Definitions containing münchhausen, baron von

We've found 250 definitions:

Vavasor

Vavasor

the vassal or tenant of a baron; one who held under a baron, and who also had tenants under him; one in dignity next to a baron; a title of dignity next to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Bernstorff

Bernstorff

Bernstorff is a German-Danish noble family of Mecklenburgian origin. Notable members of the family include: Albrecht von Bernstorff diplomat, Prussian Foreign Minister Albrecht von Bernstorff, German diplomat and resistance fighter Andreas Bernstorff, Danish military officer Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, a Hanoverian minister who accompanied George I to Britain when he became King Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Danish statesman Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, German diplomat Andreas Peter Bernstorff, Danish state minister Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman Joachim Frederik Bernstorff, Danish statesman Georg Ernst von Bernstorff, German politician Percy von Bernstorff, German public official

— Freebase

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi is one of the Loa of Haitian Vodou. Samedi is a Loa of the dead, along with Baron's numerous other incarnations Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, and Baron Kriminel. He is often syncretized with Saint Martin de Porres. He is the head of the Guédé family of Loa, or an aspect of them, or possibly their spiritual father. "Samedi" means "Saturday" in French. His wife is the Loa Maman Brigitte.

— Freebase

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

baroness

baroness

a noblewoman who holds the rank of baron or who is the wife or widow of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand was an internist from Finland. The son of a district engineer in Vaasa, von Willebrand got his medical degree in the University of Helsinki. He graduated in 1896, and did his doctoral thesis on the changes that occurred in blood following significant blood loss. For the remainder of his professional career, the properties of blood and its coagulation continued to be the focus of his interest. Von Willebrand was the first to describe the blood coagulation disorder later named for him, von Willebrand disease. The condition first aroused his interest in the case of a 5-year-old girl from Åland with an extensive history of bleeding in her family. Mapping her family history, von Willebrand found 23 of the girl's 66 family members were affected, and that the disease was more common in women. In his personal life, von Willebrand was described as a very modest man. He also published two papers concerning the use of hot air as a form of medical treatment.

— Freebase

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe, of St Peter in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, It was created in 1918 for the press baron Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Baron Northcliffe. He had already been created a baronet in 1904 and Baron Northcliffe, of the Isle of Thanet in the County of Kent, in 1905. All these titles became extinct on his death in 1922. Lord Northcliffe was the elder brother of Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet and Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet.

— Freebase

Freiherr

Freiherr

"Freiherr", "Freifrau" and "Freiin" are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, and in its various successor states, including Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above Ritter and below Graf. It corresponds to baron in rank; a Freiherr is sometimes also referred to as "Baron"; he is always addressed as "Herr Baron" or "Baron".

— Freebase

Barony

Barony

the fee or domain of a baron; the lordship, dignity, or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Paracelsus

Paracelsus

Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (originally Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, also called Theophrastus Paracelsus and Theophrastus von Hohenheim). Born at Maria-Einsiedeln, in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, Dec. 17 (or 10 Nov.), 1493: died at Salzburg, Sept. 23 (or 24), 1541. A celebrated German-Swiss physician, reformer of therapeutics, iatrochemist, and alchemist. He attended school in a small lead-mining district where his father, William Bombast von Hohenheim, was a physician and teacher of alchemy. The family originally came from W

— GCIDE

von

von

In German, von is a preposition which approximately means of or from. When it is used as a part of a German family name, it is usually a nobiliary particle, like the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese de. At certain times and places, it has been illegal for anyone who was not a member of the nobility to use von before the family name. However, in Northern Germany and Switzerland the von particle is still a common part of surnames and is widely used also by commoners, whereas in the Middle Ages this was common practice in all German-speaking areas; thus, "Hans von Duisburg" meant Hans from [the city of] Duisburg. The Dutch van, which is a cognate of von but does not indicate nobility, can be said to have preserved this meaning.

— Freebase

Von Restorff effect

Von Restorff effect

The Von Restorff effect, also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered than other items. A bias in favour of remembering the unusual. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity. Von Restorff worked as a postdoctoral assistant to Wolfgang Köhler at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin up to the time that Köhler resigned in protest against Nazi interference with the Institute. During her time in Köhler’s laboratory, von Restorff published two papers, the second of which she co-authored with Köhler. Von Restorff proposed the isolation effect in a paper she wrote in 1933 on the topic of spontaneous reminding which included a prescient discussion of the role of intentionality in the memory test.

— Freebase

Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture

The term Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, derives from a 1945 computer architecture description by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The design of a Von Neumann architecture is simpler than the more modern Harvard architecture which is also a stored-program system but has one dedicated set of address and data buses for reading data from and writing data to memory, and another set of address and data buses for fetching instructions.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Factor

von Willebrand Factor

A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

The Adventures of Baron Munchausen

The Adventures of Baron Munchausen

Münchhausen is a 1943 fantasy comedy film directed by Josef von Báky, a prominent director who remained in Germany under the national socialist regime. Science fiction author David Wingrove has commented that this work "sidesteps immediate political issues whilst conjuring up marvellous visual images of an ageless pastoral Germany."

— Freebase

Schwenkfeldian

Schwenkfeldian

a member of a religious sect founded by Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a Silesian reformer who disagreed with Luther, especially on the deification of the body of Christ

— Webster Dictionary

Lutetium

Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal which resists corrosion in dry, but not moist, air. It is the last element in the lanthanide series, and traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these men found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and von Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain as he published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium for element 71 proposed by von Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s. Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, though significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust; it has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, and so used to determine the age of meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy on neuroendocrine tumours.

— Freebase

Fenris

Fenris

Fenris are two fictional characters from the Marvel Comics universe, namely German twins Andrea and Andreas von Strucker. They are the children of supervillain Baron Wolfgang von Strucker of HYDRA and the half-brother of Werner von Strucker. Andrea is female, Andreas is male. They first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #194 as Andrea and Andreas and were first called Fenris in Uncanny X-Men #200. They were created by Chris Claremont and John Romita, Jr. Fenris is also the name of the terrorist organization the two are head of, which is made up of armored soldiers based on technology developed by HYDRA.

— Freebase

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes are a series of prizes awarded annually by the Académie Française. They were endowed by the French benefactor Baron de Montyon. Prior to start of the French Revolution, the Baron de Montyon established a series of prizes to be given away by the Académie Française, the Académie des Sciences, and the Académie Nationale de Médecine. These were abolished by the National Convention, but were taken up again when Baron de Montyon returned to France in 1815. When he died, he bequeathed a large sum of money for the perpetual endowment of four annual prizes. The endowed prizes were as follows: ⁕Making an industrial process less unhealthy ⁕Perfecting of any technical improvement in a mechanical process ⁕Book which during the year rendered the greatest service to humanity ⁕The "prix de vertu" for the most courageous act on the part of a poor Frenchman These prizes were considered by some to be a forerunner of the Nobel Prize.

— Freebase

Baron Verulam

Baron Verulam

The title Baron Verulam was created in two separate and unrelated instances: first as Baron Verulam, of Verulam, in the Peerage of England, then secondly as Baron Verulam, of Gorhambury in the County of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was firstly created for the English philosopher and statesman Sir Francis Bacon, and secondly created for James Grimston, 3rd Viscount Grimston.

— Freebase

Scottish feudal lordship

Scottish feudal lordship

A feudal lordship is a Scottish feudal title that is held in baroneum, which Latin term means that its holder, who is called a feudal lord, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal lordship is an ancient title of nobility in Scotland. The holder may or may not be a Lord of Regality, which meant that the holder was appointed by the Crown and had the power of "pit and gallows", meaning the power to authorise the death sentence. A Scottish feudal lord ranks above a Scottish feudal baron, but below a lord of parliament which is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, and below a feudal earldom, which is a feudal barony of still higher degree than a feudal lordship. There are far fewer feudal lordships than feudal baronies, whilst feudal earldoms are very rare. While feudal barons originally sat in parliament, all of the peerage, originally, was within the feudal system. Later, some of what used to be feudal lordships came to be known as peerages while others were sold, inherited by greater peers, or otherwise disqualified from the modern-day peerage. The feudal rights were gradually emasculated and, with the demise of the Scottish parliament in 1707, the right of feudal barons to sit in parliament ceased altogether, unless, that is, a feudal baron was also a Peer.

— Freebase

Liebig

Liebig

lē′big, n. a nutritious extract of beef first prepared by the great German chemist, Baron von Liebig (1803-1873).

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Zoisite

Zoisite

zoi′sīt, n. a mineral closely allied to epidote. [Baron von Zois.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.

— Freebase

Ritter

Ritter

Ritter is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and would generally be used together with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr". In addition to the described system, some states like Württemberg and Bavaria introduced orders of merit beginning in the late 18th century which also conferred nobility as "Ritter von" but kept the title limited to the recipient's lifetime. In heraldry, from the late 18th century a Ritter would often be indicated by the use of a coronet with five points, although not everyone who was a Ritter and displayed arms actually made use of such a coronet.

— Freebase

Von Neumann entropy

Von Neumann entropy

In quantum statistical mechanics, von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics. For a quantum-mechanical system described by a density matrix ρ, the von Neumann entropy is where tr denotes the trace. If ρ is written in terms of its eigenvectors |1〉, |2〉, |3〉, ... as then the von Neumann entropy is In this form, S can be seen to be related to the Shannon entropy.

— Freebase

Ristocetin

Ristocetin

Ristocetin is an antibiotic, obtained from Amycolatopsis lurida, previously used to treat staphylococcal infections. It is no longer used clinically because it caused thrombocytopenia and platelet agglutination. It is now used solely to assay those functions in vitro in the diagnosis of conditions such as von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Platelet agglutination caused by ristocetin can occur only in the presence of von Willebrand factor multimers, so if ristocetin is added to blood lacking the factor, the platelets will not clump. In an unknown fashion, the antibiotic ristocetin causes von Willebrand factor to bind the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib, so when ristocetin is added to normal blood, it causes agglutination. In some types of vWD, even very small amounts of ristocetin cause platelet aggregation when the patient's platelet-rich plasma is used. This paradox is explained by these types having gain-of-function mutations which cause the vWD high molecular-weight multimers to bind more tightly to their receptors on platelets. In the case of type 2B vWD, the gain-of-function mutation involves von Willebrand's factor, and in platelet-type vWD, the receptor is the object of the mutation. This increased binding causes vWD because the high-molecular weight multimers are removed from circulation in plasma since they remain attached to the patient's platelets. Thus, if the patient's platelet-poor plasma is used, the ristocetin cofactor assay will not agglutinate standardized platelets, similar to the other types of vWD.

— Freebase

Von Kármán

Von Kármán

Von Kármán is a lunar crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. The northern third of this formation is overlain by the rim and outer rampart of the walled plain Leibnitz, forming a deep indentation in the formation. The remainder of the outer wall is roughly circular in shape, although it is irregular and heavily worn by subsequent impacts. The interior of Von Kármán has been subjected to flooding by lava flows after the original crater formed, leaving the southern portion of the floor nearly flat. This surface has a lower albedo than the surrounding terrain, and is nearly as dark as the interior of Leibnitz. There is a central peak at the location where the midpoint of the original Von Kármán was formed, which joins with the rougher surface in the northern part of the crater. In addition to Leibnitz to the north, the crater Oresme is located to the west-northwest, and Finsen lies to the northeast on the edge of Leibnitz's rim. Nearly attached to the southeast rim is the unusual figure-eight-shaped Von Kármán L formation. Directly to the east of this is the crater Alder.

— Freebase

Turtles all the way down

Turtles all the way down

"Turtles all the way down" is a jocular expression of the infinite regress problem in cosmology posed by the "unmoved mover" paradox. The metaphor in the anecdote represents a popular notion of the theory that Earth is actually flat and is supported on the back of a World Turtle, which itself is propped up by a chain of larger and larger turtles. Questioning what the final turtle might be standing on, the anecdote humorously concludes that it is "turtles all the way down". The phrase has been commonly known since at least the early 20th century. A comparable metaphor describing the circular cause and consequence for the same problem is the "chicken and egg problem". The same problem in epistemology is known as the Münchhausen trilemma.

— Freebase

Misesian

Misesian

A person who substantially agrees with the economic analyses of Ludwig von Mises.

— Wiktionary

Linnean

Linnean

of, or relating to Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish nobleman, born as Carolus Linnaeus: "the Linnean Society".

— Wiktionary

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

A Von Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street.

— Wiktionary

Linnaeus

Linnaeus

Carl (or the latinized Carolus) Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy."

— Wiktionary

Bismarck

Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck, one of the prominent German statesmen of the nineteenth century.

— Wiktionary

copper captain

copper captain

A Brummagem captain; a person with an artificial title of captain; a General von Poffenburgh.

— Wiktionary

Clausewitzian

Clausewitzian

Adhering to or described by the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz.

— Wiktionary

Odic force

Odic force

The Odic force is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach. Von Reichenbach coined the name from that of the Norse god Odin in 1845.

— Freebase

nobleman

nobleman

A peer; an aristocrat; ranks range from baron to king to emperor.

— Wiktionary

baroness

baroness

The female ruler of a barony. The male equivalent is baron.

— Wiktionary

barony

barony

A dominion ruled by a baron or baroness, often part of a larger kingdom or empire.

— Wiktionary

thane

thane

in Anglo-Saxon England, a man holding lands from the king, or from a superior in rank. There were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Norman Conquest, this title was no longer used, and baron took its place.

— Wiktionary

viscount

viscount

A member of the peerage above a baron but below a count or earl.

— Wiktionary

Lord

Lord

A British aristocratic title used as a form of address for a marquess, earl or viscount; the usual style for a baron; a courtesy title for a younger son of a duke or marquess

— Wiktionary

Verulam

Verulam

Baron Verulam, Viscount St Albans

— Wiktionary

Byron

Byron

George Gordon (Noel) Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788u2013April 19, 1824), a famous English poet and leading figure in romanticism.

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

belonging or relating to a baron or barons

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

suitable for a baron

— Wiktionary

rix-baron

rix-baron

A baron of the German Empire.

— Wiktionary

Red Baron

Red Baron

An equivalent of the Red Baron, ace fighter pilot.

— Wiktionary

78073

78073

78073 is the US ZIP code of Somerset, San Antonio, Von Ormy - Texas

— ZIP Codes

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a partial deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from qualitative deficiencies of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. The subtype is divided into several variants with each variant having a distinctive pattern of PLATELET-interaction.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a total or near total deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baron adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baronetcy

baronetcy

the title of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

baronet

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the estate of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the domain of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

bart

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

edgar douglas adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

peer

peer

a nobleman (duke or marquis or earl or viscount or baron) who is a member of the British peerage

— Princeton's WordNet

thane

thane

a feudal lord or baron

— Princeton's WordNet

viscount

viscount

a British peer who ranks below an earl and above a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

John von Neumann

John von Neumann

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer. Von Neumann's mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." Along with Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.

— Freebase

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs, and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats. There are three forms of vWD: inherited, acquired and pseudo or platelet type. There are three types of hereditary vWD: vWD Type I, vWD Type II and vWD III. Within the three inherited types of vWD there are various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition. vWD Type I is the most common type of the disorder and those that have it are typically asymptomatic or may experience mild symptoms such as nosebleeds although there may be severe symptoms in some cases. There are various factors that affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD such as blood type. vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish pediatrician who first described the disease in 1926.

— Freebase

Iduna

Iduna

Iduna was an important literary association founded in May 1891 by a circle of writers around Fritz Lemmermayer. Lemmermayer acted as a sort of "middle man" between an older generation of authors and a group of younger writers and thinkers. The society had the descriptive subtitle of "Free German Society for Literature". The name Iduna was provided by Guido von List himself and is that of a North Germanic goddess of eternal youth and renewal. Richard von Kralik and Joseph Kalasanz Poestion, authors with specifically neo-Germanic leanings, where also involved in the circle. The circle dissolved in 1893 when the 'Literarische Donaugesellschaft' grew out of its ashes and was founded by Guido von List and Fanny Wschiansky.

— Freebase

Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Factor VIII is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor. In humans, factor VIII is encoded by the F8 gene. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. Factor VIII is produced in liver sinusoidal cells and endothelial cells outside of the liver throughout the body. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs. In response to injury, coagulation factor VIII is activated and separates from von Willebrand factor. The active protein interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. This interaction sets off a chain of additional chemical reactions that form a blood clot. Factor VIII participates in blood coagulation; it is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca+2 and phospholipids forms a complex that converts factor X to the activated form Xa. The factor VIII gene produces two alternatively spliced transcripts. Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand factor in a noncovalent complex. This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which consists primarily of the phospholipid binding domain of factor VIIIc. This binding domain is essential for coagulant activity.

— Freebase

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from 1916, he and his deputy, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg gradually gained more influence in Germany than the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany. Hindenburg, as German President, appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. Hindenburg personally despised Hitler, condescendingly referring to Hitler as that "Bohemian corporal". Hitler repeatedly and forcefully pressured Hindenburg to appoint him as Chancellor, Hindenburg repeatedly refused Hitler's demand. Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. Although he was opposing Hitler, the deteriorating political stability of the Weimar Republic let him play an important role in the Nazi Party's rise to power. He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In February, he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act, in which the parliament gave Hitler's administration legislative powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and, as "Führer und Reichskanzler", made himself head of state.

— Freebase

Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, in the United States. He is credited as being the "Father of Rocket Science". In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the V-2 combat rocket during World War II. After the war, he and some select members of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip. Von Braun worked on the United States Army intermediate range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated by NASA. Under NASA, he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. According to one NASA source, he is "without doubt, the greatest rocket scientist in history". His crowning achievement was to lead the development of the Saturn V booster rocket that helped land the first men on the Moon in July 1969. In 1975 he received the National Medal of Science.

— Freebase

Universal Turing machine

Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some to be the origin of the stored program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. It is also known as universal computing machine, universal machine, machine U, U. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.

— Freebase

Technological singularity

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the theoretical emergence of superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the technological singularity is seen as an occurrence beyond which events cannot be predicted. The first use of the term "singularity" in this context was by mathematician John von Neumann. Neumann in the mid-1950s spoke of "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue". The term was popularized by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement, or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. Futurist Ray Kurzweil cited von Neumann's use of the term in a foreword to von Neumann's classic The Computer and the Brain. Proponents of the singularity typically postulate an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, that might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human.

— Freebase

Sphygmograph

Sphygmograph

The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

— Freebase

Useful idiot

Useful idiot

In political jargon, useful idiot is a pejorative term for people perceived as propagandists for a cause whose goals they do not understand, and who are used cynically by the leaders of the cause. The term has been used to refer to Soviet sympathizers in Western countries. The implication was that, although the people in question naïvely thought of themselves as an ally of the Soviet Union, they were actually held in contempt and were being cynically used. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naïvely believe to be a force for good. Despite often being attributed to Lenin, in 1987, Grant Harris, senior reference librarian at the Library of Congress, declared that "We have not been able to identify this phrase among [Lenin's] published works." A New York Times article from 1948, on contemporary Italian politics, documented usage of the term in an article from the social-democratic Italian paper L'Umanita. The French equivalent, "idiots utiles", was used in a newspaper article title as early as 1946. An earlier usage of a similar term, useful innocents, appears in Austrian-American economist Ludwig von Mises' "Planned Chaos". Von Mises claims the term was used by communists for liberals that von Mises describes as "confused and misguided sympathizers". The term useful innocents also appears in a Readers Digest article titled "Yugoslavia's Tragic Lesson to the World", an excerpt from a, at the time, forthcoming book authored by Bogdan Raditsa, a "high ranking official of the Yugoslav Government". Raditsa says: "In the Serbo-Croat language the communists have a phrase for true democrats who consent to collaborate with them for 'democracy.' It is Korisne Budale, or Useful Innocents." Although Raditsa translates the phrase as "Useful Innocents", the word budala actually translates as "fool" and synonyms thereof.

— Freebase

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen was a German politician descended from an old Hanoverian family. His father, Karl von Bennigsen, was an officer in the Hanoverian army who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments. The anthropologist Moritz von Leonhardi was his nephew. After studying at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of the Corps Hannovera, Bennigsen entered the Hanoverian civil service. In 1855, he was elected a member of the second chamber, and because the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties, he resigned his post in the public service. He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Alexander Levin, Count of Bennigsen, a member of the same family and son of the distinguished Russian General Bennigsen, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time, serving as Hanover's minister-president between 1848 and 1850 and afterwards as president first of the first chamber, then of the second chamber of the Estates Assembly of the Kingdom of Hanover. What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the German National Association, which was due to him, and of which he was president. This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the Austro-Sardinian War, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland. It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of King George V of Hanover to suppress it. Bennigsen was also one of the founders of the Protestantenverein in 1863.

— Freebase

Polylux

Polylux

Polylux, the self-appointed "last/worst on the first [channel]", is a weekly half-hour German television program hosted by Tita von Hardenberg. It was produced by RBB for Das Erste and was aired in the timeslot on Thursdays at 11:15 CET. The show, which was concerned with politics, culture and social trends, offers a vivid blend of documentary & satirical segments. Typically it began with a satirical 'report' by Carsten von Ryssen related to a current matter of public concern. The show's essential hipness, which was underlined by von Hardenberg's crisp announcements and the visual & thematic backdrop of the city of Berlin, infuses the subsequent documentary pieces with a certain esprit. Thematically, their scope ran from coverage of political and social movements to current trends in underground and popular culture, whereby one piece was usually biographical in nature, setting it off from the more panoramic style of the rest of the show. Less serious segments often echoed the satire of the keynote feature. Regular items included the "Berlin for Beginners" and the show's end note, in which Manfred Dumke, an elderly pensioner, shared his curious insights on current affairs with the rest of Germany from the comfort of his front room.

— Freebase

Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

— Freebase

Weltpolitik

Weltpolitik

"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.

— Freebase

Steve von Till

Steve von Till

Steve von Till is best known as singer and guitarist for the atmospheric metal band Neurosis, replacing Chad Salter in 1989. He is also in Tribes of Neurot and Culper Ring, and records solo work under both his given name and the moniker Harvestman. His solo albums are composed of original songs and traditional folk arrangements, using minimalistic acoustic guitar and vocal styles. Outside his semi-professional role as a musician, he works as an elementary school teacher. His father, Steven von Till, Sr, is a civil attorney in the San Francisco Bay Area. His mother, Beth von Till, is a communications professor at San Jose State University. He resides with his wife Niela and his kids in Idaho.

— Freebase

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, Graf, later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 with the Duke of Wellington. The honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock bore the nickname "Marschall Vorwärts" because of his approach to warfare.

— Freebase

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Peerage of the United Kingdom

The Peerage of the United Kingdom and British Empire comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898. The ranks of the peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron. The last non-royal dukedom was created in 1900, and the last marquessate in 1926. Creation of the remaining ranks mostly ceased once Harold Wilson's Labour government took office in 1964, and only four non-royal hereditary peerages have been created since then. These were: ⁕John Morrison, 1st Baron Margadale, 1965 ⁕William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, 1983 ⁕George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy, 1983 ⁕Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, 1984 Until the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, all peers of the United Kingdom were automatically members of the House of Lords. However, from that date, most of the hereditary peers ceased to be members as part of Parliamentary reform, whereas the life peers retained their seats. All hereditary peers of the first creation, and all surviving hereditary peers who had served as Leader of the House of Lords were offered a life peerage in order to allow them to sit in the House should they so choose.

— Freebase

Vavasour

Vavasour

A vavasour, is a term in Feudal law. A vavasour was the vassal or tenant of a baron, one who held their tenancy under a baron, and who also had tenants under him. Alternative spellings include: vavasour, valvasor, vasseur, vasvassor, oavassor, and others. In its most general sense the word thus indicated a mediate vassal, i.e. one holding a fief under a vassal. The word was, however, applied at various times to the most diverse ranks in the feudal hierarchy, being used practically as the synonym of vassal. Thus tenants-in-chief of the crown are described by the Emperor Conrad II as valvassores majores, as distinguished from mediate tenants, valvassores minores. Gradually the term without qualification was found convenient for describing sub-vassals, tenants-in-chief being called capitanei or barones; Its implication, however, still varied in different places and times. Bracton ranks the magnates seu valvassores between barons and knights; for him they are "men of great dignity," and in this order they are found in a charter of Henry II of England. But in the regestum of Philip II Augustus we find that five vavassors are reckoned as the equivalent of one knight. Finally, Du Cange quotes two charters, one of 1187, another of 1349, in which vavassors are clearly distinguished from nobles.

— Freebase

Robber baron

Robber baron

A robber baron or robber knight was an unscrupulous and despotic noble of the medieval period in Europe. The term has slightly different meanings in different countries. In modern U.S. parlance, the term is also used to describe unscrupulous industrialists. Robber baron behavior among the Germanic warrior class in medieval Europe indirectly led to the Catholic innovations of the Peace and Truce of God.

— Freebase

Lithophane

Lithophane

A lithophane is an etched or molded artwork in thin very translucent porcelain that can only be seen clearly when back lit with a light source. It is a design or scene in intaglio that appears "en grisaille" tones. A lithophane presents a three dimensional image - completely different from two dimensional engravings and daguerreotypes that are "flat". The images change characteristics depending on the light source behind them. Window lithophane panel scenes change throughout the day depending upon the amount of sunlight. The varying lightsource is what makes lithophanes more interesting to the viewer than two dimensional pictures. The word "lithophane" derives from Greek "litho", which is from "lithos" which means stone or rock, and "phainein" meaning "to cause to appear" or "to cause to appear suddenly". From this is derived a meaning for lithophane of "light in stone" or to "appear in stone" as the three dimensional image appears suddendly when lit with a back light source. European lithophanes were first produced nearly at the same time in France, Germany, Prussia, and England around the later part of the 1820s. Many times historians credit Baron Paul de Bourging with inventing the process "email ombrant" of lithophanes in 1827 in France. Robert Griffith Jones acquired Bourging's rights in 1828 and licensed out to English factories to make them. The English factories sometimes used the name "lithophane" for specimens of ordinary "email ombrant." Some say however it was Georg Friedrich Christoph of Prussia that actually perfected the true lithophane process in 1828. Others say the technique was developed in Berlin and other parts of Germany by such manufacturers as Königlichen Porzellan-Manufaktur and Porzellanmanufactur. This is why sometimes lithophanes are referred to as "Berlin transparency." There is a well known mark of Ad'T' on lithophanes from Rubles, near Melun in France. It is thought to be the mark of Baron A. de Tremblay, however some scholars on the subject think he only made earthenware and not true lithophanes and the mark belongs to a yet unknown source.

— Freebase

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots. In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. Keynes instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate "boom and bust" cycles of economic activity. He advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were adopted by leading Western economies. In 1942, Keynes was awarded a hereditary peerage as Baron Keynes of Tilton in the County of Sussex. Keynes died in 1946, but during the 1950s and 1960s the success of Keynesian economics resulted in almost all capitalist governments adopting its policy recommendations.

— Freebase

Red Baron

Red Baron

Red Baron is a critically acclaimed video game for the PC, created by Damon Slye at Dynamix and published by Sierra Entertainment. It was released in 1990. As the name suggests, the game is a flying simulation set on the Western Front of World War I. The player can engage in single missions or career mode, flying for either the German Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps. In the course of the game the player might find himself either flying in the Red Baron's squadron Jasta 11, or encountering him as an enemy above the front.

— Freebase

Chit

Chit

Chits are a type of wargame counter that are generally not directly representational but used for the following purposes: ⁕Tracking, being placed on a numeric runner to indicate turn status, as in some rule variants for Squad Leader. In Axis & Allies Revised Edition, chits can be used to track air unit movement, indicating how many spaces fighters or bombers can move after combat. ⁕Randomization or chit drawing, as in Air Baron, where at the start of each round, one color-coded chit per player is placed in a cup. The chits are drawn sequentially to determine the current order of play. Chit drawing is also used in Air Baron to pay income. Every purchased airline spoke, plus all hubs, have a unique chit placed in a cup. At the start of every turn, the player randomly draws two chits, paying the owner appropriately. Chits are replaced at the end of each round. ⁕Fog of war, with some chits marked with question marks or placed over unit chits, allowing the opposing player to see where opposing forces are but hiding the type of unit. ⁕Terrain attributes, where numeric chits are randomly distributed over the terrain to indicate the frequency that resources are available in The Settlers of Catan.

— Freebase

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton, was a British Jewish businessman. Marks was born in Leeds and educated at The Manchester Grammar School. In 1907 he inherited a number of "penny bazaars" from his father, Michael Marks, which had been established with Thomas Spencer. With the help of Israel Sieff, he built Marks & Spencer into an icon of British business. Marks was knighted in 1944 and in 1961 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Marks of Broughton, of Sunningdale in the Royal County of Berkshire. He died in December 1964, aged 76, and was succeeded in the barony by his only son Michael.

— Freebase

Tenant-in-chief

Tenant-in-chief

In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief, denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy. The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. Other names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron, although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron. The Latin term was tenens in capite; In most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church, however in England after the Norman Conquest, the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown. A tenure by frankalmoin, which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement. Every land-holding was deemed by feudal custom to be no more than an estate in land whether directly or indirectly held of the king; absolute title in land could only be held by the king himself, the most anyone else could hold was a right over land, not a title in land per se. In England, a tenant-in-chief could enfief, or grant fiefs carved out of his own holding, to his own followers. The creation of subfiefs under a tenant-in-chief or other fief-holder was known as subinfeudation. The Norman kings, however, eventually imposed on all free men who occupied a tenement a duty of fealty to the crown rather than to their immediate lord who had enfeoffed them. This was to diminish the possibility of sub-vassals being employed by tenants-in-chief against the crown.

— Freebase

Victor Horta

Victor Horta

Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that he is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts. The French architect Hector Guimard was deeply influenced by Horta and further spread the "whiplash" style in France and abroad. In 1932 King Albert I of Belgium conferred on Horta the title of Baron for his services to architecture. Four of the buildings he designed have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

— Freebase

Piera

Piera

Piera is a municipality covers a large portion of the southeastern corner of the comarca of Anoia in Catalonia, Spain, on the left bank of the Anoia river. The agricultural land, mostly non-irrigated, is used for the cultivation of cereals, grapes, olives and almonds. The town itself hosts a number of light industries: textiles, plastics and construction materials. Tourism during the summer months is also relatively important for the local economy. The FGC railway line R6 from Martorell and Barcelona to Igualada runs through the town, while local roads lead to Capellades and Sant Sadurní d'Anoia. Notable monuments include the castle of Fontanet. The castle which was restored in 1916 by Ramon de Viala d'Aiguavives, Baron of Almenar is documented in 955 a.c. and now used for private functions. The sister of the Baron of Almenar, Isabel de Viala d'Aiguavives also financed and patroned the modernist church of Ca n'Aguilera which was donated to Barcelona's Bishop by Zaragoza de Viala family on 1921. The architect of Ca N'Aguilera modernist church is Francesc Berenguer i Mestres, who was Antoni Gaudi's disciple and personal friend. Another Piera relevant monument is the church of Santa Maria, with both gothic and roman elements

— Freebase

Earl Grey

Earl Grey

Earl Grey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1806 for General Charles Grey, 1st Baron Grey. He had already been created Baron Grey, of Howick in the County of Northumberland, in 1801, and was made Viscount Howick, in the County of Northumberland, at the same time as he was given the earldom. A member of the prominent Grey family of Northumberland, he was the third son of Sir Henry Grey, 1st Baronet, of Howick. Lord Grey was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, 2nd Earl Grey. He was a prominent Whig politician and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1830 to 1834, which tenure saw the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832. In 1808 he also succeeded his uncle as third Baronet, of Howick.

— Freebase

Whithorn

Whithorn

Whithorn is a former royal burgh in Wigtownshire Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. The town was the location of the first recorded Christian church in Scotland, Candida Casa : the 'White [or 'Shining'] House', built by Saint Ninian about 397. Ref. The Whithorn Trust Refer to Archaeological and Historical Collections relating to Ayrshire and Galloway. vol.VII. pp.53-55 Whithorn is also the name of the area of 10,000 acres in Wigtownshire, in the District Council Region of Dumfries and Galloway 11 miles south from Wigtown, about eight miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, anciently divided into baronies, each controlled by a baron of the court of the barony, i.e. Houston, Baron of the Barony of Busbie or Busby. Burke's Peerage Lineage: This Baronet is heir male of the HOUSTOUNs O.C., the chiefs of which were heritable Baillies and Justiciaries of the Barony of Busbie, Wigtownshire. Scottish feudal lordship Scottish feudal barons sat in Parliament by virtue of holding their lands 'per baroniam', that is as barons.. Whithorn was first known as Candida Casa. 'Whithorn' is a modern form of the Anglo-Saxon version of this name, Hwit Ærne, 'white house'. In Gallovidian Gaelic, it was called Rosnat, or Futarna, the latter a version of the Anglo-Saxon name.

— Freebase

Nobile

Nobile

Nobile or Nob. is an Italian title of nobility ranking between that of baron and knight. As with some other titles of nobility, such as baron or count, nobile is also used immediately before the family name, usually in the abbreviated form: Nob. The word “nobile” is derived from the Latin “nobilis”, meaning honourable. The heraldic coronet of a nobile is composed of a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five pearls, either on stems or set directly upon the rim. The armorial shield of a nobile is surmounted by a silver helm displayed in a ¾ side-view and surmounted by the coronet already described. A noble entitled to wear a coronet of noble status also customarily displays it above the shield in the full heraldic achievement associated with the particular title in question.

— Freebase

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian, of Cambridge in the County of Cambridge, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 27 January 1955 for the electrophysiologist and Nobel Prize recipient Edgar Adrian. He was succeeded by his only son, the second Baron. He was Professor of cell physiology at the University of Cambridge. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1995.

— Freebase

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte is a death loa and the wife of Baron Samedi in Vodou. She drinks rum infused with hot peppers and is symbolized by a black rooster. Like Baron and the Ghede, she uses obscenities. She protects gravestones in cemeteries if they are properly marked with a cross. A New World loa, Maman Brigitte is syncretized with various saints, including:Saint Brigid, and Mary Magdalene

— Freebase

angiohemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

ardennes counteroffensive

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the ardennes bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

bismarckian

Bismarckian

of or relating to Prince Otto von Bismarck or his accomplishments

— Princeton's WordNet

dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl wilhelm siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

maria magdalene von losch

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

marlene dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

richard strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir charles william siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

vascular hemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

von neumann machine

von Neumann machine

any digital computer incorporating the ideas of stored programs and serial counters that were proposed in 1946 by von Neumann and his colleagues

— Princeton's WordNet

von willebrand's disease

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

Baron

Baron

a husband; as, baron and feme, husband and wife

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the dignity or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the land which gives title to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baroness

Baroness

a baron's wife; also, a lady who holds the baronial title in her own right; as, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts

— Webster Dictionary

Baronet

Baronet

a dignity or degree of honor next below a baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of knights except those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners

— Webster Dictionary

Baronial

Baronial

pertaining to a baron or a barony

— Webster Dictionary

Court-baron

Court-baron

an inferior court of civil jurisdiction, attached to a manor, and held by the steward; a baron's court; -- now fallen into disuse

— Webster Dictionary

Lady

Lady

a woman of social distinction or position. In England, a title prefixed to the name of any woman whose husband is not of lower rank than a baron, or whose father was a nobleman not lower than an earl. The wife of a baronet or knight has the title of Lady by courtesy, but not by right

— Webster Dictionary

Napier's rods

Napier's rods

a set of rods, made of bone or other material, each divided into nine spaces, and containing the numbers of a column of the multiplication table; -- a contrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor of logarithms, for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division

— Webster Dictionary

Peer

Peer

a nobleman; a member of one of the five degrees of the British nobility, namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of the realm

— Webster Dictionary

Thane

Thane

a dignitary under the Anglo-Saxons and Danes in England. Of these there were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Conquest, this title was disused, and baron took its place

— Webster Dictionary

Tolt

Tolt

a writ by which a cause pending in a court baron was removed into a country court

— Webster Dictionary

Viscount

Viscount

a nobleman of the fourth rank, next in order below an earl and next above a baron; also, his degree or title of nobility. See Peer, n., 3

— Webster Dictionary

Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sickingen, Franz von

Sickingen, Franz von

a German free-lance, a man of a knightly spirit and great prowess; had often a large following, Götz von Berlichingen of the number, and joined the cause of the Reformation; lost his life by a musket-shot when besieged in the castle of Landstuhl; he was a warm friend of Ulrich von Hutten (1481-1523).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sonnen

Sonnen

Sonnen is a small municipality in the district of Passau in Bavaria in Germany. It is located in the Danube forest, lower Bavarian forest and is located mostly in the district Passau at a height of 700 to 900 meters. Sonnen lies 28 km from Passau, 9 km from Hauzenberg and from the forest itself 13 km. Sonnen borders with upper Austria which lies only 8 km away. Sonnen has been able to possess a rather secured boundary since the Middle Ages. Max Heuwieser writes in "The Tradition of Passau", that Sonnen received its official name somewhere between the years 1130AD and 1150AD by Baron Von Falkenstein. Sonnen was settled in Bavaria, Passau district, at the end of a trade-route from Vienna, Austria. Gustav Wasmayrs in his "History of the Market Ulrichsberg" writes, "in the document over the award of market privileges, King the Heinrich IV plans on 11/07/1349 to secure a free road issued after Passau. This road, coming from upper plan, will lead from upper Austria to Bavaria's sunny mountain town of Sonnen." The village now boasts unique natural energy systems, being nearly fully solar powered.

— Freebase

Sex

Sex

Sex is a coffee table book written by Madonna, with photographs taken by Steven Meisel Studio and film frames shot by Fabien Baron. The book was edited by Glenn O'Brien and was released on October 21, 1992, by Warner Books, Maverick and Callaway Books. Approached with an idea for a book on erotic photographs, Madonna expanded on the idea and conceived the book and its content. Shot in early 1992 in New York City and Miami, the locations ranged from hotels and burlesque theaters, to the streets of Miami. The photographs were even stolen before publishing, but were quickly recovered. The book had a range of influences – from punk rock to earlier fashion iconoclasts like Guy Bourdin and his surrealism, and Helmut Newton, in its stylized, sado-masochistic look. Sex has photographs that feature adult content and softcore pornographic as well as simulations of sexual acts, including sadomasochism and analingus. Madonna wrote the book as a character named "Mistress Dita", inspired by 1930s film actress Dita Parlo. It also includes cameos by actress Isabella Rossellini, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Vanilla Ice, model Naomi Campbell, gay porn star Joey Stefano, actor Udo Kier, socialite Tatiana von Fürstenberg, and nightclub owner Ingrid Casares.

— Freebase

Hermann Göring

Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring, was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party. A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron". A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.

— Freebase

Steuben

Steuben

Steuben is a town in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 1,110 at the 2010 census. The town is named after Baron von Steuben. The Town of Steuben in northeast of Utica, New York.

— Freebase

Praseodymium

Praseodymium

Praseodymium is a chemical element that has the symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide group. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and when artificially prepared, it slowly develops a green oxide coating. The element was named for the color of its primary oxide. In 1841, Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander extracted a rare earth oxide residue he called "didymium" from a residue he called "lantana," in turn separated from cerium salts. In 1885, the Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach separated didymium into two salts of different colors, which he named praseodymium and neodymium. The name praseodymium comes from the Greek prasinos, meaning green, and didymos, twin. Like most rare earth elements, praseodymium most readily forms trivalent Pr ions. These are yellow-green in water solution, and various shades of yellow-green when incorporated into glasses. Many of praseodymium's industrial uses involve its use to filter yellow light from light sources.

— Freebase

Hakea

Hakea

Hakea is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. They are found throughout the country, with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australia. They can reach 1–6 m in height, and have spirally arranged leaves 2–20 cm long, simple or compound, sometimes with the leaflets thin cylindrical and rush-like. The flowers are produced in dense flowerheads of variable shape, globose to cylindrical, 3–10 cm long, with numerous small red, yellow, pink, purple, pale blue or white flowers. Hakeas are named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake, the 18th century German patron of botany, following Heinrich Schrader's description of Hakea teretifolia in 1797. It is now beginning to become accepted that Grevillea is paraphyletic with respect to Hakea. It is likely, therefore, that Hakea may soon be transferred into Grevillea.

— Freebase

Ferrocerium

Ferrocerium

Ferrocerium is a man-made metallic material that gives off a large number of hot sparks at temperatures at 3,000 °F when scraped against a rough surface, such as ridged steel. Because of this property it is used in many applications, such as clockwork toys, strikers for welding torches, so-called "flint-and-steel" or "flint spark lighter" fire-starters in emergency survival kits, and cigarette lighters, as the initial ignition source for the primary fuel. It is also commonly called ferro rod and most commonly of all, mistakenly, flint. As tinder-igniting campfire starter rods it is sold under such trade names as Blastmatch, Fire Steel, and Metal-Match for survivalists and bushcraft hobbyists. Some manufacturers and resellers mistakenly call them "magnesium" rods. It is also known in Europe as Auermetall after its inventor Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach.

— Freebase

Capnomor

Capnomor

Capnomor is a colorless and limpid oil with a peculiar odor, extracted by distillation from beechwood tar. It was discovered in the 1830s by the German chemist Baron Karl von Reichenbach.

— Freebase

Draisine

Draisine

A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle, driven by service personnel, equipped to transport crew and material necessary for the maintenance of railway infrastructure. The eponymous term is derived from German Baron Karl Christian Ludwig Drais von Sauerbronn, who invented his Laufmaschine in 1817, that was called Draisine or Draisienne by the press. It is the first reliable claim for a practically used bicycle, basically the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine commonly called a velocipede, nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse. Later, the name draisine came to be applied only to versions used on rails and was extended to similar vehicles, even when not human-powered. Because of their low weight and small size, they can be put on and taken off the rails at any place, allowing trains to pass. In the United States, motor-powered draisines are known as speeders while human-powered ones are referred as handcars. Vehicles that can be driven on both the highway and the rail line are called hy-rails, or more properly, road-rail vehicles.

— Freebase

Monsun

Monsun

Monsun was a bay Thoroughbred racehorse and stallion bred in Germany by Gestut Isarland and owned by Baron Georg von Ullmann.

— Freebase

Puffendorf, Samuel

Puffendorf, Samuel

Baron von, eminent German jurist, born at Chemnitz, Saxony; wrote several works on jurisprudence, one of which, under the ban of Austria, was burned there by the hangman, but his "De Jure Naturæ et Gentium" is the one on which his fame rests; was successively in the service of Charles XI. of Sweden and the Elector of Brandenburg (1632-1694).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece" (1763-1825).

Richthofen, Baron von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Tauchnitz, Karl Cristoph Traugott

Tauchnitz, Karl Cristoph Traugott

a noted German printer and bookseller, born at Grosspardau, near Leipzig; trained as a printer, he started on his own account in Leipzig in 1796, flourished, and became celebrated for his neat and cheap editions of the Roman and Greek classics; introduced stereotyping into Germany (1761-1836). The well-known "British Authors" collection was started in 1841 by Christian Bernard, Baron von Tauchnitz, a nephew of the preceding, who established himself as a printer and publisher in Leipzig in 1837; was ennobled in 1860, and made a Saxon life-peer in 1877; b. 1816.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Agito Networks

Agito Networks

Agito Networks, Inc. is the award-winning technology leader in the enterprise mobility space. Its product, the RoamAnywhereâ„¢ Mobility Routerâ„¢, is an innovative enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC) platform enabling enterprises to extend voice and Unified Communications to cell phones. RoamAnywhere is the first and only network appliance that fuses enterprise wireless LANs, carrier cellular networks, IP telephony and location technology to mobilize voice and data applications, while remaining agnostic to customers™ choices of carrier and equipment vendors. Agito Networks enables low-cost in-building voice coverage, reduced cellular costs, improved enterprise visibility and control over cellular usage, and better accessibility and responsiveness for mobile workers. A Red Herring 100 winner, Agito was named a Coolest Emerging Technology Vendor for 2008 by CRN, as well as a Top Innovator by VON Magazine. The Company™s RoamAnywhere has received numerous industry awards as wel, including earning CTIA Emerging Technology and eWEEK Excellence awards, and receiving Product of the Year honors from Unified Communications and Internet Telephony magazines. CTO Timothy Olson was also named one of the Best CTOs of 2008 by InfoWorld.Founded and led by industry experts in the areas of WiFi, cellular, telephony and mobile operating systems, Agito Networks is delivering its innovative, patent-pending solution to enterprises in a variety of markets, including healthcare, education, manufacturing and high tech. Agito Networks™ RoamAnywhere represents the next generation of enterprise mobility products for enterprises seeking the promise of improved productivity and cost savings from enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC).Headquartered in Santa Clara, Calif., Agito Networks is well funded with approximately $20 million in investment from Battery Ventures, Castile Ventures and ITX International Holdings, Inc.

— CrunchBase

app2you

app2you

app2you provides a web service that enables anyone to create their own custom, hosted, interactive web applications simply by outlining the pages of the application.app2you’s licensed, patent-pending technology originated in UCSD’s web and databases lab and won the UCSD von Liebig Technology Commercialization award in May 2006.

— CrunchBase

CakeStyle

CakeStyle

CakeStyle is a virtual personal styling service for women designed to take the hassle out of shopping by shipping a box of handpicked clothing and accessories to members’ doors each season.After signing up at www.cakestyle.com, each member has a consultation with her stylist so that CakeStyle knows how she needs to dress each day, what pieces she owns, and how she likes her clothes to fit. Then, her stylist hand-selects pieces for her from designers like Elie Tahari, Diane von Furstenberg, Theory and more, creating four to six outfits with accessories. The box is shipped directly to each member’s door and she tries on the outfits at home. Once she has decided which looks to keep, she ships the rest of the pieces back to CakeStyle, paying only for the items she keeps.All clothing and accessories are priced at retail, with boxes valued at about $2,500 to $3,000 each. Shipping both ways, and the stylists’ services, are free. CakeStyle has no minimum purchase requirement.CakeStyle also has a style blog where the team posts about trends, style advice, designers, and other fashion-related content. CakeStyle was founded in August 2011 by Cecelia Myers and Millie Tadewaldt, and launched officially in November of that year. In August 2012, CakeStyle announced that it had raised $1M in seed funding from the Sandbox Advantage Fund.

— CrunchBase

Polyvore

Polyvore

Polyvore is the leading community site for online style where users are empowered to discover their style and set trends around the world. The company collaborates with prominent brands such as Calvin Klein, Diane Von Furstenberg, Lancôme, Net-a-Porter, Gap and Coach to drive product engagement; and its user-generated fashion campaigns have been judged by Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, Polyvore is funded by Benchmark Capital and Matrix Partners.In September 2013, Polyvore launched a section dedicated to home decor.

— CrunchBase

Carnallite

Carnallite

kär′nal-īt, n. a milk-white or pinkish hydrous chloride of potassium and magnesium found in the salt-mines of Stassfurt in Prussia. [Named from the mineralogist Von Carnall (1804-74).]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Febronianism

Febronianism

feb-rō′ni-an-izm, n. a system of doctrine antagonistic to the claims of the Pope and asserting the independence of national churches, propounded in 1763 by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim under the pseudonym 'Justinus Febronius.'

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Line

Line

līn, n. a thread of linen or flax: a slender cord: (math.) that which has length without breadth or thickness: an extended stroke: a straight row: a cord extended to direct any operations: outline: a series or succession, as of progeny: a series of steamers, &c., plying continuously between places: a railroad: a telegraph wire between stations: an order given to an agent for goods, such goods received, the stock on hand of any particular goods: a mark or lineament, hence a characteristic: a rank: a verse: a short letter or note: a trench: limit: method: the equator: lineage: direction: occupation: the regular infantry of an army: the twelfth part of an inch: (pl.) marriage-lines, a marriage certificate: a certificate of church membership: military works of defence.—v.t. to mark out with lines: to cover with lines: to place along by the side of for guarding: to give out for public singing, as a hymn, line by line: (rare) to delineate, paint: to measure.—n. Lin′eāge, descendants in a line from a common progenitor: race: family.—adj. Lin′eal, of or belonging to a line: composed of lines: in the direction of a line: descended in a direct line from an ancestor.—n. Lineal′ity.—adv. Lin′eally.—n. Lin′eament, feature: distinguishing mark in the form, esp. of the face.—adj. Lin′ear, of or belonging to a line: consisting of, or having the form of, lines: straight.—adv. Lin′early.—adjs. Lin′eāte, -d, marked longitudinally with depressed lines.—ns. Line′ātion (same as Delineation); Line′-engrav′ing, the process of engraving in lines, steel or copperplate engraving.—n.pl. Line′-fish, those taken with the line, as cod, halibut, &c.—adj. Lin′eolate, marked with fine or obscure lines.—ns. Lin′er, a vessel belonging to a regular line or series of packets; Lines′man (mil.), a private in the line; Line′-storm, an equinoctial storm.—Linear perspective, that part of perspective which regards only the positions, magnitudes, and forms of the objects delineated.—Equinoctial line, the celestial equator: the terrestrial equator; Fraunhofer's lines, the dark lines observed crossing the sun's spectrum at right angles to its length—from the Bavarian optician, Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826); Give line, from angling, to allow a person apparent freedom, so as to gain him at last; Ship of the line (see Ship). [A.S. líne—L. linealinum, flax.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Paracelsian

Paracelsian

par-a-sel′si-an, adj. of or relating to the famous Swiss philosopher and physician, Paracelsus (1490-1541), or resembling his theories or practice. The name was coined for himself by Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and apparently implied a claim to be greater than Celsus.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Schrankia

Schrankia

shrang′ki-a, n. a genus of leguminous plants, whose six species are all American—including the sensitive-briar. [Named from the German naturalist F. von Paula Schrank (1747-1835).]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Schweinitzia

Schweinitzia

shwī-nit′zi-a, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the Indian-pipe family, including the sweet pine-sap or Carolina beech-drops. [The Amer. botanist L. D. von Schweinitz (1780-1834).]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Schwenkfelder

Schwenkfelder

shwengk′fel-dėr, n. a member of a religious sect, founded by Caspar von Schwenkfeld (1490-1561), still found in Pennsylvania.—Also Schwenk′feldian.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Slavonic

Slavonic

sla-von′ik, adj. of or belonging to the Slavs, or their language—also Sclavon&pprime;ic, Slavō′nian, Sclavō′nian.—vs.t. Slavon′icise, Slav′onise, to render Slavonic in character, language, &c.—ns. Slav′ophil, one devoted to promoting the interests of the Slavonic peoples; Slav′ophilism, Slavophil feelings and aims; Slav′ophōbist, one who dreads the growth of Slav influence.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Wolfian

Wolfian

wōōl′fi-an, adj. pertaining to the philosophy of Johann Christian von Wolf (1679-1754). He systematised and popularised the philosophy of Leibnitz, and gave a strong impulse to that development of natural theology and rationalism which soon almost drove out revelation by rendering it unnecessary—also Wolff′ian.—n. Wolf′ianism.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Banneret

Banneret

ban′ėr-et, n. a higher class of knight, inferior to a baron. [Fr. dim. of Banner.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Baronet

Baronet

bar′on-et, n. the lowest hereditary title in the United Kingdom (of England—now of Great Britain—since 1611; of Scotland—or of Nova Scotia—since 1625; of Ireland, since 1619).—ns. Bar′onetage, the whole body of baronets: a list of such; Bar′onetcy.—adj. Baronet′ical. [Dim. of Baron.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Burgh

Burgh

bur′ō, n. the Scotch word corresponding to the English Borough.—ns. Burg (same as Borough); Burg′age, a system of tenure where the king or other person is lord of an ancient borough, city, or town, by which the citizens hold their lands or tenements, for a certain annual rent; Burgess (bur′jes), Bur′gher, an inhabitant of a borough: a citizen or freeman: a magistrate of certain towns: one able to take the usual burgesses' oath (see Antiburgher).—adj. Bur′ghal, relating to a burgh.—n. Burg′omaster, the chief magistrate of a German or a Dutch borough, answering to the English term mayor.—Burgh of barony, a corporation consisting of the inhabitants of a determinate tract of land within the barony, and municipally governed by magistrates and a council whose election is either vested in the baron superior of the district, or vested in the inhabitants themselves; Burgh of regality, a burgh of barony, spiritual or temporal, enfranchised by crown charter, with regal or exclusive criminal jurisdiction within their own territories.—Parliamentary burgh, one like Paisley, Greenock, Leith, whose boundaries, as first fixed in 1832, were adopted for municipal purposes, with regard to which they stand practically in the same position as royal burghs; Police burgh, a burgh constituted by the sheriff for purposes of improvement and police, the local authority being the police commissioners; Royal burgh, a corporate body deriving its existence, constitution, and rights from a royal charter, such being either actual and express, or presumed to have existed.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Coehorn

Coehorn

Cohorn, kō′horn, n. a small mortar for throwing grenades. [From Baron van Coehoorn (1641-1704).]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Haussmannize

Haussmannize

hows′man-īz, v.t. to open out, widen, and straighten streets, and generally rebuild, as Baron Haussmann did to Paris when prefect of the Seine (1853-70).—n. Haussmannizā′tion.

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Lord

Lord

lawrd, n. a master: a superior: a husband: a ruler: the proprietor of a manor: a baron: a peer of the realm: the son of a duke or marquis, or the eldest son of an earl: a bishop, esp. if a member of parliament: (B.) the Supreme Being, Jehovah (when printed in capitals): a name also applied to Christ.—v.t. to raise to the peerage.—v.i. to act the lord: to tyrannise.—ns. Lord′liness; Lord′ling, a little lord: a would-be lord—also Lord′ing, Lord′kin.—adj. Lord′ly, like, becoming, or pertaining to a lord: dignified: haughty: tyrannical—also adv.ns. Lordol′atry, excessive worship of nobility; Lords′-and-lā′dies, a popular name for the common arum (q.v.); Lord's′-day, the first day of the week; Lord′ship, state or condition of being a lord: the territory belonging to a lord: dominion: authority; Lord's′-sup′per, the sacrament of the communion, instituted at our Lord's last supper.—Lord-lieutenant of a county (see Lieutenant); Lord-lieutenant Of Ireland, a viceroy or deputy of the sovereign to whom the government of Ireland is nominally committed; Lord of misrule (see Misrule); Lords of Session, the judges of the Scotch Court of Session; Lords Ordinary, the five judges forming the outer house of the Court of Session; Lords spiritual, the archbishops and bishops in the House of Lords—opp. to Lords temporal, the peers proper.—House of Lords, the upper house in the two branches of the British parliament, consisting of the lords spiritual and temporal. [M. E. loverd, laverd—A.S. hláfordhláf, a loaf, bread, weard, warder.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Master

Master

mas′tėr, n. one who commands: a lord or owner: a leader or ruler: a teacher: an employer: the commander of a merchant-ship: formerly the navigator or sailing-master of a ship-of-war: one eminently skilled in anything: the common title of address to a young gentleman, &c.: a title of dignity or office—a degree conferred by universities, as Master of Arts, &c., the title of the eldest son of a Scotch viscount or baron, the head of some corporations, as Balliol College, &c., of a lodge of freemasons, &c.: a husband.—adj. the chief, predominant: belonging to a master, chief, principal, as in Master-builder, &c.—v.t. to become master of: to overcome: to become skilful in: to execute with skill.—ns. Mas′ter-build′er, a chief builder, one who directs or employs others; Mas′terdom, power of control.—adj. Mas′terful, exercising the authority or power of a master: imperious: having the skill of a master.—adv. Mas′terfully, in a masterful or imperious manner.—ns. Mas′terfulness; Mas′ter-hand, the hand of a master: a person highly skilled; Mas′terhood; Mas′ter-joint, the most marked system of joints or divisional planes by which a rock is intersected; Mas′terkey, a key that opens many locks: a clue fitted to guide one out of many difficulties.—adj. Mas′terless, without a master or owner: ungoverned: unsubdued: beyond control.—n. Mas′terliness, quality of being masterly: masterly skill.—adj. Mas′terly, like a master: with the skill of a master: skilful: excellent: overbearing.—adv. with the skill of a master.—ns. Mas′ter-mar′iner, the captain of a merchant-vessel or fishing-vessel; Mas′ter-mā′son, a freemason who has attained the third degree; Mas′ter-mind; Mas′ter-pass′ion; Mas′terpiece, a piece of work worthy of a master: a work of superior skill: chief excellence; Mas′tership, the office of master: rule or dominion: superiority; Mas′terstroke, a stroke or performance worthy of a master: superior performance; Mas′ter-wheel, the wheel in a machine which imparts motion to other parts; Mas′ter-work, work worthy of a master: masterpiece; Mas′terwort, a perennial umbelliferous herb, native to northern Europe, its root reputed as a stomachic, sudorific, diuretic, &c.; Mas′tery, the power or authority of a master: dominion: victory: superiority: the attainment of superior power or skill.—Master of ceremonies, of the Rolls, &c. (see Ceremonies, Rolls, &c.); Master of the horse, the Roman Magister Equitum, an official appointed by the dictator to act next under himself: an equerry, esp. the exalted official bearing this name at the British court; Master of the Temple, the preacher of the Temple Church in London; Masters of the schools, at Oxford, the conductors of the first examination (Responsions) for the degree of B.A.—Masterly ina

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Picotee

Picotee

pik-ō-tē′, n. a florist's variety of carnation. [From the French botanist Picot, Baron de la Peyrouse, 1744-1818.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Tolt

Tolt

tōlt, n. an old English writ removing a court-baron cause to a county-court. [O. Fr. tolte—Low L. tolta—L. tollĕre, to take away.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Verulamian

Verulamian

vėr-ū-lā′mi-an, adj. of or pertaining to St Albans, or Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, Viscount St Albans (1561-1626). [L. Verulamium, an ancient British city near the site of St Albans.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Ley

Ley

Ley is a lunar impact crater that is located across the southern rim of the much larger walled plain Campbell. Intruding into the south-southwestern rim of Ley is the slightly larger crater Von Neumann. The debris from the formation of Von Neumann has produced a bulging rampart that occupies the southwest interior floor of Ley. The outer rim of Ley has undergone impact erosion, and is marked by a number of small craterlets. The inner wall is also worn, and the interior floor is pock-marked by a number of tiny craterlets. There is a small, cup-shaped crater on the floor to the northwest of the midpoint.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."

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Dishonored

Dishonored

Dishonored is a 1931 romantic spy film made by Paramount Pictures. It was co-written, directed and edited by Josef von Sternberg. The costume design was by Travis Banton. The film stars Marlene Dietrich, Victor McLaglen, Gustav von Seyffertitz and Warner Oland.

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Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness", it was first described by the neurologist Constantin von Economo in 1917. The disease attacks the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless. Between 1915 and 1926, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread around the world; no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported, though isolated cases continue to occur.

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Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend. Gottfried's work is regarded, alongside Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Nibelungenlied, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages. He is probably also the composer of a small number of surviving lyrics. His work became a source of inspiration for Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde.

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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel–Lindau disease is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic condition that predisposes individuals to benign and malignant tumours. The most common tumours found in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, pancreatic cysts, endolymphatic sac tumors and epididymal papillary cystadenomas. VHL results from a mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25.3.

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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis. It is deficient or defective in von Willebrand disease and is involved in a large number of other diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heyde's syndrome, and possibly hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Increased plasma levels in a large number of cardiovascular, neoplastic, and connective tissue diseases are presumed to arise from adverse changes to the endothelium, and may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis.

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Hauerite

Hauerite

Hauerite is a manganese sulfide mineral with the chemical formula MnS2. It forms reddish brown or black octahedral crystals and it is usually found associated with the sulfides of other transition metals such as rambergite. It occurs in low temperature, sulfur rich environments associated with solfataras and salt deposits in association with native sulfur, realgar, gypsum and calcite. It was discovered in Austro-Hungarian Monarchy near Banska Bystrica in what is now Slovakia in 1846 and named after the Austrian geologists, Joseph Ritter von Hauer and Franz Ritter von Hauer.

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Encirclement

Encirclement

Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces. This situation is highly dangerous for the encircled force: at the strategic level, because it cannot receive supplies or reinforcements, and on the tactical level, because the units in the force can be subject to an attack from several sides. Lastly, since the force cannot retreat, unless it is relieved or can break out, it must either fight to the death or surrender. Encirclement has been used throughout the centuries by military leaders, including generals such as Alexander the Great, Khalid bin Waleed, Hannibal, Sun Tzu, Shaka Zulu, Wallenstein, Napoleon, Moltke, Heinz Guderian, von Rundstedt, von Manstein, Zhukov, and Patton. Sun Tzu suggests that an army should not be completely encircled, but should be given some room for escape, in order to prevent that 'encircled' army's men lifting their morale and fighting till the death –- a better situation would be them considering the possibility of a retreat. Examples of this might be the battles of Dunkirk, in 1940, and the Falaise Gap in 1944. The main form of encircling, the "double pincer," is executed by attacks on the flanks of a battle, where the mobile forces of the era, such as light infantry, cavalry, tanks, or APCs attempt to force a breakthrough to utilize their speed to join behind the back of the enemy force, and complete the "ring", while the main enemy force is stalled by probing attacks. The encirclement of the German Sixth Army in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942 is a typical example of this.

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Game theory

Game theory

Game theory is a study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, to include both human and non-humans, like computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.

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Von Neumann

Von Neumann

Von Neumann is a lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, in the northern hemisphere. It is nearly attached to the south-southeastern rim of the walled plain Campbell. The crater Ley is attached to the northeastern rim of Von Neumann, and is somewhat overlain by the outer rampart. To the west is the prominent Wiener, and to the south-southwest is Nikolayev. This crater has a wide inner wall with multiple terraces. The width of the inner wall varies around the perimeter, with the widest section to the south. There is some slumping along the inner wall to the northwest where the rim makes its closest approach to Campbell, and the narrow terrain between these two craters is rugged and irregular. But the remaining terrain that surrounds the crater is almost equally rugged. The rim appears somewhat straighter along the southwest side, but is roughly circular elsewhere. The interior floor is nearly flat and level along the western side. There is a small range of ridges running from the south to the northern edge of the floor, and the ground is more irregular in the eastern half. There are no significant impacts within the crater interior and the sides are generally unworn.

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Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack is a studio album by jazz pianist Andrew Hill, recorded in 1963 and released in 1966 on the Blue Note Records label. It was his second recording as leader on the record label. "Ode to Von" is dedicated to saxophonist Von Freeman, whilst "Verne" is dedicated to Hill's first wife, Laverne Gillette. The album is notable for its use of two basses playing contemporaneously.

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Empiricism

Empiricism

Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism, and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. Philosophers associated with empiricism include Aristotle, Alhazen, Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, Robert Grosseteste, William of Ockham, Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Robert Boyle, John Locke, George Berkeley, Hermann von Helmholtz, David Hume, Leopold von Ranke, and John Stuart Mill.

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Heldenbuch

Heldenbuch

Heldenbücher is the conventional title under which a group of manuscripts and prints of the 15th and 16th centuries has come down to us. Each Heldenbuch contains a collection of primarily German epic poetry, typically including material from the Theodoric cycle, and the cycle of Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit. The Heldenbuch texts are thus based on medieval German literature, but adapted to the tastes of the Renaissance, remodelled in rough Knittelvers or doggerel. The Heldenbücher group was edited in 19th-century German scholarship, by Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, Müllenhoff, Simrock and A. von Keller.

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Schiller

Schiller

Schiller is an electronic music project led by Christopher von Deylen, a German musician, composer and producer. The band is named after poet and dramatist Friedrich Schiller. Schiller won the ECHO award in 2002 for the Best Dance Single of the Year with 'Dream of You'. Schiller has sold over 7 million albums worldwide. Christopher von Deylen does not provide any vocals for Schiller productions himself. Vocals are sung by guest artists including Sarah Brightman, Moya Brennan of Clannad, Adam Young of Owl City, Andrea Corr of The Corrs, Colbie Caillat, Sarah Howells of Welsh emotional folk / indie band Paper Aeroplanes, Ben Becker, Peter Heppner of synth pop band Wolfsheim, MiLù - also known as Mila Mar, Xavier Naidoo, Maya Saban, Kim Sanders formerly of Culture Beat, Ana Torroja of the Spanish pop group Mecano, Tarja Turunen formerly of power metal group Nightwish, Despina Vandi, Alexander Veljanov of Darkwave group Deine Lakaien, Swedish singer September. Other musicians that have collaborated with Schiller include Lang Lang, Klaus Schulze, Mike Oldfield, Helen Boulding, Kate Havnevik, Damae of Fragma, Jaël of Swiss band Lunik, Stephenie Coker and German actress Anna Maria Mühe.

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Ghazal

Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi and Hafiz, the Azeri poet Fuzûlî, as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert and August von Platen. The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

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Chorology

Chorology

Chorology can mean ⁕the study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region ⁕the study of the spatial distribution of organisms. In geography, the term was first used by Strabo. In the twentieth century, Richard Hartshorne worked on that notion again. The term was popularized by Ferdinand von Richthofen, uncle of Manfred von Richthofen.

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Saturn V

Saturn V

The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload. It remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds the record for the heaviest launch vehicle payload. The largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, with Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company, and IBM as the lead contractors. Von Braun's design was based in part on his work on the Aggregate series of rockets, especially the A-10, A-11, and A-12, in Germany during World War II. To date, the Saturn V is the only launch vehicle to transport human beings beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 24 astronauts were launched to the Moon, three of them more than once, in the four years spanning December 1968 through December 1972.

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Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I or von Gierke's disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. This genetic disease results from deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, and has an incidence in the American population of approximately 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 births. The deficiency impairs the ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. Since these are the two principal metabolic mechanisms by which the liver supplies glucose to the rest of the body during periods of fasting, it causes severe hypoglycemia and results in increased glycogen storage in liver and kidneys. This can lead to enlargement of both. Both organs function normally in childhood, but are susceptible to a variety of problems in adult years. Other metabolic derangements include lactic acidosis and hyperlipidemia. Frequent or continuous feedings of cornstarch or other carbohydrates are the principal treatment. Other therapeutic measures may be needed for associated problems. The disease was named after Edgar von Gierke, the German doctor who discovered it.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. Linnaeus received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, "The Pliny of the North," and "The Second Adam".

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Grey goo

Grey goo

Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all matter on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy. The original idea assumed machines designed to have this capability, while popularizations have assumed that machines might somehow gain this capability by accident. Self-replicating machines of the macroscopic variety were originally described by mathematician John von Neumann, and are sometimes referred to as von Neumann machines. The term grey goo was coined by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler in his 1986 book Engines of Creation. In 2004 he stated "I wish I had never used the term 'grey goo'." Engines of Creation mentions "grey goo" in two paragraphs and a note, while the popularized idea of grey goo was first publicized in a mass-circulation magazine, Omni, November 1986.

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Heilbronn

Heilbronn

Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with approximately 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state. The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is also the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn.

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Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis is a non-neoplastic condition presenting with little knots of capillaries in various organs. It consists of many angiomas. It is also known as Von Hippel-Lindau Disease and is a rare genetic multi system disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of tumours in the body. Symptoms may include headaches, problems with balance and walking, dizziness, weakness of the limbs, vision problems and high blood pressure. Prognosis depends on the size and location of the tumour, untreated angiomatosis may lead to blindness and/ or permanent brain damage. Death may occur, with complications in the kidney or brain. These tend to be cavernous hemangiomas, which are sharply defined, sponge-like tumors composed of large, dilated, cavernous vascular spaces. They often appear in: ⁕Von Hippel-Lindau disease ⁕Bacillary angiomatosis ⁕Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome ⁕Sturge-Weber syndrome

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Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica, abbreviated OFC, and also known as osteitis fibrosa, osteodystrophia fibrosa, Von Recklinghausen's Disease of Bone, not to be confused with Von Recklinghausen's disease. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica is a skeletal disorder caused by a surplus of parathyroid hormone from over-active parathyroid glands. This surplus stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone, in a process known as osteoclastic bone resorption. The over-activity of the parathyroid glands can be triggered by parathyroid adenoma, hereditary factors, parathyroid carcinoma, or renal osteodystrophy. Osteoclastic bone resorption releases minerals, including calcium, from the bone into the bloodstream. In addition to elevated blood calcium levels, over-activity of this process results in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue, and the formation of cyst-like brown tumors in and around the bone. The symptoms of the disease are the consequences of both the general softening of the bones and the excess calcium in the blood, and include bone fractures, kidney stones, nausea, appetite loss, and weight loss.

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Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, Leo von Klenze was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival style.

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JOHNNIAC

JOHNNIAC

The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by RAND that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine. It was named in honor of von Neumann, short for John v. Neumann Numerical Integrator and Automatic Computer. JOHNNIAC is arguably the longest-lived early computer, being used almost continuously from 1953 for over 13 years before finally being shut down on February 11, 1966, logging over 50,000 operational hours. After two "rescues" from the scrap heap, the machine currently resides at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. Like the IAS machine, JOHNNIAC used 40-bit words, and included 1024 words of Selectron tube main memory, each holding 256 bits of data. Two instructions were stored in every word in 20-bit subwords consisting of an 8-bit instruction and a 12-bit address, the instructions being operated in series with the left subword running first. The initial machine had 83 instructions. A single A register supplied an accumulator, and the machine also featured a Q, for quotient, register as well. There was only one test condition, whether or not the high bit of the A register was set. There were no index registers, and as addresses were stored in the instructions, loops had to be implemented by modifying the instructions as the program ran. Since the machine only had 10 bits of address space, two of the address bits were unused and were sometimes used for data storage by interleaving data through the instructions.

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Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen was an officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, who ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He was a notable participant of the first Russian circumnavigation and subsequently a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica. Bellingshausen started his service in the Baltic Fleet, and after distinguishing himself, he joined the First Russian circumnavigation in 1803-1806, where he served on frigate Nadezhda under the captaincy of Adam Johann von Krusenstern. After the journey he published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently he commanded several ships of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. As a prominent cartographer, Bellingshausen was appointed to command the circumnavigation of the globe in 1819-1821, intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The expedition was prepared by Mikhail Lazarev, who was made Bellingshausen's second-in-command and the captain of sloop Mirny, while Bellingshausen himself commanded sloop Vostok. During this expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see the land of Antarctica on January 28, 1820. They managed to twice circumnavigate the continent and never lost each other from view. Thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice fields. The expedition discovered and named Peter I Island, Zavodovski, Leskov and Visokoi Islands, Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island, and made some discoveries in the tropical waters of the Pacific.

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Felix Weingartner

Felix Weingartner

Paul Felix von Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.

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SMIL

SMIL

SMIL was a first-generation computer built at Lund University in Lund, Sweden. SMIL was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann. Carl-Erik Froberg belonged to the group of five young Swedish scientists 1947-48 that IVA sent to the U.S. to gather information about the early computer development, and then came to strongly influence the development in Sweden. Froberg visited with Erik Stemme Institute for Advanced Study, and John von Neumann's research group. Back in Lund, he played a leading role in the creation of SMIL, which was the first computer developed in Lund and among the first in Sweden. SMIL was introduced in August 1956 and then was in operation until 1970. In February 1962 SMIL was fitted with a compiler for ALGOL 60. The compiler was constructed by Torgil Ekman and Leif Robertson. Carl-Erik Froberg was also behind the early emergence of numerical analysis as a separate university subject. In this context, he wrote himself and collaborated with others on several textbooks in computer education, for example, Textbook on Numerical Analysis and Textbook of Algol. These books were widely distributed and translated into several languages.

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Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl was a German botanist from Stuttgart. He was a son of the Württemberg statesman Benjamin Ferdinand von Mohl, the family being connected on both sides with the higher class of state officials of Württemberg. While a pupil at the gymnasium he pursued botany and mineralogy in his leisure time, till in 1823 he entered the University of Tübingen. After graduating with distinction in medicine he went to Munich, where he met a distinguished circle of botanists, and found ample material for research. This seems to have determined his career as a botanist, and he started in 1828 those anatomical investigations which continued till his death. In 1832 he was appointed professor of botany in Tübingen, a post which he never left. Unmarried, his pleasures were in his laboratory and library, and in perfecting optical apparatus and microscopic preparations, for which he showed extraordinary manual skill. He was largely a self-taught botanist from boyhood, and, little influenced in his opinions even by his teachers, preserved always his independence of view on scientific questions. He received many honours during his lifetime, and was elected foreign fellow of the Royal Society in 1868.

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Franz von Papen

Franz von Papen

Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician. He served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934. He belonged to the group of close advisers to president Paul von Hindenburg in the late Weimar Republic. It was largely Papen, believing that Hitler could be controlled once he was in the government, who persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in a cabinet not under Nazi Party domination. However, Papen and his allies were quickly marginalised by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of the Long Knives, during which some of his confidantes were killed by the Nazis.

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Seedo

Seedo

Seedo was a German composer who worked primarily in England. He was the son of Samuel Peter Sidow, a musician employed by the Elector of Brandenburg. By the mid-1720s, Seedo was working at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. In 1727 he married the singer Maria Manina, who had small parts in London’s Italian operas beginning in 1711 Between 1731 and 1734, Seedo worked on Drury Lane imitations. He wrote several successful stage works of which his ballad opera, The Devil to Pay, was the most successful. When the work initially premiered it was a failure, but when the composer cut the work significantly from a full opera of 42 airs to an afterpiece of 16 airs it became a hit. Apart from The Beggar's Opera, The Devil to Pay was by far the most popular ballad opera of the 18th century. The work was given regular London performances until well into the 19th century and a translation by C.W. von Borcke became popular in Germany as well. Von Borcke's translation was a major influence on the development of singspiel. Seedo died in Potsdam.

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Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen is a one act opera composed by Arnold Schoenberg, to a German libretto by "Max Blonda," the pseudonym of Gertrud Schoenberg, the composer's wife. It is the composer's opus 32. The opera was composed at the end of 1928, and was premiered in Frankfurt on 1 February 1930, with William Steinberg conducting Herbert Graf's production. It was the first twelve-tone opera, and Schoenberg's only comedy. The libretto may indeed be a contemporary comedy of manners, but the music is complex, the angular vocal-lines and large orchestra creating a frightening whirlwind of fury. In fact, the composer described his music in this opera: "The music is ugly, as always in my compositions; it corresponds with my artistic and spiritual disposition." Schoenberg also wrote: "I have proved in my operas Von heute auf morgen and Moses und Aron that every expression and characterization can be produced with the style of free dissonance," in contrast to Alban Berg, who believed that a contrast with tonal elements needed to be introduced for certain reasons, and did so in his opera Wozzeck.

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Destructionism

Destructionism

Destructionism is a term used by Ludwig Von Mises, a classical liberal economist, to refer to policies that consume capital but do not accumulate it. It is the title of Part V of his seminal work Socialism. Since accumulation of capital is the basis for economic progress, Von Mises warned that pursuing socialist and etatist policies will eventually lead to the consumption and reliance on old capital, borrowed capital, or printed "capital" as these policies cannot create any new capital, instead only consuming the old.

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Schlieffen Plan

Schlieffen Plan

The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff's early-20th-century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The First World War later became such a war, with both a Western and an Eastern Front. The plan took advantage of Russia's slowness and expected differences in the three countries' speed in preparing for war. In short, it was the German plan to avoid a two-front war by concentrating troops in the West and quickly defeating the French and then, if necessary, rushing those troops by rail to the East to face the Russians before they had time to mobilize fully. The Schlieffen Plan was created by Count Alfred von Schlieffen and modified by Helmuth von Moltke the Younger after Schlieffen's retirement; it was Moltke who actually implemented the plan at the outset of World War I. In modified form, it was executed to near victory in the first month of the war. However, the modifications to the original plan, stronger than expected resistance from the Belgians and surprisingly speedy Russian offensives contributed to the plan's eventual failure. The plan ultimately collapsed when a French counterattack on the outskirts of Paris ended the German offensive and resulted in years of trench warfare. The Schlieffen Plan has been the subject of intense debate among historians and military scholars ever since. Schlieffen's last words were "remember to keep the right flank strong," which was significant in that Moltke strengthened the left flank in his modification.

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Basic Channel

Basic Channel

Basic Channel is a production team and record label, composed of Moritz Von Oswald and Mark Ernestus, that originated in Berlin, Germany in 1993. The duo originally released a number of vinyl-only tracks under various aliases, each of which employed their signature brand of minimal techno. The original nine releases were each primarily identified as Basic Channel productions by their catalogue numbers, as the Basic Channel logo on the label became more distorted and unreadable with each subsequent release. The duo set up a studio in Berlin on Paul-Lincke-Ufer, in a building which was eventually to house Mark Ernestus’ distributing company and shop Hard Wax, and the label's mastering studio Dubplates & Mastering, set up to ensure a desired dynamic quality for the vinyl. The Basic Channel imprint ceased business in 1995, but were followed by a string of similar labels. Main Street handled Chicago house-inspired releases; Chain Reaction released non-Von Oswald/Ernestus productions and helped launch the careers of dub techno producers such as Monolake and Porter Ricks. Basic Channel has also shown a strong affinity for Jamaican music. The Rhythm & Sound label imprint saw the duo's sound move closer to dub reggae. Frequent Rhythm & Sound collaborator Paul St. Hilaire set up the subsidiary False Tuned in 2003.

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Liberism

Liberism

Liberism is a term for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire capitalism first used by the philosopher Benedetto Croce, and popularized in English by the Italian-American political scientist Giovanni Sartori. Sartori imported the term from Italian in order to distinguish between social liberalism, which is generally considered a political ideology often advocating extensive government intervention in the economy, and those liberal theories of economics which propose to virtually eliminate such intervention. In informal usage, liberism overlaps with other concepts such as free trade, neoliberalism, right-libertarianism, the American concept of libertarianism, and the French notion of laissez-faire. In Italy, liberism is often identified with the political theories of Gaetano Mosca, Luigi Einaudi and Bruno Leoni. Internationally, liberism has been advocated by the Austrian School of economic theory, for instance by Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek.

— Freebase

Coutts

Coutts

Coutts & Co. is a private bank and wealth manager. It is one of the world’s oldest banks and is wholly owned by the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. RBS acquired Coutts when it bought NatWest in 2000. Coutts then acquired Zurich-based Bank von Ernst & Cie in 2003 and in 2008, Coutts Bank von Ernst and other Coutts International subsidiaries became RBS Coutts Bank. These traded as RBS Coutts International to align them with the parent RBS Group until 2011, when RBS Coutts was renamed Coutts & Co. Limited. Headquartered in London, Coutts is the wealth division of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, with clients from over 40 offices in financial centres in the UK, Switzerland, the Middle East and Asia.

— Freebase

Spione

Spione

Spione (English title: Spies, under which title it was released in the United States) is a German silent espionage thriller written and directed by Fritz Lang in 1928. Lang's wife, Thea von Harbou, worked as a co-writer. The film was Lang's penultimate silent film, and the first for his own production company; Fritz Lang-film GmbH. As in Lang's Mabuse films, such as Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse, Rudolf Klein-Rogge plays a master criminal aiming for world domination. Spione was restored to its original length by the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung during 2003 and 2004. No original negatives survive, but a high quality nitrate copy is held at the Národni Filmovy Archiv at Prague. Beautiful Russian spy Sonja Baranikowa (Gerda Maurus) seduces Colonel Jellusic (Fritz Rasp) into betraying his country for her employer, Haghi (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a seemingly respectable bank director who is actually the criminal mastermind of a powerful espionage organization. Jason (Craighall Sherry), head of the Secret Service, gives the task of bringing the mysterious Haghi down to a handsome young agent known only as Number 326. 326 believes his identity is a secret, but Haghi is well aware of him. He assigns Sonja to worm her way into 326's confidence. She convinces 326 that she has just shot a man who tried to force himself on her. He hides her from the police. What Haghi does not anticipate is that the couple will fall in love. Unwilling to betray 326, she quietly slips away after they spend the afternoon and evening together. He trails her to Colonel Jellusic, whom he mistakes for her lover (she is actually paying him for his treason). Haghi suspects Sonya's feelings for 326. When she refuses to act against 326, he confines her to a room in his secret headquarters. Meanwhile, Haghi is after a crucial, secret Japanese treaty. He blackmails Lady Leslane (Hertha von Walther), an opium addict, into betraying what her husband knows of the negotiations. Akira Masimoto (Lupu Pick), the Japanese head of security responsible for the treaty's safekeeping, crosses paths with 326. When 326 seeks out Sonya, he finds her apartment stripped bare. Masimoto finds him drowning his sorrows in a bar and informs him that he would have arrested the woman as a spy had she not disappeared. Masimoto gives each of three couriers a sealed packet to deliver to Tokyo; he informs them that a copy of the treaty is inside one of them. Haghi obtains all three packages, but finds only newspapers. However, Haghi has one more card up his sleeve. Masimoto pities Kitty (Liene Dyers), a young woman he finds huddling in a doorway during a rainstorm, and takes her in. When he prepares to leave for Japan with the treaty, she begs him to spend a few hours with her. He gives in, attracted by her beauty. However, when he wakes up later, she is gone, as is the treaty. Disgraced, he commits ritual suicide. 326 tracks Jellusic down, but too late. To tie up loose ends, Haghi has already betrayed the colonel. When confronted by his superiors, Jellusic shoots himself to avoid a scandal. 326 wires the serial numbers of the bank notes used to pay Jellusic, which Jason passes on to agent 719, working undercover as a circus clown, to trace. On the train trip back, 326 is nearly killed in a trap set by Haghi. While he is sleeping, his car is detached and left in a tunnel. He awakens just before another train smashes into it. Sonya, tricked into trying to smuggling the treaty out of the country by Haghi's promise not to harm 326, learns of the crash, races to the site and is reunited with her love. 326 orders Haghi's bank surrounded. Then he sends Sonya away with his trusted chauffeur, Franz (Paul Hörbiger), while he and his men search for Haghi. However, Haghi captures Sonya and Franz, and sends 326 an ultimatum: clear the building within 15 minutes or Sonya will die. After agonizing, 326 continues searching, even after poison gas is released. Fortunately, Franz...

— Freebase

Manderlay

Manderlay

Manderlay is a 2005 Danish drama film written and directed by Lars von Trier and the second part of von Trier's projected USA – Land of Opportunities trilogy. It stars Bryce Dallas Howard, who replaces Nicole Kidman in the role of Grace Mulligan. The film co-stars Willem Dafoe, replacing James Caan. Lauren Bacall and Chloë Sevigny return portraying different characters from those in Dogville. Only John Hurt, Udo Kier and Jean-Marc Barr reprise their roles. The staging is very similar to Dogville. The film was shot on a sparsely dressed sound stage. As in the case of Dogville, Manderlay '​s action is confined to a small geographic area, in this case a plantation.

— Freebase

Until I Die

Until I Die

"Until I Die" is a pop song performed by Swedish singer September. The song was written by Anoo Bhagavan, Jonas von der Burg and Niklas von der Burg for September's third album Dancing Shoes. It was released as the album's second single on 7 November 2007 in Sweden. Musically, the song is a eurodance song, which features dance-pop and electronic influences. According Ron Slomowicz from About.com, he said that it was "a bit darker than you would expect from europop but in a way thats what makes it all the more special." The song received positive reviews, praising her darker tone and felt it was catchy as well. Commercially, it remains September's least successful single in Sweden, debuting at five, and falling out of the top forty the next week. It lasted for five weeks only. The song had more success in Finland, where it peaked at number six and stayed in the charts for thirteen weeks. The music video was released by Hard2Beat on their YouTube channel. The song features her dancing, and her walking through clockworks.

— Freebase

Neodymium

Neodymium

The chemical element of atomic number 60, one of the rare earth elements. Symbol Nd. Atomic weight 144.27. It is a rare metallic element occurring in combination with cerium, lanthanum, and other rare metals, and forming amethyst-colored salts. It was originally thought to be part of a supposed new element didymium, obtained from cerite in 1843. Later this was resolved into two elements, neodymium and praesodymium by von Welsbach in 1885. It is chiefly trivalent. It is a faintly yellow metal.

— GCIDE

norium

norium

A supposed metal alleged to have been discovered in 1845 by the Swedish chemist Swanberg in zircon. After many unsuccessful attempts to verify this new element, the element named Hafnium (atomic number 72) was discoverd in 1923 by D. Coster and G. von Hevesey in the zirconium-containing mineral zircon. Hafnium, present at 1 to 5% in many zirconium-bearing minerals, but difficult to separate from zirconium, is probably the element that gave rise to the properties attributed to the hypothetical norium.

— GCIDE

Deamino Arginine Vasopressin

Deamino Arginine Vasopressin

A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic

Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic

Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Diseases

von Willebrand Diseases

Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Receptors, Cytoadhesin

Receptors, Cytoadhesin

A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hemangioblastoma

Hemangioblastoma

A benign tumor of the nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE. It accounts for approximately 2% of intracranial tumors, arising most frequently in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Histologically, the tumors are composed of multiple capillary and sinusoidal channels lined with endothelial cells and clusters of lipid-laden pseudoxanthoma cells. Usually solitary, these tumors can be multiple and may also occur in the brain stem, spinal cord, retina, and supratentorial compartment. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas usually present in the third decade with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and ataxia. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2071-2)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Receptors, Vitronectin

Receptors, Vitronectin

Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex

Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex

Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Weibel-Palade Bodies

Weibel-Palade Bodies

Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Integrin alpha2

Integrin alpha2

An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Furin

Furin

A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein

Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein

A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Lipocalin 1

Lipocalin 1

A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Thrombotic Microangiopathies

Thrombotic Microangiopathies

Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

blinkenlights

blinkenlights

[common] Front-panel diagnostic lights on a computer, esp. a dinosaur. Now that dinosaurs are rare, this term usually refers to status lights on a modem, network hub, or the like.This term derives from the last word of the famous blackletter-Gothic sign in mangled pseudo-German that once graced about half the computer rooms in the English-speaking world. One version ran in its entirety as follows:                   ACHTUNG!  ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS! Alles touristen und non-technischen looken peepers! Das computermachine ist nicht fuer gefingerpoken und mittengrabben. Ist easy schnappen der springenwerk, blowenfusen und poppencorken mit spitzensparken.  Ist nicht fuer gewerken bei das dumpkopfen. Das rubbernecken sichtseeren keepen das cotten-pickenen hans in das pockets muss; relaxen und watchen das blinkenlichten. This silliness dates back at least as far as 1955 at IBM and had already gone international by the early 1960s, when it was reported at London University's ATLAS computing site. There are several variants of it in circulation, some of which actually do end with the word ‘blinkenlights’.In an amusing example of turnabout-is-fair-play, German hackers have developed their own versions of the blinkenlights poster in fractured English, one of which is reproduced here:                               ATTENTION This room is fullfilled mit special electronische equippment. Fingergrabbing and pressing the cnoeppkes from the computers is allowed for die experts only!  So all the “lefthanders” stay away and do not disturben the brainstorming von here working intelligencies.  Otherwise you will be out thrown and kicked anderswhere!  Also: please keep still and only watchen astaunished the blinkenlights. See also geef.Old-time hackers sometimes get nostalgic for blinkenlights because they were so much more fun to look at than a blank panel. Sadly, very few computers still have them (the three LEDs on a PC keyboard certainly don't count). The obvious reasons (cost of wiring, cost of front-panel cutouts, almost nobody needs or wants to interpret machine-register states on the fly anymore) are only part of the story. Another part of it is that radio-frequency leakage from the lamp wiring was beginning to be a problem as far back as transistor machines. But the most fundamental fact is that there are very few signals slow enough to blink an LED these days! With slow CPUs, you could watch the bus register or instruction counter tick, but even at 33/66/150MHz (let alone gigahertz speeds) it's all a blur.Despite this, a couple of relatively recent computer designs of note have featured programmable blinkenlights that were added just because they looked cool. The Connection Machine, a 65,536-processor parallel computer designed in the mid-1980s, was a black cube with one side covered with a grid of red blinkenlights; the sales demo had them evolving life patterns. A few years later the ill-fated BeBox (a personal computer designed to run the BeOS operating system) featured twin rows of blinkenlights on the case front. When Be, Inc. decided to get out of the hardware business in 1996 and instead ported their OS to the PowerPC and later to the Intel architecture, many users suffered severely from the absence of their beloved blinkenlights. Before long an external version of the blinkenlights driven by a PC serial port became available; there is some sort of plot symmetry

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

netiquette

netiquette

[Coined by Chuq von Rospach c.1983] [portmanteau, network + etiquette] The conventions of politeness recognized on Usenet, such as avoidance of cross-posting to inappropriate groups and refraining from commercial pluggery outside the biz groups.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Alec Douglas-Home

Alec Douglas-Home

Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister from October 1963 to October 1964. His reputation, however, rests more on his two spells as the UK's foreign minister than on his brief and uneventful premiership. Within six years of entering the House of Commons in 1931, Douglas-Home became parliamentary aide to Neville Chamberlain, witnessing at first hand Chamberlain's efforts as Prime Minister to preserve peace through appeasement in the two years before the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1940 Dunglass was diagnosed with spinal tuberculosis and was immobilised for two years. By the later stages of the war he had recovered enough to resume his political career, but lost his seat in the general election of 1945. He regained it in 1950, but the following year he left the Commons when, on the death of his father, he inherited the earldom of Home and thereby became a member of the House of Lords. Under the premierships of Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan he was appointed to a series of increasingly senior posts, including Leader of the House of Lords and Foreign Secretary. In the latter post, which he held from 1960 to 1963, he supported United States resolve in the Cuban Missile Crisis and was the United Kingdom's signatory of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in August 1963.

— Freebase

Kelvin bridge

Kelvin bridge

A Kelvin bridge is a measuring instrument invented by William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. It is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance below 1 Ω. Its operation is similar to the Wheatstone bridge except for the presence of additional resistors. These additional low value resistors and the internal configuration of the bridge are arranged to substantially reduce measurement errors introduced by voltage drops in the high current arm of the bridge. It consists of two ratio arms. The outer ratio arm contains the known resistors and the inner ratio arm helps to connect the one terminal of the galvanometer at the appropriate point.

— Freebase

Chianti

Chianti

A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco; however, the fiasco is only used by a few makers of the wine now; most Chianti is now bottled in more standard shaped wine bottles. Baron Bettino Ricasoli created the Chianti recipe of 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo and 15% Malvasia bianca in the middle of the nineteenth century. The first definition of a wine-area called Chianti was made in 1716. It described the area near the villages of Gaiole, Castellina and Radda; the so-called Lega del Chianti and later Provincia del Chianti. In 1932 the Chianti area was completely re-drawn and divided in seven sub-areas: Classico, Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colline Pisane, Colli Senesi, Montalbano and Rùfina. Most of the villages that in 1932 were suddenly included in the new Chianti Classico area added in Chianti to their name-such as Greve in Chianti which amended its name in 1972. Wines labelled "Chianti Classico" come from the biggest sub-area of Chianti, that includes the original Chianti heartland. Only Chianti from this sub-zone may boast the black rooster seal on the neck of the bottle, which indicates that the producer of the wine is a member of the Chianti Classico Consortium, the local association of producers. Other variants, with the exception of Rufina from the north-east side of Florence and Montalbano in the south of Pistoia, originate in the respective named provinces: Siena for the Colli Senesi, Florence for the Colli Fiorentini, Arezzo for the Colli Aretini and Pisa for the Colline Pisane. In 1996 part of the Colli Fiorentini sub-area was renamed Montespertoli.

— Freebase

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Andrew Lloyd Webber

Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt. is a British composer and impresario of musical theatre. Lloyd Webber has achieved great popular success in musical theatre. Several of his musicals have run for more than a decade both in the West End and on Broadway. He has composed 13 musicals, a song cycle, a set of variations, two film scores, and a Latin Requiem Mass. He has also gained a number of honours, including a knighthood in 1992, followed by a peerage from Queen Elizabeth II for services to Music, seven Tony Awards, three Grammy Awards, an Academy Award, fourteen Ivor Novello Awards, seven Olivier Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and the Kennedy Center Honors in 2006. Several of his songs have been widely recorded and were hits outside of their parent musicals, notably "The Music of the Night" from The Phantom of the Opera, "I Don't Know How to Love Him" from Jesus Christ Superstar, "Don't Cry for Me, Argentina" and "You Must Love Me" from Evita, "Any Dream Will Do" from Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and "Memory" from Cats. His company, the Really Useful Group, is one of the largest theatre operators in London. Producers in several parts of the UK have staged productions, including national tours, of the Lloyd Webber musicals under licence from the Really Useful Group. Lloyd Webber is also the president of the Arts Educational Schools London, a prestigious performing arts school located in Chiswick, West London.

— Freebase

Best evidence rule

Best evidence rule

The best evidence rule is a common law rule of evidence which can be traced back at least as far as the 18th century. In Omychund v Barker 1 Atk, 21, 49; 26 ER 15, 33, Lord Harwicke stated that no evidence was admissible unless it was "the best that the nature of the case will allow". The publication ten years later of Gilbert's enormously influential Law of Evidence, a posthumous work by Sir Jeffrey Gilbert, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, established the primacy of the best evidence rule, which Gilbert regarded as central to the concept of evidence. The general rule is that secondary evidence, such as a copy or facsimile, will be not admissible if an original document exists, and is not unavailable due to destruction or other circumstances indicating unavailability. The best evidence rule is also thought to be the basis for the rule precluding the admissibility of hearsay evidence, although the two rules are now quite distinct.

— Freebase

Drug lord

Drug lord

A drug lord, drug baron, kingpin, or narcotrafficker is a person who controls a sizable network of persons involved in the illegal drug trade. Such figures are often difficult to bring to justice, as they might never be directly in possession of something illegal, but are insulated from the actual trade in drugs by several layers of underlings. The prosecution of drug lords is therefore usually the result of carefully planned infiltrations of their networks, often using informants from within the organization.

— Freebase

Delaware

Delaware

Delaware is a U.S. state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, to the northeast by New Jersey, and to the north by Pennsylvania. The state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor, after whom what is now called Cape Henlopen was originally named. Delaware is located in the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula and is the second smallest, the sixth least populous, but the sixth most densely populated of the fifty United States. Delaware is divided into three counties. From north to south, these three counties are New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. While the southern two counties have historically been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County has been more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south. It was initially colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, located near the present town of Lewes, in 1631. Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution and on December 7, 1787, became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby becoming known as The First State.

— Freebase

John William Strutt

John William Strutt

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, OM was an English physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. He also discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, explaining why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves now known as Rayleigh waves. Rayleigh's textbook, The Theory of Sound, is still referred to by acoustic engineers today.

— Freebase

Seymour

Seymour

Seymour is a city in Jackson County, Indiana, United States. The population was 17,503 at the 2010 census. Seymour is called the "Crossroads of America" because the North/South and East/West railroads cross in downtown. The North/South line, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, was built in the 1840s connecting Indianapolis to the Ohio River at Jeffersonville. It ran through the Shields farm at the area that is now Seymour. In 1852 when the East/West railroad, the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, was going to be built, Capt. Meedy Shields who was the cousin of General John Tipton talked the surveyor, John Seymour, into putting it through his land. In return he named the town Seymour. All trains had to stop at a crossroad, making Seymour a bustling community. Seymour is the birthplace of former Indiana 9th District U.S. Representative Baron Hill, Texas lawyer Paul Eggers, singer John Mellencamp, Miss America 2009 Katie Stam, retired professional wrestler Rip Rogers, and Robert Shields whose personal diary earned him a place in the Guinness Book of World Records. Robert William Shields was a distant cousin of Seymour founder Meedy Shields. Also Seymour is the home of rock band The Elms.

— Freebase

Black Assize

Black Assize

The Black Assize is a name given to multiple deaths in the city of Oxford in England between July 6 and August 12, 1577. At least 300 people including the chief baron and sheriff, are thought to have died as a result of this event. It received its name because it was believed to have been associated with a trial at the Assize Court at Oxford Castle.

— Freebase

Nexus

Nexus

Nexus is an American comic book series created by writer Mike Baron and penciler Steve Rude in 1981. The series is a combination of the superhero and science fiction genres, set 500 years in the future.

— Freebase

Kelvin

Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units and is assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction ¹⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. The Kelvin scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree. The kelvin is the primary unit of measurement in the physical sciences, but is often used in conjunction with the degree Celsius, which has the same magnitude. Subtracting 273.16 K from the temperature of the triple point of water makes absolute zero equivalent to −273.15 °C.

— Freebase

Renfrew

Renfrew

Renfrew is a town 6 miles west of Glasgow in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. Renfrew is known as the "Cradle of the Royal Stewarts" as a result of its early link with the Royal house of Scotland and Great Britain. It gained royal burgh status in 1397 and became the county town of Renfrewshire, also known as the County of Renfrew. The town is also a barony: the current Baron of Renfrew is His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay who holds lands in the area as part of the principality of Scotland. As the county town, Renfrew once was a centre of local government for the surrounding area. Whilst the county remained, the focus of local government in Renfrewshire gradually shifted from Renfrew to the larger neighbouring town of Paisley. Following the reorganisation of 1996, the county of Renfrewshire was divided for local government purposes into three modern council areas: Renfrewshire, with considerably smaller boundaries than the county, including Renfrew and with its administrative centre at Paisley; Inverclyde with its centre at Greenock, covering the western part of the county; and East Renfrewshire, with its centre at Giffnock. The boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire remain for a number of ceremonial and administrative purposes.

— Freebase

Jay Gould

Jay Gould

Jason "Jay" Gould was a leading American railroad developer and speculator. He has long been vilified as an archetypal robber baron, whose successes made him the ninth richest American in history. Condé Nast Portfolio ranked Gould as the 8th worst American CEO of all time. Some modern historians working from primary sources have discounted various myths about him.

— Freebase

Magdala

Magdala

Magdala is the name of at least two places in ancient Israel mentioned in the Jewish Talmud and one place that may be mentioned in the Christian New Testament. Magdala was also a high stronghold in Ethiopia that was taken on April 13, 1868, by Sir Robert Napier, created Baron Napier of Magdala.

— Freebase

Laird

Laird

A Laird is a member of the Scottish gentry, who bears the designation Laird of X, where X is the place name. In the non-peerage table of precedence, a Laird ranks below a Baron and above an Esquire. The Lord Lyon, who exercises Her Majesty's prerogative in respect of determining succession to titles and dignities in Scotland, has recently produced the following guidance: Historically, the term bonnet laird was applied to rural, petty landowners, as they wore a bonnet like the non-landowning classes. Bonnet lairds filled a position in society below lairds and above husbandsmen, similar to the yeomen of England.

— Freebase

Denbigh

Denbigh

Denbigh is a market town and community in Denbighshire, Wales. Before 1888, it was the county town of Denbighshire. Denbigh lies 8 miles to the north west of Ruthin and to the south of St Asaph. It is about 13 miles from the seaside resort of Rhyl. The town grew around the glove-making industry. Its population at the 2001 Census was 8,783. The first borough charter was granted to Denbigh in 1290, when the town was still contained within the old town walls. It was the centre of the Marcher Lordship of Denbigh. The town was involved in the revolt of Madog ap Llywelyn in 1294-95; the castle was captured in the autumn, and on 11 November 1294 a relieving force was defeated by the Welsh rebels. The town was recaptured by Edward I in December. Denbigh was also burnt in 1400 during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr. During the Wars of the Roses, the town was largely destroyed, subsequently moving from the hilltop to the area of the present town market. In 1643, Denbigh became a refuge for a Royalist garrison during the English Civil War. Surrendering in 1646, the castle and town walls eventually fell into ruin. Notable buildings in Denbigh include Denbigh Castle, the town walls begun in 1282 including the Burgess Gate and Leicester's Church. This is an unfinished church begun in 1579 by Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, who was also Baron of Denbigh. It was planned as a cathedral with the title of city to be transferred from neighbouring St. Asaph. The project ran out of money and the grounds now lie derelict.

— Freebase

Adele

Adele

Adele is a musical in three acts with music by Jean Briquet and Adolph Philipp, original French book and lyrics by Paul Hervé, and English adaptation by Adolf Philipp and Edward A. Paulton. The plot concerns a French girl who falls in love with the son of her father's business rival. The Broadway production opened on August 28, 1913, at the Longacre Theatre, transferring to the Harris Theatre and ran for a total of 196 performances. It was directed by Ben Teal. Natalie Alt played the title role. Georgia Caine was Mme. Myrianne de Neuville, Hal Forde was Baron Charles de Chantilly and Craufurd Kent was Robert Friebur. The West End London production opened at the Gaiety Theatre on May 30, 1914.

— Freebase

Younger

Younger

Younger is a Scottish convention, style of address or description traditionally used by the Heir Apparent to:- 1. A current Laird 2. Someone whose name includes a territorial designation 3. A Scottish chieftainship 4. A clan chief. 5. A Scottish Baron, only if also a Laird and recognised by the Lord Lyon as such. The style of using the term "Younger" applies equally to a woman who is heir in her own right as to a man. The style of "Younger" is neither a title of nobility nor a peerage and does not carry voting rights either in the Parliament of Scotland or the Kingdom of England. The abbreviation of Younger is Yr. The wife of such an heir may adopt this style also. When a person bearing this suffix becomes the Laird in their own right or succeeds to the arms of a now landless family or inherits the chieftainship of a cadet branch or the chiefship of the clan, they then drop the suffix and the next heir apparent may add the style to their name.

— Freebase

Lochinvar

Lochinvar

Lochinvar is a loch in Dalry Parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, that is now a reservoir. It is located in the Galloway Hills, around eight miles from St. John's Town of Dalry. For map see : The name Lochinvar is Scots Gaelic, Loch an barr, and means "Loch on the hilltop". Consequently it is stressed on the last syllable. The place gave the name to a number of aristocratic titles including the Baron of Lochinvar, the Laird of Lochinvar, and most notably to "young Lochinvar" in Walter Scott's epic poem Marmion.

— Freebase

Raglan sleeve

Raglan sleeve

A raglan sleeve is a type of sleeve whose distinguishing characteristic is to extend in one piece fully to the collar, leaving a diagonal seam from underarm to collarbone. It is popular in sports and exercise wear, and named after FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, the 1st Baron Raglan, who is said to have worn this style of coat after the loss of his arm in the Battle of Waterloo.

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Brethren of the Common Life

Brethren of the Common Life

The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ. Without taking up irrevocable vows, the Brethren banded together in communities, giving up their worldly goods to live chaste and strictly regulated lives in common houses, devoting every waking hour to attending divine service, reading and preaching of sermons, labouring productively, and taking meals in common that were accompanied by the reading aloud of Scripture: "judged from the ascetic discipline and intention of this life, it had few features which distinguished it from life in a monastery", observes Hans Baron.

— Freebase

Baron

Baron

Baron is a title of honour, often hereditary, and ranked as one of the lowest titles in the various nobiliary systems of Europe.

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Colo

Colo

Colo is a Western Gorilla famous for being the first gorilla to be born in captivity anywhere in the world. She is also the oldest gorilla in captivity in the world. She was born at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium to Millie Christina and Baron Macombo. She was briefly called Cuddles before a contest was held to officially name her. Colo's name is derived from the place of her birth, Columbus, Ohio.

— Freebase

Heliopolis

Heliopolis

Modern Heliopolis is an upscale district in Cairo, Egypt. The city was established in 1905 by the Heliopolis Oasis Company, headed by the Belgian industrialist Édouard Louis Joseph, Baron Empain, as well as Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha.

— Freebase

New Jersey

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the U.S. state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, and on the southwest by Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-least extensive, but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies mostly within the sprawling metropolitan areas of New York City and Philadelphia. It is also the second-wealthiest U.S. state by 2011 median household income. The area was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. The British later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey. It was granted as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. At this time, it was named after the largest of the British Channel Islands, Jersey, Carteret's birthplace. New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Paterson, Newark, Trenton, and Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's position at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, and Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the 1950s and beyond.

— Freebase

Lifeform

Lifeform

Lifeform is a fictional character, a comic book supervillain in the Marvel Comics Universe. Created by Mike Baron and Neil Hansen, the character first appears in Punisher Annual #3, Vol. 1.

— Freebase