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Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.

— Freebase

Choiseul

Choiseul

Choiseul is an illustrious family from Champagne, France, descendents of the comtes of Langres. The family's head was Renaud III de Choiseul, comte de Langres and sire de Choiseul, who in 1182 married Alix de Dreux, daughter of Louis VI of France. It has formed into the Langres, Clémont, Aigremont, Beaugré, Allecourt, Frontières, Praslin, Plessis branches, among others. It also took the name Choiseul-Gouffier from the 18th century onwards. It has produced several marshals: ⁕Jean de Baudricourt, seigneur of Baudricourt and of Choiseul ⁕Charles de Choiseul, comte of the Plessis-Praslin, who served under Henri IV and Louis XIII ⁕César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, duc de Choiseul, who defied Turenne at Rethel, when he commanded the Spanish army ⁕Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French marshal and diplomat, generally known for the best part of his life as marshal du Plessis-Praslin ⁕Claude de Choiseul, comte de Choiseul-Francières, who distinguished himself in the battle of Seneffe against the Dutch Republic and made a marshal in 1693 Two bishops and an archbishop: ⁕Gilbert de Choiseul du Plessis Praslin, brother of marshal César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Bishop of Comminges from 1644 to 1670.

— Freebase

King Charles Spaniel

King Charles Spaniel

The King Charles Spaniel is a small dog breed of the spaniel type. In 1903, the Kennel Club combined four separate toy spaniel breeds under this single title. The other varieties merged into this breed were the Blenheim, Ruby and Prince Charles Spaniels, each of which contributed one of the four colours available in the breed. Thought to have originated in the Far East, toy spaniels were first seen in Europe during the 16th century. They were made famous by their association with King Charles II of England and have been linked with English royalty since the time of Queen Mary I. Members of the breed have been owned by Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II. The King Charles Spaniel and the other types of toy spaniels were crossbred with the Pug in the early 19th century to reduce the size of the nose, as was the style of the day. The 20th century saw attempts to restore lines of King Charles Spaniels to the breed of Charles II's time. These included the unsuccessful Toy Trawler Spaniel and the now popular Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. The Cavalier is slightly larger, with a flat head and a longer nose, while the King Charles is smaller, with a domed head and a flat face.

— Freebase

Belfort

Belfort

Belfort is a city in north-east France in the Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg. It is the biggest town and the administrative town of the Territoire de Belfort département in the Franche-Comté region. Belfort is located at 400 km from Paris, 141 km from Strasbourg, 290 km from Lyon and 150 km from Zürich. The residents of the city are called ‘’Belfortains’’. It is located on the Savoureuse, on the strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants.

— Freebase

Rutebeuf

Rutebeuf

Rutebeuf, a trouvère, was born in the first half of the 13th century, possibly in Champagne; he was evidently of humble birth, and he was a Parisian by education and residence. His name is nowhere mentioned by his contemporaries. He frequently plays in his verse on the word Rutebeuf, which was probably a nom de guerre, and is variously explained by him as derived from rude boeuf and rude oeuvre. Paulin Paris thought that he began life in the lowest rank of the minstrel profession as a jongleur. Some of his poems have autobiographical value. In Le Mariage de Rutebeuf he says that on the 2 January 1261 he married a woman old and ugly, with neither dowry nor amiability. In the Complainte de Rutebeuf he details a series of misfortunes which have reduced him to abject destitution. In these circumstances he addresses himself to Alphonse, comte de Poitiers, brother of Louis IX, for relief. Other poems in the same vein reveal that his own miserable circumstances were chiefly due to a love of play, particularly a game played with dice; which was known as griesche. It would seem that his distress could not be due to lack of patrons; for his metrical Life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary was written by request of Erard de Valery, who wished to present it to Isabel, queen of Navarre; and he wrote elegies on the deaths of Anceau de l'Isle Adam, the third of the name, who died about 1251, Eudes, comte de Nevers, Theobald II of Navarre, and Alphonse, comte de Poitiers, which were probably paid for by the families of the personages celebrated. In the Pauvreté de Rutebeuf, he addresses Louis IX himself.

— Freebase

Vesoul

Vesoul

Vesoul is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté located in eastern France. Most populated municipality of the department with 15,920 inhabitants in 2009, is the seventh city Franche-Comté. The same year, Urban community of Vesoul which covers 19 municipalities together 34,055 inhabitants while the Urban area of Vesoul which includes 78 municipalities, groups 59,244 inhabitants. Its urban area is the fifth largest Franche-Comté. Its inhabitants are known in French as Vésuliens. Nicknamed the "Nice of the East", the reputation of Vesoul based primarily on the song "Vesoul" by Jacques Brel and the Vesoul International Film Festival of Asian Cinema. Its 16,000 inhabitants, account Vesoul 2000 students and 8000 licensed sport. The city has received many labels and names that reflect the investigation brings to life Vesoul common. Built on top of the hill de la Motte, in the first millennium, the old medieval town of Castrum Vesulium, the city is gradually presented as European commercial and economic center with many traders and exchangers and European Jews. At the end of the Middle Ages, the city experienced a period of strong difficulties as plagues, epidemics, destruction ...

— Freebase

Comtism

Comtism

The positivistic philosophy of Auguste Comte (1798u20131857), according to which metaphysics and theology should be replaced by a hierarchy of sciences from mathematics at the base to sociology at the top.

— Wiktionary

Interval

Interval

space of time between any two points or events; as, the interval between the death of Charles I. of England, and the accession of Charles II

— Webster Dictionary

Malignant

Malignant

one of the adherents of Charles L. or Charles LL.; -- so called by the opposite party

— Webster Dictionary

comtism

Comtism

Auguste Comte's positivistic philosophy that metaphysics and theology should be replaced by a hierarchy of sciences from mathematics at the base to sociology at the top

— Princeton's WordNet

Baby Grand

Baby Grand

"Baby Grand" is the fourth and final single released off Billy Joel's album The Bridge. A duet with Joel and Ray Charles, the song is a ballad dedicated to the baby grand piano, and the relationship it can share with its players. The two originally got together when Charles contacted Joel about the naming of his daughter, Alexa Ray, after Charles. Charles then suggested they create a song together. Joel originally sang the song in his thick New York accent, but decided to do a Charles impression instead when he noticed Charles was trying to imitate his style. The song was positively received by critics. The single peaked at #75 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 and at #3 on the Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks chart. The music video features Joel and Charles playing the piano right next to each other.

— Freebase

Battle of Wagram

Battle of Wagram

The Battle of Wagram was one of the most important military engagements of the Napoleonic Wars and ended in a decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and Allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle virtually spelled the destruction of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France. In 1809, the French military presence in Germany was diminished, as Napoleon transferred a large number of soldiers to fight in the Peninsular War. As a result, the Austrian Empire saw its chance to recover some of its former sphere of influence and invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria, a French ally. Recovering from his initial surprise, Napoleon beat the Austrian forces in a swift campaign and occupied Vienna at the beginning of May 1809. Despite the string of sharp defeats and the loss of the Empire's capital, Archduke Charles salvaged a massive army, with which he retreated north of the Danube. This allowed the Austrians to continue the war but, towards the end of May, Napoleon abruptly resumed the offensive and suffered a tactical defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling. It took Napoleon six weeks to prepare his next offensive, for which he amassed a 165,000 man French, German and Italian army in the vicinity of Vienna. The Battle of Wagram began after Napoleon swiftly took the bulk of these forces across the Danube during the night of 4/5 July and attacked the 145,000-men strong Austrian army. Having successfully crossed the river, Napoleon attempted an early breakthrough and launched a series of violent, though ill-prepared evening attacks against the Austrian army. The latter was thinly-spread on a wide semicircle, but held a naturally strong position. After the attackers enjoyed some initial success, the tenacious defenders regained the upper-hand and the attacks failed. Bolstered by his success, the next day at dawn, Archduke Charles launched a series of attacks along the entire battle line, seeking to take the opposing army in double envelopment. The offensive failed against the mighty French right but nearly shattered Napoleon's overstretched left. However, the Emperor masterfully countered by launching a violent cavalry charge, which temporarily halted the Austrian advance. He then redeployed IV Corps to stabilise his left, while setting up a Grand Battery, which pounded the Austrian right and centre. The tide of battle turned and the Emperor launched an offensive along the entire line, while Maréchal Louis-Nicolas Davout drove a relentless offensive, turning the Austrian left, eventually rendering Charles's position untenable. Towards mid-afternoon on 6 July, Archduke Charles admitted defeat and led a timely and brilliant staged retreat, frustrating all enemy attempts to pursue. After the battle, Archduke Charles remained in command of a significant and still cohesive force and decided to retreat to Bohemia. However, the Grande Armée eventually caught up with him and scored a victory at the Battle of Znaim. With the battle still raging, Charles decided to ask for an armistice, effectively ending the war.

— Freebase

Lake Charles

Lake Charles

Lake Charles is the fifth-largest incorporated city in the U.S. state of Louisiana, located on Lake Charles, Prien Lake, and the Calcasieu River. Founded in 1861 in Calcasieu Parish, it is a major cultural, industrial, and educational center in the southwest region of the state, and one of the most important in Acadiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 71,993. Lake Charles is the principal city of the Lake Charles Metropolitan Statistical Area, having a population of 194,138. It is the larger principal city of the Lake Charles-Jennings Combined Statistical Area, with a population of 225,235. A 2010 population estimate of the five parish area was over 292,619. It is considered a major center of petrochemical refining, tourism, gaming, and education, being home to McNeese State University and Sowela Technical Community College. Because of the lakes and waterways throughout the city, metropolitan Lake Charles is often referred to as the Lake Area.

— Freebase

Jacques Charles

Jacques Charles

Jacques Alexandre César Charles was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet in a manned balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière. Charles's law, describing how gases tend to expand when heated, was formulated by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, but he credited it to unpublished work by Jacques Charles. Charles was elected to the Académie des Sciences, in 1793, and subsequently became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.

— Freebase

carolean

Caroline, Carolean

of or relating to the life and times of kings Charles I or Charles II of England

— Princeton's WordNet

caroline

Caroline, Carolean

of or relating to the life and times of kings Charles I or Charles II of England

— Princeton's WordNet

charles

Charles, Charles II, Charles I, Charles the Bald

as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (823-877)

— Princeton's WordNet

charles i

Charles, Charles II, Charles I, Charles the Bald

as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (823-877)

— Princeton's WordNet

charles ii

Charles, Charles II, Charles I, Charles the Bald

as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (823-877)

— Princeton's WordNet

charles the bald

Charles, Charles II, Charles I, Charles the Bald

as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (823-877)

— Princeton's WordNet

Jambool

Jambool

Jambool, Inc. operates Social Gold™, an industry-leading virtual monetization platform.Social Gold enables developers to create and manage their own white-labeled virtual currency, to provide a in-app payments experience to their users, and to optimize their virtual economy using analytics. Social Gold powers the virtual currency and payment solutions for thousands of online games and virtual worlds.Jambool is headquartered in San Francisco with offices in Seattle and Singapore. Investors include Hit Forge, Charles River Ventures, Bay Partners, and Madrona Venture Group.

— CrunchBase

Comtist

Comtist

a disciple of Comte; a positivist

— Webster Dictionary

Earl

Earl

a nobleman of England ranking below a marquis, and above a viscount. The rank of an earl corresponds to that of a count (comte) in France, and graf in Germany. Hence the wife of an earl is still called countess. See Count

— Webster Dictionary

Positivism

Positivism

a system of philosophy originated by M. Auguste Comte, which deals only with positives. It excludes from philosophy everything but the natural phenomena or properties of knowable things, together with their invariable relations of coexistence and succession, as occurring in time and space. Such relations are denominated laws, which are to be discovered by observation, experiment, and comparison. This philosophy holds all inquiry into causes, both efficient and final, to be useless and unprofitable

— Webster Dictionary

Positivism

Positivism

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, and that there is valid knowledge only in scientific knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence. This view holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought, the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century. Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society.

— Freebase

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman". His ideas, expressed largely through a succession of journals such as l'Industrie, La politique and L'Organisateur centered on a perception that growth in industrialization and scientific discovery would have profound changes on society. He believed, nonetheless, that society would restructure itself by abandoning traditional ideas of temporal and spiritual power, an evolution that would lead, inevitably, to a productive society based on, and benefiting from, a " ... union of men engaged in useful work", the basis of "true equality". These ideas influenced Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and many other thinkers and social theorists.

— Freebase

Drom

Drom

Drom is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France. As well as a dairy selling comté cheese, butter, cream, fromage blanc and newly resurrected medieval fromage de CLON, Drom boasts three 'Artisans d'art'. Christine Brochier is a master craftswoman/couturière working in fur and leather. She holds the distinction of 'Meilleur Ouvrier de France'. Drom also has an art gallery of pictures, prints, and portraits by Margaret Steel and handmade bespoke desks by Tony Steel. See their website, galerie-steel.com As well as a dairy selling comté cheese, butter, cream, fromage blanc and newly resurrected medieval fromage de CLON, Drom boasts three 'Artisans d'art'. Christine Brochier is a master craftswoman/couturière working in fur and leather. She holds the distinction of 'Meilleur Ouvrier de France'. Drom also has an art gallery of pictures and handmade bespoke furniture run by Margaret and Tony Steel. See their website, www.galerie-steel.com

— Freebase

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small spaniel classed as a toy dog by The Kennel Club. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has grown in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky, smooth coat and commonly a smooth undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours: Blenheim, Tricolour, Black and Tan, and Ruby. The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals; however, they require a lot of human interaction. The King Charles changed drastically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration. Various health issues affect this particular breed, most notably mitral valve disease, which leads to heart failure. This appears in most Cavaliers at some point in their lives and is the most common cause of death. The breed may also suffer from syringomyelia, in which cavities are formed in the spinal cord, possibly associated with malformation of the skull that reduces the space available for the brain. Cavaliers are also affected by ear problems, a common health problem among spaniels of various types, and they can suffer from such other general maladies as hip dysplasia, which are common across many types of dog breeds.

— Freebase

Charlot

Charlot

Charlot is a fictionalized form of Charles the Younger, son of Charlemagne, in the tradition of the Matter of France. His legend may also incorporate elements of Charlemagne's great-grandson Charles the Child. He slew the son of Ogier the Dane, and was killed in revenge, causing a long period of strife between Ogier and the emperor. In the story of Huon of Bordeaux, it is Huon who kills Charlot. Charlot is possibly based on Charlemagne's real son Charles, who predeceased his father; Auguste Longnon identified him with Charlemagne's grandson Charles the Child, who died before his father Charles the Bald in a similar situation as Charlot in a fight with a man named Aubouin.

— Freebase

Radiography, Dental, Digital

Radiography, Dental, Digital

A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte, Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. She had also an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut.

— Freebase

English Civil War

English Civil War

The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political problems between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first and second civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The English Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with, first, the Commonwealth of England, and then with a Protectorate, under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.

— Freebase

Charles

Charles

Charles is a neighborhood in northern Providence, Rhode Island. Along with Wanskuck, it comprises what is sometimes referred to as the North End. To the west Charles is partitioned from Wanskuck by Route 146, while the Chad Brown public housing complex separates Charles from Smith Hill to the south, and the West River and Interstate 95 bounds the area to the east. The city limits abutting the city of North Providence bound Charles to the north.

— Freebase

Cheers

Cheers

Cheers is an American sitcom television series that ran for 11 seasons from 1982 to 1993. It was produced by Charles/Burrows/Charles Productions, in association with Paramount Network Television for NBC, and was created by the team of James Burrows, Glen Charles, and Les Charles. The show is set in the Cheers bar in Boston, Massachusetts, where a group of locals meet to drink, relax, chat and have fun. The show's theme song, written and performed by Gary Portnoy, and co-written with Judy Hart Angelo, lent its famous refrain, "Where Everybody Knows Your Name", as the show's tagline. After premiering on September 30, 1982, it was nearly canceled during its first season when it ranked last in ratings for its premiere. Cheers, however, eventually became a highly rated television show in the United States, earning a top-ten rating during 8 of its 11 seasons, including one season at #1. The show spent most of its run on NBC's Thursday night "Must See TV" lineup. Its widely watched series finale was broadcast on May 20, 1993, and the show's 275 episodes have been successfully syndicated worldwide. Nominated for Outstanding Comedy Series for all eleven of its seasons on the air, it has earned 28 Emmy Awards from a then-record 117 nominations. The character Frasier Crane was featured in his eponymous spin-off show, which later aired up until 2004 and included guest appearances by virtually all of the major and minor Cheers characters.

— Freebase

Jeanne d'Arc

Jeanne d'Arc

Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is a folk heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is now eastern France. Claiming divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII of France. She was captured by the Burgundians, transferred to the English in exchange for money, put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon for charges of "insubordination and heterodoxy", and was burned at the stake for heresy when she was 19 years old. Twenty-five years after her execution, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. She is – along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux – one of the patron saints of France. Joan said she had received visions from God instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and caused the lifting of the siege in only nine days. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims.

— Freebase

Saint Charles

Saint Charles

St. Charles is a city in and the county seat of St. Charles County, Missouri, United States. The population was 65,794 at the 2010 census, making St. Charles the 2nd largest city in St. Charles County. It lies just to the northwest of St. Louis, Missouri on the Missouri River, and, for a time, played a significant role in the United States' westward expansion. It is the third oldest city west of the Mississippi, founded in 1765 as Les Petites Côtes, "The Little Hills", by Louis Blanchette, a French Canadian fur trader, and was the last "civilized" stop for the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1804. The city served as the first Missouri capital from 1821 to 1826. It is the site for the Saint Rose Philippine Duchesne shrine. It is also the home base for the St. Louis National Weather Service Forecast Office, serving central, east-central and northeastern Missouri, as well as west-central and southwest Illinois.

— Freebase

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is a folk heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is now eastern France. Claiming divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII of France. She was captured by the Burgundians, transferred to the English in exchange for money, put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon for charges of "insubordination and heterodoxy", and was burned at the stake for heresy when she was 19 years old. Twenty-five years after her execution, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. She is – along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux – one of the patron saints of France. Joan said she had received visions from God instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and caused the lifting of the siege in only nine days. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims.

— Freebase

Galápagos Islands

Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, 926 km west of continental Ecuador, of which they are a part. The Galápagos Islands and its surrounding waters form an Ecuadorian province, a national park, and a biological marine reserve. The principal language on the islands is Spanish. The islands have a population of slightly over 25,000. The islands are famed for their vast number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle. His observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The Galapagos Islands were discovered by chance on 10 March 1535, when the Dominican friar Fray Tomas de Berlanga, Bishop of Panama, went to Peru in pursuance of an order of the Spanish monarch, Charles V, to arbitrate in a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his subordinates after the conquest of the Inca empire . Because of a calm and strong currents, the ship of the Bishop was dragged to the Galapagos. In chronicling his adventure, directed from Portoviejo Emperor Charles V on the discovery of the Galapagos Islands, Berlanga described the bleak desert conditions in the islands and the giant tortoises that inhabited them. He also described the marine iguanas, sea lions and many types of birds, emphasizing the unusual mildness of animals and expressed in the following words: Traxo the ship very good time breezes seven days, that the pilot haziase near the ground and calm diones six days the currents were so large, we engolfaron so that Wednesday March 10, we saw an island and because the ship had no more water for two days, agreed to take the boat and going ashore for water and grass for the horses. E hatched ... but found no sea lions, turtles and tortoises and so great a man wearing one above, and many who are like serpents higuanas. The first navigation chart of the islands was made by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley in 1684. He named the individual islands after some of his fellow pirates or after the British noblemen who helped the privateer's cause. More recently, the Ecuadorian government gave most of the islands Spanish names. While the Spanish names are official, many users continue to use the older English names, principally because those were the names used when Charles Darwin visited.

— Freebase

Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France for control of the French throne. Many allies of both sides were also drawn into the conflict. The war had its roots in a dynastic disagreement dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, who became King of England in 1066 while retaining possession of the Duchy of Normandy in France. As the rulers of Normandy and other lands on the continent, the English kings owed feudal homage to the king of France. In 1337, Edward III of England refused to pay homage to Philip VI of France, leading the French king to claim confiscation of Edward's lands in Aquitaine. Edward responded by declaring that he, not Philip, was the rightful king of France, a claim dating to 1328, when Charles IV of France died without a male heir. Edward was the closest male relative of Charles IV as son of Isabella of France, daughter of Philip IV of France and sister of Charles IV. But instead, Philip VI, the son of Philip IV's younger brother, Charles of Valois, was crowned king of France in accordance with Salic Law, which disqualified female succession and the succession of males descended through female lines. The question of legal succession to the French crown was central to the war over generations of English and French claimants.

— Freebase

Charles Wesley

Charles Wesley

Charles Wesley was an English leader of the Methodist movement, son of Anglican clergyman and poet Samuel Wesley, the younger brother of Anglican clergyman John Wesley and Anglican clergyman Samuel Wesley. He was father of musician Samuel Wesley and grandfather of musician Samuel Sebastian Wesley. Despite their closeness, Charles and his brother John did not always agree on questions relating to their beliefs. In particular, Charles was strongly opposed to the idea of a breach with the Church of England into which they had both been ordained. Charles Wesley is chiefly remembered for the many hymns he wrote. He ministered for part of his life in The New Room Chapel in Bristol. His house, located nearby, can still be visited.

— Freebase

It Should've Been Me

It Should've Been Me

"It Should've Been Me" is a 1954 rhythm and blues song written by Memphis Curtis, produced by Ahmet Ertegun and recorded and released as a single by American singer Ray Charles. Recorded at the same May 10, 1953 session as the boogie-woogie-like R&B hit "Mess Around", which was written by Ertegun and released first, "It Should've Been Me" played on a comedic rap vibe/jive in which Charles talked about certain instances where he was smitten with "fine chicks" only to be dismayed that they had partners causing Charles, to say "it should have been with real fine chick." Released in early 1954, the song became Charles' first charted hit for Atlantic Records and soon reached number five on the Billboard R&B singles chart.

— Freebase

Succession Wars

Succession Wars

the general title of several European wars which arose in the 18th century consequent on a failure of issue in certain royal lines, most important of which are (1) War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713). The death (1700) of Charles II. of Spain without direct issue caused Louis XIV. of France and the Emperor Leopold I. (the former married to the elder sister of Charles, the latter to the younger sister, and both grandsons of Philip III. of Spain) to put forth claims to the crown, the one on behalf of his grandson, Philip of Anjou, the other for his second son, the Archduke Charles. War broke out on the entry of Philip into Madrid and his assumption of the crown, England and the United Netherlands uniting with the emperor to curb the ambition of Louis. During the long struggle the transcendent military genius of Marlborough asserted itself in the great victories of Blenheim, Ramillies, and Oudenarde, but the lukewarmness of England in the struggle, the political fall of Marlborough, and the Tory vote for peace prevented the allies reaping the full benefit of their successes. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) left Philip in possession of his Spanish kingdom, but the condition was exacted that the crowns of Spain and France should not be united. The emperor (the Archduke Charles since 1711) attempted to carry on the struggle, but was forced to sign the Treaty of Rastadt (1714), acknowledging Philip king of Spain. Spain, however, ceded her Netherlands Sardinia, &c., to the emperor, while Gibraltar, Minorca, and parts of North America fell to England. (2) War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) followed on the death (1740) of the Emperor Charles VI. without male issue. His daughter, Maria Theresa, entered into possession of Bohemia, Hungary, and the Archduchy of Austria, but was immediately attacked by the Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria and Augustus of Saxony and Poland, both rival claimants for the imperial crown, while Frederick II. of Prussia seized the opportunity of Maria's embarrassment to annex Silesia. France, Spain, and England were drawn into the struggle, the last in support of Maria. Success oscillated from side to side, but the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which brought the war to a close, left Maria pretty well in possession of her inheritance save the loss of Silesia to Frederick.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

abhorrer

abhorrer

A nickname given in the early 17 century to signatories of addresses of a petition to reconvent parliament, adressed to Charles II.

— Wiktionary

Darwin

Darwin

Charles Darwin (1809u20131882), British naturalist and founder of the theory of evolution by natural selection.

— Wiktionary

exonym

exonym

A place name or a personal name used by foreigners instead of the native-language version used by its inhabitants, such as Moscow in English for the city called Moskva in Russian, or such as Charles in English for historical people called Karl or Carl in their Germanic languages.

— Wiktionary

Jehovahs Witnesses

Jehovahs Witnesses

A monotheistic and nontrinitarian Restoration Christian denomination founded by Charles Taze Russell in 1879 as a small Bible study group. Originally known as International Bible Students or Bible Students.

— Wiktionary

simultaneity

simultaneity

More than one complete musical texture occurring at the same time. This first appeared in the music of Charles Ives, and is common in the music of Conlon Nancarrow, and others.

— Wiktionary

Sleeping Beauty

Sleeping Beauty

A fairy tale originally titled La Belle au bois dormant by Charles Perrault.

— Wiktionary

cavalier

cavalier

One of the court party in the time of King Charles I, as contrasted with a Roundhead or an adherent of Parliament.

— Wiktionary

cavalier

cavalier

Of or pertaining to the party of King Charles I.

— Wiktionary

Darwinism

Darwinism

The principles of natural selection set out by Charles Darwin in the Origin of Species (1859) and other writings.

— Wiktionary

Little Red Riding Hood

Little Red Riding Hood

A fairy tale of many different versions, especially the ones by Charles Perrault and more recently the Brothers Grimm, about a young girl who walks though the forest to visit her grandmother and encounters the Big Bad Wolf (or another vicious wolf, which may be a werewolf in archaic versions).

— Wiktionary

Dickensian

Dickensian

A reader or scholar of Charles Dickens.

— Wiktionary

Dickensian

Dickensian

Of or pertaining to Charles Dickens or, especially, his writings.

— Wiktionary

Charlie

Charlie

A diminutive of the male name Charles; also used as a formal given name.

— Wiktionary

aerodrome

aerodrome

A flying machine composed of aeroplanes. An aeroplane, particularly one constructed by or according to the design of Samuel Pierpont Langley and Charles M. Manly.

— Wiktionary

Caroline

Caroline

Relating to the time of Kings Charles I and II.

— Wiktionary

Caroline

Caroline

. Borrowed in the 17th century from the form of Carolina, feminine derivative of Carolus, the equivalent of Charles, which came from Karl.

— Wiktionary

Carlos

Carlos

of and origin. English equivalent: Charles.

— Wiktionary

Chas

Chas

Short form of the male given name Charles.

— Wiktionary

Chip

Chip

A diminutive of the male given names Christopher and Charles.

— Wiktionary

Chuck

Chuck

A diminutive of the male given name Charles.

— Wiktionary

Dickens

Dickens

Charles Dickens, English novelist.

— Wiktionary

Mason-Dixon Line

Mason-Dixon Line

The boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland, as run before the Revolution (1764-1767) by two English astronomers named Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon.

— Wiktionary

Snoopy

Snoopy

Charlie Brown's pet beagle in the comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz; often representing doggish soulfulness.

— Wiktionary

Carlo

Carlo

of Italian origin. English equivalents: Charles, Carl

— Wiktionary

Inklings

Inklings

The literary group centered around English writer C.S. Lewis and his associates, particularly J.R.R. Tolkien and Charles Williams.

— Wiktionary

delinquent

delinquent

a term applied to royalists by their opponents in the English Civil War 1642 - 1645. Charles I was known as the chief delinquent.

— Wiktionary

pangenesis

pangenesis

A mechanism for heredity proposed by Charles Darwin long before the true mechanism was discovered, according to which the cells of the body shed "gemmules" which collect in the reproductive organs prior to fertilization.

— Wiktionary

lamplighter

lamplighter

A person employed to light streetlights at dusk and snuff them at dawn. An obsolete occupation since lights are now electric, most likely seen in the works of such authors as Charles Dickens, often appearing as a symbolic light-bringing figure.

— Wiktionary

combined gas law

combined gas law

a combination of Boyle's law and Charles's law which states that the product of the volume and pressure of an ideal gas divided by its temperature is constant

— Wiktionary

Messier

Messier

Charles Messier (1730-1817); a French astronomer who in 1774 published Nebulae and Star Clusters, a catalogue of 45 deep sky objects such as nebulae and star clusters. The purpose of the catalogue was to help comet hunters (like himself) and other astronomical observers to distinguish between permanent and transient objects in the sky. Objects in Messier's catalog are numbered, and the letter M (for Messier) is prepended to these numbers, as in M31 (the Andromeda Galaxy) or M13 (the globular cluster in Hercules).

— Wiktionary

analytical engine

analytical engine

A mechanical general-purpose computer, designed by Charles Babbage but never built.

— Wiktionary

Charley

Charley

A diminutive of the male given name Charles.

— Wiktionary

fortean

fortean

Of or pertaining to Charles Fort.

— Wiktionary

force de frappe

force de frappe

The French nuclear deterrence force developed by Charles de Gaulle.

— Wiktionary

Carroll

Carroll

Lewis Carroll - pseudonym of British author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson.

— Wiktionary

Billy Bunter

Billy Bunter

A fictional fat boy with round spectacles in Charles Hamilton's stories set at Greyfriars School.

— Wiktionary

Clarence House

Clarence House

a royal home in London, now the official residence of Prince Charles.

— Wiktionary

Clarence House

Clarence House

the office of Prince Charles.

— Wiktionary

Bluebeard

Bluebeard

A famous fairytale written by Charles Perrault in 1697 about a violent nobleman who has the habit of murdering his wives and the attempts of his current wife to avoid the same fate.

— Wiktionary

San Carlos

San Carlos

Places named after Saint Charles (acquired from the Spanish)

— Wiktionary

Cavachon

Cavachon

A breed of dog that is a cross between a Bichon Frisu00E9 and a Cavalier King Charles spaniel

— Wiktionary

Darwinian

Darwinian

Relating to the theory of evolution, as advanced by Charles Darwin.

— Wiktionary

Gaullism

Gaullism

French political ideology based on Charles de Gaulle's thoughts and actions.

— Wiktionary

Blissymbols

Blissymbols

a constructed language using ideographs invented by Charles K. Bliss after the Second World War.

— Wiktionary

Fourierite

Fourierite

Of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or associated with Charles Fourier or his socialist and philosophic theories.

— Wiktionary

Fourierism

Fourierism

The cooperative socialistic system of Charles Fourier, a Frenchman, who recommended the reorganization of society into small communities, living in common.

— Wiktionary

Oath of Abjuration

Oath of Abjuration

An oath asserting the right of the present royal family to the crown of England, and expressly abjuring allegiance to the descendants of Charles Edward Stuart, the Jacobite Pretender.

— Wiktionary

Peircean

Peircean

Of or pertaining to Charles S. Peirce, 19th-20th century American logician, mathematician, scientist, and philosopher, founder of pragmatism.

— Wiktionary

Carrollian

Carrollian

Of or pertaining to Lewis Carroll (1832-1898, real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) or his writings, most notably a type of imaginative fantasy involving humorous plays on words and logic.

— Wiktionary

Baudelairean

Baudelairean

Of or pertaining to Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-1867), French poet, critic, and translator, or to his works.

— Wiktionary

simple English

simple English

Constructed language created by Charles Kay Ogden which only contains a small number of words

— Wiktionary

Chaplinesque

Chaplinesque

Reminiscent of Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin (1889u20131977), English comic actor and film director of the silent film era.

— Wiktionary

Mansonite

Mansonite

A follower of Charles Manson (born 1934), American leader of a cult-like criminal group in the 1960s.

— Wiktionary

Jacob Marley

Jacob Marley

A fictional man who is a character of , by Charles Dickens, and appears as a ghost to warn his former business partner Ebenezer Scrooge against being greedy and selfish.

— Wiktionary

Tiny Tim

Tiny Tim

A fictional poor and disabled boy whose foretold imminent death is ultimately averted by Ebenezer Scrooge in the classic tale by Charles Dickens.

— Wiktionary

Anagram

Anagram

literally, the letters of a word read backwards, but in its usual wider sense, the change or one word or phrase into another by the transposition of its letters. Thus Galenus becomes angelus; William Noy (attorney-general to Charles I., and a laborious man) may be turned into I moyl in law

— Webster Dictionary

Cameronian

Cameronian

a follower of the Rev. Richard Cameron, a Scotch Covenanter of the time of Charles II

— Webster Dictionary

Car

Car

the stars also called Charles's Wain, the Great Bear, or the Dipper

— Webster Dictionary

Carlist

Carlist

a partisan of Charles X. of France, or of Don Carlos of Spain

— Webster Dictionary

Carolus

Carolus

an English gold coin of the value of twenty or twenty-three shillings. It was first struck in the reign of Charles I

— Webster Dictionary

Cavalier

Cavalier

one of the court party in the time of king Charles I. as contrasted with a Roundhead or an adherent of Parliament

— Webster Dictionary

Cavalier

Cavalier

of or pertaining to the party of King Charles I

— Webster Dictionary

Commonwealth

Commonwealth

specifically, the form of government established on the death of Charles I., in 1649, which existed under Oliver Cromwell and his son Richard, ending with the abdication of the latter in 1659

— Webster Dictionary

Convention

Convention

an extraordinary assembly of the parkiament or estates of the realm, held without the king's writ, -- as the assembly which restored Charles II. to the throne, and that which declared the throne to be abdicated by James II

— Webster Dictionary

Crescent

Crescent

any one of three orders of knighthood; the first instituted by Charles I., king of Naples and Sicily, in 1268; the second by Rene of Anjou, in 1448; and the third by the Sultan Selim III., in 1801, to be conferred upon foreigners to whom Turkey might be indebted for valuable services

— Webster Dictionary

Exclusionist

Exclusionist

one who would exclude another from some right or privilege; esp., one of the anti-popish politicians of the time of Charles II

— Webster Dictionary

Favorite

Favorite

short curls dangling over the temples; -- fashionable in the reign of Charles II

— Webster Dictionary

Fourierism

Fourierism

the cooperative socialistic system of Charles Fourier, a Frenchman, who recommended the reorganization of society into small communities, living in common

— Webster Dictionary

Interim

Interim

a name given to each of three compromises made by the emperor Charles V. of Germany for the sake of harmonizing the connecting opinions of Protestants and Catholics

— Webster Dictionary

Latitudinarian

Latitudinarian

a member of the Church of England, in the time of Charles II., who adopted more liberal notions in respect to the authority, government, and doctrines of the church than generally prevailed

— Webster Dictionary

Methodist

Methodist

one of a sect of Christians, the outgrowth of a small association called the "Holy Club," formed at Oxford University, A.D. 1729, of which the most conspicuous members were John Wesley and his brother Charles; -- originally so called from the methodical strictness of members of the club in all religious duties

— Webster Dictionary

Parliamentarian

Parliamentarian

one who adhered to the Parliament, in opposition to King Charles I

— Webster Dictionary

Plough

Plough

same as Charles's Wain

— Webster Dictionary

Protestant

Protestant

one who protests; -- originally applied to those who adhered to Luther, and protested against, or made a solemn declaration of dissent from, a decree of the Emperor Charles V. and the Diet of Spires, in 1529, against the Reformers, and appealed to a general council; -- now used in a popular sense to designate any Christian who does not belong to the Roman Catholic or the Greek Church

— Webster Dictionary

Regicide

Regicide

one who kills or who murders a king; specifically (Eng.Hist.), one of the judges who condemned Charles I. to death

— Webster Dictionary

Royalist

Royalist

an adherent of a king (as of Charles I. in England, or of the Bourbons in france); one attached to monarchical government

— Webster Dictionary

Rupert's drop

Rupert's drop

a kind of glass drop with a long tail, made by dropping melted glass into water. It is remarkable for bursting into fragments when the surface is scratched or the tail broken; -- so called from Prince Rupert, nephew of Charles I., by whom they were first brought to England. Called also Rupert's ball, and glass tear

— Webster Dictionary

Trainband

Trainband

a band or company of an organized military force instituted by James I. and dissolved by Charles II.; -- afterwards applied to the London militia

— Webster Dictionary

Wagon

Wagon

the Dipper, or Charles's Wain

— Webster Dictionary

Wagoner

Wagoner

the constellation Charles's Wain, or Ursa Major. See Ursa major, under Ursa

— Webster Dictionary

Whig

Whig

one of a political party which grew up in England in the seventeenth century, in the reigns of Charles I. and II., when great contests existed respecting the royal prerogatives and the rights of the people. Those who supported the king in his high claims were called Tories, and the advocates of popular rights, of parliamentary power over the crown, and of toleration to Dissenters, were, after 1679, called Whigs. The terms Liberal and Radical have now generally superseded Whig in English politics. See the note under Tory

— Webster Dictionary

Cavalier

Cavalier

Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I and his son Charles II during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered an archetypical Cavalier. Their clothes were leather knee high boots, tunics and hats complete with plumes

— Freebase

Roundhead

Roundhead

"Roundhead" was the name given to the supporters of the Parliament during the English Civil War. Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I and his supporters, the Cavaliers, who claimed absolute power and the divine right of kings. The goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration. Most Roundheads appear to have sought a constitutional monarchy, in place of the absolutist monarchy sought by Charles I. However, at the end of the Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican Roundhead leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy completely and establish the republican Commonwealth. The Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Lord Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu and the Earl of Essex, however this party was outmaneuvered by the more politically adept Cromwell and his radicals, who had the backing of the New Model Army and took advantage of Charles' perceived betrayal of England by allying with the Scots against Parliament. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were almost invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents. However many Roundheads were Church of England, as were many Cavaliers.

— Freebase

War of the Spanish Succession

War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession was fought between two alliances of European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as king of Spain. Spain suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 17th century under the reign of its last Habsburg king Charles II, so that by 1700 its neglected forces were barely considered those of a first rate power. However, it still possessed an immense territorial domain, including Milan and southern Italy, the southern Netherlands, the Philippines, vast territories in the Americas, and various other smaller territories and islands, making it by far the largest European empire. For this reason, other European powers felt that the possible unification of Spain with France would drastically alter the European balance of power in favour of the French throne. The war was fought primarily by forces supporting the Bourbon candidate – the Spanish loyal to Philip V, France, and the Electorate of Bavaria, together known as the Two Crowns – against those supporting the Austrian candidate – the so-called Grand Alliance among the Spanish loyal to Archduke Charles, the Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and the Duchy of Savoy.

— Freebase

The Thing

The Thing

"The Thing" is a hit novelty song by Charles Randolph Grean which received much airplay in 1950. The song was recorded by Phil Harris on October 13, 1950 and released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-3968. The record first reached the Billboard charts on November 17, 1950. It lasted 14 weeks on the chart, peaking at No. 1. Other versions were recorded by Arthur Godfrey, Danny Kaye, Kidsongs, Ray Charles, Teresa Brewer and Australian orchestra leader Les Welch. The Arthur Godfrey recording was made in November, 1950 and released by Columbia Records as catalog number 39068. The Danny Kaye recording was made on December 1, 1950 and released by Decca Records as catalog number 27350. The Ray Charles recording was made on July 13, 1963 and released by ABC-Paramount Records in the album "Have A Smile With Me", as catalog number ABC 495 / ABCS 495. The Teresa Brewer recording was made in October 1950, and released by London Records as catalog number 873. The Les Welch recording was made in January 1951 and released by Pacific Records, an Australian company, as catalog number 10-0051.

— Freebase

Waldorf

Waldorf

Waldorf is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Charles County, Maryland, United States. It is 23 miles south-southeast of Washington, D.C. The population of the census-designated area was 67,752 at the 2010 census. Waldorf was settled before 1900 as a rural crossroads with a train station and was called "Beantown" after a local family. Waldorf's original name was Beantown. In 1880 the General Assembly of Maryland by an act changed the name to "Waldorf" in honor of William Waldorf Astor, the great-grandson of John Jacob Astor, who was born in Walldorf, Palatinate, Germany. On July 29, 1908, the city of Plumb Valley in Waseca County, Minnesota, changed its name to Waldorf after Waldorf, Maryland. Once a tobacco market village, Waldorf came to prominence in the 1950s as a gambling destination after slot machines were legalized in Charles County in 1949. The boom lasted until 1968 when gambling was once again outlawed. Its subsequent substantial growth as a residential community began with a 1970 loan package from the Department of Housing and Urban Development which fueled the giant planned community of St. Charles, south of Waldorf.

— Freebase

Charleston

Charleston

Charleston is the oldest and second-largest city in the southeastern State of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper rivers. Founded in 1670 as Charles Towne in honor of King Charles II of England, Charleston adopted its present name in 1783. It moved to its present location on Oyster Point in 1680 from a location on the west bank of the Ashley River known as Albemarle Point. By 1690, Charles Towne was the fifth largest city in North America, and it remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. With a 2010 census population of 120,080, current trends put Charleston as the fastest-growing municipality in South Carolina. The city's metropolitan area population was counted by the 2012 estimate at 697,439 – the second largest in the state – and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States.

— Freebase

Charles River

Charles River

The Charles River is an 80 mi long river that flows in an overall northeasterly direction in eastern Massachusetts. From its source in Hopkinton, the river travels through 23 cities and towns until reaching the Atlantic Ocean at Boston. It is also sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles.

— Freebase

English Revolution

English Revolution

In Marxism, the "English Revolution" is the period of the English Civil Wars and Commonwealth period, in which Parliament challenged King Charles I's authority, engaged in civil conflict against his forces, and executed him in 1649. This was followed by a ten-year period of bourgeois republican government, the "Commonwealth", before monarchy was restored in the shape of Charles' son, Charles II in 1660.

— Freebase

Favorito

Favorito

Favorito was the personal horse of Charles Albert of Savoy, King of Sardinia from 1831, and was ridden by him during the campaigns of 1848. After the Piedmontese defeat at the Battle of Novara in 1849, and the king’s subsequent abdication, Favorito joined his master in exile in Porto. Following the death of Charles Albert in the July of that year, the horse was brought back to Turin and to the Royal Stables. On Favorito’s death in 1867 his pelt was mounted on a life-size wooden sculpture commissioned from Giovanni Tamone, to a design by Count Stanislao Grimaldi. The horse was equipped as for the wars of 1848–9, including the saddle used by the king in the battle of Novara, and placed along with Charles Albert’s other military effects in the Royal Armoury, where he remains on display to this day.

— Freebase

Charles's law

Charles's law

Charles's law is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated. A modern statement of Charles's law is: The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the absolute temperature scale if pressure and the amount of gas remain constant; that is, the volume of the gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature. this directly proportional relationship can be written as: or where: This law explains how a gas expands as the temperature increases; conversely, a decrease in temperature will lead to a decrease in volume. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as: The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases in proportion. The law was named after scientist Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law in his unpublished work from the 1780s.

— Freebase

Charles Atlas

Charles Atlas

Charles Atlas, born Angelo Siciliano, was the developer of a bodybuilding method and its associated exercise program that was best known for a landmark advertising campaign featuring Atlas's name and likeness; it has been described as one of the longest-lasting and most memorable ad campaigns of all time. According to Atlas, he trained himself to develop his body from that of a "scrawny weakling", eventually becoming the most popular muscleman of his day. He took the name "Charles Atlas" after a friend told him he resembled the statue of Atlas on top of a hotel in Coney Island and legally changed his name in 1922. His company, Charles Atlas Ltd., was founded in 1929 and, as of 2010, continues to market a fitness program for the "97-pound weakling" [44 kg]. The company is now owned by Jeffrey C. Hogue.

— Freebase

Charles Edward Stuart

Charles Edward Stuart

Prince Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or The Young Pretender was the second Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. This claim was as the eldest son of James Francis Edward Stuart, himself the son of King James VII and II. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, in which he led an insurrection to restore his family to the throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden that effectively ended the Jacobite cause. Charles's flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in later representations. In 1759 he was involved in a French plan to invade Britain which was abandoned following British naval victories.

— Freebase

Charles W. Fries

Charles W. Fries

Charles W. "Chuck" Fries is an American film producer, television producer, and executive producer who has worked on many TV series, made-for-TV movies, and theatrical films. Charles moved to Los Angeles, California in 1952 and began working for the production and syndication company Ziv Television Programs. He later worked at Screen Gems, Columbia Pictures, and Metromedia. In 1974, he formed Charles Fries Productions, which later became Fries Entertainment, where he produced and/or supervised more than 275 hours of television movies and mini-series. By the 1980s, Fries was one of the most prominent television producers in Hollywood. Among the projects he produced are The Amazing Spider-Man television series, which aired in the USA between 1977-1979, the 1980 television miniseries The Martian Chronicles, based on the book by Ray Bradbury, the 1981 television docudrama Bitter Harvest, and the 1989 made-for-TV movies Small Sacrifices and The Neon Empire. For theatrical release, he produced or was involved in the productions of the 1982 film Cat People, the 1986 film Thrashin', and the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills, which he co-produced with his wife, Ava Ostern Fries.

— Freebase

Charles G. Finney

Charles G. Finney

Charles G. Finney was an American fantasy novelist and newspaperman. His full name was Charles Grandison Finney, evidently after his great-grandfather, the evangelist Charles Grandison Finney. His first novel and most famous work, The Circus of Dr. Lao won one of the inaugural National Book Awards: the Most Original Book of 1935.

— Freebase

Charles Gibson

Charles Gibson

Charles deWolf "Charlie" Gibson is a former United States broadcast television anchor and journalist. He was a host of Good Morning America from 1987 to 1998 and 1999 to 2006 and anchor of World News with Charles Gibson from 2006 to 2009. Gibson's career spanned from 1965 to 2009, with beginnings as the news director for Princeton University's student-run radio station, a radio producer for RKO, and a reporter for local television stations. In 1975, he joined ABC News, where he worked as a general assignment reporter and correspondent from Washington, D.C., until becoming a host of Good Morning America in 1987. He held that position until 1998, but hosted the show again from 1999 to 2006. Gibson was the anchor for World News with Charles Gibson from 2006 until he retired in 2009.

— Freebase

Charles S. Howard

Charles S. Howard

Charles Stewart Howard was an American businessman. He made his fortune as an automobile dealer and became a prominent thoroughbred racehorse owner. Howard was dubbed one of the most successful Buick salesmen of all time. He lost a son to a car accident in 1926 at an early age and later bought the soon-to-be-famous horse Seabiscuit. According to Laura Hillenbrand's biography of Seabiscuit, Howard's early Buick dealership in San Francisco was given a boost by the hand of fate; on the day of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, he was one of the few individuals who had operational vehicles in the city, and was thus able to help the rescue effort significantly. In 1921, long before he bought Seabiscuit, Charles Howard purchased the 16,000-acre Ridgewood Ranch at Willits in Mendocino County. His 15-year-old son, Frankie, died there in 1926 after a truck accident on the property. Used as a secondary residence, by the 1930s Howard had converted part of the ranch into a thoroughbred horse breeding and training center. Although Seabiscuit was the most famous resident at Ridgewood Ranch, Charles Howard owned many horses in his secondary career as a Thoroughbred owner including Kayak II and Hall of Fame colt Noor, the first of only two horses to defeat two U.S. Triple Crown champions.

— Freebase

Grandmama

Grandmama

Grandmama is a fictional character within The Addams Family, created by cartoonist Charles Addams. Grandmama is the grandmother of the Addams children, Pugsley and Wednesday Addams, although her relationship to the other family members is somewhat inconsistent in the various incarnations of the family. In Charles Addams' original The New Yorker cartoon strips, the character was referred to as Grandma Frump, therefore making her Morticia's mother. For the original television series — as well as The New Addams Family, in which she is named Eudora Addams — her relationship to the family is retconned and she becomes Gomez and Fester's mother. However, both the feature films and animated television series conform to Charles Addams' original concept of Grandmama as Wednesday's and Pugsley's maternal grandmother. In the first film, Morticia and Gomez discuss how "Mother and Father Addams" were killed by an angry mob, removing any possibility that Grandmama could be Gomez's and Fester's mother. In the third film, in which she is named Esmeralda, she is again implied to come from Morticia's family. The character is simply referred to as Granny in the two animated series. In the second episode of the 1992 series, Grandmama introduces herself with the line, "the name's Granny Frump", while the following episode references Gomez's parents, Mother and Father Addams.

— Freebase

Battle of Tours

Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers and in Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎ was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and then-independent Aquitaine. The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Austrasian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel, against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. The Franks were victorious. ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed, and Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south. Ninth-century chroniclers, who interpreted the outcome of the battle as divine judgment in his favour, gave Charles the nickname Martellus, possibly recalling Judas Maccabeus of the Maccabean revolt. Details of the battle, including its exact location and the exact number of combatants, cannot be determined from accounts that have survived. Notably, the Frankish troops won the battle without cavalry.

— Freebase

Ajeeb

Ajeeb

Ajeeb was a chess-playing "automaton", created by Charles Hooper, first presented at the Royal Polytechnical Institute in 1868. A particularly intriguing piece of faux mechanical technology, it drew scores of thousands of spectators to its games, the opponents for which included Harry Houdini, Theodore Roosevelt, and O. Henry. The genius behind "Ajeeb" were players such as Harry Nelson Pillsbury, Albert Beauregard Hodges, Constant Ferdinand Burille, Charles Moehle, and Charles Francis Barker. In the history of such devices, it succeeded "The Turk" and preceded "Mephisto". After several spectacular demonstrations at Coney Island, New York, Ajeeb was destroyed in a fire in 1929. Ajeeb is an Urdu word meaning strange or unexplainable. In Arabic ajeeb means something very unique and beautiful.

— Freebase

abhorrer

abhorrer

a signer of a 1679 address to Charles II in which those who petitioned for the reconvening of parliament were condemned and abhorred

— Princeton's WordNet

alfred russel wallace

Wallace, Alfred Russel Wallace

English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)

— Princeton's WordNet

american capital

Washington, Washington D.C., American capital, capital of the United States

the capital of the United States in the District of Columbia and a tourist mecca; George Washington commissioned Charles L'Enfant to lay out the city in 1791

— Princeton's WordNet

capital of the united states

Washington, Washington D.C., American capital, capital of the United States

the capital of the United States in the District of Columbia and a tourist mecca; George Washington commissioned Charles L'Enfant to lay out the city in 1791

— Princeton's WordNet

carew

Carew, Thomas Carew

Englishman and Cavalier poet whose lyric poetry was favored by Charles I (1595-1639)

— Princeton's WordNet

carroll

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

catherine de medicis

Catherine de Medicis

queen of France as the wife of Henry II and regent during the minority of her son Charles IX (1519-1589)

— Princeton's WordNet

cavalier

Cavalier, Royalist

a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War

— Princeton's WordNet

charles dodgson

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

charles

Charles, Jacques Charles, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles

French physicist and author of Charles's law which anticipated Gay-Lussac's law (1746-1823)

— Princeton's WordNet

charles lutwidge dodgson

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

darwinian

Darwinian

of or relating to Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution

— Princeton's WordNet

diana

Diana, Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, Lady Diana Frances Spencer

English aristocrat who was the first wife of Prince Charles; her death in an automobile accident in Paris produced intense national mourning (1961-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

dickensian

Dickensian

of or like the novels of Charles Dickens (especially with regard to poor social and economic conditions)

— Princeton's WordNet

dodgson

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

eames chair

Eames chair

a chair designed by Charles Eames; originally made of molded plywood; seat and back shaped to fit the human body

— Princeton's WordNet

eleanor gwyn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

eleanor gwynne

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

eleanor gwynn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

english civil war

English Civil War

civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I; 1644-1648

— Princeton's WordNet

fagin

Fagin

a villainous Jew in a novel by Charles Dickens

— Princeton's WordNet

fighting french

Free French, Fighting French

a French movement during World War II that was organized in London by Charles de Gaulle to fight for the liberation of France from German control and for the restoration of the republic

— Princeton's WordNet

francis galton

Galton, Francis Galton, Sir Francis Galton

English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields including heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, and anthropology; founder of eugenics and first to use fingerprints for identification (1822-1911)

— Princeton's WordNet

free french

Free French, Fighting French

a French movement during World War II that was organized in London by Charles de Gaulle to fight for the liberation of France from German control and for the restoration of the republic

— Princeton's WordNet

galton

Galton, Francis Galton, Sir Francis Galton

English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields including heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, and anthropology; founder of eugenics and first to use fingerprints for identification (1822-1911)

— Princeton's WordNet

gwynn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

gynne

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

gywn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

henry ii

Henry II

king of France from 1547 to 1559; regained Calais from the English; husband of Catherine de Medicis and father of Charles IX (1519-1559)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacques alexandre cesar charles

Charles, Jacques Charles, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles

French physicist and author of Charles's law which anticipated Gay-Lussac's law (1746-1823)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacques charles

Charles, Jacques Charles, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles

French physicist and author of Charles's law which anticipated Gay-Lussac's law (1746-1823)

— Princeton's WordNet

jeanne d'arc

Jeanne d'Arc, Joan of Arc, Saint Joan

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412-1431)

— Princeton's WordNet

jehovah's witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses

Protestant denomination founded in the United States by Charles Taze Russell in 1884

— Princeton's WordNet

joan of arc

Jeanne d'Arc, Joan of Arc, Saint Joan

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412-1431)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl augustus menninger

Menninger, Karl Menninger, Karl Augustus Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1893-1990)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl menninger

Menninger, Karl Menninger, Karl Augustus Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1893-1990)

— Princeton's WordNet

king charles spaniel

King Charles spaniel

a toy English spaniel with a black-and-tan coat; named after Charles II who popularized it

— Princeton's WordNet

lady diana frances spencer

Diana, Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, Lady Diana Frances Spencer

English aristocrat who was the first wife of Prince Charles; her death in an automobile accident in Paris produced intense national mourning (1961-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

lewis carroll

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

lindy hop

lindy, lindy hop

an energetic American dance that was popular in the 1930s (probably named for the aviator Charles Lindbergh)

— Princeton's WordNet

lindy

lindy, lindy hop

an energetic American dance that was popular in the 1930s (probably named for the aviator Charles Lindbergh)

— Princeton's WordNet

menninger

Menninger, William Menninger, William Claire Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1899-1966)

— Princeton's WordNet

menninger

Menninger, Karl Menninger, Karl Augustus Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1893-1990)

— Princeton's WordNet

methodist church

Methodist Church, Methodists

a Protestant denomination founded on the principles of John Wesley and Charles Wesley

— Princeton's WordNet

methodists

Methodist Church, Methodists

a Protestant denomination founded on the principles of John Wesley and Charles Wesley

— Princeton's WordNet

micawber

Micawber, Wilkins Micawber

fictional character created by Charles Dickens; an eternal optimist

— Princeton's WordNet

nell gwynne

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

nell gwynn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

nell gywn

Gwynn, Gywn, Gynne, Nell Gwynn, Nell Gywn, Nell Gwynne, Eleanor Gwynn, Eleanor Gwyn, Eleanor Gwynne

English comedienne and mistress of Charles II (1650-1687)

— Princeton's WordNet

oates

Oates, Titus Oates

English conspirator who claimed that there was a Jesuit plot to assassinate Charles II (1649-1705)

— Princeton's WordNet

peter paul rubens

Rubens, Peter Paul Rubens, Sir Peter Paul Rubens

prolific Flemish baroque painter; knighted by the English king Charles I (1577-1640)

— Princeton's WordNet

princess diana

Diana, Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, Lady Diana Frances Spencer

English aristocrat who was the first wife of Prince Charles; her death in an automobile accident in Paris produced intense national mourning (1961-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

princess of wales

Diana, Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, Lady Diana Frances Spencer

English aristocrat who was the first wife of Prince Charles; her death in an automobile accident in Paris produced intense national mourning (1961-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

restoration

Restoration

the reign of Charles II in England; 1660-1685

— Princeton's WordNet

reverend dodgson

Carroll, Lewis Carroll, Dodgson, Reverend Dodgson, Charles Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

— Princeton's WordNet

royalist

Cavalier, Royalist

a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War

— Princeton's WordNet

royal society

Royal Society, Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge

an honorary English society (formalized in 1660 and given a royal charter by Charles II in 1662) through which the British government has supported science

— Princeton's WordNet

rubens

Rubens, Peter Paul Rubens, Sir Peter Paul Rubens

prolific Flemish baroque painter; knighted by the English king Charles I (1577-1640)

— Princeton's WordNet

saint joan

Jeanne d'Arc, Joan of Arc, Saint Joan

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412-1431)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir francis galton

Galton, Francis Galton, Sir Francis Galton

English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields including heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, and anthropology; founder of eugenics and first to use fingerprints for identification (1822-1911)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir peter paul rubens

Rubens, Peter Paul Rubens, Sir Peter Paul Rubens

prolific Flemish baroque painter; knighted by the English king Charles I (1577-1640)

— Princeton's WordNet

snoopy

Snoopy

a fictional beagle in a comic strip drawn by Charles Schulz

— Princeton's WordNet

thomas carew

Carew, Thomas Carew

Englishman and Cavalier poet whose lyric poetry was favored by Charles I (1595-1639)

— Princeton's WordNet

titus oates

Oates, Titus Oates

English conspirator who claimed that there was a Jesuit plot to assassinate Charles II (1649-1705)

— Princeton's WordNet

wallace

Wallace, Alfred Russel Wallace

English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)

— Princeton's WordNet

washington d.c.

Washington, Washington D.C., American capital, capital of the United States

the capital of the United States in the District of Columbia and a tourist mecca; George Washington commissioned Charles L'Enfant to lay out the city in 1791

— Princeton's WordNet

washington

Washington, Washington D.C., American capital, capital of the United States

the capital of the United States in the District of Columbia and a tourist mecca; George Washington commissioned Charles L'Enfant to lay out the city in 1791

— Princeton's WordNet

wilkins micawber

Micawber, Wilkins Micawber

fictional character created by Charles Dickens; an eternal optimist

— Princeton's WordNet

william claire menninger

Menninger, William Menninger, William Claire Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1899-1966)

— Princeton's WordNet

william menninger

Menninger, William Menninger, William Claire Menninger

United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1899-1966)

— Princeton's WordNet

Gramont

Gramont

or Grammont, Philibert, Comte de, a celebrated French courtier in the age of Louis XIV.; he greatly distinguished himself in the army, as also at the court by his lively wit and gallant bearing, and soon established himself in the king's favour, but an intrigue with one of the royal mistresses brought about his exile from France; at the profligate court of Charles II of England he found a warm welcome and congenial surroundings; left memoirs which were mainly the work of his brother-in-law, Anthony Hamilton, and which give a marvellously witty and brilliant picture of the licentiousness and intrigue of the 17th-century court life (1621-1707).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Orleans, Dukes of

Orleans, Dukes of

the name of four distinct branches of the royal family of France, the first commencing with Philippe, fifth son of Philippe of Valois, in 1344; the second with Louis, brother of Charles VI. (1371-1407); the third with Jean Baptiste Gascon, brother of Louis XIII., who took part in the plots against Richelieu, and was appointed lieutenant-general on the death of his brother (1608-1660); the fourth with Philippe I., brother of Louis XIV. (1640-1701); Philippe II., son of the preceding, governed France during the minority of Louis XV.; involved his finances by his connection with Louis, and did injury to the public morals by the depravity of his life (1674-1723); Louis-Philippe, his grandson, lieutenant-general and governor of Dauphiné (1725-1785); Louis-Philippe Joseph, son of preceding, surnamed Philippe-Egalité, played a conspicuous part in the Revolution, and perished on the scaffold (1747-1793); and Louis-Philippe, his son (q. v.); Prince Louis Robert, eldest son of Comte de Paris, claimant to the throne, b. 1869.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ship-Money

Ship-Money

a tax levied by Charles I. at the suggestion of Noy, the Attorney-General, who based its imposition on an old war-tax leviable on port-towns to furnish a navy in times of danger, and which Charles imposed in a time of peace without consent of Parliament, and upon inland as well as port-towns, provoking thereby wide-spread dissatisfaction, and Hampden's refusal to pay, which with the trial and decision in favour of Charles contributed to bring about the Civil War, which cost Charles his life; was declared illegal by the Long Parliament in 1640.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lézat

Lézat

Lézat is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

— Freebase

Cuve

Cuve

Cuve is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

— Freebase

Hundred Days

Hundred Days

The Hundred Days, sometimes known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign and the Neapolitan War. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the King. Napoleon returned while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. On 13 March, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw, and on 25 March, five days after his arrival in Paris, Austria, Prussia, Russia and the United Kingdom, members of the Seventh Coalition, bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule. This set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.

— Freebase

Count

Count

Count or Countess is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning "companion", and later "companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor". The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl. Alternative names for the "Count" rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as Graf in Germany and Hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era.

— Freebase

Franche-Comté

Franche-Comté

Franche-Comté the former "Free County" of Burgundy, as distinct from the neighbouring Duchy, is an administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and Territoire de Belfort and has a population of 1,168,208. The principal cities are the capital Besançon, Belfort, and Montbéliard. Other important cities are Dole, Vesoul, Arbois, and Lons-le-Saunier.

— Freebase

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville was a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean.

— Freebase

History of Burgundy

History of Burgundy

The History of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans, and in the 4th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people possibly originating in Bornholm, who settled there and established their own kingdom. However, Agathias identifies Burgunds and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs. This Burgundian kingdom was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks who continued the kingdom of Burgundy under their own rule. Later, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté, literally meaning free county. The situation is complicated by the fact that at different times and under different geopolitical circumstances, many different entities have gone by the name of ‘Burgundy’. Historian Norman Davies has commented that "[f]ew subjects in European history have created more havoc than that summarized by the phrase ‘all the Burgundies’." In 1862, James Bryce compiled a list of ten such entities, a list which Davies himself extends to fifteen, ranging from the first Burgundian kingdom founded by Gunther in the fifth century, to the modern French région of Bourgogne.

— Freebase

County

County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes in certain modern nations. Its etymology derives from the Old French term, conté or cunté and could denote a jurisdiction in mainland Europe, under the sovereignty of a count or a viscount. The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, Gau, etc.. When the Normans conquered England, they brought the term with them. The Saxons had already established the regions that became the Historic counties of England calling them shires. The Vikings introduced the term earl to the British Isles. Thus, "earl" and "earldom" were taken as equivalent to the continental use of "count" and "county". So, the later-imported term became a synonym for the native English word scir or, in Modern English, shire. Since a shire was an administrative division of the kingdom, the term "county" evolved to designate an administrative division of national government in most modern uses.

— Freebase

Sochaux

Sochaux

Sochaux is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

— Freebase

Concierge

Concierge

A concierge is an employee of an apartment building, hotel or office building who serves guests with duties similar to those of a butler. The position can also be maintained by a security officer over the graveyard shift. A similar position, known as the portero, exists in Spanish-speaking regions. The term "concierge" evolved from the French Comte Des Cierges, The Keeper of the Candles, who tended to visiting nobles in castles of the medieval era. In medieval times, the concierge was an officer of the King who was charged with executing justice, with the help of his bailiffs. Later on in the 18th Century, The Concierge was a high official of the kingdom, appointed by the king to maintain order and oversee the police and prisoner records. In 19th century and early 20th century apartment buildings, particularly in Paris, the concierge often had a small apartment on the ground floor, called la loge, and was able to monitor all comings and goings. However, such settings are now extremely rare; most concierges in small or middle-sized buildings have been replaced by the part-time services of door-staff. Some larger apartment buildings or groups of buildings retain the use of a concierge. The concierge may, for instance, keep the mail of absented dwellers; be entrusted with the apartment keys to deal with emergencies when residents are absent, provide information to residents and guests, provide access control, enforce rules, and act as a go-between for residents and management when management is not on-site.

— Freebase

Légna

Légna

Légna is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

— Freebase

Brie

Brie

Brie is a historic region of France most famous for its dairy products, especially Brie cheese. It was once divided into three sections ruled by different feudal lords: the western Brie française, corresponding roughly to the modern department of Seine-et-Marne in the Île-de-France region; the eastern Brie champenoise, forming a portion of the modern department of Marne in the historic region of Champagne; and the northern Brie pouilleuse, forming part of the modern department of Aisne in Picardy. The Brie forms a plateau with few eminences, varying in altitude between 300 and 500 feet in the west, and between 500 and 650 feet in the east. Its scenery is varied by forests of some size—the chief being the Forêt de Senart, the Forêt de Crécy, and the Forêt d'Armainvilliers. The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes; the subsoil is limestone. The Marne and its tributaries the Grand Morin and the Petit Morin are the chief rivers, but the region is not abundantly watered and the rainfall is only between 20 and 24 inches. Main towns: ⁕Brie-Comte-Robert ⁕Château-Thierry

— Freebase

Levier

Levier

Levier is a French Commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

— Freebase

Scye

Scye

Scye is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

— Freebase

Marast

Marast

Marast is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

— Freebase

Yorktown

Yorktown

Yorktown is a census-designated place in York County, Virginia, United States. It is the county seat of York County, one of the eight original shires formed in colonial Virginia in 1682. The CDP's population was 195 as of the 2010 census, while the county's population was 66,134 in the 2011 census estimate. The town is most famous as the site of the siege and subsequent surrender of General Cornwallis to General George Washington, and the French Fleet during the American Revolutionary War on October 19, 1781. Although the war would last for another year, this British defeat at Yorktown effectively ended the war. Yorktown also figured prominently in the American Civil War, serving as a major port to supply both northern and southern towns, depending upon who held Yorktown at the time. Today, Yorktown is part of an important national resource known as the Historic Triangle of Yorktown, Jamestown and Williamsburg, and is the eastern terminus of the Colonial Parkway. Yorktown is also the eastern terminus of the TransAmerica Trail, a bicycle touring route created by the Adventure Cycling Association. One of Yorktowns historic sister cities is Zweibrücken in Germany. In the time of the American War of Independence, a German Regt called the Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment was commanded by Comte Christian de Forbach and was one of the four regiments that arrived at Newport with Rochambeau in 1780 and went on to participate in the Battle of Yorktown on the side of the Americans in 1781. Since that time Yorktown is in very close friendship to the German city of Zweibrücken.

— Freebase

Doubs

Doubs

Doubs is a department in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.

— Freebase

Electoral district

Electoral district

An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté. Each federal electoral districts returns one Member of Parliament to the Canadian House of Commons; each provincial or territorial electoral district returns one representative — called, depending on the province or territory, Member of the Legislative Assembly, Member of the National Assembly, Member of Provincial Parliament or Member of the House of Assembly — to the provincial or territorial legislature. While electoral districts in Canada are now exclusively single-member districts, in the past, multiple-member districts were used at both the federal and provincial levels. Alberta had a few districts in its history that returned from two up to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. British Columbia had a mix of multiple-member districts in Vancouver and single-member districts elsewhere until the 1991 election, and Prince Edward Island had dual-member districts until the 1996 election.

— Freebase

Porcelaine

Porcelaine

The Porcelaine is a breed of dog originating from France. It is believed to be the oldest of the French scent hounds. Its alternate name is the Chien de Franche-Comté, named after a French region bordering Switzerland. This caused some debate over the dog's origin, but it has been decided that it is a French dog.

— Freebase

Bournonite

Bournonite

Bournonite is a sulfosalt mineral species, a sulfantimonite of lead and copper with the formula PbCuSbS3. It was first mentioned by Philip Rashleigh in 1797 as an ore of antimony and was more completely described in 1804 by French crystallographer and mineralogist Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon, after whom it was named. The name given by Bournon himself was endellione, since used in the form endellionite, after the locality in Cornwall where the mineral was first found. The crystals are orthorhombic, and are generally tabular in habit owing to the predominance of the basal pinacoid; numerous smooth bright faces are often developed on the edges and corners of the crystals. Usually, however, the crystals are twinned, the twin-plane being a face of the prism; the angle between the faces of this prism being nearly a right angIe, the twinning gives rise to cruciform groups and when it is often repeated the group has the appearance of a cog-wheel, hence the name Rdelerz of the Kapnik miners. The repeated twinning gives rise to twin-lamellae, which may be detected on the fractured surfaces, even of the massive material. It is a mineral in medium temperature hydrothermal vein deposits. It commonly occurs with galena, tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, stibnite, zinkenite, siderite, quartz, rhodochrosite, dolomite and barite.

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Vanne

Vanne

Vanne is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Bertrand de Molleville

Bertrand de Molleville

Comte Antoine François Bertrand de Molleville was a French politician. He was considered a fiery partisan of royalty, and surnamed the enfant terrible of the monarchy. He was first conseiller to the Parlement de Toulouse in 1766, then maîtres des requêtes in 1774 and finally Intendant de Bretagne, in 1784. Bertrand de Molleville was then charged in 1788 with the difficult task of dissolving the Parliament of Brittany. Favourable to the gathering of the estates general in 1789, he advised Louis XVI after the dissolution of the Assemblée. Made ministre de la Marine et des Colonies from 1790 to 1792, he organised the mass emigration of officers. Due to numerous denunciations, he retired from his functions and became chief of the royal secret police. Before and after the 10 August 1792, he tried to organise an escape for the king, but he was eventually forced to resolve to flee to England himself. Despite his dedication and his friendship for, he was one of his most untalented servants.

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Doctrinaires

Doctrinaires

Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. Headed by Royer-Collard, these liberal royalists were in favor of a constitutional monarchy but with a heavily restricted census suffrage — Louis XVIII, who had been restored to the throne, had granted a Charter to the French with a Chamber of Peers and a Chamber of deputies elected under tight electoral laws. The Doctrinaires first obtained in 1816 the co-operation of Louis XVIII, who had been frightened by the violence of the Ultra-royalists in the Chambre introuvable of 1815. The Ultras, however, quickly came back to government, headed by the comte de Villèle. The Doctrinaires were then in the opposition, although they remained quite close to the government, especially to Decazes who assumed some governmental offices. Closer to a reflexion circle than to a political party, the Doctrinaires were opposed on their left by the Republicans and the "Utopian Socialists" and on their right by the Ultras.

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Delle

Delle

Delle is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France. Delle is the last French town on the railway line from Belfort to Berne, in Switzerland. Visitors to Delle can travel there by bus from Belfort, timetables can be found at: www.optymo.fr There is a Swiss Federal Railways station in Delle for trains to Delemont.

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Caquelon

Caquelon

A Caquelon is a cooking vessel of stoneware, ceramic, enamelled cast iron, or porcelain for the preparation of fondue. The word is from a Swiss French term originating in the 18th century derived from the Swiss German word Kakel meaning an earthenware casserole. The term is in common use throughout Switzerland, and in the Franche-Comté and Provence regions of France. The bottom of a caquelon requires a thickness sufficient to prevent burning of the melted cheese when the vessel is placed over a spirit burner at the table. Nevertheless, an encrusted layer of cheese forms on the bottom called the Grossmutter in German, La Religieuse in French, which is released when the fondue has been consumed and is shared between the diners.

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Boulot

Boulot

Boulot is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, officially Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry, was a French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of France's highest literary awards and also won the U.S. National Book Award. He is best remembered for his novella The Little Prince and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind, Sand and Stars and Night Flight. Saint-Exupéry was a successful commercial pilot before World War II, working airmail routes in Europe, Africa and South America. At the outbreak of war, he joined the French Air Force, flying reconnaissance missions until France's armistice with Germany in 1940. After being demobilised from the French Air Force, he travelled to the United States to persuade its government to enter the war against Nazi Germany. Following a 27-month hiatus in North America, during which he wrote three of his most important works, he joined the Free French Air Force in North Africa, although he was far past the maximum age for such pilots and in declining health. He disappeared over the Mediterranean on his last assigned reconnaissance mission in July 1944, and is believed to have died at that time.

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Lawe

Lawe

The Lawe is a river of northern France, right tributary of the Lys. Its source is near Magnicourt-en-Comte. It flows generally northeast through Houdain, Bruay-la-Buissière, Béthune and Lestrem. It flows into the Lys in La Gorgue.

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Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists".

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Moval

Moval

Moval is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France.

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Peintre

Peintre

Peintre is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Onay

Onay

Onay is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is located 12 km south east of Gray, 60 km east of Dijon and 40 km north west of Besançon, on the route D177. Onay is within the prefecture of Vesoul and the sub-prefecture of Lure.

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Laire

Laire

Laire is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Cordonnet

Cordonnet

Cordonnet is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Anthropomorpha

Anthropomorpha

Anthropomorpha is a defunct taxon which contained the manlike, or anthropoid, apes. The order was established by Carl Linnaeus in the first edition of his book Systema Naturae for genera Homo, Simia and Bradypus. In the 1758 edition of the same book, Linnaeus discarded this name and began to use the word Primates, which has replaced Anthropomorpha completely. The name is no longer considered valid, as the animals that were included within Anthropomorpha are now believed to belong to multiple clades. For example, two-toed sloths were included within Anthropomorpha, but are now considered to be in the family Megalonychidae, which is not closely related to the primates. The taxon Anthropomorpha was originally proposed by Carolus Linnaeus, although Linnaeus' archenemy, the Comte de Buffon, correctly rejected the combination of sloths and humans within the same order.

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