwig's angina should not be confused with angina pectoris, which is also otherwise commonly known as "angina". The word "angina" comes from the Greek word ankhon, meaning "strangling", so in this case, Ludwig's angina refers to the feeling of strangling, not the feeling of chest pain, though there may be chest pain in Ludwig's angina if the infection spreads into the retrosternal space. The life-threatening nature of this condition generally necessitates surgical management with involvement of critical care physicians such as those found in an intensive care unit.

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Dobermann

Dobermann

The Doberman Pinscher or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Doberman Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs or police dogs, this is less common today. In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention. Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Doberman Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed suitable for companionship and family life.Although many Dobermans have been outdoor dogs, they are best suited to live indoors.

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Hartogs number

Hartogs number

In mathematics, specifically in axiomatic set theory, a Hartogs number is a particular kind of cardinal number. It was shown by Friedrich Hartogs in 1915, from ZF alone, that there is a least well-ordered cardinal greater than a given well-ordered cardinal. To define the Hartogs number of a set it is not in fact necessary that the set be well-orderable: If X is any set, then the Hartogs number of X is the least ordinal α such that there is no injection from α into X. If X cannot be well-ordered, then we can no longer say that this α is the least well-ordered cardinal greater than the cardinality of X, but it remains the least well-ordered cardinal not less than or equal to the cardinality of X. The map taking X to α is sometimes called Hartogs' function.

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Fatalism

Fatalism

Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine emphasizing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate. Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: ⁕The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. Included in this is that man has no power to influence the future, or indeed, his own actions. This belief is very similar to predeterminism. ⁕An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche named this idea with "Turkish fatalism" in his book The Wanderer and His Shadow. ⁕That actions are free, but nevertheless work toward an inevitable end. This belief is very similar to compatibilist predestination. ⁕That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability. This belief is very similar to defeatism.

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Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner was a German geographer. He is known for his concept of chorology, the study of places and regions, a concept that also influenced Carl O. Sauer. His field work concentrated on Colombia, Chile and Russia, among others. Alfred Hettner, who obtained his PhD from the University of Strasbourg, was also a pupil of Ferdinand von Richthofen and Friedrich Ratzel in Leipzig—where he obtained his habilitation. His book 'Europe' was published in 1907. According to him, geography is a chorological science or it is a study of regions. Hettner rejected the view that geography could be either general or regional. Geography like other fields of learning, must deal in both the unique things and with universal, but the study of regions is the main field of geography. Hettner supervised the PhD of Heinrich Schmitthenner who in turn graduated Herbert Wilhelmy

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Immanent critique

Immanent critique

Immanent critique is the philosophical or sociological strategy that analyzes cultural forms by locating contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. Contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy, this method aims to contextualize not only the object of its investigation, but also the ideological basis of that object; both the object and the category to which it belongs are shown to be products of a historical process. Immanent critique has its roots in the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx; it is now strongly associated with critical theorists such as Theodor Adorno. Roy Bhaskar has advocated it as one of the key methodological elements of critical realism. Quoting Marx, Robert J. Antonio writes in the British Journal of Sociology, According to David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York,

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Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt is a town in the district of Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated on the river Eider approx. 12 km south of Husum. It was founded in 1621 by Dutch settlers. Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp pursued them to invest capital and knowledge in this region in turn for freedom of their Mennonite and Remonstrant religion and opportunities to reclaim fen and marsh land in the vicinity of the town. One of them was Johannes Narssius. Dutch became an official language. By 1630, many Arminians had already returned to the Netherlands. In 1633 Frederick III sent an embassy to Persia with a view to setting up Friedrichstadt as the European terminus. Despite being led by Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Otto Bruggemann or Brugman, merchant, the project proved fruitless. The city did not become as successful as anticipated.

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Gaussian optics

Gaussian optics

Gaussian optics is a technique in geometrical optics that describes the behaviour of light rays in optical systems by using the paraxial approximation, in which only rays which make small angles with the optical axis of the system are considered. In this approximation, trigonometric functions can be expressed as linear functions of the angles. Gaussian optics applies to systems in which all the optical surfaces are either flat or are portions of a sphere. In this case, simple explicit formulae can be given for parameters of an imaging system such as focal distance, magnification and brightness, in terms of the geometrical shapes and material properties of the constituent elements. Gaussian optics is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, who showed that an optical system can be characterized by a series of cardinal points, which allow one to calculate its optical properties.

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Ingvaeonic languages

Ingvaeonic languages

Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the West Germanic languages that comprises Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon. Ingvaeonic is named after the Ingaevones, a West Germanic cultural group or proto-tribe along the North Sea coast. It is not thought of as a monolithic proto-language, but rather as a group of closely related dialects that underwent several areal changes in relative unison. The grouping was first proposed in Nordgermanen und Alemanen by German linguist and philologist Friedrich Boster, as an alternative to the strict tree diagrams which had become popular following the work of 19th century linguist August Schleicher and which assumed the existence of a special Anglo-Frisian group. The other groupings are Istvaeonic, from the Istvaeones, including Dutch, Afrikaans, and related languages; and Irminonic, from the Irminones, including the High German languages.

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Epiandrosterone

Epiandrosterone

Epiandrosterone, or 3β-androsterone, also known as 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one or 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity. It is a natural metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone via the 5α-reductase enzyme. It was first isolated in 1931, by Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt and Kurt Tscherning. They distilled over 17,000 litres of male urine, from which they got 50 milligrams of crystalline androsterone, which was sufficient to find that the chemical formula was very similar to estrone. Epiandrosterone has been shown to naturally occur in most mammals including pigs. Epiandrosterone is naturally produced by the enzyme 5α-reductase from the adrenal hormone DHEA. Epiandrosterone can also be converted from the natural steroids androstanediol via 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or from androstanedione via 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's key ideas include the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, the Will to Power, the "death of God", the Übermensch and eternal recurrence. One of the key tenets of his philosophy is the concept of "life-affirmation," which embraces the realities of the world we live now in over the idea of a world beyond. It further champions the creative powers of the individual to strive beyond social, cultural, and moral contexts. His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary, and his influence remains substantial, particularly in the continental philosophical schools of existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism. His ideas of individual overcoming and transcendence beyond structure and context have had a profound impact on late-twentieth and early-twenty-first century thinkers, who have used these concepts as points of departure in the development of their philosophies, as seen in the social and political thought of Roberto Mangabeira Unger.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation, in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern thought, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers; his faith in "transcendental ideality" led him to accept atheism and learn from Christian philosophy. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced a long list of thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.

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Manliness

Manliness

Manliness is a book by Harvey C. Mansfield first published by Yale University Press in 2006. Mansfield is a professor of government at Harvard University. In this book, he defines manliness as "confidence in a situation of risk" and suggests this quality is currently undervalued in Western society. He suggests the quality is more common in men than in women, but doesn't strictly exclude women, for example he names Margaret Thatcher. He also suggests the quality is "good and bad", not all good, but not all bad. His main point is that gender neutral ideology denies both the reality of sex-specific qualities, and the valuable components of these, to the detriment of society. Mansfield attributes the rise of gender neutral ideology firstly to Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre, and then to feminists who repackaged the ideas as part of a political program. He names Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan and Germaine Greer.

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Unconscious mind

Unconscious mind

The unconscious mind consists of the processes in the mind that occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation. Even though these processes exist well under the surface of conscious awareness they are theorized to exert an impact on behavior. The term was coined by the 18th-century German romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling and later introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The concept was developed and popularized by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Empirical evidence suggests that unconscious phenomena include repressed feelings, automatic skills, subliminal perceptions, thoughts, habits, and automatic reactions, and possibly also complexes, hidden phobias and desires. In psychoanalytic theory, unconscious processes are understood to be expressed in dreams in a symbolical form, as well as in slips of the tongue and jokes. Thus the unconscious mind can be seen as the source of dreams and automatic thoughts, the repository of forgotten memories, and the locus of implicit knowledge.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence. Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers and his detractors. His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism", "Spirit", negativity, sublation, the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.

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Hordeum murinum

Hordeum murinum

Hordeum murinum, commonly known as wall barley or false barley, is a species of grass. It can grow to 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long. It is quite widespread and common. It flowers during May through July in mainly costal areas. It produces small, dry nutlets and its leaves can be 8 mm wide with short, blunt ligules. In the United Kingdom it is absent throughout most of Ireland and Scotland but is common in England and Wales. Subspecies include ssp. leporinum, known as hare barley, mouse barley, and barley grass. It grows in tufts from 10 to 40 centimetres in height. It was first published as the full species Hordeum leporinum by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1834. In 1882 it was redescribed as a subspecies of H. murinum by Giovanni Arcangeli. Today some authorities maintain it at the species level. It is native to Europe, northern Africa and temperate Asia, and it is widely naturalised elsewhere.

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B minor

B minor

B minor is a minor scale based on B, consisting of the pitches B, C♯, D, E, F♯, G, and A. The harmonic minor raises the A to A♯. Its key signature has two sharps. Its relative major is D major, and its parallel major is B major. Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. In Baroque times, B minor was regarded as the key of utter despair. The theorist Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart regarded B minor as a key expressing a quiet acceptance of fate and very gentle complaint, something commentators find to be in line with Bach's use of the key in the St John Passion. By Beethoven's time, however, the perception of B minor had changed considerably: Francesco Galeazzi wrote that B minor was not suitable for music in good taste, and Beethoven labelled a B minor melodic idea in one of his sketchbooks as a "black key". It is a common key used in rock, folk, country and other guitarist-based styles because the standard tuning of a guitar causes all the open strings to be scale degrees of B minor.

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Meke

Meke

Meke is a broad term in the Fijian language, primarily referring to all traditional style of dance. It is a cognate of the words "maka" and "mele". It is typically performed during celebrations and festivals. Traditionally the dances that comprise the meke art form are performed by groups of men only or women only, however, foreign influences, such as the male/female Tongan ma'ulu'ulu becoming the Fijian vakamalolo, are evident throughout. Professor Friedrich Ratzel in his 1896 publication, The History of Mankind, writes about the Fijian meke as both song and dance which only a few are given to invent and which those who do, allege that they do so in the spirit world where divine beings teach them the song and the appropriate dance. He wrote that the ideal of the Fijian poet is poetry with every verse ending with the same vowell of regular measure, which, in practice is often achieved with poetic license through the use of arbitrary abbreviations or lengthenings, and omission of articles, etc.

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Albrecht Kossel

Albrecht Kossel

Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.

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Kosmos

Kosmos

Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. is a media publishing house based in Stuttgart, Germany, founded in 1822 by Johann Friedrich Franckh. In the nineteenth century the company published the fairy tales of Wilhelm Hauff as well as works by Wilhelm Waiblinger and Eduard Mörike. The "Friends of Nature Club" was set up in 1903 in response to booming public interest in science and technology, and by 1912 100,000 members were receiving its monthly magazine "Cosmos". The company moved into publishing books on popular science topics under the brands Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung and KOSMOS, including successful non-fiction guidebooks by Hanns Günther and Heinz Richter. Children's fiction and Kosmos-branded science experimentation kits were introduced in the 1920s. Kosmos's current output includes non-fiction, children's books, science kits and German-style board games. Many of their games are translated into English and published by Rio Grande Games, Mayfair Games, and Fantasy Flight Games. Their line of experiment kits and science kits is distributed in North America by Thames & Kosmos.

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Bastei

Bastei

The Bastei is a rock formation towering 194 metres above the Elbe River in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains of Germany. Reaching a height of 305 metres above sea level, the jagged rocks of the Bastei were formed by water erosion over one million years ago. They are situated near Rathen, not far from Pirna southeast of the city of Dresden and are the major landmark of the Saxon Switzerland National Park. They are also part of a climbing and hiking area that extends over the borders into the Czech Republic and Bohemian Switzerland. The Bastei has been a tourist attraction for over 200 years. In 1824, a wooden bridge was constructed to link several rocks for the visitors. This bridge was replaced in 1851 by the present Bastei Bridge made of sandstone. The rock formations and vistas have inspired several well-known artists, among them Caspar David Friedrich The spa town of Rathen is the main base for visiting the Bastei; the town can be reached from Dresden by paddle steamer on the river Elbe.

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Urea

Urea

Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group. Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rat). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, the most notable one being nitrogen excretion. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a convenient source of nitrogen. Urea is also an important raw material for the chemical industry. The discovery by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry, as it showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the lab without any biological starting materials, contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism.

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Extended order

Extended order

Extended order is an economics and sociology concept introduced by Friedrich Hayek in his book The Fatal Conceit. It is a description of what happens when a system embraces specialization and trade and "constitutes an information gathering process, able to call up, and put to use, widely dispersed information that no central planning agency, let alone any individual, could know as a whole, possess or control.” The result is an interconnected web where people can benefit from the actions and knowledge of those they don't know. This is possible and efficient because a proper legal framework replaces trust, which is only practical in small circles of people who know each other socially. The extended order is at the heart of Hayek's thesis, in The Fatal Conceit, where he argues that "our civilization depends, not only for its origin but also for its preservation, on what can be precisely described only as the extended order of human cooperation, an order more commonly, if somewhat misleading, known as capitalism.”

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Religious Studies

Religious Studies

Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives. While theology attempts to understand the nature of transcendent or supernatural forces, religious studies tries to study religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and history of religion. Religious studies originated in the nineteenth century, when scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, and Hindu and Buddhist texts were first being translated into European languages. Early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the Netherlands. Today religious studies is practiced by scholars worldwide. In its early years, it was known as Comparative Religion or the Science of Religion and, in the USA, there are those who today also know the field as the History of religion. The field is known as Religionswissenschaft in Germany and Sciences des religions in the French-speaking world.

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Decipherment

Decipherment

Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. It is closely related to cryptanalysis — the difference being that the original document was deliberately written to be difficult to interpret. The term has also been used to describe the analysis of the genetic code information encoded in DNA - see the Human Genome Project article for more on this. Some people have also used the word metaphorically to mean something like 'understanding'. Examples of successful script decipherment: ⁕Cuneiform script ⁕Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Kharoshthi script ⁕Linear B ⁕Maya script ⁕Tangut script Famous documents that have been the subject of decipherments, successful or failed: ⁕the Behistun Inscription ⁕the Dresden Codex ⁕the Edicts of Ashoka ⁕the Phaistos Disc ⁕the Rohonc Codex ⁕the Rosetta Stone ⁕the Voynich Manuscript ⁕the Franks Casket Famous decipherers: ⁕Magnus Celsius, decipherer of the Staveless runes ⁕Jean-François Champollion, decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Georg Friedrich Grotefend, decipherer of the Old Persian Cuneiform ⁕Edward Hincks, decipherer of the Babilonian Cuneiform script ⁕Bedřich Hrozný, decipherer of the Hittite cuneiform script and language

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August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of the Möbius strip, a non-orientable two-dimensional surface with only one side when embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It was independently discovered by Johann Benedict Listing around the same time. The Möbius configuration, formed by two mutually inscribed tetrahedra, is also named after him. Möbius was the first to introduce homogeneous coordinates into projective geometry. Many mathematical concepts are named after him, including the Möbius transformations, important in projective geometry, and the Möbius transform of number theory. His interest in number theory led to the important Möbius function μ and the Möbius inversion formula. In Euclidean geometry, he systematically developed the use of signed angles and line segments as a way of simplifying and unifying results. Möbius was born in Schulpforta, Saxony-Anhalt, and was descended on his mother's side from religious reformer Martin Luther. He studied mathematics under Carl Friedrich Gauss and Johann Pfaff. Möbius died in Leipzig in 1868 at the age of 77.

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Communist party

Communist party

A political party described as a Communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy. The name originates from the 1848 tract Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. According to Leninist theory, a Communist party is the vanguard party of the working class, whether ruling or non-ruling, but when such a party is in power in a specific country, the party is said to be the highest authority of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin's theories on the role of a Communist party were developed as the early 20th-century Russian social democracy divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, argued that a revolutionary party should be a small vanguard party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy; the Menshevik faction, however, argued that the party should be a broad-based mass movement. The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. With the creation of the Communist International, the Leninist concept of party building was copied by emerging Communist parties worldwide.

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Eötvös experiment

Eötvös experiment

The Eötvös experiment was a famous physics experiment that measured the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass, demonstrating that the two were one and the same, something that had long been suspected but never demonstrated with the same accuracy. The earliest experiments were done by Isaac Newton and improved upon by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A much more accurate experiment using a torsion balance was carried out by Loránd Eötvös starting around 1885, with further improvements in a lengthy run between 1906 and 1909. Eötvös's team followed this with a series of similar but more accurate experiments, as well as experiments with different types of materials and in different locations around the Earth, all of which demonstrated the same equivalence in mass. In turn, these experiments led to the modern understanding of the equivalence principle encoded in general relativity, which states that the gravitational and inertial masses are the same. It is sufficient for the inertial mass to be proportional to the gravitational mass. Any multiplicative constant will be absorbed in the definition of the unit of force.

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Industrial music

Industrial music

Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the style is harsh and challenging. Allmusic defines industrial as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music"; "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation". The first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics, musically and visually, such as fascism, serial killers and the occult. Their production was not limited to music, but included mail art, performance art, installation pieces and other art forms. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, and Z'EV. The precursors that influenced the development of the genre included acts such as electronic group Kraftwerk, experimental rock The Velvet Underground and Frank Zappa, psychedelic rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix, and composers such as John Cage. Musicians also cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, and philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences.

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Finitary relation

Finitary relation

In set theory and logic, a relation is a property that assigns truth values to -tuples of individuals. Typically, the property describes a possible connection between the components of a -tuple. For a given set of -tuples, a truth value is assigned to each -tuple according to whether the property does or does not hold. An example of a ternary relation is: " was introduced to by ", where is a 3-tuple of persons; for example, "Beatrice Wood was introduced to Henri-Pierre Roché by Marcel Duchamp" is true, while "Karl Marx was introduced to Friedrich Engels by Queen Victoria" is false. The variable giving the number of "places" in the relation, 3 for the above example, is a non-negative integer, called the relation's arity, adicity, or dimension. A relation with places is variously called a -ary, a -adic, or a -dimensional relation. Relations with a finite number of places are called finite-place or finitary relations. It is possible to generalize the concept to include infinitary relations between infinitudes of individuals, for example infinite sequences; however, in this article only finitary relations are discussed, which will from now on simply be called relations.

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Endotoxin

Endotoxin

The term endotoxin was coined by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxin, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the environment, and endotoxin, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and to be released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. Today, the term 'endotoxin' is used synonymously with the term lipopolysaccharide., which is a major constituent of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Larger amounts of endotoxins can be mobilized if Gram-negative bacteria are killed or destroyed by detergents. The term "endotoxin" came from the discovery that portions of Gram-negative bacteria themselves can cause toxicity. Studies of endotoxin over the next 50 years revealed that the effects of "endotoxin" are, in fact, due to lipopolysaccharide. The key effects of endotoxins on vertebrates are mediated by their interaction with specific receptors on immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and others. Upon challenge with endotoxin, these cells form a broad spectrum of immune mediators such as cytokines, nitric oxide, and eicosanoids.

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Ryck

Ryck

The Ryck is a river in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. From its source near Bartmannshagen, part of the Süderholz community northeast of Grimmen, the Ryck flows for about 28 km to the east, reaching Greifswald shortly before its mouth. The larger part of the river outside Greifswald is also referred to as Ryckgraben. In Greifswald, the Ryck provided both the medieval Hanseatic port and natural salt evaporation ponds, as due to the low elevation, hypersaline water of the Baltic Sea is driven into the river by the wind, flooding the lower meadows on the Ryck's northern bank. In the High Middle Ages, the Ryck marked the southern border of the Principality of Rügen and the northern border of the County of Gützkow. West of Greifswald, the Ryck fed the Boltenhägener Teich, a medieval lake. The old Hanseatic port in Greifswald is now an open-air ship museum. ⁕ "Meadows near Greifswald" Caspar David Friedrich, 1820 ⁕ Old port, downtown Greifswald, view from Steinbecker bridge ⁕ Old port, downtown Greifswald, view from pedestrians' bridge ⁕ Old bridge in Greifswald-Wieck ⁕ Mouth at Greifswald-Wieck ⁕ Map of medieval Greifswald showing Boltenhäger Teich and the confluence of the Baberow, both do not exist anymore.

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Child prodigy

Child prodigy

A child prodigy is someone who, at an early age, develops one or more skills at a level far beyond the norm for their age. A prodigy has to be a child, or at least younger than 18 years, who is performing at the level of a highly trained adult in a very demanding field of endeavour. The giftedness of prodigies is determined by the degree of their talent relative to their ages. Examples of particularly extreme prodigies could include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Teresa Milanollo in music, Magnus Carlsen, Sergey Karjakin, Paul Morphy and José Capablanca in chess, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Srinivasa Ramanujan, John von Neumann, and Terence Tao in mathematics, Pablo Picasso and Wang Ximeng in art, Paul Thomas Anderson in film direction, and Saul Kripke in philosophy. There is controversy as to at what age and standard to use in the definition of a prodigy. The term Wunderkind is sometimes used as a synonym for prodigy, particularly in media accounts, although this term is discouraged in scientific literature. Wunderkind also is used to recognize those who achieve success and acclaim early in their adult careers.

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Yttrium

Yttrium

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. Its only stable isotope, 89Y, is also its only naturally occurring isotope. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler. The most important use of yttrium is in making phosphors, such as the red ones used in television set cathode ray tube displays and in LEDs. Other uses include the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers and superconductors; various medical applications; and as traces in various materials to enhance their properties. Yttrium has no known biological role, and exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.

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Tiras

Tiras

Tiras was, according to Genesis 10 and Chronicles 1, the last-named son of Japheth who is otherwise unmentioned in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Book of Jubilees, the inheritance of Tiras consisted of four large islands in the ocean. Josephus wrote that Tiras became ancestor of the "Thirasians" — a "flame-haired" people according to Xenophanes. Tiras or Tyras in antiquity was also the name of the Dniester river, and of a Greek colony situated near its mouth; the native inhabitants of the surrounding region Tyragetae. The Getae were one of the major components of the Thracians, who the Greeks held to descend from the eponymous Thrax. Some, including Noah Webster, have suggested that Tiras was worshiped by his descendants as Thor, the god of thunder, equating both these forms with the Θουρος mentioned by Homer as the "Ares of the Thracians". The Icelandic saga Prose Edda names Thor as a fair-haired chieftain ancestral to the Germanic peoples, and a king of Thrace. In 1838, the German scholar Johann Christian Friedrich Tuch suggested identifying Tiras with the Etruscans — who, according to Greek and Roman sources such as Herodotus, had been living in Lydia as the Tyrsenoi before emigrating to Italy as early as the 8th century BC. Some scholars have additionally connected both Tiras and the Etruscans with Troas, as well as with the contingent of Sea Peoples known to New Kingdom of Egypt as the "Tursha" or "Teresh of the Sea".

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Reserve army of labour

Reserve army of labour

Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. It refers to the unemployed and under-employed in capitalist society. It is synonymous with "industrial reserve army" or "relative surplus population", except that the unemployed can be defined as those actually looking for work and that the relative surplus population also includes people unable to work. The use of the word "army" refers to the workers being conscripted and regimented in the workplace in a hierarchy, under the command or authority of the owners of capital. Marx did not invent the term "reserve army of labour". It was already being used by Friedrich Engels in his 1845 book The Condition of the Working Class in England. What Marx did was to theorize the reserve army of labour as a necessary part of the capitalist organization of work. Prior to what Marx regarded as the start of the capitalist era in human history, structural unemployment on a mass scale rarely existed, other than that caused by natural disasters and wars. In ancient societies, all people who could work necessarily had to work, otherwise they would starve; a slave or a serf by definition could not become "unemployed". There was normally very little possibility of "earning a crust" without working at all, and the usual attitude toward beggars and idlers was harsh. Children began to work already at a very early age.

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Pentachord

Pentachord

A pentachord in music theory may be either of two things. In pitch-class set theory, a pentachord is defined as any five pitch classes, regarded as an unordered collection. In other contexts, a pentachord may be any consecutive five-note section of a diatonic scale. A pentad is a five-note chord. Under the latter definition, a diatonic scale comprises five non-transpositionally equivalent pentachords rather than seven because the Ionian and Mixolydian pentachords and the Dorian and Aeolian pentachords are intervallically identical. The name "pentachord" was also given to a musical instrument, now in disuse, built to the specifications of Sir Edward Walpole. It was demonstrated by Karl Friedrich Abel at his first public concert in London, on 5 April 1759, when it was described as "newly invented". In the dedication to Walpole of his cello sonatas op. 3, the cellist/composer James Cervetto praised the pentachord, declaring: "I know not a more fit Instrument to Accompany the Voice". Performances on the instrument are documented as late as 1783, after which it seems to have fallen out of use. It appears to have been similar to a five-string violoncello.

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Western blot

Western blot

The western blot is a widely accepted analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in the given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate native proteins by 3-D structure or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide. The proteins are then transferred to a membrane, where they are stained with antibodies specific to the target protein. There are now many reagent companies that specialize in providing antibodies against tens of thousands of different proteins. Commercial antibodies can be expensive, although the unbound antibody can be reused between experiments. This method is used in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines. Other related techniques include using antibodies to detect proteins in tissues and cells by immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The method originated in the laboratory of Harry Towbin at the Friedrich Miescher Institute. The name western blot was given to the technique by W. Neal Burnette and is a play on the name Southern blot, a technique for DNA detection developed earlier by Edwin Southern. Detection of RNA is termed northern blot and was developed by George Stark at Stanford.

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Geopolitik

Geopolitik

Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.

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Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and political philosophy, officially based upon the theories of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin, that promotes the creation and development of an international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party presiding over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship of the proletariat. A society organised through a vanguard party on Marxist-Leninist principles seeks to purge anything considered bourgeois, or idealist from it; in addition, it seeks to achieve universal atheism through the abolition of religious institutions and the deterioration of religion with the advancement of materialist science. It supports the creation of a single-party state; it rejects political pluralism external to communism, claiming that the proletariat need a single, able and unifying political party through which to represent themselves and exercise political leadership. Through the policy of democratic centralism, the communist party is the supreme political institution of the Marxist-Leninist state and is the prime legal force of societal organisation. Marxism–Leninism is a far-left ideology based on principles of class conflict, egalitarianism, dialectical materialism, rationalism, and social progress. It is anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist, anti-conservative, anti-fascist, anti-imperialist, anti-liberal, anti-reactionary, and is opposed to bourgeois democracy.

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Lorenz Oken

Lorenz Oken

Lorenz Oken was a German naturalist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach, Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent, and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany. In it he extended to physical science the philosophical principles which Immanuel Kant had applied to epistemology and morality. Oken had been preceded in this by Gottlieb Fichte, who, acknowledging that Kant had discovered the materials for a universal science, declared that all that was needed was a systematic coordination of these materials. Fichte undertook this task in his "Doctrine of Science", whose aim was to construct all knowledge by a priori means. This attempt, which was merely sketched out by Fichte, was further elaborated by the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Oken built on Schelling's work, producing a synthesis of what he held Schelling to have achieved.

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Amber Room

Amber Room

The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was created in the 18th century, disappeared during World War II, and was recreated in 2003. Before it was lost, the Amber Room was sometimes dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" due to its singular beauty. Construction of the Amber Room began in 1701 to 1711 in Prussia. The room was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas Schlüter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram in the service of the Prussian king worked on it until 1707, then work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig. The amber cabinet remained in Berlin City Palace until 1716 when it was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia it was expanded and after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was finished in 1755 and restored in 1830. The Amber Room was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany and brought to Königsberg. Knowledge of its whereabouts was lost in the chaos at the end of the war.

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Catallactics

Catallactics

Catallactics is the praxeological theory of the way the free market system reaches exchange ratios and prices. It aims to analyse all actions based on monetary calculation and trace the formation of prices back to the point where an agent makes his or her choices. It explains prices as they are and not as they should be. The laws of catallactics are not value judgments, but aim to be exact, objective and of universal validity. It was first used extensively by the Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Friedrich Hayek used the term catallaxy to describe "the order brought about by the mutual adjustment of many individual economies in a market." He was dissatisfied with the usage of the word "economy" because its Greek root, which translates as "household management", implies that economic agents in a market economy possess shared goals. Hayek derived the word "Catallaxy" from the Greek verb katallasso which meant not only "to exchange" but also "to admit in the community" and "to change from enemy into friend." According to Mises and Hayek it was Richard Whately who coined the term "catallactics". Whately's Introductory Lectures on Political Economy reads:

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Schiller

Schiller

Schiller is an electronic music project led by Christopher von Deylen, a German musician, composer and producer. The band is named after poet and dramatist Friedrich Schiller. Schiller won the ECHO award in 2002 for the Best Dance Single of the Year with 'Dream of You'. Schiller has sold over 7 million albums worldwide. Christopher von Deylen does not provide any vocals for Schiller productions himself. Vocals are sung by guest artists including Sarah Brightman, Moya Brennan of Clannad, Adam Young of Owl City, Andrea Corr of The Corrs, Colbie Caillat, Sarah Howells of Welsh emotional folk / indie band Paper Aeroplanes, Ben Becker, Peter Heppner of synth pop band Wolfsheim, MiLù - also known as Mila Mar, Xavier Naidoo, Maya Saban, Kim Sanders formerly of Culture Beat, Ana Torroja of the Spanish pop group Mecano, Tarja Turunen formerly of power metal group Nightwish, Despina Vandi, Alexander Veljanov of Darkwave group Deine Lakaien, Swedish singer September. Other musicians that have collaborated with Schiller include Lang Lang, Klaus Schulze, Mike Oldfield, Helen Boulding, Kate Havnevik, Damae of Fragma, Jaël of Swiss band Lunik, Stephenie Coker and German actress Anna Maria Mühe.

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Zeughaus

Zeughaus

The Zeughaus in Berlin, Germany is the oldest structure on the Unter den Linden. It was built by the Brandenburg Elector Frederick III between 1695 and 1730 in the baroque style, to be used as an artillery arsenal for the display of cannons from Brandenburg and Prussia. The first building master was Johann Arnold Nering. After his death in 1695, he was followed by Martin Grünberg, then Andreas Schlüter and finally Jean de Bodt. Andreas Schlüter designed the keystones above the round-arch windows in the form of heads of giants. Georg Friedrich Hitzig constructed the monumental flight of steps to the upper floor of the north wing and also a roof over the courtyard. The building was converted into a military museum in 1875. In March 1943, Rudolf von Gersdorff tried, but failed to assassinate by suicide bombing Adolf Hitler, during the opening of an exhibition in this museum. From 1949-65 the Zeughaus was restored after heavy war losses, the interior being completely redesigned. In 1952, the government of the German Democratic Republic opened the Museum of German History in the Zeughaus, which presented the history of Germany, especially in the modern era, from a Communist point of view. Today, the Zeughaus is the site of the Deutsches Historisches Museum.

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Manfred

Manfred

Manfred is a dramatic poem written in 1816–1817 by Lord Byron. It contains supernatural elements, in keeping with the popularity of the ghost story in England at the time. It is a typical example of a Romantic closet drama. Manfred was adapted musically by Robert Schumann in 1852, in a composition entitled Manfred: Dramatic Poem with music in Three Parts, and later by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in his Manfred Symphony. Friedrich Nietzsche was impressed by the poem's depiction of a super-human being, and wrote some music for it. Byron wrote this "metaphysical drama", as he called it, after his marriage failed in scandal amidst charges of sexual improprieties and an incestuous affair between Byron and his half-sister, Augusta Leigh. Attacked by the press and ostracized by London society, Byron fled England for Switzerland in 1816 and never returned. Because Manfred was written immediately after this and because Manfred regards a main character tortured by his own sense of guilt for an unmentionable offense, some critics consider Manfred to be autobiographical, or even confessional. The unnamed but forbidden nature of Manfred's relationship to Astarte is believed to represent Byron's relationship with his half-sister Augusta.

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Finagle's law

Finagle's law

Finagle's Law of Dynamic Negatives is usually rendered: One variant favored among hackers is a takeoff on the second law of thermodynamics: The term "Finagle's Law" was first used by John W. Campbell, Jr., the influential editor of Astounding Science Fiction. He used it frequently in his editorials for many years in the 1940s to 1960s but it never came into general usage the way Murphy's Law has. In the Star Trek episode "The Ultimate Computer", Dr. McCoy refers to an alcoholic drink known as the "Finagle's Folly," apparently a reference to "Finagle's Law." In Season 2, Episode 1, Captain Kirk tells Spock, "As one of Finagle's Laws puts it: 'Any home port the ship makes will be somebody else's, not mine.'" Eventually the term "Finagle's law" was popularized by science fiction author Larry Niven in several stories depicting a frontier culture of asteroid miners; this "Belter" culture professed a religion and/or running joke involving the worship of the dread god Finagle and his mad prophet Murphy. "Finagle's Law" can also be the related belief, "Inanimate objects are out to get us," also known as Resistentialism. Similar to Finagle's Law is the verbless phrase of the German novelist Friedrich Theodor Vischer: "die Tücke des Objekts".

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Epsilon Aurigae

Epsilon Aurigae

Epsilon Aurigae is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation of Auriga. It is traditionally known as Almaaz, Haldus, or Al Anz. Epsilon Aurigae is an unusual eclipsing binary system comprising an F0 supergiant and a companion which is generally accepted to be a huge dark disk orbiting an unknown object, possibly a binary system of two small B-type stars. About every 27 years, Epsilon Aurigae's brightness drops from an apparent visual magnitude of +2.92 to +3.83. This dimming lasts 640–730 days. In addition to this eclipse, the system also has a low amplitude pulsation with a non-consistent period of around 66 days. The distance to the system is still a subject of debate, but modern estimates place it approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Epsilon Aurigae was first suspected to be a variable star when German astronomer Johann Fritsch observed it in 1821. Later observations by Eduard Heis and Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander reinforced Fritsch's initial suspicions and attracted attention to the star. Hans Ludendorff, however, was the first to study it in great detail. His work revealed that the system was an eclipsing binary variable, a star that dims when its partner obscures its light.

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Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne is a genus of about 50-60 species of aquatic monocot plants from the family Araceae. The genus is naturally distributed in tropical regions of Asia and New Guinea. The typical habitats of Cryptocoryne are mostly streams and rivers with not too rapidly flowing water, in the lowland forest. They also live in seasonally inundated forest pools or on river banks submerged only at high water. Although the proper scientific name of the genus is Cryptocoryne, they are commonly referred to as crypts. The English name "water trumpet" refers to their inflorescence, a spadix enclosed by a spathe, which resembles a trumpet. The first Cryptocoryne species was described in 1779 as Arum spirale by Retzius. The genus was described by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer in 1828. However, the scientific classification of Cryptocoryne species is very complicated and there are different opinions about it. Lagenandra is another genus closely related to the genus Cryptocoryne. The two can be easily told apart since the leaves of Cryptocoryne species exhibit convolute vernation whereas Lagenandra species exhibit involute vernation. The name Cryptocoryne is derived from the Greek crypto, hidden, and koryne, meaning club. The common name refers to the shape of its inflorescence, which is typical of the arum family.

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Doubloon

Doubloon

The doubloon, was a two-escudo or 32-reales gold coin, weighing 6.77 grams. Doubloons were minted in Spain, Mexico, Peru, and Nueva Granada. The term was first used to describe the golden excelente either because of its value of two ducats or because of the double portrait of Ferdinand and Isabella. Doubloons marked "2 S" are equivalent to $4 in US gold coins and were traded in that manner. Small 1/2 Escudo coins have no value on them but were worth a Spanish Milled Dollar in trade. In Spain, doubloons were current up to the middle of the 19th century. Isabella II of Spain replaced an escudo-based coinage with decimal reales in 1859, and replaced the 6.77 gram doblón with a new heavier doblón worth 100 reales and weighing 8.3771 grams. The last Spanish doubloons were minted in 1849. After their independence, the former Spanish colonies Mexico, Peru and Nueva Granada continued to mint doubloons. Doubloons have also been minted in Portuguese colonies, where they went by the name dobrão, with the same meaning. In Europe the doubloon became the model for several other gold coins, including the French Louis d'or, the Italian doppia, the Swiss duplone, the Northern German pistole, and the Prussian Friedrich d'or.

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Crotalum

Crotalum

In classical antiquity, a crotalum was a kind of clapper or castanet used in religious dances by groups in ancient Greece and elsewhere, including the Korybantes. The term has been erroneously supposed by some writers to be the same with the sistrum. These mistakes are refuted at length by Friedrich Adolph Lampe in De cymbalis veterum. From the Suda and the Scholiast on Aristophanes, it appears to have been a split reed or cane, which clattered when shaken with the hand. According to Eustathius, it was made of shell and brass, as well as wood. Clement of Alexandria attributes the instruments invention to the Sicilians, and forbids the use thereof to the Christians, because of the motions and gestures accompanying the practice. Women who played on the crotalum were termed crotalistriae. Such was Virgil's Copa, This line alludes to the dance with crotala, for which we have the additional testimony of Macrobius. As the instrument made a noise somewhat like that of a crane's bill, the bird was called crotalistria, "player on crotala". Pausanias affirms by way of the epic poet Pisander of Camirus that Heracles did not kill the birds of Lake Stymphalia, but that he drove them away by playing on crotala. Based on this, the instrument must be exceedingly ancient.

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Plateosaurus

Plateosaurus

Plateosaurus is a genus of plateosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period, around 214 to 204 million years ago, in what is now Central and Northern Europe. Plateosaurus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur, a so-called "prosauropod". As of 2011, two species are recognized: the type species P. engelhardti from the late Norian and Rhaetian, and the slightly earlier P. gracilis from the lower Norian. However, others have been assigned in the past, and there is no broad consensus on the species taxonomy of plateosaurid dinosaurs. Similarly, there are a plethora of synonyms at the genus level. Discovered in 1834 by Johann Friedrich Engelhardt and described three years later by Hermann von Meyer, Plateosaurus was the fifth named dinosaur genus that is still considered valid. Although it had been described before Richard Owen formally named Dinosauria in 1842, it was not one of the three genera used by Owen to define the group, because at the time, it was poorly known and difficult to identify as a dinosaur. It is now among the dinosaurs best known to science: over 100 skeletons have been found, some of them nearly complete. The abundance of its fossils in Swabia, Germany, has led to the nickname Schwäbischer Lindwurm.

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Kórnik

Kórnik

Kórnik is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants, located in western Poland, approximately 25 kilometres south-east of the city of Poznań. It is one of the major tourist attractions of the Wielkopolska region. Until 1961 there were two separate towns, Kórnik and Bnin, both founded in the Middle Ages, situated just 1 kilometre apart. Bnin lost its town rights in 1934, and in 1961 it became part of Kórnik. The enlarged town also includes the former settlement of Prowent, birthplace of Wisława Szymborska. The town's notable sites include: ⁕Kórnik Castle, built in the 14th century, but designed and rebuilt in the 18th century in neogothic style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Działyński family. ⁕Town halls of both Kórnik and Bnin. That of Kornik was built in 1907 as a neo-Baroque city hall; Bnin's is a piece of original 18th-century late Baroque architecture. ⁕Kórnik Library, one of the most famous Polish libraries, founded by Tytus Działyński in 1828. Currently the library, despite being looted by the German Nazis during World War II, is one of the five largest libraries in Poland and contains roughly 400,000 volumes, including 30,000 books more than 150 years old, and 14,000 manuscripts. Since 1953 it has been a part of the National Library of Poland.

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Sinningia

Sinningia

Sinningia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae. It is named after Wilhelm Sinning, a gardener of the Botanische Gärten der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn. There are about 65 species of tuberous herbaceous perennials, all occurring in Central and South America, with the greatest concentration of species occurring in southern Brazil. The best-known species, Sinningia speciosa, was originally introduced to cultivation as Gloxinia speciosa and is still commonly known to gardeners and in the horticultural trade as "gloxinia". The true genus Gloxinia is distinguished by having scaly rhizomes rather than tubers. Sinningia species often grow on rocks or cliffs and most are pollinated by hummingbirds or bees but Sinningia brasiliensis is bat-pollinated, and Sinningia tubiflora, with large, powerfully fragrant tubular white flowers, is apparently pollinated by sphinx moths. Most of the species have large, brightly colored flowers. Because of this, numerous species and numerous hybrids and cultivars are grown as houseplants. Some species with particularly large tubers are cultivated by cactus and succulent enthusiasts as caudiciforms. One such example is Sinningia leucotricha, often listed under the older name Rechsteineria leucotricha and dubbed "Brazilian edelweiss" for its covering of silvery, silky hairs. Other species with large tubers are Sinningia iarae, Sinningia lineata, and Sinningia macropoda.

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pi

pi

The number pi is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, though it is also sometimes written as pi. π is an irrational number, which means that it cannot be expressed exactly as a ratio of two integers; consequently, its decimal representation never ends and never settles into a permanent repeating pattern. The digits appear to be randomly distributed, although no proof of this has yet been discovered. π is a transcendental number – a number that is not the root of any nonzero polynomial having rational coefficients. The transcendence of π implies that it is impossible to solve the ancient challenge of squaring the circle with a compass and straight-edge. For thousands of years, mathematicians have attempted to extend their understanding of π, sometimes by computing its value to a high degree of accuracy. Before the 15th century, mathematicians such as Archimedes and Liu Hui used geometrical techniques, based on polygons, to estimate the value of π. Starting around the 15th century, new algorithms based on infinite series revolutionized the computation of π, and were used by mathematicians including Madhava of Sangamagrama, Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Srinivasa Ramanujan.¹³

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Individuation

Individuation

The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. The term is used to describe two different concepts. The first, the philosophical, is the general idea of how a single thing is identified as being an individual thing, able to be identified as not being something else. This includes how the individual person is thought distinct from the elements of the world, and also how one individual is thought to be distinct from other individuals. The second concept, coming out of C.G. Jung's analytical psychology, describes the process in which the individual Self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious. It is a developmental, psychical process, the process whereby the innate elements of personality, the different experiences of a person's life and the different aspects and components of the immature psyche become integrated over time into a well-functioning whole. There is a region where the two could be said to blur into each other, but it is important to recognize that they are in fact speaking of two different things. This concept appears in numerous fields and may be encountered in works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Carl Jung, Gilbert Simondon, Bernard Stiegler, Gilles Deleuze, Henri Bergson, David Bohm, and Manuel De Landa.

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Rhinestone

Rhinestone

A rhinestone, paste or diamante is a diamond simulant made from rock crystal, glass or acrylic. Originally, rhinestones were rock crystals gathered from the river Rhine. The availability was greatly increased in the course the 18th century when the Alsatian jeweller Georg Friedrich Strass had the idea to imitate diamonds by coating the lower side of glass with metal powder. Hence, rhinestones are called strass in many European languages. Rhinestones can be used as imitations of diamonds, and some manufacturers even manage to reproduce the glistening effect real diamonds have in the sun. In 1955, the Aurora Borealis, a thin, vacuum-sputtered metallic coating applied to crystal stones to produce an iridescent effect, was introduced by Swarovski. Aurora Borealis tends to reflect whatever color is worn near it, and it is named after the Aurora Borealis atmospheric phenomenon, also known as the "Northern Lights". Similar treatments are Aqua aura and "Flame aura". Typically, crystal rhinestones have been used on costumes, apparel and jewelry. Crystal rhinestones are produced mainly in Austria by Swarovski and in the Czech Republic by Preciosa and a few other glassworks in northern Bohemia. In the US, these are sometimes called Austrian Crystal. In the Spanish-speaking world they are called Cristal de Bohemia.

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Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925. Ebert was elected leader of the SPD on the death of August Bebel, and the SPD later became deeply divided because Ebert led it to support war loans for World War I. A moderate social democrat, Ebert was in favour of the Burgfrieden, in which domestic political squabbles were put aside and all forces in society were expected to support the war effort. He tried to isolate those in the party opposed to the war but could not prevent a split. Ebert was a pivotal figure in the German revolution and civil war of 1918/19. Although a supporter of the monarchy, he was chancellor of Germany when it became a republic. His policies at this time were primarily aimed at restoring peace and order and at containing the more extreme elements of the revolutionary left. For this he allied himself with conservative and nationalistic political forces, in particular with the leadership of the military under General Wilhelm Groener and the right wing Freikorps. With their help, Ebert's government crushed a number of leftist uprisings that were pursuing goals that were also nominally those of the SPD. This has made him a controversial historical figure.

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East Prussia

East Prussia

East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945. From 1772–1829 and 1878–1945, the Province of East Prussia was part of the German state of Prussia. The capital city was Königsberg. East Prussia enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians. During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights. The indigenous Balts who survived the conquest were gradually converted to Christianity. Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Poles and Lithuanians formed minorities. From the 13th century, East Prussia was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, which became the Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Old Prussian language had become extinct by the 17th or early 18th century. Following the death of Hohenzollern Albert of Brandenburg Prussia, Duke of Prussia, Joachim II, the prince-elector Kurfürst of Brandenburg, became co-inheritor of Ducal Prussia. In 1577, House of Hohenzollern co-regents took over administration from Albert's only son, Albert Friedrich. In 1618 the Duchy of Prussia again passed by inheritance and in personal union with the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg and the territory was called Brandenburg-Prussia. The territories of the House of Hohenzollern were scattered in Franconia, Brandenburg, eastern Prussia and elsewhere.

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Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig was a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. His father, who was syndic of Eisfeld, died when he was twelve years old, and he was brought up amidst uncongenial conditions. He had devoted his leisure time to poetry and music, which unfitted him for the mercantile career planned for him. The attention of the Duke of Meiningen was directed to one of his musical compositions, an opera, Die Köhlerin, and Ludwig was enabled in 1839 to continue his musical studies under Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig. But ill health and constitutional shyness caused him to give up a musical career and he turned exclusively to literary studies, and wrote several stories and dramas. Of the latter, Der Erbförster attracted immediate attention as a masterly psychological study. It was followed by Die Makkabäer, in which the realistic method of Der Erbförster was transferred to an historical milieu, which allowed more brilliant coloring and a freer play of the imagination. With these tragedies, to which may be added Die Rechte des Herzens and Das Fräulein von Scuderi, the comedy Hans Frey, and an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Agnes Bernauer, Ludwig ranks immediately after Christian Friedrich Hebbel as Germany's most notable dramatic poet at the middle of the 19th century.

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Morphine

Morphine

Morphine is a potent opiate analgesic drug that is used to relieve severe pain. It was first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Sertürner, first distributed by him in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic needle in 1857. It took its name from the Greek god of dreams Morpheus. After it was isolated from opium by Sertürner, the traditional way to obtain morphine had been by chemical processing of opium. In India, opium harvested by licensed poppy farmers is dehydrated to uniform levels of hydration at government processing centers, and then sold to pharmaceutical companies, which extract morphine from the opium. However in Turkey and Tasmania morphine is obtained by harvesting and processing the fully mature dry seed pods, with attached stalks, called poppy straw. By not harvesting opium at all, and by obtaining morphine only from the dry poppy straw, and not from opium, and by using a large scale industrial process to do so, at factories located near the poppy farms, opportunities for illicitly diverting opium from the crop, and for illicit production of morphine, and heroin from the opium, are reduced. In Turkey, a water extraction process is used. In Tasmania, a solvent extraction process is used.

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Maenad

Maenad

In Greek mythology, maenads were the female followers of Dionysus, the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue. Their name literally translates as "raving ones". Often the maenads were portrayed as inspired by Dionysus into a state of ecstatic frenzy, through a combination of dancing and drunken intoxication. In this state, they would lose all self-control, begin shouting excitedly, engage in uncontrolled sexual behavior, and ritualistically hunt down and tear to pieces animals—and, at least in myth, sometimes men and children—devouring the raw flesh. During these rites, the maenads would dress in fawn skins and carry a thyrsus, a long stick wrapped in ivy or vine leaves and tipped by a cluster of leaves; they would weave ivy-wreaths around their heads or wear a bull helmet in honor of their god, and often handle or wear snakes. German philologist Walter Friedrich Otto writes that The maddened Hellenic women of real life were mythologized as the mad women who were nurses of Dionysus in Nysa: Lycurgus "chased the Nurses of the frenzied Dionysus through the holy hills of Nysa, and the sacred implements dropped to the ground from the hands of one and all, as the murderous Lycurgus struck them down with his ox-goad." They went into the mountains at night and practised strange rites.

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Magnetometer

Magnetometer

A magnetometer is a measuring instrument used to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of magnetic fields. The first magnetometer was invented by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1833 and notable developments in the 19th century included the Hall Effect which is still widely used. Magnetometers can be divided into scalar devices which only measure the intensity of the field and vector devices which also measure the direction of the field. Magnetometers are widely used for measuring the Earth's magnetic fields and in geophysical surveys to detect magnetic anomalies of various types. They are also used militarily to detect submarines. Consequently some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Australia classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology, and control their distribution. Magnetometers can be used as metal detectors: they can detect only magnetic metals, but can detect such metals at a much larger depth than conventional metal detectors; they are capable of detecting large objects, such as cars, at tens of meters, while a metal detector's range is rarely more than 2 meters. In recent years magnetometers have been miniaturised to the extent that they can be incorporated in integrated circuits at very low cost and are finding increasing use as compasses in consumer devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers.

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Dianium

Dianium

Dianium was the proposed name for a new element found by the mineralogist and poet Wolfgang Franz von Kobell in 1860. The name derived from the Roman goddess Diana. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite and niobite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. Following the rediscovery of niobium in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, Friedrich Wöhler, Heinrich Rose, R. Hermann and Kobell analysed the minerals tantalite and columbite to better understand the chemistry of niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum hindered preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. Rose discovered pelopium in 1846, while Hermann announced the discovery of ilmenium in 1847. In 1860 Kobell published the results on the tantalite from a quarry near Kimito a village in Finland and columbite from Bodenmais a village in Germany. He concluded that the element he found was different from tantalum, niobium, pelopium and ilmenium. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

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Deutsches Theater

Deutsches Theater

The Deutsches Theater in Berlin is a well-known German theatre. It was built in 1850 as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Frederick William IV of Prussia. Located on Schumann Street, the Deutsches Theater consists of two adjoining stages that share a common, classical facade. The main stage was built in 1850, originally for operettas. Adolf L'Arronge founded the Deutsches Theater in 1883 with the ambition of providing Berliners with a high-quality ensemble-based repertory company on the model of the German court theatre, the Meiningen Ensemble, which had been developed by Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his colleagues to become "the most widely admired and imitated company in Europe", thanks to its historically accurate sets and costumes, vividly-realized crowd scenes, and meticulous directorial control. Otto Brahm, the leading exponent of theatrical Naturalism in Germany, took over the direction of the theatre in 1894, and applied that approach to a combination of classical productions and stagings of the work of the new realistic playwrights. One of Brahm's ensemble, the legendary theatre director Max Reinhardt, took over the directorship in 1904. Under his leadership it acquired a reputation as one of the most significant theatres in the world. In 1905 he founded a theatre-school and built a chamber theatre. Reinhardt remained the artistic director of the theatre until he fled Nazi Germany in 1933.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to a hitherto-unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures. This interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune that was not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin, Liszt and Mendelssohn. The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, and was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were later orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was later set for piano and orchestra by Liszt.

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LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism, often referred to simply as Satanism among most adherents, is a tradition in Satanism founded in 1966 by Anton LaVey. Its teachings are based on individualism, epicureanism and "eye for an eye" morality, drawing influences from the rituals and ceremonies of occultist Aleister Crowley and the philosophies of Friedrich Nietzsche and Ayn Rand. Employing Crowley's terminology, its adherents define Satanism as a "Left-Hand Path" religion and philosophy, rejecting traditional "Right-Hand Path" religions such as Christianity and Wicca for their perceived denial of life, and, as in Christianity, emphasis on abstinence and unnecessary guilt. Unlike Theistic Satanism, LaVeyan Satanism does not involve the literal worship of any being other than the self, but rather uses "Satan" as a symbol of carnality and earthly values, of man's inherent nature, and of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by man over the course of time. Anton LaVey established Satanism's first and largest religious organization, the Church of Satan, in 1966, and codified Satanic beliefs and practices in The Satanic Bible in 1969. The Church of Satan states that there are a number of Satanists around the world, including both members and non-members. It often rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations of Satanists, dubbing them reverse-Christians, pseudo-Satanists or Devil worshipers.

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Coilgun

Coilgun

A coilgun is a type of projectile accelerator consisting of one or more coils used as electromagnets in the configuration of a linear motor that accelerate a ferromagnetic or conducting projectile to high velocity. In almost all coilgun configurations, the coils and the gun barrel are arranged on a common axis. The name Gauss gun is sometimes used for such devices in reference to Carl Friedrich Gauss, who formulated mathematical descriptions of the magnetic effect used by magnetic accelerators. Coilguns generally consist of one or more coils arranged along a barrel, so the path of the accelerating projectile lies along the central axis of the coils. The coils are switched on and off in a precisely timed sequence, causing the projectile to be accelerated quickly along the barrel via magnetic forces. Coilguns are distinct from railguns, as the direction of acceleration in a railgun is at right angles to the central axis of the current loop formed by the conducting rails. Also, railguns usually require the use of sliding contacts to pass a large current through the projectile or sabot but coilguns do not necessarily require sliding contacts. Whilst some simple coilgun concepts can use ferromagnetic projectiles or even permanent magnet projectiles, most designs for high velocities actually incorporate a coupled coil as part of the projectile. The first operational coilgun was developed and patented by Norwegian physicist Kristian Birkeland.

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Orchestrion

Orchestrion

An orchestrion is a generic name for a machine that plays music and is designed to sound like an orchestra or band. Orchestrions may be operated by means of a large pinned cylinder or by a music roll and less commonly book music. The sound is usually produced by pipes, though they will be voiced differently to those found in a pipe organ, as well as percussion instruments. Many orchestrions contain a piano as well. The first known automatic playing orchestrion was the panharmonicon, invented in 1805 by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel. Friedrich Wilhelm Kaufmann copied this automatic playing machine in 1808 and his family produced orchestrions from that time on. One of Mälzel's panharmonicons was sent to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1811 and was exhibited there and then in New York and other cities. Mälzel also was on tour with this instrument in the United States from 7 February 1826 until he died in 1838. In 1817 Flight & Robson in London built a similar automatic instrument called Apollonicon and in 1823 William M. Goodrich copied Mälzel's panharmonicon in Boston, USA. The name "orchestrion" has also been applied to three specific musical instruments: ⁕A chamber organ, designed by Abt Vogler in 1785, which in a space of 9 cubic feet contained no less than 900 pipes, 3 manuals of 63 keys each and 39 pedals.

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Saltopus

Saltopus

Saltopus is a genus of very small bipedal dinosauriform, roughly 80 to 100 centimeters long, from the late Triassic of Scotland. A fossil of Saltopus was discovered by William Taylor in the Lossiemouth West & East Quarries. It was named and described by Friedrich von Huene in 1910 as the type species Saltopus elginensis. The generic name is derived from Latin saltare, "to jump" and Greek πούς, pous, "foot". The specific name refers to its provenance near Elgin. The holotype NHMUK R.3915, was excavated from the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation dating from the Carnian-Norian stage. It consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull but including parts of the vertebral column, the forelimbs, the pelvis and the hindlimbs. These have been mainly preserved as impressions or natural casts in the sandstone; very little bone material is present. To date, Saltopus is known only from this very poor material. Saltopus was a carnivore, about the size of a domestic cat, with hollow bones like those of a bird. It may have weighed in at around two pounds. Most of the length was accounted for by the tail. Based on related forms, it probably had a long head with dozens of sharp teeth. It had five-fingered hands, with the fourth and fifth finger reduced in size. Contrary to the original description, in 2011 it was established that the sacrum consisted of two vertebrae, the ancestral condition, not four.

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Lumpenproletariat

Lumpenproletariat

Lumpenproletariat is a term that was originally coined by Karl Marx to describe that layer of the working class that is unlikely to ever achieve class consciousness and is therefore lost to socially useful production, of no use to the revolutionary struggle, and may actually be an impediment to the realization of a classless society. The word is derived from the German word Lumpenproletarier, a word literally meaning "miscreant" as well as "rag". The term proletarian was first defined by Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology and later elaborated on in other works by Marx. In The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, Marx gives this description of the lumpenproletariat: In the Eighteenth Brumaire, Marx rhetorically describes the lumpenproletariat as a "class fraction" that constituted the political power base for Louis Bonaparte of France in 1848. In this sense, Marx argued that Bonaparte was able to place himself above the two main classes, the proletariat and bourgeoisie, by resorting to the 'lumpenproletariat' as an apparently independent base of power, while in fact advancing the material interests of the 'finance aristocracy'. For rhetorical purposes, Marx identifies Louis Napoleon himself as being like a member of the lumpenproletariat, insofar as being a member of the finance aristocracy, he has no direct interest in productive enterprises. This is a rhetorical flourish, however, which equates the lumpenproletariat, the rentier class, and the apex of class society as equivalent members of the class of those with no role in useful production.

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel was an Austrian American logician, mathematician, and philosopher. After World War II, he emigrated to the United States. Considered with Aristotle and Frege one of the most significant logicians in human history, Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20th century, a time when others such as Bertrand Russell, A. N. Whitehead, and David Hilbert were pioneering the use of logic and set theory to understand the foundations of mathematics. Gödel published his two incompleteness theorems in 1931 when he was 25 years old, one year after finishing his doctorate at the University of Vienna. The first incompleteness theorem states that for any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of the natural numbers, there are true propositions about the naturals that cannot be proved from the axioms. To prove this theorem, Gödel developed a technique now known as Gödel numbering, which codes formal expressions as natural numbers. He also showed that neither the axiom of choice nor the continuum hypothesis can be disproved from the accepted axioms of set theory, assuming these axioms are consistent. The former result opened the door for mathematicians to assume the axiom of choice in their proofs. He also made important contributions to proof theory by clarifying the connections between classical logic, intuitionistic logic, and modal logic.

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Obscurantism

Obscurantism

Obscurantism is the practice of deliberately preventing the facts or the full details of some matter from becoming known. There are two common historical and intellectual denotations to Obscurantism: deliberately restricting knowledge—opposition to the spread of knowledge, a policy of withholding knowledge from the public; and, deliberate obscurity—an abstruse style characterized by deliberate vagueness. The term obscurantism derives from the title of the 16th-century satire Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum, based upon the intellectual dispute between the German humanist Johann Reuchlin and Dominican monks, such as Johannes Pfefferkorn, about whether or not all Jewish books should be burned as un–Christian. Earlier, in 1509, the monk Pfefferkorn had obtained permission from Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor, to incinerate all copies of the Talmud known to be in the Holy Roman Empire; the Letters of Obscure Men satirized the Dominican monks' arguments at burning "un–Christian" works. In the 18th century, Enlightenment philosophers used the term "obscurantism" to denote the enemies of the Enlightenment, and its concept of the liberal diffusion of knowledge. Moreover, in the 19th century, in distinguishing the varieties of obscurantism found in metaphysics and theology from the "more subtle" obscurantism of the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and of modern philosophical skepticism, Friedrich Nietzsche said: "The essential element in the black art of obscurantism is not that it wants to darken individual understanding, but that it wants to blacken our picture of the world, and darken our idea of existence."

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Appropriate technology

Appropriate technology

Appropriate technology is an ideological movement originally articulated as "intermediate technology" by the economist Dr. Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher in his influential work, Small is Beautiful. Though the nuances of appropriate technology vary between fields and applications, it is generally recognized as encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally controlled. Both Schumacher and many modern-day proponents of appropriate technology also emphasize the technology as people-centered. Appropriate technology is most commonly discussed in its relationship to economic development and as an alternative to transfers of capital-intensive technology from industrialized nations to developing countries. However, appropriate technology movements can be found in both developing and developed countries. In developed countries, the appropriate technology movement grew out of the energy crisis of the 1970s and focuses mainly on environmental and sustainability issues. Appropriate technology has been used to address issues in a wide range of fields. Well-known examples of appropriate technology applications include: bike- and hand-powered water pumps, the universal nut sheller, self-contained solar-powered light bulbs and streetlights, and passive solar building designs. Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet. OSAT has been proposed as a new model of enabling innovation for sustainable development.

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Quadrumana

Quadrumana

Quadrumana and Bimana form an obsolete division of the primates: the Quadrumana are primates with four hands, and the Bimana being those with two hands and two feet. The attempted division of "Quadrumana" from "Bimana" form a stage in the long campaign to find a secure way of distinguishing Homo sapiens from the rest of the great apes, a distinction that was culturally essential. Quadrumana is Latin for "four-handed ones", which is a term used for apes since they do not have feet attached to their legs as humans do, but instead have hands, as both pairs of hands look almost alike and operate exactly like hands. Bimana is Latin for "two-handed ones", which is a term used for humans, as humans have only two hands, but have two feet which apes do not. The division was proposed by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History and taken up by other naturalists, most notably Georges Cuvier. Some elevated the distinction to the level of order. However, the many affinities between humans and other primates — and especially the great apes — made it clear that the distinction made no scientific sense. In 1863, however, Thomas Henry Huxley in his Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature demonstrated that the higher apes might fairly be included in Bimana. Charles Darwin wrote, in The Descent of Man:

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Robert Alexander Schumann

Robert Alexander Schumann

Robert Schumann was a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law to return to music, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. He had been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing. Schumann's published compositions were written exclusively for the piano until 1840; he later composed works for piano and orchestra; many Lieder; four symphonies; an opera; and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works. Works such as Kinderszenen, Album für die Jugend, Blumenstück, Sonatas and Albumblätter are among his most famous. His writings about music appeared mostly in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, a Leipzig-based publication which he jointly founded. In 1840, against her father's wishes, Schumann married the pianist Clara Wieck, daughter of his former teacher, the day before she legally came of age at 21. Had they waited one day, they would have no longer needed her father's consent, absence of which had led to a long and acrimonious legal battle, which found in favor of Clara and Robert. Clara also composed music and had a considerable concert career, the earnings from which formed a substantial part of her father's fortune.

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Isostere

Isostere

Classical Isosteres are molecules or ions with the same number of atoms and/or the same number of valence electrons. The definition was later revised to include compounds with similarly reactive electron shells. For example, Hydrogen ion and Fluoride are classical isosteres because they both have relatively small nuclei and their outer valence shells are full when ionized. Non-Classical Isosteres do not obey the above classifications, but they still produce similar biological effects in vivo. Non-classical isosteres may be made up of similar atoms, but their structures do not follow an easily-definable set of rules. Some examples of isosteres include: ⁕Sodium and hydrogen cations ⁕Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide ⁕Silicon and carbon ⁕methyl, amide, and hydroxyl groups The isostere concept was formulated by Irving Langmuir in 1919, and later modified by Grimm. Friedrich Erlenmeyer extended the concept to biological systems in 1932. Classical isosteres are defined as being atoms, ions and molecules that had identical outer shells of electrons, This definition has now been broadened to include groups that produce compounds that can sometimes have similar biological activities. Some evidence for the validity of this notion was the observation that some pairs, such as benzene and thiophene, thiophene and furan, and even benzene and pyridine, exhibited similarities in many physical and chemical properties.

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Metallism

Metallism

Metallism is the economic principle that money derives its value from the purchasing power of the commodity upon which it is based. The currency in a metallist monetary system may be made from the commodity itself or use tokens such as national banknotes redeemable in that commodity. The term was coined by Georg Friedrich Knapp to describe monetary systems using coin minted in silver, gold or other metals. In metallist economic theory, the value of the currency derives from the market value of the commodity upon which it is based independent of its monetary role. Karl Menger theorized money came about when buyers and sellers in a market agreed on a common commodity as a medium of exchange in order to reduce the costs of barter. The intrinsic value of that commodity must be sufficient to make it highly “saleable”, or readily accepted as payment. In this system buyers and sellers of real goods and services establish the medium of exchange, not a sovereign state. Metallists view the state's role in the minting or official stamping of coins as one of authenticating the quality and quantity of metal used in making the coin. Knapp distinguished metallism from chartalism, a monetary system in which the state has monopoly power over its own currency and creates a unique market and demand for that currency by imposing taxes or other such legally enforceable debts upon its people which can only be paid in that currency.

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Kindergarten

Kindergarten

A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school. His goal was that children should be taken care of and nourished in "children's gardens" like plants in a garden. The term kindergarten is used around the world to describe a variety of different institutions that have been developed for children ranging from the ages of two to seven, depending on the country concerned. Many of the activities developed by Fröbel are also used around the world under other names. Singing and growing plants have become an integral part of lifelong learning. Playing, activities, experience, and social interaction are now widely accepted as essential aspects of developing skills and knowledge. In most countries, kindergartens are part of the preschool system of early childhood education. In the United States, as well as in parts of Australia, such as New South Wales, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, kindergarten is the word often restricted in use to describe the first year of education in a primary or elementary school. In some of these countries, it is compulsory; that is, parents must send children to their kindergarten year. In other parts of Australia, the term 'preps' is used for compulsory pre-school, and kindergarten refers to regulated day-care for 3- and 4-year-old children.

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Militant tendency

Militant tendency

The Militant tendency, originally the Revolutionary Socialist League, was a Trotskyist entryist group within the British Labour Party based around the Militant newspaper which was first published in 1964. According to Michael Crick, its politics were influenced by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky and "virtually nobody else". In 1982, a Labour Party commission found Militant in contravention of clause II, section 3 of the party's constitution, and declared it ineligible for affiliation to the Labour Party. In 1983, the five members of the Editorial Board of the Militant newspaper were expelled from the Labour Party. At this point the group claimed internally to have about 4,300 members, a figure which may be generous. Militant played a leading role in Liverpool City Council between 1983 and 1987 when 47 councillors were banned and surcharged. From 1983, a series of moves led by the Labour Party's National Executive Committee and leader Neil Kinnock led to the expulsion of prominent members of the group, and the eventual loss of Militant's two Labour MPs. These actions ended Militant's influence, and presence, within the Party. Between 1989 and 1991 Militant led the All-Britain Anti-Poll Tax Federation's non-payment campaign against the Community Charge. In 1991, Militant decided by a large majority to abandon entryism in the Labour Party. Ted Grant, once the group's most important member, was expelled, and his breakaway minority, now known as Socialist Appeal, continued with the entryist strategy. The majority changed its name to Militant Labour, and then in 1997 to the Socialist Party.

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Oxenstierna

Oxenstierna

Oxenstierna, an ancient Swedish noble family, the origin of which can be traced up to the middle of the 14th century, which had vast estates in Södermanland and Uppland, and began to adopt its armorial designation of Oxenstierna as a personal name towards the end of the 16th century. Its most notable members include the following: ⁕Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, regent of Sweden ⁕Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, Powerful chancellor of the Realm, during Sweden's Age of Greatness ⁕Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Bengt Oxenstierna, Swedish Privy Councillor, Governor-General of Ingria and Livonia; ⁕Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna of Korsholm and Vasa, President of the Royal Swedish Chancellery, Military Governor of Warsaw; ⁕Christiana Oxenstierna ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, member of the Swedish Academy; ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, winner of the Olympic gold medal in modern pentathlon. The Oxenstierna brought the blood of Agnes Hákonardottir and Charles VIII of Sweden back into the throne of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the persons of Christian IX of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, the current monarch. All three monarchs today descends from the Oxenstierna through their common ancestor, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose paternal grandmother was Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlobitten, great-great-granddaughter of Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna, 1st Count of Korsholma and Vaasa, himself father of Bengt Gabrielsson the aforementioned and first cousin of Axel and Bengt Gustafssöner, as well as great-great-great-great-grandson of regent Bengt Jönsson the aforementioned. Oxenstierna was also the distant descendant of the aforementioned Charles VIII of Sweden and Agnes Hákonardottir.

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Sittlichkeit

Sittlichkeit

Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" furthered by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. It is the third sphere of 'right' that he establishes, and is marked by family life, civil society, and the state. It attempts to bridge individual subjective feelings and the concept of general rights. To properly comprehend the third sphere, that is Sittlichkeit, one must first review its counterparts which are the two former spheres. The first of the two, the sphere of Right, constitutes what Hegel would call negative freedom, which is to say, freedom ascertained through the denial of outside impetus. The eventual problem, or limitation, of this kind of freedom is made evident when one considers volition without duty - without any real impetus, pulse, drive. The second sphere constitutes Kantian morality, and is therefore called Morality. Given that the purpose of Hegel's philosophy is to provide a critique of his modern day Spirit, he criticizes the deployment of Kantian morality in society for being insufficient. He explains this deficiency through pathologies of loneliness, depression and agony - which he considers to be the empirical grounding behind his writing. To properly understand the movement from these two first spheres to the last, one must also understand to solipsist approach the aforementioned two spheres present, treating the phenomena as if it were atomic. This particularity is what pushes Hegel to assess that he is synthesizing these two spheres and surpassing them in his third sphere of Ethical life.

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Marxism

Marxism

Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry based upon a materialist interpretation of historical development, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis of class-relations within society and their application in the analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. In the mid-to-late 19th century, the intellectual tenets of Marxism was inspired by two German philosophers: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements throughout history. Marxism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a philosophical method, and a revolutionary view of social change. There is no one definitive Marxist theory; Marxist analysis has been applied to a variety of different subjects and has been misconceived and modified during the course of its development, resulting in multiple and sometimes contradictory theories that fall under the rubric of Marxism or Marxian analysis. Marxism is based on a materialist understanding of societal development, taking as its starting point the necessary economic activities required by human society to provide for its material needs. The form of economic organization, or mode of production, is understood to be the basis from which the majority of other social phenomena — including social relations, political and legal systems, morality and ideology — arise. These social relations form the superstructure, for which the economic system forms the base. As the forces of production improve, existing forms of social organization become inefficient and stifle further progress. These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in the form of class struggle.

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Scientism

Scientism

Scientism is a term used, usually pejoratively, to refer to belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or most valuable part of human learning to the exclusion of other viewpoints. It has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society." An individual who subscribes to scientism is referred to as a scientismist. The term scientism frequently implies a critique of the more extreme expressions of logical positivism and has been used by social scientists such as Friedrich Hayek, philosophers of science such as Karl Popper, and philosophers such as Hilary Putnam and Tzvetan Todorov to describe the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that which is measurable. Scientism may refer to science applied "in excess". The term scientism can apply in either of two equally pejorative senses: ⁕To indicate the improper usage of science or scientific claims. This usage applies equally in contexts where science might not apply, such as when the topic is perceived to be beyond the scope of scientific inquiry, and in contexts where there is insufficient empirical evidence to justify a scientific conclusion. It includes an excessive deference to claims made by scientists or an uncritical eagerness to accept any result described as scientific. In this case, the term is a counterargument to appeals to scientific authority.

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Trinomen

Trinomen

In zoological nomenclature, a trinomen, or trinominal name, refers to the name of a subspecies. A trinomen is a name consisting of three names: generic name, specific name and subspecific name. The first two parts alone form the binomen or species name. All three names are typeset in italics, and only the first letter of the generic name is capitalised. No indicator of rank is included: in zoology, subspecies is the only rank below that of species. If the generic and specific name have already been mentioned in the same paragraph, they are often abbreviated to initial letters: for example one might write, "The Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo has a distinct subspecies in Australasia, the Black Shag P. c. novaehollandiae". In a taxonomic publication, a name is incomplete without an author citation and publication details. This indicates who published the name; in what publication; with the date of the publication. While binomial nomenclature came into being and immediately gained widespread acceptance in the mid-18th century, it was not until the early 20th century that the current unified standard of trinominal nomenclature was agreed upon, mainly because of its tireless promotion by Elliott Coues – even though trinomina in the modern usage were pioneered in 1828 by Carl Friedrich Bruch and around 1850 widely used especially by Hermann Schlegel and John Cassin. As late as the 1930s, the use of trinomina was not fully established in all fields of zoology. Thus, when referring especially European works of the preceding era, the nomenclature used is usually not in accord with contemporary standards.

— Freebase

Karzer

Karzer

A Karzer was a designated lock-up or detention room to incarcerate students for punishment, within a jurisdiction of some institutions of learning in Germany. Karzers existed both at universities and at gymnasiums in Germany until the beginning of the twentieth century. Marburg's last Karzer inmate, for example, was registered as late as 1931. Responsible for the administration of the Karzer was the so-called Pedell, or during later times Karzerwärter. While Karzer arrest originally would have been a severe punishment, the respect for these punishment diminished with time, particularly in the 19th century, as it came a matter of honour to have been incarcerated at least once during one's time at university. At the end of 19th century, as the students in the cell became responsible for their own food and drink and receiving of visitors became permitted, the "punishment" would often turn into a social occasion with excessive consumption of alcohol. Karzers have been preserved at the universities of Heidelberg, Jena, Marburg, Freiburg, Tübingen, Freiberg, Greifswald, Göttingen and at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in Erlangen. The Karzer in Göttingen was known, after the Pedell Brühbach, as Hotel de Brühbach; it was moved in the 19th century, because of the extension of the university library, to the Aula building; a cell door, preserved from the old Karzer, shows graffiti by Otto von Bismarck. Bearing witness to how the students spent the time in the cell are the many memorable wall, table and door paintings left by students in the cells and today shown as tourist attractions in the older German universities.

— Freebase

Dictatorship of the proletariat

Dictatorship of the proletariat

In Marxist socio-political thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a socialist state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power. The term, coined by Joseph Weydemeyer, was adopted by the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in the 19th century. The use of the term "dictatorship" does not refer to the Classical Roman concept of the dictatura, but instead to the Marxist concept of dictatorship. Following on from the theories of Marx and Engels, Marxists believe that such a socialist state is an inevitable step in the evolution of human society. They argue that it is a transitional phase that emerges out of the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", or capitalist society, in which the private ownership of industry and resources leads to a monopoly of economic power by the capitalist class. With an economy under democratic control, Marxists expect political power to be held by the majority working class. Whether or not capitalists are disenfranchised would depend upon the particular circumstances of a nation. In a period immediately after the Russian Revolution, the mode in which democracy was organised automatically disenfranchised capitalists; however, Marxists such as Lenin argued that other forms of a 'dictatorship of the proletariat' in more developed countries would include capitalists among the electorate. However, as large-scale capitalism is phased out, future generations would not become capitalist owners, and class divisions would no longer exist within the electorate. As a result, the 'dictatorship of the proletariat' would wither away, resulting in an entirely classless, stateless form of society known as pure communism.

— Freebase

Iron Cross

Iron Cross

The Iron Cross is a cross symbol typically in black with a white or silver outline that originated after 1219 when the Kingdom of Jerusalem granted the Teutonic Order the right to combine the Teutonic Black Cross placed above a silver Cross of Jerusalem. The military decoration called the Iron Cross which existed in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire and Third Reich, was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who were awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class respectively for their actions as pilots during World War II. The Iron Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. The Iron Cross was reintroduced as an award in the German Army in 1939 with a Swastika added in the center during the Third Reich in World War II. In 1956, the Iron Cross resumed its German military usage, as it became the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces. The traditional design is black and this design is used on armored vehicles and aircraft. A newer design in blue and silver is used as the emblem in other contexts.

— Freebase

Ferdinando Galiani

Ferdinando Galiani

Ferdinando Galiani was an Italian economist, a leading Italian figure of the Enlightenment. Friedrich Nietzsche referred to him as "a most fastidious and refined intelligence" as well as "..the most profound, sharp-sighted and perhaps also the foulest man of his century." Born at Chieti, he was carefully educated by his uncle, Monsignor Celestino Galiani, at Naples and Rome with a view to entering the church. Galiani showed early promise as an economist, and even more as a wit. By the age of twenty-two, after he took orders, he had produced two works by which his name became widely known far beyond the bounds of his own Naples. The one, his Trattato della moneta, a disquisition on coinage in which he shows himself a strong supporter of mercantilism, deals with many aspects of the question of exchange, but always with a special reference to the state of confusion then presented by the whole monetary system of the Neapolitan government. The other, Raccolta in Morte del Boia, established his fame as a humorist, and was highly popular in Italian literary circles at the end of the 18th century. In this volume Galiani parodied, in a series of discourses on the death of the public hangman, the styles of Neapolitan writers of the day. Galiani's political knowledge and social qualities brought him to the attention of King Charles of Naples and Sicily and his liberal minister Bernardo Tanucci, and in 1759 Galiani was appointed secretary to the Neapolitan embassy at Paris. This post he held for ten years, when he returned to Naples and was made a councillor of the tribunal of commerce, and in 1777 administrator of the royal domains.

— Freebase

Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Due to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature. He is renowned for his multifaceted characters, who are morally ambiguous. His writing influenced many subsequent novelists such as Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gustave Flaubert, Benito Pérez Galdós, Marie Corelli, Henry James, William Faulkner, Jack Kerouac, and Italo Calvino, and philosophers such as Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. Many of Balzac's works have been made into or have inspired films, and they are a continuing source of inspiration for writers, filmmakers and critics. An enthusiastic reader and independent thinker as a child, Balzac had trouble adapting to the teaching style of his grammar school. His willful nature caused trouble throughout his life and frustrated his ambitions to succeed in the world of business. When he finished school, Balzac was an apprentice in a law office, but he turned his back on the study of law after wearying of its inhumanity and banal routine. Before and during his career as a writer, he attempted to be a publisher, printer, businessman, critic, and politician; he failed in all of these efforts. La Comédie humaine reflects his real-life difficulties, and includes scenes from his own experience.

— Freebase

Triassic

Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Ma. It is the first period of the Mesozoic Era, and lies between the Permian and Jurassic periods. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europe—red beds, capped by chalk, followed by black shales—called the "Trias." The Triassic began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which left the Earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of the period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic. The first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of Therapsids also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, who like the dinosaurs were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs. The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to gradually rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. The global climate during the Triassic was mostly hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior. However, the climate shifted and became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart. The end of the period was marked by yet another major mass extinction, wiping out many groups and allowing dinosaurs to assume dominance in the Jurassic.

— Freebase

Rhapsody

Rhapsody

A rhapsody in music is a one-movement work that is episodic yet integrated, free-flowing in structure, featuring a range of highly contrasted moods, colour and tonality. An air of spontaneous inspiration and a sense of improvisation make it freer in form than a set of variations. The word "rhapsody" is derived from the Greek rhapsōdos, a reciter of epic poetry, and came to be used in Europe by the 16th century as a designation for literary forms, not only epic poems, but also for collections of miscellaneous writings and, later, any extravagant expression of sentiment or feeling. In the 18th century, literary rhapsodies first became linked with music, as in Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart's Musicalische Rhapsodien, a collection of songs with keyboard accompaniment, together with a few solo keyboard pieces. The first solo piano compositions with the title, however, were Václav Jan Tomášek’s fifteen Rhapsodies, the first of which appeared in 1810. Although vocal examples may be found as late as Brahms's Alto Rhapsody, op.53, in the 19th century the rhapsody had become primarily an instrumental form, first for the piano and then, in the second half of the century, a large-scale nationalistic orchestral "epic"—a fashion initiated by Franz Liszt. Interest in Gypsy violin playing beginning in the mid-19th century led to a number of important pieces in that style, in particular by Liszt, Antonín Dvořák, George Enescu, Ernő Dohnányi, and Béla Bartók, and in the early 20th century British composers exhibiting the influence of folksong composed a number of examples, including Ralph Vaughan Williams's three Norfolk Rhapsodies, George Butterworth's A Shropshire Lad, and Frederick Delius's Brigg Fair.

— Freebase

Conatus

Conatus

In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself. This "thing" may be mind, matter or a combination of both. Over the millennia, many different definitions and treatments have been formulated. Seventeenth-century philosophers René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, and Thomas Hobbes made important contributions. The conatus may refer to the instinctive "will to live" of living organisms or to various metaphysical theories of motion and inertia. Often the concept is associated with God's will in a pantheist view of Nature. The concept may be broken up into separate definitions for the mind and body and split when discussing centrifugal force and inertia. The history of the term conatus is that of a series of subtle tweaks in meaning and clarifications of scope developed over the course of two and a half millennia. Successive philosophers to adopt the term put their own personal twist on the concept, each developing the term differently such that it now has no accepted definition. The earliest authors to discuss conatus wrote primarily in Latin, basing their usage on ancient Greek concepts. These thinkers therefore used "conatus" not only as a technical term but as a common word and in a general sense. In archaic texts, the more technical usage is difficult to discern from the more common one, and they are also hard to differentiate in translation. In English translations, the term is italicized when used in the technical sense or translated and followed by conatus in brackets. Today, conatus is rarely used in the technical sense, since modern physics uses concepts such as inertia and conservation of momentum that have superseded it. It has, however, been a notable influence on nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Louis Dumont.

— Freebase

Fuel cell

Fuel cell

A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction, they can however produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. In 1838, German Physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein invented the first crude fuel cell. A year later Welsh Physicist William Grove developed his first crude fuel cells in 1839. The first commercial use of fuel cells was in NASA space programs to generate power for probes, satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are used to power fuel cell vehicles, including automobiles, buses, forklifts, airplanes, boats, motorcycles and submarines. There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. Electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity. As the main difference among fuel cell types is the electrolyte, fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use. Fuel cells come in a variety of sizes. Individual fuel cells produce relatively small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are "stacked", or placed in series, to increase the voltage and meet an application's requirements. In addition to electricity, fuel cells produce water, heat and, depending on the fuel source, very small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40–60%, or up to 85% efficient if waste heat is captured for use.

— Freebase

Lithophane

Lithophane

A lithophane is an etched or molded artwork in thin very translucent porcelain that can only be seen clearly when back lit with a light source. It is a design or scene in intaglio that appears "en grisaille" tones. A lithophane presents a three dimensional image - completely different from two dimensional engravings and daguerreotypes that are "flat". The images change characteristics depending on the light source behind them. Window lithophane panel scenes change throughout the day depending upon the amount of sunlight. The varying lightsource is what makes lithophanes more interesting to the viewer than two dimensional pictures. The word "lithophane" derives from Greek "litho", which is from "lithos" which means stone or rock, and "phainein" meaning "to cause to appear" or "to cause to appear suddenly". From this is derived a meaning for lithophane of "light in stone" or to "appear in stone" as the three dimensional image appears suddendly when lit with a back light source. European lithophanes were first produced nearly at the same time in France, Germany, Prussia, and England around the later part of the 1820s. Many times historians credit Baron Paul de Bourging with inventing the process "email ombrant" of lithophanes in 1827 in France. Robert Griffith Jones acquired Bourging's rights in 1828 and licensed out to English factories to make them. The English factories sometimes used the name "lithophane" for specimens of ordinary "email ombrant." Some say however it was Georg Friedrich Christoph of Prussia that actually perfected the true lithophane process in 1828. Others say the technique was developed in Berlin and other parts of Germany by such manufacturers as Königlichen Porzellan-Manufaktur and Porzellanmanufactur. This is why sometimes lithophanes are referred to as "Berlin transparency." There is a well known mark of Ad'T' on lithophanes from Rubles, near Melun in France. It is thought to be the mark of Baron A. de Tremblay, however some scholars on the subject think he only made earthenware and not true lithophanes and the mark belongs to a yet unknown source.

— Freebase

Import substitution industrialization

Import substitution industrialization

Import substitution industrialization is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production. ISI is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. The term primarily refers to 20th-century development economics policies, although it has been advocated since the 18th century by economists such as Friedrich List. ISI policies were enacted by countries within the Global South with the intention of producing development and self-sufficiency through the creation of an internal market. ISI works by having the state lead economic development through nationalization, subsidization of vital industries, increased taxation, and highly protectionist trade policies. Import substitution industrialization was gradually abandoned by developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s due to structural indebtedness from ISI related policies on the insistence of the IMF and World Bank through their structural adjustment programs of market-driven liberalization aimed at the Global South. In the context of Latin America development, the term Latin American structuralism refers to the era of import substitution industrialization in many Latin American countries from the 1950s until the 1980s. The theories behind Latin American structuralism and ISI were organized in the works of Raúl Prebisch, Hans Singer, Celso Furtado, and other structural economic thinkers, and gained prominence with the creation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. While the theorists behind ISI or Latin American structuralism were not homogeneous and did not belong to one particular school of economic thought, ISI and Latin American structuralism and the theorists who developed its economic framework shared a basic common belief in a state-directed, centrally planned form of economic development. In promoting state-induced industrialization through governmental spending through the infant industry argument, ISI and Latin American structuralist approaches to development are largely influenced by a wide range of Keynesian, communitarian and socialist economic thought. ISI is often associated and linked with dependency theory, although the latter has traditionally adopted a much broader Marxist sociological framework in addressing what they perceive to be the cultural origins of underdevelopment through the historical effects of colonialism, Eurocentrism, and neoliberalism.

— Freebase

Carlyle, Thomas

Carlyle, Thomas

born in the village of Ecclefechan, Annandale, Dumfriesshire; son of James Carlyle, a stone-mason, and afterwards a small farmer, a man of great force, penetration, and integrity of character, and of Margaret Aitken, a woman of deep piety and warm affection; educated at the parish school and Annan Academy; entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14, in the Arts classes; distinguished himself early in mathematics; enrolled as a student in the theological department; became a teacher first in Annan Academy, then at Kirkcaldy; formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving; threw up both school-mastering and the church; removed to Edinburgh, and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia, and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews, the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies," proved "epoch-making" in British literature, wrote a "Life of Schiller"; married Jane Welsh, a descendant of John Knox; removed to Craigenputtock, in Dumfriesshire, "the loneliest nook in Britain," where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus," written in 1831, a radically spiritual book, and a symbolical, though all too exclusively treated as a speculative, and an autobiographical; removed to London in 1834, where he wrote his "French Revolution" (1837), a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures, and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century; delivered three courses of lectures to the élite of London Society (1837-1840), the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship," afterwards printed in 1840; in 1840 appeared "Chartism," in 1843 "Past and Present," and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets"; all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question," which to the last he regarded, as a subject of the realm, the most serious question of the time, seeing, as he all along taught and felt, the social life affects the individual life to the very core; in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell," and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend, John Sterling, concluded (1858-1865) his life's task, prosecuted from first to last, in "sore travail" of body and soul, with "The History of Friedrich II. of Prussia, called Frederick the Great," "the last and grandest of his works," says Froude; "a book," says Emerson, "that is a Judgment Day, for its moral verdict on men and nations, and the manners of modern times"; lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born, as he had left instructions to be. "The man," according to Ruskin, his greatest disciple, and at present, as would seem, the last, "who alone of all our masters of literature, has written, without thought of himself, what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear, if the will to hear had been in them ... the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man, and just for the love of God" (1795-1881).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia


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