Definitions containing récamir, madame

We've found 73 definitions:

pompadour

pompadour

A woman's hairstyle, named after Madame de Pompadour.

— Wiktionary

Mesdames

Mesdames

of Madame

— Webster Dictionary

Mesdames

Mesdames

pl. of Madame and Madam

— Webster Dictionary

Madame Tussauds

Madame Tussauds

Madame Tussauds is a wax museum in London with branches in a number of major cities. It was founded by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud and was formerly known as "Madame Tussaud's"; the apostrophe is no longer used. Madame Tussauds is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying waxworks of historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars and infamous murderers.

— Freebase

Madam

Madam

Madam, or madame, is a polite form of address for women, often contracted to "ma'am". The abbreviation is "Mme" and the plural is mesdames. The term was borrowed from the French madame, which means "my lady".

— Freebase

francoise-athenais de rochechouart

Montespan, Marquise de Montespan, Francoise-Athenais de Rochechouart

French noblewoman who was mistress to Louis XIV until he became attracted to Madame de Maintenon (1641-1707)

— Princeton's WordNet

marquise de montespan

Montespan, Marquise de Montespan, Francoise-Athenais de Rochechouart

French noblewoman who was mistress to Louis XIV until he became attracted to Madame de Maintenon (1641-1707)

— Princeton's WordNet

montespan

Montespan, Marquise de Montespan, Francoise-Athenais de Rochechouart

French noblewoman who was mistress to Louis XIV until he became attracted to Madame de Maintenon (1641-1707)

— Princeton's WordNet

Nee

Nee

born; -- a term sometimes used in introducing the name of the family to which a married woman belongs by birth; as, Madame de Stael, nee Necker

— Webster Dictionary

Madonna

Madonna

my lady; -- a term of address in Italian formerly used as the equivalent of Madame, but for which Signora is now substituted. Sometimes introduced into English

— Webster Dictionary

Babiole

Babiole

Babiole is a French literary fairy tale, written by Madame d'Aulnoy.

— Freebase

Marie Tussaud

Marie Tussaud

Anna Maria "Marie" Tussaud was a French artist known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum she founded in London.

— Freebase

Kojo

Kojo

Timo Kojo is a Finnish pop rock singer. He started his recording career in 1977 when his band, Madame George, released their only album, Madame George: What's Happening?. Kojo's first solo album, So Mean, was a hit in Finland. The second sold equally well, though it was not considered quite as good. In 1981, however, his third solo album was a flop. In 1982 he represented his country with the entry Nuku pommiin, a rock song with music by Jim Pembroke and lyrics by Juice Leskinen; the conductor was Ossi Runne. The song performed in Finnish was a protest against nuclear bombs and the danger of a nuclear war in Europe. The song received no points. Despite this poor result, Kojo continued his career in his native country. Kojo's music declined in popularity in Finland after 1982; however, he remains well-known on the strength of his Eurovision career.

— Freebase

Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert was a French writer who is counted among the greatest novelists in Western literature. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary, for his Correspondence, and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and style.

— Freebase

Paul Scarron

Paul Scarron

Paul Scarron was a French poet, dramatist, and novelist, born in Paris. His precise birthdate is unknown, but he was baptized on July 4, 1610. Scarron was the first husband of Françoise d'Aubigné, who later became Madame de Maintenon and secretly married King Louis XIV of France.

— Freebase

Girondist

Girondist

The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondists were a group of loosely-affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the States-general from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the revenge killing of radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by Girondist sympathizer, Charlotte Corday. Some prominent Girondists were Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in American Founding Father Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed with the guillotine and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution.

— Freebase

Silver Fox

Silver Fox

Silver Fox is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe created by Chris Claremont and John Buscema. The character's first appearance was in Wolverine vol. 2 #10. Silver Fox is a former love interest for Wolverine, and currently works for the terrorist organization HYDRA. She is sometimes known as "Madame Hydra."

— Freebase

François Boucher

François Boucher

François Boucher was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste, known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories representing the arts or pastoral occupations, intended as a sort of two-dimensional furniture. He was perhaps the most celebrated decorative artist of the 18th century. He also painted several portraits of his illustrious patroness, Madame de Pompadour.

— Freebase

Mathews, Charles James

Mathews, Charles James

light comedian, son of the preceding; married Madame Vestris; was a charming actor, acted with a great grace and delicacy of feeling (1803-1878).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lotusland

Lotusland

The place-name Ganna Walska Lotusland, also known as the Lotusland, is the historic estate of Madame Ganna Walska and current location of a non-profit botanical garden in uniquely designed landscape gardens located in Montecito, near Santa Barbara, California, United States. The Lotusland estate is open to the public by advance reservation only, with walking tours 1½ to 2 hours long through the distinctive gardens.

— Freebase

Corvetto

Corvetto

Corvetto is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone. It is Aarne-Thompson type 531. Other tales of this type include The Firebird and Princess Vasilisa, Ferdinand the Faithful and Ferdinand the Unfaithful, King Fortunatus's Golden Wig, and The Mermaid and the Boy. Another, literary variant is Madame d'Aulnoy's La Belle aux cheveux d'or, or The Story of Pretty Goldilocks.

— Freebase

Diamond Necklace

Diamond Necklace

a necklace consisting of 500 diamonds, and worth £80,000, which one Madame de la Motte induced the jeweller who "made" it to part with for Marie Antoinette, on security of Cardinal de Rohan, and which madame made away with, taking it to pieces and disposing of the jewels in London; the swindle was first discovered when the jeweller presented his bill to the queen, who denied all knowledge of the matter; this led to a trial which extended over nine months, gave rise to great scandal, and ended in the punishment of the swindler and her husband, and the disgrace of the unhappy, and it is believed innocent, queen. See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Charente-Inférieure

Charente-Inférieure

a maritime dep. of France, W. of the former; includes the islands of Rhé, Oléron, Aix, and Madame; capital, La Rochelle.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Delphine

Delphine

Delphine is the first novel by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël, published in 1802. The book is written in epistolary form and examines the limits of women's freedom in an aristocratic society. Although Madame de Staël denied political intent the book was controversial enough for Napoleon to exile the author. A new English translation was released by Avriel H. Goldberger in 1995. The word "delphine" is defined as "to look or act like a dolphin".

— Freebase

Chenonceaux

Chenonceaux

a magnificent château near Amboise, in, France; built by Francis I. for the Duchesse d'Etampes, afterwards the property of the Condés, and afterwards of Madame Dupont.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Montespan, Marquise de

Montespan, Marquise de

mistress of Louis XIV.; a woman noted for her wit and beauty; bore the king eight children; was supplanted by Madame de Maintenon (q. v.); passed her last days in religious retirement (1641-1707).

Montesquieu, Baron de

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Madame Curie

Madame Curie

Madame Curie is a 1943 biographical film made by MGM. It was directed by Mervyn LeRoy and produced by Sidney Franklin from a screenplay by Paul Osborn, Paul H. Rameau, and Aldous Huxley, adapted from the biography by Eve Curie. It stars Greer Garson, Walter Pidgeon, Robert Walker, Henry Travers, Albert Bassermann, C. Aubrey Smith, Dame May Whitty, Reginald Owen, Van Johnson, and Margaret O'Brien and featuring narration read by James Hilton. The film tells the story of Polish-French physicist Marie Curie.

— Freebase

Anne of France

Anne of France

Anne of France was the eldest daughter of Louis XI of France and his second wife, Charlotte of Savoy. Anne was the sister of King Charles VIII of France, for whom she acted as regent during his minority; and of Joan of France, who was briefly queen consort to Louis XII. As regent of France, Anne was one of the most powerful women of the late fifteenth century and was referred to as "Madame la Grand".

— Freebase

Green Snake

Green Snake

Green Snake is a 1993 Hong Kong fantasy film made by Tsui Hark. It is the adaptation of a novel of the same title by Lilian Lee. The novel itself is a variation of a Chinese folk tale Madame White Snake, where Lillian Lee tells the story from the perspective of Xiaoqing, the Green Snake, who normally plays a supporting role behind the main character Bai Suzhen, the White Snake. As the title suggests, the movie also features Xiaoqing as the main character.

— Freebase

Bagatelle

Bagatelle

Bagatelle is a billiards-derived indoor table game, the object of which is to get a number of balls past wooden pins into holes. It probably developed from the table made with raised sides for trou madame, which was also played with ivory balls and continued to be popular into the later nineteenth century. A bagatelle variant using fixed metal pins, billard Japonais, eventually led to the development of pinball and pachinko. Bagatelle is also laterally related to miniature golf.

— Freebase

Burney, Charles

Burney, Charles

musical composer and organist, born at Shrewsbury; a friend of Johnson's; author of "The History of Music," and the father of Madame d'Arblay; settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Flaubert, Gustave

Flaubert, Gustave

a realistic romancer, born at Rouen; author of "Madame Bovary," a study of provincial life, which became the subject of a prosecution, and "Salammbô," wonderful for its vigour and skill in description; he indulged in repulsive subjects (1821-1880).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

St. Cyr

St. Cyr

a French village, 2 m. W. of Versailles, where Louis XIV., at the request of Madame de Maintenon, founded an institution for the education of girls of noble birth but poor, which was suppressed at the time of the Revolution, and afterwards converted into a military school by Napoleon.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Offenbach, Jacques

Offenbach, Jacques

a musical composer, born at Cologne, of Jewish parents, creator of the opera bouffe; was the author of "La Belle Hélène," "Orphée aux Enfers," "La Grande Duchesse," "Madame Favart," &c. (1810-1880)

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nantes, Edict Of

Nantes, Edict Of

edict granted by Henry IV. 1598, allowing to Protestants religious liberty and political enfranchisement, and confirmed by Louis XIII. in 1614, but revoked, after frequent infringements, in the shape of dragonnades and otherwise, by Louis XIV., Oct. 23, 1685, at the instance of Madame Maintenon and Père la Chaise.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Récamir, Madame

Récamir, Madame

Frenchwoman, born at Lyons; became at 15 the wife of a rich banker In Paris thrice her own age; was celebrated for her wit her beauty, and her salon; was a friend of Madame de Staël and Châteaubriand, whom she soothed in his declining years, and a good woman (1777-1849).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lumiere

Lumiere

Lumiere is a Brazilian film production and distribution company that is based in Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1990, the company began as a distributor of independent and international titles for theatrical, home video, and television rights. From 1996 to 2003, Lumiere maintained an exclusive output deal with Miramax for the territory of Brazil. Titles released during this period include The English Patient, Chicago and the Scary Movie franchise. By 2002, Lumiere was the market leading independent distributor in Brazil. Lumiere premiered its operations as a motion picture producer in 1996 with Little Book of Love. Since then, Lumiere has also produced or co-produced films such as City of God, Madame Satã and Os Normais.

— Freebase

Bartoloz`zi, Francesco

Bartoloz`zi, Francesco

an eminent engraver, born at Florence; wrought at his art both in England and in Portugal, where he died; his chief works, "Clytie," after Annibale Caracci, the "Prometheus," after Michael Angelo, and "Virgin and Child," after Carlo Dolci; he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Frances Burney

Frances Burney

Frances Burney, also known as Fanny Burney and, after her marriage, as Madame d’Arblay, was an English novelist, diarist and playwright. She was born in Lynn Regis, now King’s Lynn, England, on 13 June 1752, to musical historian Dr Charles Burney and Mrs Esther Sleepe Burney. The third of six children, she was self-educated and began writing what she called her “scribblings” at the age of ten. In 1793, aged forty-two, she married a French exile, General Alexandre D'Arblay. Their only son, Alexander, was born in 1794. After a lengthy writing career, and travels that took her to France for more than ten years, she settled in Bath, England, where she died on 6 January 1840.

— Freebase

Gréville, Henry

Gréville, Henry

the pseudonym of Madame Alice Durand (née Fleury), novelist, born at Paris; her works, which are numerous, contain lively pictures of life in Russia, in which country, in St. Petersburg, she spent 15 years of her life (1857-72), and married Émile Durand, a French professor of Law; since 1872 she has lived in France; b. 1842.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Espinasse, Clare Françoise

Espinasse, Clare Françoise

a wit and beauty, born at Lyons, illegitimate child of the Countess d'Albon; went to Paris as companion to Madame du Deffand, with whom she quarrelled; set up a salon of her own, and became celebrated for her many attractions; D'Alembert was devoted to her; many of her letters to her lovers, the Marquis de Mora and M. de Guilbert in particular, have been published, and display a charming personality (1732-1776).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Terray, Abbé

Terray, Abbé

"dissolute financier" of Louis XV.; "paying eightpence in the shilling, so that wits exclaim in some press at the play-house, 'Where is Abbé Terray that he might reduce it to two-thirds!'"; lived a scandalous life, and ingratiated himself with Madame Pompadour; he held his post till the accession of Louis XVI., and fell with his iniquitous colleagues (1715-1778).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Roland de la Platière, Jean Marie

Roland de la Platière, Jean Marie

husband of Madame Roland, was Inspector of Manufactures at Lyons; represented Lyons in the Constituent Assembly; acted with the Girondists; fled when the Girondist party fled, and on hearing of his wife's fate at Rouen bade farewell to his friends who had sheltered him, and was found next morning "sitting leant against a tree, stiff in the rigour of death, a cane-sword run through his heart" (1732-1793).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grimm, Baron

Grimm, Baron

a German littérateur and critic, born at Ratisbon; a man of versatile powers and vast attainments; settled in Paris and became acquainted with Rousseau and the leading Encyclopédists and Madame d'Epinay; on the breaking out of the Revolution he retired to the court of Gotha and afterwards to that of Catharine II. of Russia, who made him her minister at Hamburg; his correspondence is full of interest, and abounds in piquant literary criticism (1723-1807).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette, born an Archduchess of Austria, was Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. In April 1770, on the day of her marriage to Louis-Auguste, Dauphin of France, she became Dauphine of France. Marie Antoinette assumed the title of Queen of France and of Navarre when her husband, Louis XVI of France, ascended the throne upon the death of Louis XV in May 1774. After seven years of marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of four children. Initially charmed by her personality and beauty, the French people generally came to dislike her, accusing "L'Autrichienne" of being profligate, promiscuous, and of harboring sympathies for France's enemies, particularly Austria, her country of origin. The Diamond Necklace incident further ruined her reputation. Although she was completely innocent in this affair, she became known as Madame Déficit.

— Freebase

Blithe Spirit

Blithe Spirit

Blithe Spirit is a comic play by Noël Coward which takes its title from Shelley's poem "To a Skylark". The play concerns the socialite and novelist Charles Condomine, who invites the eccentric medium and clairvoyant, Madame Arcati, to his house to conduct a séance, hoping to gather material for his next book. The scheme backfires when he is haunted by the ghost of his annoying and temperamental first wife, Elvira, after the séance. Elvira makes continual attempts to disrupt Charles's marriage to his second wife, Ruth, who cannot see or hear the ghost. The play was first seen in the West End in 1941, creating a new long-run record for non-musical British plays of 1,997 performances. It also did well on Broadway later that year, running for 657 performances. Coward adapted the play for film in 1945, starring Rex Harrison, and directed a musical adaptation, High Spirits, on Broadway in 1964. It was also adapted for television in the 1950s and 1960s and for radio. The play enjoyed several West End and Broadway revivals in the 1970s and 1980s and was revived again in London in 2004, 2011 and 2014. It returned to Broadway in February 2009.

— Freebase

Locusta

Locusta

Locusta was notorious in Ancient Rome for her skill in concocting poisons. According to ancient historians, in CE 54 Locusta was hired by Agrippina the Younger to supply a poisoned dish of mushrooms for the murder of Emperor Claudius. In 55, she was convicted of poisoning another victim, but Nero rescued her from execution and in return called upon her to supply poison to murder Britannicus. Nero rewarded her with a vast estate and even sent pupils to her. When Nero fled Rome, he acquired poison from Locusta for his own use, but ultimately died by other means. After Nero's suicide, Locusta was condemned to die by the emperor Galba during his brief reign, which ended 15 January CE 69. Locusta's career is described by the ancient historians Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio. Juvenal also mentions Locusta in Book 1, line 71 of his Satires. In The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas the poisoner Madame de Villefort is frequently compared to Locusta and one of the chapters is entitled 'Locusta'.

— Freebase

Princess Royal

Princess Royal

Princess Royal is a style customarily awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. The style is held for life, so a princess cannot be given the style during the lifetime of another Princess Royal. In particular, Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title. There have been seven Princesses Royal. Princess Anne is the current Princess Royal. The title Princess Royal came into existence when Queen Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV, King of France, and wife of King Charles I, wanted to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the King of France was styled "Madame Royale". The style is granted by Royal Warrant. Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King James II & VII, and Princess Sophia Dorothea, only daughter of King George I, were eligible for this honour but did not receive it. At the time she became eligible for the title, Princess Mary was already Princess of Orange, while Sophia Dorothea was already Queen in Prussia when she became eligible for the title.

— Freebase

Garcia, Manuel

Garcia, Manuel

a noted singer and composer, born at Seville; in 1808 he went to Paris with a reputation already gained at Madrid and Cadiz; till 1824 he was of high repute in London and Paris as an operatic tenor; and in the following year visited the United States; when on the road between Mexico and Vera Cruz he was robbed of all his money; he spent his closing years in Paris as a teacher of singing, his voice being greatly impaired by age as well as fatigue; his eldest daughter was the celebrated Madame Malibran (1775-1832).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Etheric body

Etheric body

The etheric body, ether-body, æther body, a name given by neo-Theosophy to a vital body or subtle body propounded in esoteric philosophies as the first or lowest layer in the "human energy field" or aura. It is said to be in immediate contact with the physical body, to sustain it and connect it with "higher" bodies. The English term "etheric" in this context seems to derive from the Theosophical writings of Madame Blavatsky, but its use was formalised by C.W. Leadbeater and Annie Besant due to the elimination of Hindu terminology from the system of seven planes and bodies.. The term gained some general popularity after the 1914-18 war, Dr.Walter John Kilner having adopted it for a layer of the "human atmosphere" which, as he claimed in a popular book, could be rendered visible to the naked eye by means of certain exercises. The classical element Aether of Platonic and Aristotlean physics continued in Victorian scientific proposals of a Luminiferous ether as well as the cognate chemical substance ether. According to Theosophists and Alice Bailey the etheric body inhabits an etheric plane which corresponds to the four higher subplanes of the physical plane. The intended reference is therefore to some extremely rarefied matter, analogous in usage to the word "spirit". In selecting it as the term for a clearly defined concept in an Indian-derived metaphysical system, the Theosophists aligned it with ideas such as the prana-maya-kosha of Vedantic thought.

— Freebase

Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, also known simply as The Terror, was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine, and another 25,000 in summary executions across France. The guillotine became the symbol of the revolutionary cause, strengthened by a string of executions: King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, the Girondins, Philippe Égalité, and Madame Roland, as well as many others such as pioneering chemist Antoine Lavoisier, lost their lives under its blade. During 1794, revolutionary France was beset with conspiracies by internal and foreign enemies. Within France, the revolution was opposed by the French nobility, which had lost its inherited privileges. The Roman Catholic Church was generally against the Revolution, which had turned the clergy into employees of the state and required they take an oath of loyalty to the nation. In addition, the First French Republic was engaged in a series of wars with neighboring powers intent on crushing the revolution to prevent its spread.

— Freebase

Schlegel, August Wilhelm von

Schlegel, August Wilhelm von

German man of letters, born at Hanover; studied theology at first, but turned to literature and began with poetry; settled in Jena, and in 1798 became professor of Fine Arts there; was associated in literary work with Madame de Staël for 14 years; delivered "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature" at Vienna in 1708, and finished with a professorship of Literature at Bonn, having previously distinguished himself by translations into German of Shakespeare, Dante, &c.; he devoted himself to the study of Sanskrit when at Bonn, where he had Heine for pupil (1767-1845).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Louvois, Marquis of

Louvois, Marquis of

War Minister of Louis XIV., born in Paris; was a man of great administrative ability in his department, but for the glory of France and his own was savage for war and relentless in the conduct of it, till one day in his obstinate zeal, as he threatened to lay the cathedral city of Trèves in ashes, the king, seizing the tongs from the chimney, was about to strike him therewith, and would have struck him, had not Madame de Maintenon, his mistress, interfered and stayed his hand; he died suddenly, to the manifest relief of his royal master (1641-1691).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

La Fayette, Madame de

La Fayette, Madame de

novelist, born in Paris; is credited with being the originator of the class of fiction in which character and its analysis are held of chief account; she was the daughter of the governor of Havre, and contracted a Platonic affection for La Rochefoucauld in his old age, and was besides on intimate terms with Madame Sévigné and the most eminent literary men of the time; her "Princess de Clèves" is a classic work, and the merit of it is enhanced by the reflection that it preceded by nearly half a century the works both of Le Sage and Defoe (1634-1693).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Maintenon, Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de

Maintenon, Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de

born in the prison of Niort, where her father was incarcerated as a Protestant; though well inoculated with Protestant principles she turned a Catholic, married the poet Scarron in 1652, became a widow in 1660; was entrusted with the education of the children of Louis XIV. and Madame de Montespan; supplanted the latter in the king's affections, and was secretly married to him in 1684; she exercised a great influence over him, not always for good, and on his death in 1715 retired into the Convent of St. Cyr, which she had herself founded for young ladies of noble birth but in humble circumstances (1635-1719).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Scarron, Paul

Scarron, Paul

a French humourist, writer of the burlesque, born, of good parentage, in Paris; entered the Church, and was for some years somewhat lax-living abbé of Mans, but stricken with incurable disease settled in Paris, and supported himself by writing; is chiefly remembered for his "Virgile Travesti" and "Le Roman Comique," which "gave the impulse out of which sprang the masterpieces of Le Sage, Defoe, Fielding, and Smollett"; married in 1652 Françoise d'Aubigné, a girl of fifteen, afterwards the famous Madame de Maintenon (q. v.); was a man who both suffered much and laughed much (1610-1660).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing was the pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong's last wife and major Communist Party of China power figure. She went by the stage name Lan Ping during her acting career, and was known by various other names during her life. She married Mao in Yan'an in November 1938, and is sometimes referred to as Madame Mao in Western literature, serving as Communist China's first first lady. Jiang Qing was most well known for playing a major role in the Cultural Revolution and for forming the radical political alliance known as the "Gang of Four". She was named the "Great Flag-carrier of the Proletarian Culture". Jiang Qing served as Mao's personal secretary in the 1940s and was head of the Film Section of the CPC Propaganda Department in the 1950s. In the early 1960s, she made a bid for power during the Cultural Revolution, which resulted in widespread chaos within the communist party. In 1966 she was appointed deputy director of the Central Cultural Revolution Group and claimed real power over Chinese politics for the first time. She became one of the masterminds of the Cultural Revolution, and along with three others, held absolute control over all of the national institutions.

— Freebase

John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida. His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe.

— Freebase

Tallien, Jean Lambert

Tallien, Jean Lambert

a notable French Revolutionist, born in Paris; a lawyer's clerk; threw in his lot with the Revolution, and became prominent as the editor of a Jacobin journal, L'Ami des Citoyens; took an active part in the sanguinary proceedings during the ascendency of Robespierre, notably terrorising the disaffected of Bordeaux by a merciless use of the guillotine; recalled to Paris, and became President of the Convention, but fearing Robespierre, headed the attack which brought the Dictator to the block; enjoyed, with his celebrated wife, Madame de Fontenay, considerable influence; accompanied Napoleon to Egypt; was captured by the English, and for a season lionised by the Whigs; his political influence at an end, he was glad to accept the post of consul at Alicante, and subsequently died in poverty (1769-1820).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Astral body

Astral body

The astral body is a subtle body posited by many religious philosophers, intermediate between the intelligent soul and the physical body, composed of a subtle material. The concept ultimately derives from the philosophy of Plato: it is related to an astral plane, which consists of the planetary heavens of astrology. The term was adopted by nineteenth-century Theosophists and neo-Rosicrucians. The idea is rooted in common worldwide religious accounts of the afterlife in which the soul's journey or "ascent" is described in such terms as "an ecstatic.., mystical or out-of body experience, wherein the spiritual traveller leaves the physical body and travels in his/her subtle body into ‘higher’ realms". Hence "the "many kinds of 'heavens', 'hells' and purgatorial existences believed in by followers of innumerable religions" may also be understood as astral phenomena, as may the various "phenomena of the séance room". The phenomenon of apparitional experience is therefore related, as is made explicit in Cicero's Dream of Scipio. The astral body is sometimes said to be visible as an aura of swirling colours. It is widely linked today with out-of-body experiences or astral projection. Where this refers to a supposed movement around the real world, as in Muldoon and Carrington's book The Projection of the Astral Body, it conforms to Madame Blavatsky's usage of the term. Elsewhere this latter is termed "etheric", while "astral" denotes an experience of dream-symbols, archetypes, memories, spiritual beings and visionary landscapes.

— Freebase

Quietism

Quietism

the name given to a mystical religious turn of mind which seeks to attain spiritual illumination and perfection by maintaining a purely passive and susceptive attitude to Divine communication and revelation, shutting out all consciousness of self and all sense of external things, and independently of the observance of the practical virtues. The high-priest of Quietism was the Spanish priest Molinos (q. v.), and his chief disciple in France was Madame de Guyon, who infected the mind of the saintly Fénélon. The appearance of it in France, and especially Fénélon's partiality to it, awoke the hostility of Bossuet, who roused the Church against it, as calculated to have an injurious effect on the interests of practical morality; indeed the hostility became so pronounced that Fénélon was forced to retract, to the gradual dying out of the fanaticism.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pinkerton

Pinkerton

Pinkerton is the second studio album by American alternative rock band Weezer, released on September 24, 1996 on DGC Records. After discarding initial plans for a space-themed rock opera entitled Songs from the Black Hole, the group recorded Pinkerton in between vocalist/guitarist Rivers Cuomo's stints at Harvard University. Much of the album was written by Cuomo while he was away at school. To assist in capturing the group's live sound, Weezer decided against hiring a producer for Pinkerton. The record used a darker, more abrasive sound in comparison to the band's debut album, Weezer, with themes drawn from Cuomo's disillusionment with the rock lifestyle. Pinkerton is named after the character B.F. Pinkerton from Giacomo Puccini's opera Madame Butterfly, and the album plays as a concept album based loosely around the opera. Like the opera, the record contains many references to Japan and Japanese culture. Pinkerton debuted at number 19 on the Billboard 200 and fell far short of sales expectations after the success of the band's debut, Weezer. The record spawned three singles, two of which were released in an attempt to save the album commercially: "El Scorcho", "The Good Life" and "Pink Triangle". Despite receiving negative reviews from critics upon its release, the album went on to achieve cult status and wide acclaim years after its release; the 2010 "Deluxe Edition" reissue holds a perfect score on aggregate review website Metacritic. It was the last Weezer album to feature bassist Matt Sharp.

— Freebase

Joubert, Joseph

Joubert, Joseph

author of "Pensées," born in Montignac, Périgord; educated in Toulouse, succeeded to a small competency, came to Paris, got access to the best literary circles, and was the most brilliant figure in the salon of Madame de Beaumont; his works were exclusively pensées and maxims, and bear at once on ethics, politics, theology, and literature; "There is probably," Professor Saintsbury says, "no writer in any language who has said an equal number of remarkable things on an equal variety of subjects in an equally small space and with an equally high and unbroken excellence of style and expression;... all alike have the characteristic of intense compression; he describes his literary aim in the phrase 'tormented by the ambition of putting a book into a page, a page into a phrase, and a phrase into a word'" (1754-1824).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Taffeta

Taffeta

Taffeta is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or synthetic fibres. The word is Persian in origin and means "twisted woven." It is considered to be a "high-end" fabric, suitable for use in ball gowns, wedding dresses, and interiors for curtains or wallcovering. There are two distinct types of silk taffeta: yarn-dyed and piece-dyed. Piece-dyed taffeta is often used in linings and is quite soft. Yarn-dyed taffeta is much stiffer and is often used in evening dresses. Shot silk taffeta was one of the most sought-after forms of Byzantine silk, and may have been the fabric known as purpura. Taffeta was then woven in Italy and France and until the 1950s in Japan. Warp-printed taffeta or chiné, mainly made in France from the eighteenth century onwards is sometimes called Pompadour taffeta after Madame de Pompadour. Today most raw silk taffeta is produced in India and Pakistan. Originally this was produced on handlooms, but since the 1990s, it has been produced on mechanical looms in the Bangalore area. From the 1970s until the 1990s, the Jiangsu province of China produced some fine silk taffetas. These fabrics were less flexible than those from Indian mills, which now dominate production. Other countries in Southeast Asia and the Middle East are weaving silk taffeta, but their products are not yet equal in quality or competitiveness to those from India. The most deluxe taffetas are still woven in France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom. This fabric is also widely used in the manufacture of corsets and corsetry: it yields a more starched-like type of cloth that holds its shape better.

— Freebase

Lobotomia

Lobotomia

Lobotomia is a Brazilian hardcore/crossover band. They started off as a straightforward punk band, and later went to a more thrash metal and crossover thrash style. They were one of the key and most well-known bands of the 1980s hardcore punk scene in Brazil, and played with other famous bands such as Korzus, Ratos de Porão, and Executer. The lobotomy was born in 1984, playing a sound quite hardcore. His original training had Caio the voice, the guitars Adherbal Billy Argel, Greek and Alfredo in the battery down. The Punk movement was in high, places like Napalm, Carbon 14, Paulistana Lira, Madame Satan, acid and other Plastics opened its doors to receive the bands style. At the end of 1985, the lobotomy involved the collection Sound Attack, the independent seal frontal attack, this album is already a visible change in the style of banda music, the search for a new sound and the beginning of fusion with other styles of sound heavy . Along with the bands: Cólera, Garotos Podres, Ratos de Porão, Armagedom, Virus 27, Grinders, Rioters, Auschwitz, the album became an icon in the history of Brazilian punk. In 1986, Caio in voice, Billy Adherbal Algiers on guitars, drums and Greek in the lower Zezé are preparing to record what would be the first disc of "metalpunk" Brazil, the precursor of the style we know today as a crossover. The lobotomy LP, vinyl was recorded and produced by the band, the New Face Records co-pressing and looked after the distribution in 1987. This album is to feature the clash, dark, innovative, different from what you hear in punk then in Brazil. In this study we found a rewrite of Faces of Death as well as classics of the band, only the dead do not complain and indigent of Tomorrow, with lyrics of Billy and Caio.

— Freebase

Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de

Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de

French novelists, born, the former at Nancy, the latter at Paris; a habit of elaborate note-taking whilst on sketching tours first drew the brothers towards literature, and inoculated them with the habit of minute and accurate observation which gave value to their subsequent writings; their first real venture was a series of historical studies, designed to reproduce with every elaboration of detail French society in the later half of the 18th century, including a "History of French Society during the Revolution"; later they found their true province in the novel, and a series of striking works of fiction became the product of their joint labours, works which have influenced subsequent novelists not a little; "Les Hommes de Lettres" (1860) was the first of these, and "Madame Gervaisais" (1869) is perhaps their best; their collaboration was broken in 1870 by the death of Jules; but Edmond still continued to write, and produced amongst other novels "La Fille Élisa"; the "Journal" of the brothers appeared in 1888 in six vols. (Edmond, 1822-1888; Jules, 1830-1870).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Primate

Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates, which contains prosimians and simians. Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal. With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia. They range in size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g, to the eastern lowland gorilla, weighing over 200 kg. According to fossil evidence, the primitive ancestors of primates may have existed in the late Cretaceous period around 65 million years ago; an early close primate relative known from abundant remains is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, circa 55–58 million years ago. Molecular clock studies suggest the primate branch may be even older, originating in the mid-Cretaceous period around 85 mya. The order Primates has traditionally been divided into two main groupings: prosimians and anthropoids. Prosimians have characteristics more like those of the earliest primates, and include the lemurs of Madagascar, lorisoids, and tarsiers. Simians include monkeys, apes and hominins. More recently, taxonomists have preferred to split primates into the suborder Strepsirrhini, or wet-nosed primates, consisting of nontarsier prosimians, and the suborder Haplorhini, or dry-nosed primates, consisting of tarsiers and the simians. Simians are divided into two groups: catarrhine monkeys and apes of Africa and southeastern Asia and platyrrhine or New World monkeys of South and Central America. Catarrhines consist of Old World monkeys, gibbons and great apes; New World monkeys include the capuchin, howler and squirrel monkeys. Humans are the only extant catarrhines to have spread successfully outside of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia, although fossil evidence shows many other species were formerly present in Europe. New primate species are still being discovered, more than 25 species were taxonomically described in the decade of the 2000s and eleven have been described since 2010.

— Freebase

Bos`suet, Jacques Bénigne

Bos`suet, Jacques Bénigne

bishop of Meaux, born at Dijon, surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux," of the see of which he became bishop; one of the greatest of French pulpit orators, and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church; the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith; took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy, or rather of the Crown, as against the claims of the Pope; proved himself more a time-server than a bold, outspoken champion of the truth; conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon, and to Fénélon for his defence of her and her Quietists; and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; wrote largely; his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines, and the first attempt at a philosophy of history; his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence; while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings. "Bossuet," says Professor Saintsbury, "was more of a speaker than a writer. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject, in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point, and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons.... Though he is always aiming at the sublime, he scarcely ever oversteps it, or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous.... The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fénélon" (1627-1704).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Theosophy

Theosophy

a mystic philosophy of very difficult definition which hails from the East, and was introduced among us by Madame Blavatsky, a Russian lady, who was initiated into its mysteries in Thibet by a fraternity there who professed to be the sole custodiers of its secrets as the spiritual successors of those to whom it was at first revealed. The radical idea of the system appears to be reincarnation, and the return of the spirit to itself by a succession of incarnations, each one of which raises it to a higher level until, by seven stages it would seem, the process is complete, matter has become spirit, and spirit matter, God has become man, and man God, agreeably somewhat to the doctrine of Amiel, that "the complete spiritualisation of the animal element in us is the task of our race," though with them it seems rather to mean its extinction. The adherents of this system, with their head-quarters at Madras, are numerous and wide-scattered, and form an organisation of 300 branches, having three definite aims: (1) To establish a brotherhood over the world irrespective of race, creed, caste, or sex; (2) to encourage the study of comparative philosophy, religion, and science; and (3) to investigate the occult secrets of nature and the latent possibilities of man. The principal books in exposition of it are, "The Secret Doctrine," "Isis Unveiled," "The Key to Theosophy," by Mme. Blavatsky; "Esoteric Buddhism," "The Occult World," &c., by Sinnett; "The Ancient Wisdom," "The Birth and Evolution of the Soul," &c., by Annie Besant.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Louis XV.

Louis XV.

Bien-Aimé (i. e. Well-Beloved), great-grandson of the preceding, and only five at his death, the country during his minority being under the regency of Philip, Duke of Orleans; the regency was rendered disastrous by the failure of the Mississippi Scheme of Law and a war with Spain, caused by the rejection of a Spanish princess for Louis, and by his marriage to Maria Lesczynski, the daughter of Stanislas of Poland; Louis was crowned king in 1722 and declared of age the following year; in 1726 Cardinal Fleury, who had been his tutor, became his minister, and under him occurred the war of the succession to Poland, concluded by the treaty of Vienna, and the war of the Austrian succession, concluded by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; with the death of his minister Louis gave way to his licentious propensities, and in all matters of state allowed himself to be swayed by unworthy favourites who pandered to his lusts, the most conspicuous among them being Madame de Pompadour and Dame de Barry, her successor in crime; under them, and the corrupt court they presided over, the country went step by step to ruin, and she was powerless to withstand the military ascendency of England, which deprived her of all her colonies both in the East and in the West; though Choiseul, his last "substantial" minister, tried hard by a family compact of the Bourbons to collect her scattered strength; the situation did not trouble Louis; "it will last all my time," he said, and he let things go; suffering from a disease contracted by vice, he was seized with confluent smallpox, and died in misery, to the relief of the nation, which could not restrain its joy (1710-1774).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de

Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de

great French "persifleur" and "Coryphæus of Deism," born in Paris, son of a lawyer; trained to scoff at religion from his boyhood, and began his literary career as a satirist and in the production of lampoons which cost him twice over imprisonment in the Bastille, on his release from which he left France in 1726 and went to England, where he stayed three years, and got acquainted with the free-thinking class there; on his return to Paris he engaged in some profitable commercial speculations and published his "Charles XII.," which he had written in England, and retired to the château of Cirey, where he lived five years with Madame du Châtelet, engaged in study and diligent with his pen, with whom he left France and went to Poland, after her death paying his famous visit to Frederick the Great, with whom before three years were out he quarrelled, and from whom he was glad to escape, making his head-quarters eventually within the borders of France at Ferney, from which he now and again visited Paris, where on his last visit he was received with such raptures of adulation that he was quite overcome, and had to be conveyed home to die, giving up the ghost exactly two months after. He was a man of superlative adroitness of faculty and shiftiness, without aught that can be called great, but more than any other the incarnation of the spirit of his time; said the word which all were waiting to hear and who replied yea to it—a poor word indeed yet a potent, for it gave the death-blow to superstition, but left religion out in the cold. The general, the great offence Carlyle charges Voltaire with is, that "he intermeddled in religion without being himself in any measure religious; that he entered the Temple and continued there with a levity which, in any temple where men worship, can beseem no brother man; that, in a word, he ardently, and with long-continued effort, warred against Christianity, without understanding, beyond the mere superficies, what Christianity was" (1694-1778).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

a celebrated French philosopher, and one or the great prose writers of French literature, born in Geneva, the son of a watchmaker and dancing-master; was apprenticed to an engraver, whose inhuman treatment drove him at the age of 16 into running away; for three years led a vagrant life, acting as footman, lackey, secretary, &c.; during this period was converted to Catholicism largely through the efforts of Madame de Warens, a spritely married lady living apart from her husband; in 1731 he took up residence in his patroness's house, where he lived for nine years a life of ease and sentiment in the ambiguous capacity of general factotum, and subsequently of lover; supplanted in the affections of his mistress, he took himself off, and landed in Paris in 1741; supported himself by music-copying, an occupation which was his steadiest means of livelihood throughout his troubled career; formed a liaison with an illiterate dull servant-girl by whom he had five children, all of whom he callously handed over to the foundling hospital; acquaintance with Diderot brought him work on the famous Encyclopédie, but the true foundation of his literary fame was laid in 1749 by "A Discourse on Arts and Sciences," in which he audaciously negatives the theory that morality has been favoured by the progress of science and the arts; followed this up in 1753 by a "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which he makes a wholesale attack upon the cherished institutions and ideals of society; morosely rejected the flattering advances of society, and from his retreat at Montlouis issued "The New Héloïse" (1760), "The Social Contract" (1762), and "Émile" (1762); these lifted him into the widest fame, but precipitated upon him the enmity and persecution of Church (for his Deism) and State; fled to Switzerland, where after his aggressive "Letters from the Mountains," he wandered about, the victim of his own suspicious, hypochondriacal nature; found for some time a retreat in Staffordshire under the patronage of Hume; returned to France, where his only persecutors were his own morbid hallucinations; died, not without suspicion of suicide, at Ermenonville; his "Confessions" and other autobiographical writings, although unreliable in facts, reflect his strange and wayward personality with wonderful truth; was one of the precursive influences which brought on the revolutionary movement (1712-1778).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gibbon, Edward

Gibbon, Edward

eminent historian, born at Putney, near London, of good parentage; his early education was greatly hindered by a nervous complaint, which, however, disappeared by the time he was 14; a wide course of desultory reading had, in a measure, repaired the lack of regular schooling, and when at the age of 15 he was entered at Magdalen College, Oxford, he possessed, as he himself quaintly puts it, "a stock of erudition which might have puzzled a doctor, and a degree of ignorance of which a schoolboy might have been ashamed"; 14 months later he became a convert to Roman Catholicism, and in consequence was obliged to quit Oxford; in the hope of reclaiming him to the Protestant faith he was placed in the charge of the deistical poet Mallet, and subsequently under a Calvinist minister at Lausanne; under the latter's kindly suasion he speedily discarded Catholicism, and during five years' residence established his learning on a solid foundation; time was also found for the one love episode of his life—an amour with Suzanne Curchod, an accomplished young lady, who subsequently became the wife of the French minister M. Neckar, and mother of Madame de Staël; shortly after his return to England in 1758 he published in French an Essay on the Study of Literature, and for some time served in the militia; in 1774, having four years previously inherited his father's estate, he entered Parliament, and from 1779 to 1782 was one of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations; in 1776 appeared the first volume of his great history "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," the conception of which had come to him in 1764 in Rome whilst "musing amongst the ruins of the Capitol"; in 1787 his great work was finished at Lausanne, where he had resided since 1783; modern criticism, working with fresh sources of information, has failed to find any serious flaw in the fabric of this masterpiece in history, but the cynical attitude adopted towards the Christian religion has always been regarded as a defect; "a man of endless reading and research," was Carlyle's verdict after a final perusal of the "Decline," "but of a most disagreeable style, and a great want of the highest faculties of what we would call a classical historian, compared with Herodotus, for instance, and his perfect clearness and simplicity in every part"; he, nevertheless, characterised his work to Emerson once as "a splendid bridge from the old world to the new" (1737-1794).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia


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