Definitions containing müller, karl otfried
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A Geiger–Müller counter, also called a Geiger counter, is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. It detects the emission of nuclear radiation — alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays — by the ionization produced in a low-pressure gas in a Geiger–Müller tube, which gives its name to the instrument. In wide and prominent use as a hand-held radiation survey instrument, it is perhaps society's best-known radiation instrument. The original operating principle was discovered in 1908 in early radiation research. Since the subsequent development of the Geiger-Müller tube in 1928 the Geiger-Müller counter has been a popular instrument for use in radiation dosimetry, health physics, experimental physics, the nuclear industry, geological exploration and other fields, due to its robust sensing element and relatively low cost. However there are limitations in measuring high radiation rates and in measuring the energy of incident radiation.
Karl Ludwig Johannes Baedeker, known universally as Karl Baedeker, was a German publisher whose company Baedeker set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. Karl Baedeker was descended from a long line of printers, booksellers and publishers. He was the eldest of ten children of Gottschalk Diederich Bädeker, who had inherited the publishing house founded by his own father, Zacharias Gerhard Bädeker. The company also published the local newspaper, the Essendische Zeitung, and the family expected that Karl, too, would eventually join the firm. Karl changed the spelling of the family name from Bädeker with the umlaut to Baedeker around 1850.
ePrep provides online, video instruction by expert teachers to help students of all abilities reach their education goals. Using a well established “test-grade-review” methodology and a proprietary online, video-based delivery platform, ePrep makes connecting with an expert affordable and possible-anytime and from virtually anywhere in the world. The company currently offers SAT and PSAT test prep courses which feature nearly 1,500 detailed video explanations.ePrep was established in the fall of 2005 by fellow Princeton University graduates, Karl Schellscheidt and Eric Barnes. For the past 16 years, Karl has been helping students from his community prepare for tests like the SAT, PSAT, ACT, SSAT, and LSAT. Karl’s class of 2007 was admitted to schools that include Brown, Bucknell, Colgate, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Georgetown, NYU, Princeton and UPENN. Don Betterton (former Director of Financial aid at Princeton for 30 years), Seamus Malin (former Admissions and Administrator at Harvard for 40 years), and Fred Hargadon (former Director of Admissions at Princeton, Stanford and Swathmore) serve on ePrep’s Advisory Board.
Friedrich Max Müller, generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life. He was one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian studies and the discipline of comparative religion. Müller wrote both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology and the Sacred Books of the East, a 50-volume set of English translations, was prepared under his direction. He also put forward and promoted the idea of a Turanian family of languages and Turanian people.
Cancridae is a family of crabs. It comprises six extant genera, and eleven exclusively fossil genera, in two subfamilies: Cancrinae Latreille, 1802 ⁕Anatolikos Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕†Anisospinos Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕Cancer Linnaeus, 1758 ⁕†Ceronnectes De Angeli & Beschin, 1998 ⁕†Cyclocancer Beurlen, 1958 ⁕Glebocarcinus Nations, 1975 ⁕Metacarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1862 ⁕†Microdium Reuss, 1867 ⁕†Notocarcinus Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕Platepistoma Rathbun, 1906 ⁕Romaleon Gistel, 1848 ⁕†Santeecarcinus Blow & Manning, 1996 ⁕†Sarahcarcinus Blow & Manning, 1996 †Lobocarcininae Beurlen, 1930 ⁕†Lobocarcinus Reuss, 1857 ⁕†Miocyclus Müller, 1978 ⁕†Tasadia Müller in Janssen & Müller, 1984 Before 2000, the extant species were all placed in a single genus, but in that year Carrie Schweitzer and Rodney Feldmann elevated the existing subgenera to the rank of genus, and described three additional genera. Most of the family's current diversity is found in temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere.
Hyalite is a form of opal with a glassy and clear appearance which exhibits an internal play of colors and has natural inclusions. It is also called Muller's glass, water opal and jalite. Its Mohs hardness is 5.5 to 6 and it has a specific gravity of 2.1. It is an amorphous form of silica. Its has a conchoidal fracture, a vitreous luster and a white streak. It is sometimes mistaken for resin opal, since they both look like little globs. It glows bright green under blacklight. The name Müller's glass derived from the name of its discoverer, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein
Rhinoptera is a genus of eagle rays, family Myliobatidae, commonly known as the cownose rays It contains the following species: ⁕Rhinoptera adspersa J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 ⁕Rhinoptera bonasus ⁕Rhinoptera brasiliensis J. P. Müller, 1836 ⁕Rhinoptera javanica J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 ⁕Rhinoptera jayakari Boulenger, 1895 ⁕Rhinoptera marginata ⁕Rhinoptera neglecta J. D. Ogilby, 1912 ⁕Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & O. P. Jenkins, 1891
Lunik is a band from Switzerland. There are currently three members. Lunik started in 1997 with Adi Amstutz, Luk Zimmermann, Mats Marti, Walo Müller and Anton Höglhammer. Singer Jaël joined the band in 1998 and Anton Höglhammer left the line-up. 1999 saw the release of their debut album Rumour, recorded largely in an atmospheric trip hop style. Bassist Walo Müller left the band after the accompanying tour, and the second album Ahead saw the band steering towards a pop sound. Oli Müller supported the band as bassist in the live performances, and Adi Amstutz left the band. The third album Weather was a huge success in Switzerland, with an acoustic approach from Jaël, Luk, and Mats replacing the electronica of the earlier albums. Cédric Monnier and Jacob Suske joined the band as supporting players on the acoustic tour for Weather. A live album, Life is On Our Side, appeared in 2004. Cédric Monnier and Jacob Suske joined the official line-up in 2005, and Mats Marti departed at the same time. In the beginning of 2006, Chrigel Bosshard joined Lunik as the new drummer, but left the band at the end of 2011. Jacob Suske left the band again in September 2008.
Released in 2001,´01 is the seventh solo album by the Slovak singer Richard Müller. Müller wrote most of the lyrics and, due to the death of his favourite composer Jaro Filip, Müller also composed half of the music. The album was critically well received, and placed at number 9 in the Czech musicserver.cz's list of the 25 best Czech and Slovak albums of the decade.
The Mission: Memory of a Revolution, also known as The Task, is a postmodern drama by the German playwright Heiner Müller. The play was written and first published in 1979. Müller and his wife Ginka Cholakova co-directed its first theatrical production in 1980, at the intimate 'Theatre im 3.Stock' studio space of the Volksbühne in Berlin. Müller also directed a full-house production in 1982 at the Bochum Theatre in West Germany.
a pellucid variety of opal in globules looking like colorless gum or resin; -- called also Muller's glass
— Webster Dictionary
of, pertaining to, or discovered by, Johannes Muller
— Webster Dictionary
Unternehmensgruppe Theo Müller is a multinational producer of dairy products, with a headquarters in Fischach in the German state of Bavaria. Müller made a net turnover of €2.1 billion in 2006 and has 5,400 employees.
The proportional counter is a type of gaseous ionization detector device used to count particles of ionizing radiation. A key feature is its ability to measure the energy of incident radiation, and it is widely used where discrimination between radiation types is required, such as between alpha and beta particles. A proportional counter uses a combination of the mechanisms of a Geiger-Muller tube and an ionisation chamber, and operates in an intermediate voltage region between these. Considering a gas-filled chamber with a wire anode, if the field strength everywhere in the volume is below a critical value, Townsend avalanches do not occur at all, and the detector operates as an ionization chamber. If the applied voltage is too high, complete ionisation of the fill gas occurs with almost each ion pair and the detector operates as a Geiger-Müller counter, with the consequent loss of incident particle energy information. The accompanying plot shows the proportional operating region for a co-axial cylinder arrangement.
Fling, internationally titled Lie to Me, is an independent film about a couple navigating the hazards of an open relationship. It is the feature directorial debut of director John Stewart Muller and stars Brandon Routh, Steve Sandvoss, Courtney Ford, Nick Wechsler, Shoshana Bush and Ellen Hollman. It is the first feature from Santa Monica-based Steele Films and was written and produced by John Stewart Muller and his partner Laura Boersma. Fling features Brandon Routh in his first lead role since Superman Returns. It premiered to a sold out crowd at the 2008 Newport Beach Film Festival on April 26 in the Lido Theater on the Balboa Peninsula. The film received an award for "Outstanding Achievement in Filmmaking" from the festival's jury. Fling had its official Los Angeles premiere on October 18th at the Fine Arts Theatre on Wilshire Blvd. as part of the 2008 LA Femme Film Festival. Shortly thereafter, it had its completely sold out East Coast premiere on November 7 at the 2008 Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival. One week later on November 14, Fling had its Midwest premiere at the Screenland Theatre in the Crossroads District of Kansas City, Missouri which kicked off a month-long run at the theater.
Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm Geiger was a German physicist. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger-Marsden experiment which discovered the Atomic nucleus. Geiger was born at Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He was one of five children born to the Indologist Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, who was professor at the University of Erlangen. In 1902, Geiger started studying physics and mathematics in University of Erlangen and was awarded a doctorate in 1906. In 1907 he began work with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester and in 1909, along with Ernest Marsden, conducted the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment called the "gold foil experiment". Together they created the Geiger counter. In 1911 Geiger and John Mitchell Nuttall discovered the Geiger-Nuttall law and performed experiments that led to Rutherford's atomic model. In 1928 Geiger and his student Walther Müller created an improved version of the Geiger counter, the Geiger-Müller counter. Geiger also worked with James Chadwick. In 1912 he became leader of the Physical-Technical Reichsanstalt in Berlin, 1925 professor in Kiel, 1929 in Tübingen, and from 1936 in Berlin.
Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors, inner retinal cells, and the ganglion cells. Electrodes are usually placed on the cornea and the skin near the eye, although it is possible to record the ERG from skin electrodes. During a recording, the patient's eyes are exposed to standardized stimuli and the resulting signal is displayed showing the time course of the signal's amplitude. Signals are very small, and typically are measured in microvolts or nanovolts. The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions can elicit stronger response from certain components. If a flash ERG is performed on a dark-adapted eye, the response is primarily from the rod system. Flash ERGs performed on a light adapted eye will reflect the activity of the cone system. Sufficiently bright flashes will elicit ERGs containing an a-wave followed by a b-wave. The leading edge of the a-wave is produced by the photoreceptors, while the remainder of the wave is produced by a mixture of cells including photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine, and Muller cells or Muller glia. The pattern ERG, evoked by an alternating checkerboard stimulus, primarily reflects activity of retinal ganglion cells.
Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling to depict early stages of monotheism, however Max Müller, a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism, focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God.
Kathenotheism is a term coined by the philologist Max Müller to mean the worship of one god at a time. It is closely related to henotheism. Müller coined the term in reference to the Vedas; where he explained each deity is treated as supreme in turn.
Gysbert Johannes Muller, more commonly known as Johann Muller, is a South African Rugby Union player. He played lock for the Natal Sharks, Sharks in and the Springboks, before a move to Northern Ireland to play with Ulster in 2010, where he is currently team captain.
Culcita is a genus of cushion stars. They are found in tropical waters. Some are kept in home aquaruims. The genus contains three species: ⁕Culcita coriacea Müller & Troschel, 1842 ⁕Culcita novaeguineae Müller & Troschel, 1842 ⁕Culcita schmideliana
|Hermann Joseph Muller|
Hermann Joseph Muller
Hermann Joseph Muller was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation as well as his outspoken political beliefs. Muller frequently warned of the long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear testing, helping to raise public awareness in this area.
Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert, a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on Müller's poems, the earlier being Die schöne Müllerin. Both were originally written for tenor voice but are frequently transposed to suit other vocal ranges - the precedent being established by Schubert himself. These two works have posed interpretative demands on listeners and performers due to their scale and structural coherence. Although Ludwig van Beethoven's cycle An die ferne Geliebte had been published earlier, in 1816, Schubert's two cycles hold the foremost place in the history of the genre.
Ipe extensible drawing editor is a free vector graphics editor for creating figures in PDF or EPS format. It can be used for making small figures for inclusion into LaTeX documents as well as making multi-page PDF presentations. It is developed by Otfried Cheong since 1993 and initially worked on SGI workstations only. Ipe 6 was released in 2003 which changed the file format into XML code embedded into PDF and EPS files. Ipe 7 was released in 2009. Ipe 7 can be compiled under Windows, Mac OS X and Unix but binaries are available for many distributions. Ipe lets users draw geometric objects such as polylines, arcs and spline curves and text. Ipe supports use of layers and multiple pages. It can paste bitmap images from clipboard or import from JPEG or BMP, and also through a conversion software it can import PDF figures generated by other software. It differentiates itself from similar programs by including advanced snapping tools and the ability to directly include LaTeX text and equations. Ipe is extensible by use of ipelets, which are plugins written in C++ or Lua.
Krabat is a 2008 German fantasy film directed by Marco Kreuzpaintner from a screenplay by Michael Gutmann and Kreuzpaintner, based on Otfried Preußler's novel of the same name. The plot is about a boy, Krabat, who learns black magic from a sorcerer. A DVD-Video encode of the film is distributed in the United Kingdom as Krabat and the Legend of the Satanic Mill. It premiered in the US at the Seattle International Film Festival in 2009.
A place name or a personal name used by foreigners instead of the native-language version used by its inhabitants, such as Moscow in English for the city called Moskva in Russian, or such as Charles in English for historical people called Karl or Carl in their Germanic languages.
The socialist philosophy and political program founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; scientific socialism.
The socialist ideology of the followers of Karl Marx; a radical, revolutionary political philosophy that aims to capture state power, introduce a dictatorship of the proletariat, and then progress to communism.
A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).
. Borrowed in the 17th century from the form of Carolina, feminine derivative of Carolus, the equivalent of Charles, which came from Karl.
The socialist philosophy and political program developed by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.
Any social or political philosophy or ideology derived from the thought of Karl Marx.
The theory that hegemony and ideology of discourse can no longer properly reflect the social order. Posthegemony also finds that history is not, as Karl Marx described it, a class struggle, but rather a "struggle to produce class".
, feminine form of Karl.
According to the 19th century German philosopher Karl Marx, unemployment needed by the capitalists in order to maintain work discipline in jobs, keep wages down, and protect business profitability.
Of or pertaining to the 19th century philosopher Karl Marx and his ideas.
Of or relating to the philosophy of philosopher Karl R. Popper.
any of a series of travel guidebooks published by the German firm founded by Karl Baedeker
— Princeton's WordNet
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
Das Kapital, Capital
a book written by Karl Marx (1867) describing his economic theories
— Princeton's WordNet
a city in east central Germany; formerly called Karl-Marx-Stadt until 1990; noted for textile manufacturing
— Princeton's WordNet
Das Kapital, Capital
a book written by Karl Marx (1867) describing his economic theories
— Princeton's WordNet
the materialistic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
— Princeton's WordNet
Engels, Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
— Princeton's WordNet
Engels, Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
— Princeton's WordNet
of or relating to Karl Gauss or his mathematical theories of magnetics or electricity or astronomy or probability
— Princeton's WordNet
|georg wilhelm friedrich hegel|
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
— Princeton's WordNet
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
— Princeton's WordNet
a city in east central Germany; formerly called Karl-Marx-Stadt until 1990; noted for textile manufacturing
— Princeton's WordNet
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism
— Princeton's WordNet
|mikhail aleksandrovich bakunin|
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
DORMA is a German company that produces door technology systems and allied products. It was first founded as the Dörken & Mankel KG in Ennepetal, Germany, in 1908. The family business is managed by owner Karl-Rudolf Mankel in third generation. As part of succession planning, previous sole DORMA proprietor Karl-Rudolf Mankel transferred the majority of his shareholding to his daughters Christine and Stephanie in March 2009. The DORMA Group had a workforce of approximately 6500 employees and closed fiscal year 2009/10 with a business volume of 856,4 Mill. EUR.
Friedrich Engels was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organized Marx's notes on the "Theories of Surplus Value" and this was later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. He has also made important contributions to family economics.
Plaudit was an American Thoroughbred racehorse. A descendant of English Triple Crown champion, West Australian, Plaudit is best known for winning the 1898 Kentucky Derby. Conditioned by future U.S. Racing Hall of Fame trainer Edward D. Brown, racing at age two Plaudit won four of his twelve starts. After finishing fourth in the Futurity Stakes at Sheepshead Bay Race Track, he was bought by noted Kentucky horseman, John E. Madden and in a race for older horses in September, defeated the 1896 Kentucky Derby winner Ben Brush. As a three-year-old, Plaudit was ridden by future U.S. Racing Hall of Fame jockey, Willie Simms in the 24th edition of the Kentucky Derby. Plaudit came from behind with a powerful stretch drive to catch the betting favorite Lieber Karl and win by a nose. In 1898 Plaudit won four of his eight races and finished second in the other four, notably in the Latonia Derby. His wins included a second defeat of Lieber Karl in the Clark Handicap. Retired at the end of the racing season, Plaudit stood at stud at John Madden's Hamburg Place in Lexington, Kentucky. Plaudit was from Cinderella who was also the mare of Hastings, the 1896 Belmont Stakes winner and Leading sire in North America in 1902 and 1908. While Plaudit never matched Hastings' success as a sire, he produced a dozen graded stakes race winners including multiple stakes champion, King James.
Patton is a 1970 American biographical war film about U.S. General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. It was directed by Franklin J. Schaffner from a script by Francis Ford Coppola and Edmund H. North, who based their screenplay on the biography Patton: Ordeal and Triumph by Ladislas Farago and Omar Bradley's memoir A Soldier's Story. The film was shot in 65mm Dimension 150 by cinematographer Fred J. Koenekamp, and has a music score by Jerry Goldsmith. Patton won seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. The opening monologue, delivered by George C. Scott as General Patton with an enormous American flag behind him, remains an iconic and often quoted image in film. The film was a success and has become an American classic. In 2003, Patton was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Ulfilas, or Gothic Wulfila: little wolf, bishop, missionary, and Bible translator, was a Goth or half-Goth and half-Greek from Cappadocia who had spent time inside the Roman Empire at the peak of the Arian controversy. Ulfilas was ordained a bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary. In 348, to escape religious persecution by a Gothic chief, probably Athanaric he obtained permission from Constantius II to migrate with his flock of converts to Moesia and settle near Nicopolis ad Istrum in modern northern Bulgaria. There, Ulfilas translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language. For this he devised the Gothic alphabet. Fragments of his translation have survived, notably the Codex Argenteus held since 1648 in the University Library of Uppsala in Sweden. A parchment page of this Bible was found in 1971 in the Speyer Cathedral. According to Karl Lund, Ulfilas created the Gothic alphabet based on the Getae's alphabet, with minor alterations. Karl Lund is quoting Bonaventura Vulcanius' book, De literis et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum, and Johannes Magnus, Gothus, Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, Roma, 1554, a book in which it has been published, for the first time, both the Getic alphabet, and the laws of the Getae legislator Zamolxis.
Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men, and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types. It is believed to be an English adaptation of the German word Urning, which was first published by activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in a series of five booklets which were collected under the title Forschungen über das Räthsel der mannmännlichen Liebe. Ulrich developed his terminology before the first public use of the term "homosexual", which appeared in 1869 in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny. The term "Uranian" was quickly adopted by English-language advocates of homosexual emancipation in the Victorian era, such as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds, who used it to describe a comradely love that would bring about true democracy, uniting the "estranged ranks of society" and breaking down class and gender barriers. Oscar Wilde wrote to Robert Ross in an undated letter: "To have altered my life would have been to have admitted that Uranian love is ignoble. I hold it to be noble - more noble than other forms."
Verlag Karl Baedeker, founded by Karl Baedeker on July 1, 1827, is a German publisher and pioneer in the business of worldwide travel guides. The guides, often referred to simply as "Baedekers", contain, among other things, maps and introductions; information about routes and travel facilities; and descriptions of noteworthy buildings, sights, attractions and museums, written by specialists.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber was a German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist whose ideas influenced social theory, social research, and the entire discipline of sociology. Weber is often cited, with Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as among the three founding architects of sociology. Weber was a key proponent of methodological antipositivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions. Weber's main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalisation, secularisation, and "disenchantment" that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity, and which he saw as the result of a new way of thinking about the world. Perhaps Weber is best known for his thesis combining economic sociology and the sociology of religion, elaborated in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he proposed that ascetic Protestantism was one of the major "elective affinities" associated with the rise in the Western world of market-driven capitalism and the rational-legal nation-state. Against Marx's "historical materialism," Weber emphasised the importance of cultural influences embedded in religion as a means for understanding the genesis of capitalism. The Protestant Ethic formed the earliest part in Weber's broader investigations into world religion: he would go on to examine the religions of China, the religions of India and ancient Judaism, with particular regard to the apparent non-development of capitalism in the corresponding societies, as well as to their differing forms of social stratification.
Surplus value is a concept written about by Karl Marx. Although Marx did not himself invent the term, he developed the concept. It refers roughly to the new value created by workers that is in excess of their own labour-cost and which is therefore available to be appropriated by the capitalist, according to Marx; it allows then for profit and in so doing is the basis of capital accumulation. "Surplus-value and the rate of surplus-value are... the invisible essence to be investigated, whereas the rate of profit and hence the form of surplus-value as profit are visible surface phenomena" - Karl Marx, Capital Vol. 3, Pelican edition, p. 134 For Marx, the gigantic increase in wealth and population from the 19th century onwards was mainly due to the competitive striving to obtain maximum surplus-value from the employment of labor, resulting in an equally gigantic increase of productivity and capital resources. To the extent that increasingly the economic surplus is convertible into money and expressed in money, the amassment of wealth is possible on a larger and larger scale.
Circulating capital includes intermediate goods and operating expenses, i.e., short-lived items that are used in production and used up in the process of creating other goods or services. This is roughly equal to intermediate consumption. Finer distinction include raw materials, intermediate goods, inventories, ancillary operating expenses and. It is contrasted with fixed capital. The term was used in more specialized ways by classical economists such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx. Where the distinction is used, circulating capital is a component of capital, also including fixed capital used in a single cycle of production. In contrast to fixed capital, it is used up in every cycle. In accounting, the circulating capital comes under the heading of current assets. Building on the work of Quesnay and Turgot, Adam Smith made the first explicit distinction between fixed and circulating capital. In his usage, circulating capital includes wages and labour maintenance, money, and inputs from land, mines, and fisheries associated with production. According to Karl Marx the turnover of capital influences "the processes of production and self-expansion", the two new forms of capital, circulating and fixed, "accrue to capital from the process of circulation and affect the form of its turnover". In the following chapter Marx defines fixed capital and circulating capital. In chapter 9 he claims: "We have here not alone quantitative but also qualitative difference."
Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.
Carlo Abarth, born Karl Albert Abarth, was an automobile designer. Abarth was born in Austria, but later was naturalized as an Italian citizen; and at this time his first name Karl was changed to its Italian equivalent of Carlo.
Softs is a 1976 album by the British psychedelic, progressive rock and jazz/fusion band Soft Machine who were one of the central bands in the Canterbury scene. John Etheridge replaced Allan Holdsworth on guitar shortly after the release of the previous album, Bundles, and Alan Wakeman, cousin of keyboardist Rick Wakeman, took over saxophone duties from Karl Jenkins. Karl would play keyboards exclusively from this point onward. This change was necessitated by the departure of the group's last founding member, Mike Ratledge, who left in March 1976 before the sessions were completed, and can be heard on two tracks, but is not credited as a member of the group. Wakeman and bassist Roy Babbington left the group not long after the album was released, Wakeman having been a member for less than six months.
Aldi is a leading global discount supermarket chain with over 9,000 stores in over 18 countries, and an estimated turnover of more than €50bn. Based in Germany, the chain was founded by brothers Karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946 when they took over their father's store in Essen which had been in operation since 1913; it is one of the world's largest privately owned companies. The brothers built up a chain of stores until, by 1960, they owned 300 shops, and split the operation into two separate groups, that later became Aldi Nord, headquartered in Essen; and ALDI Süd, headquartered in Mülheim an der Ruhr. The two operate independently, each within specific areas. In 1962 they introduced the name Aldi, which is pronounced Aldi in Germany. Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd have been financially and legally separate since 1966, although both divisions' names may appear with certain house brands or when negotiating with contractor companies. The formal business name is ALDI Einkauf GmbH & Compagnie, oHG. The individual groups were originally owned and managed by brothers Karl Albrecht and Theo Albrecht.
i. e. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref (the Short); became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in 771; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day 800 crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and au courant with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle (742-814).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
a Socialist, the friend of Karl Marx; an active propagandist of socialistic theories; author of several works on Socialism (1820-1895).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
a secret socialistic organisation, the outcome of the teaching of Karl Marx, which, though it has changed its name, has wide-spread ramifications throughout Europe, the object of which appears to be the emancipation of labour, and the assertion everywhere of the sovereign rights of the working-man, to the extinction of all merely national and class interests.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
or more properly Linné, Karl von, great Swedish naturalist, specially in the department of botany, a branch to the study of which he was devoted from his earliest years; he was the founder of the system of the classification of plants which bears his name, and which is determined by the number and disposition of the reproductive organs, but which is now superseded by the natural system of Jussieu; he was professor at Upsala, and his works on his favourite subject were numerous, and extended far and wide his reputation as a naturalist (1707-1778).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Rothschild, Meyer Amschel|
Rothschild, Meyer Amschel
the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Darby Smart is a do-it-yourself crafting startup working with top Pinterest designers of DIY accessories, fashion and home items to Kit, market and sell their projects to consumers, complete with all materials and instructions needed to complete the project.Darby Smart was co-founded by Nicole Shariat Farb, former Head of Emerging Private Companies in investment banking at Goldman Sachs and Karl Mendes, a Senior Software Engineer from Eventbrite. The goal is to take advantage of the growing trend of people looking for inspiration and DIY crafts on Pinterest, while also tapping into the $29 billion crafting industry. The startup offers pre-packaged Kits that have been compiled by popular designers on Pinterest. The Darby Smart team works closely with the project designers to test and identify the best possible materials for DIYers to create lasting products. Then, Darby Smart handles sourcing and purchasing the materials, to packaging the Kits and more. These Kits, which range from $25 to $45 each, include all the materials and instructions necessary to successfully complete the project at hand. Designers in turn receive a share of revenue from the kits sold.
GenArts is a provider of specialized visual effects software for the film, broadcast and video industries. Founded in 1996 in Cambridge, Mass. by digital artist and computer scientist Karl Sims, GenArts develops and markets tools for high-end visual effects creation at studio, broadcast and post-production facilities of all sizes around the world.GenArts’ solutions have been used extensively to create an array of effects for projects such as: Iron Man, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, The Hulk, Spider-Man 1, 2 and 3, The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Star Wars - Episode I, II and III, Sin City, The Matrix trilogy, X-Men 1, 2 and 3, Titanic, Lost and CSI.
|Green Throttle Games|
Green Throttle Games
Green Throttle Games is a Santa Clara, CA based company that develops high-quality, innovative games and hardware for mobile devices. The company’s founders Charles Huang, Matt Crowley and Karl Townsend, visionaries from the video game and mobile industries teamed up to unlock the potential of mobile on the big screen, connecting people and platforms in a way that is simple and fun.
TrueVision Systems is pioneering the use of 3D, high-definition digital imaging to transform stereomicroscopy in surgical and educational settings to provide better patient outcomes and surgical efficiencies. The company is achieving this through its patented vision system and smart medical software packages for all surgical disciplines.TrueVision Systems is comprised of veterans from medical imaging and device companies such as Karl Storz Imaging and Computer Motion (now Intuitive Surgical). Its senior technical staff consists of industry PhDs. The executive staff comprises of many years of experience and a successful track record of growing technology start-ups into thriving successful companies.The Company manufactures and sells the TrueVision 3DHD vision system for microsurgery as well as licenses its technology to medical and non-medical manufacturers for a variety of other stereoscopic visualization applications.Michael Weissman, PhD is the company’s founder and inventor of TrueVisionÂ® 3DHD vision system. He is one of the world’s leading experts in digital stereoscopic imaging and is the co-inventor of the first 3D endoscope. He started TrueVision Systems due to the unmet need for better visualization to the large installed base of surgical microscopes. Dr. Weissman is dedicated to developing products capable of enhancing digital visualization leading to better surgical outcomes and enhance the teaching of microsurgery.
|TurnKey Vacation Rentals|
TurnKey Vacation Rentals
At TurnKey Vacation Rentals (TurnKeyVR.com), we help vacation rental homeowners make more money, while taking over all the work of renting and managing their rental.Our tech-enabled process is simple. We market our rentals in the major portals (HomeAway, VRBO, AirBnB), manage check-in’s with a digital lock (no keys), provide 24/7 guest support and coordinate local cleaners and handymen via mobile apps to maintain the rental. We’re developing mobile technology based marketing and management systems for industry-lowest costs of operations and highest quality. We launched our service in Austin, TX in January 2013 and had our first guests for SXSW in March. We now have dozens of homes in our service and we’re gearing up to launch new markets outside of Austin by the end of 2013.Our team is led by Exec Chairman John Banczak (Hotwire, Pres BnB.com, HomeAway) and CEO T.J. Clark (Hotwire, IAC, CEO Limos.com). We are backed by travel industry luminaries such as Rich Barton (Co-Founder Expedia, Co-Founder Zillow), Barney Harford (CEO Orbitz), Karl Peterson (Co-Founder Hotwire, TPG) and Gregg Brockway (Co-Founder Hotwire, Co-Founder TripIt) who is on our Board.Please visit us at TurnKeyVR.com or call us at 888.512.0498.
Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives. While theology attempts to understand the nature of transcendent or supernatural forces, religious studies tries to study religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and history of religion. Religious studies originated in the nineteenth century, when scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, and Hindu and Buddhist texts were first being translated into European languages. Early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the Netherlands. Today religious studies is practiced by scholars worldwide. In its early years, it was known as Comparative Religion or the Science of Religion and, in the USA, there are those who today also know the field as the History of religion. The field is known as Religionswissenschaft in Germany and Sciences des religions in the French-speaking world.
DDT is an organochlorine insecticide which is a colorless, crystalline solid, tasteless and almost odorless chemical compound. Technical DDT has been formulated in almost every conceivable form including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles, and charges for vaporisers and lotions. First synthesized in 1873, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed. In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned for agricultural use in the US in 1972. DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial.
Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ἕλμινς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich Müller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.
Barfly is a 1987 American film which is a semi-autobiography of poet/author Charles Bukowski during the time he spent drinking heavily in Los Angeles. The screenplay by Bukowski was commissioned by the French film director Barbet Schroeder – it was published, with illustrations by the author, in 1984 when film production was still pending. Barfly stars Mickey Rourke and Faye Dunaway, with direction by Schroeder, and was presented by Francis Ford Coppola. The movie also features a silent cameo appearance by Bukowski himself. The Kino Flo light, now a ubiquitous tool in the film industry, was specially created by Robby Muller's electrical crew for a scene in this film which would have been difficult to light using the conventional lampheads available at the time. The film was entered into the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.
ECM is a record label founded in Munich, Germany, in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. While ECM is best known for jazz music, the label has released a wide variety of recordings, and ECM's artists often refuse to acknowledge boundaries between genres. ECM's motto is the Most Beautiful Sound Next to Silence, taken from a 1971 review of ECM releases in CODA, a Canadian jazz magazine. The label was distributed in the USA by Warner Bros. Records, PolyGram Records, BMG, and, since 1999, by Universal Music, the successor of PolyGram. Its album covers have been profiled in two books thus far, Sleeves of Desire and Windfall Light, both published by Lars Müller.
Cardinal Sin are a death/black metal band formed in 1995 by ex-Dissection member John Zwetsloot. In 1996, they released a 4-track EP called Spiteful Intents, which featured a trademark classical composition by Zwetsloot. Having disbanded after the EP, they reformed in 2003 with a partially new lineup, but have yet to release anything beyond Spiteful Intents. Daniel Ekeroth described their musical style as "typical mid-90’s death/thrash". Metal Hammer journalist Robert Müller wrote that since the group were focussed around the guitarists John Zwetsloot and Devo Andersson there were no doubts about the technical quality, though the EP's sound was "established and all to well-known".
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it. From its obscure origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2,500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, and Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Freud, Benjamin, Camus, Lacan, and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, and criticised the tragic form.
Orthodox is the fourth album by the Czech death metal band Krabathor. It was released in March 1998. The album was recorded in December 1997 at Exponent Studio in Hlohovec, Slovak Republic, and mastered at TTM Mastering in Berlin, Germany by Tom Müller. The recording line-up consisted of Christopher, Bruno and Skull. Tomáš Kmeť, a studio engineer, played keyboards in the last song About Death. The title track Orthodox was previously released on Mortal Memories album. A videoclip for the second song Liquid was released. Shit Comes Brown is an anti-Nazi song and To Red Ones is an anti-communist song.
|Johannes Peter Müller|
Johannes Peter Müller
Johannes Peter Müller, was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.
|Paul Hermann Müller|
Paul Hermann Müller
Paul Hermann Müller also known as Pauly Mueller was a Swiss chemist who received the 1948 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of insecticidal qualities and use of DDT in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.
Schreibkraft is an Austrian literary magazine, which was founded in 1998 by the Literature Council of the Forum Stadtpark in Graz. The magazine prints feature articles. Since 1999 the edition schreibkraft is the publisher. Schreibkraft appears twice a year. Every issue has a specific topic. The essays and feature articles are chosen by the five editors. In addition, the magazine publishes some narrative texts and book reviews; the latter review primarily books from small publishing houses. Published authors stem from Austria, Switzerland and Germany. E.g. the following authors have published in Schreibkraft: Bettina Balàka, Moritz Baßler, Julian Blunk, Helwig Brunner, Thomas E. Brunnsteiner, Martin Büsser], Ann Cotten, Julius Deutschbauer & Gerhard Spring, Hans Durrer, Klaus Ebner, Helmut Eisendle, Bernhard Flieher, Franzobel, Harald A. Friedl, Brigitte Fuchs, Egyd Gstättner, Wolf Haas, Sonja Harter, Klaus_Händl, Christian Ide Hintze, Paulus Hochgatterer, Elfriede Jelinek, Ralf B. Korte, Christian Loidl, Friederike Mayröcker, Gisela Müller, Andreas Okopenko, Andreas R. Peternell, Claus Philipp, Peter Piller, Rosemarie Poiarkov, Wolfgang Pollanz, Birgit Pölzl, Manfred Prisching, Peter Rosei, Werner Schandor, Ferdinand Schmatz, Katja Schmid, Helmuth Schönauer, Franz Schuh, Werner Schwab, Gudrun Sommer, Enno Stahl, Christine Werner, Serjoscha Wiemer, and Christiane Zintzen.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. A brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid which looks similar to tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is occasionally found in native form, as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the universe as a whole than it is on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of platinum, is partly due to its high atomic number, but also due to its formation of a volatile hydride which caused the element to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of the planet. Tellurium was discovered in Transylvania in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing tellurium and gold. Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for "earth", tellus. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production. Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is in alloys, foremost in steel and copper to improve machinability. Applications in solar panels and as a semiconductor material also consume a considerable fraction of tellurium production.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays and beta particles. Conventionally, the term "ionization chamber" is used exclusively to describe those detectors which collect all the charges created by direct ionisation within the gas through the application of an electric field. It only uses the discrete charges created by each interaction between the incident radiation and the gas, and does not involve the gas multiplication mechanisms used by other radiation instruments, such as the Geiger-Muller counter or the proportional counter. Ion chambers have a good uniform response to radiation over a wide range of energies and are the preferred means of measuring high levels of gamma radiation. They are widely used in the nuclear power industry, research labs, radiography and other medical radiation fields, and in environmental monitoring.
Anobiidae is a family of beetles. The larvae of a number of species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". A few species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture and house structures, notably the death watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, and the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum. It includes the subgroups: ⁕Anobiinae Kirby, 1837 ⁕Anobium Fabricius, 1775 ⁕Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val, 1860 ⁕Hadrobregmus Thomson, 1859 ⁕Microbregma Seidlitz, 1889 ⁕Oligomerus Redtenbacher, 1849 ⁕Priobium Motschulsky, 1845 ⁕Stegobium Motschulsky, 1860 ⁕Dorcatominae Thomson, 1859 ⁕Anitys Thomson, 1863 ⁕Caenocara Thomson, 1859 ⁕Dorcatoma Herbst, 1792 ⁕Stagetus Wollaston, 1861 ⁕Dryophilinae LeConte, 1861 ⁕Dryophilus Chevrolat, 1832 ⁕Grynobius Thomson, 1859 ⁕Ernobiinae Pic, 1912 ⁕Episernus Thomson, 1863 ⁕Ernobius Thomson, 1859 ⁕Ochina Sturm, 1826 ⁕Xestobium Motschulsky,1845 ⁕Eucradinae Le Conte, 1861 ⁕Hedobia Dejean, 1821 ⁕Ptilininae Shuckard, 1840 ⁕Pseudoptilinus Leiler, 1963 ⁕Ptilinus Müller, 1764 ⁕Ptininae Latreille, 1802 ⁕Eupauloecus Mulsant & Rey, 1868 ⁕Gibbium Scopoli, 1777Mezium Curtis, 1828Niptus Boieldieu, 1856Pseudeurostus Heyden, 1906Ptinus Linnaeus, 1767Sphaericus Wollaston, 1854Trigonogenius Solier, 1849
Johannes Müller von Königsberg, today best known by the Latin epithet Regiomontanus, was a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, translator, instrument maker and Catholic bishop. He was born in the Franconian village of Unfinden — not in the more famous East-Prussian Königsberg. He was also known as Johannes der Königsberger. His writings were published under the name of Joannes de Monte Regio, a Latinized version of his name. Both names mean "John of King's Mountain". The name "Regiomontanus" was first coined by Phillip Melanchthon in 1534, fifty-eight years after Regiomontanus' death.
Psorosperm is a name formerly given to a number of parasitic protozoa which produce cystlike or sporelike structures in the tissue of hosts, but now essentially obsolete. ⁕Some which affect vertebrate hosts are now identified as coccidia. ⁕Others, such as the cause of pébrine in silkworms, are now recognized as microsporidians, and some are regarded as myxosporidians. ⁕The genus Psorospermium itself is a parasite of crayfishes, and belongs to an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms which some biologists think may be related to the common ancestors of animals and fungi. The term was introduced in German by J. Müller in 1841. Psorosperm was at one point believed to be the cause of Darier's disease. "Psorospermiasis" is classified under 136.4 in ICD-9.
|Field emission microscopy|
Field emission microscopy
Field emission microscopy is an analytical technique used in materials science to investigate molecular surface structures and their electronic properties. Invented by Erwin Wilhelm Müller in 1936, the FEM was one of the first surface analysis instruments that approached near-atomic resolution.
The foveola is located within a region called the macula, a yellowish, cone photo receptor filled portion of the human retina. The foveola is approximately 0.35 mm in diameter and lies in the center of the fovea and contains only cone cells, and a cone-shaped zone of Müller cells. In this region the cone receptors are found to be longer, slimmer and more densely packed than anywhere else in the retina, thus allowing that region to have the potential to have the highest visual acuity in the eye.
In population genetics, genetic load or genetic burden is a measure of the cost of lost alleles due to selection or mutation. It is a value in the range, where 0 represents no load. The concept was first formulated in 1937 by JBS Haldane, independently formulated, named and applied to humans in 1950 by H. J. Muller, and elaborated further by Haldane in 1957.
Liebfraumilch or Liebfraunmilch is a style of semi-sweet white German wine which may be produced, mostly for export, in the regions Rheinhessen, Palatinate, Rheingau and Nahe. The name is a German word literally meaning "Beloved lady's milk". The original German spelling of the word is Liebfrauenmilch, given to the wine produced from the vineyards of the Liebfrauenkirche or Church of Our Lady in the Rhineland-Palatinate city of Worms since the 18th century. The spelling Liebfraumilch is more common on labels of exported wine. The generic label Liebfraumilch is typically used to market vintages from anywhere in the most of the major wine growing areas of Germany, the notable exception being the Mosel. Wine with very similar characteristics but made from higher quality grapes can be labeled as Spätlese or Auslese. In the U.S. and the UK, perhaps the best known example has been Blue Nun, which no longer uses the Liebfraumilch designation. While the term Liebfraumilch is associated with low quality wine, German Wine Law requires it to be at the Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete level - the 3rd rank of 4. It must also be from Rheinhessen, Pfalz, Nahe or Rheingau, the grapes used must be at least 70% Riesling, Silvaner or Müller-Thurgau, and it must have 18-40g/li residual sugar.
|Rule The School|
Rule The School
CBBC's Rule the School is a modern role-reversal, reality TV show for teenagers. The basis of the show was to take five talented school pupils and 10 school teachers and swap roles. The pupils became the teachers and the teachers became the pupils. The series first aired in 2002, with lessons including text-messaging, break-dancing, computer gaming, customising clothes, popstar skills and 'funky footballing'. The series was nominated for a BAFTA in 2003 when lessons included dance, rap and, slightly more conventionally, physical education. In 2004 the timetable included dance lessons, djing, skateboarding and fashion. The BAFTA nominated show ended in 2005 after four seasons, with lessons including Music, Dance, IT Factor, Taekwondo and Web Design. The Headteacher was Adelaide Lumor who also appeared in the 2007 Muller commercial 'Lid Lickers'. The show was presented by Jake Humphrey.
The hyporchema was a lively kind of mimic dance which accompanied the songs used in the worship of Apollo, especially among the Dorians. It was performed by men and women. It is comparable to the geranos, the ritual "crane dance" associated with Theseus. A chorus of singers at the festivals of Apollo usually danced around the altar, while several other persons were appointed to accompany the action of the song with an appropriate mimic performance. Hyporchema was thus a lyric dance, and often passed into the playful and comic, whence Athenaeus compares it with the cordax of comedy. It had, according to the supposition of Müller, like all the music and poetry of the Dorians, originated in Crete, but was at an early period introduced in the island of Delos, where it seems to have continued to be performed down to the time of Lucian. A similar kind of dance was the geranos, which Theseus on his return from Crete was said to have performed in Delos, and which was customary in this island as late as the time of Plutarch. The leader of this dance was called geranoulkos. It was performed with blows, and with various turnings and windings, and was said to be an imitation of the windings of the Cretan labyrinth. When the chorus was at rest, it formed a semicircle, with leaders at the two wings.
Petaurista is a genus of rodent in the Sciuridae family. Squirrels in this family are generally large nocturnal squirrels. It contains the following species, listed alphabetically: ⁕Petaurista alborufus Milne-Edwards, 1870 – Red And White Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista elegans Müller, 1840 – Spotted Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista leucogenys Temminck, 1827 – Japanese Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista magnificus Hodgson, 1836 – Hodgson's Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista nobilis Gray, 1842 – Bhutan Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista petaurista Pallas, 1766 – Red Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista philippensis Elliot, 1839 – Indian Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista xanthotis Milne-Edwards, 1872 – Chinese Giant Flying Squirrel
The brainfuck programming language is an esoteric programming language noted for its extreme minimalism. It is a Turing tarpit, designed to challenge and amuse programmers, and was not made to be suitable for practical use. It was created in 1993 by Urban Müller. The name of the language is generally not capitalized except at the start of a sentence, although it is a proper noun.
|James Van Allen|
James Van Allen
James Alfred Van Allen was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. He was instrumental in establishing the field of magnetospheric research in space. The Van Allen radiation belts were named after him, following their discovery by his Geiger–Müller tube instruments on the 1958 satellites: during the International Geophysical Year. Van Allen led the scientific community for the inclusion of scientific research instruments on space satellites.
Hermann Müller, born in Mannheim, was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Foreign Minister, and twice as Chancellor of Germany under the Weimar Republic. In his capacity as Foreign Minister, he was one of the German signatories of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
|Catch the Sun|
Catch the Sun
"Catch the Sun" is the second single from Doves' debut studio album Lost Souls. The single was released on 29 May 2000 in the UK on 2 CDs and 10" vinyl, and charted at #32 on the UK Singles Chart. The psychedelic, kaleidoscopic music video for "Catch the Sun" was directed by Sophie Muller. Jamie Cullum covered "Catch the Sun" on his album Catching Tales. "Down to Sea" is an early demo of "Sea Song." The B-sides for CD2 are songs from Doves' previous incarnation as Sub Sub. The versions of "Crunch" and "Lost In Watts" differ slightly from those found on Sub Sub's album Delta Tapes. "Crunch" is an edit, and "Lost in Watts" is an alternate mix omitting some background vocals. The B-side "Valley" features the piano riff from The Beach Boys' Smile-era songs "Do You Like Worms" and "Heroes And Villains". The song was also featured in the soundtrack of the videogame Project Gotham Racing.
Affentheater is a musical album by Marius Müller-Westernhagen.
Nahaufnahme is a 2005 studio album by Marius Müller-Westernhagen.
C-Block were a German platinum-selling hip-hop group, founded in 1995 by music producers Frank Müller, Ulrich Buchmann and Jörg Wagner. The group is fronted by Anthony "Red Dogg" Joseph and James "Mr.P" White. C-Block were a well-known hip hop act in Europe in the 1990s, who along with Down Low and Nana, signified the rise of the American-influenced rap music in Europe.
Tonny is a 1962 Norwegian drama film directed by Nils R. Müller and Per Gjersøe. It was entered into the 12th Berlin International Film Festival.
A system of economic and political thought, originated by Karl Marx, and elaborated by others. It holds that the state has been the a device for suppression of the masses, allowing exploitation by a dominant (capitalistic) class; that historical change occurs through class struggle; and that the capitalist system will inevitably wither away to be superseded by a classless society.
One who believes in the theories of Karl Marx.
Karl F. Gauss, a German mathematician.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.
|Comunidades of Goa|
Comunidades of Goa
The Comunidades of Goa were a form of land association developed in Goa, India, where land-ownership was collectively held, but controlled by the Brahmin caste. Documented by the Portuguese as of 1526, it was the predominate form of landholding in Goa prior to 1961. In form it is similar to many other rural agricultural peoples' form of landholding, such as that of pre-Spanish Bolivia and the Puebloan peoples now in the Southwestern United States, identified by Karl Marx as the dualism of rural communities: the existence of collective land ownership together with private production on the land.
Kórnik is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants, located in western Poland, approximately 25 kilometres south-east of the city of Poznań. It is one of the major tourist attractions of the Wielkopolska region. Until 1961 there were two separate towns, Kórnik and Bnin, both founded in the Middle Ages, situated just 1 kilometre apart. Bnin lost its town rights in 1934, and in 1961 it became part of Kórnik. The enlarged town also includes the former settlement of Prowent, birthplace of Wisława Szymborska. The town's notable sites include: ⁕Kórnik Castle, built in the 14th century, but designed and rebuilt in the 18th century in neogothic style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Działyński family. ⁕Town halls of both Kórnik and Bnin. That of Kornik was built in 1907 as a neo-Baroque city hall; Bnin's is a piece of original 18th-century late Baroque architecture. ⁕Kórnik Library, one of the most famous Polish libraries, founded by Tytus Działyński in 1828. Currently the library, despite being looted by the German Nazis during World War II, is one of the five largest libraries in Poland and contains roughly 400,000 volumes, including 30,000 books more than 150 years old, and 14,000 manuscripts. Since 1953 it has been a part of the National Library of Poland.
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock. The pressure of the magma is high enough that the overlying strata are forced upward, giving the laccolith a dome or mushroom-like form with a generally planar base. Laccoliths tend to form at relatively shallow depths and are typically formed by relatively viscous magmas, such as those that crystallize to diorite, granodiorite, and granite. Cooling underground takes place slowly, giving time for larger crystals to form in the cooling magma. The surface rock above laccoliths often erodes away completely, leaving the core mound of igneous rock. The term was first applied as laccolite by Grove Karl Gilbert after his study of intrusions of diorite in the Henry Mountains of Utah in about 1875. It is often difficult to reconstruct shapes of intrusions. For instance, Devils Tower in Wyoming was thought to be a volcanic neck, but study has revealed it to be an eroded laccolith. The rock would have had to cool very slowly so as to form the slender pencil-shaped columns of phonolite porphyry seen today. However, erosion has stripped away the overlying and surrounding rock, and so it is impossible to reconstruct the original shape of the igneous intrusion; that rock may not be the remnant of a laccolith. At other localities, such as in the Henry Mountains and other isolated mountain ranges of the Colorado Plateau, some intrusions demonstrably have shapes of laccoliths. The small Barber Hill syenite-stock laccolith in Charlotte, Vermont, has several volcanic trachyte dikes associated with it. Molybdenite is also visible in outcrops on this exposed laccolith. In Big Bend Ranch State Park, at the southwesternmost visible extent of the Ouachita orogeny, lies the Solitario. It consists of the eroded remains of a laccolith, presumably named for the sense of solitude that observers within the structure might have, due to the partial illusion of endless expanse in all directions.
Aa Rchb.f. 1854, is a genus of plants belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Species in this genus can be found growing terrestrially in cold habitats near the snowline in the Andes and also in Costa Rica; they are usually found close to small streams. The elongated inflorescence grows from a basal rosette of leaves, terminating in a small white non-resupinate flower. This lip is fringed and hood-shaped. The flower gives off a pungent smell that attracts flies. This genus has often been included in the orchid genus Altensteinia. The first scientific description of a species of this genus was made in 1815 by Karl Sigismund Kunth, naming it first Ophrys paleacea Kunth., and later Altensteinia paleacea. In 1854 Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach separated Aa from Altensteinia, to include two species Aa argyrolepis and Aa paleacea. The genus name apparently was rendered by the author to always appear first in alphabetical listings. Another - disputed - explanation, is that Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach named this genus after Pieter van der Aa; the printer of the Dutch botanist Paul Herman's "Paradisus Batavus". A few years later, Reichenbach reviewed the name of the genus and named it again Altensteinia. Finally in 1912 Rudolf Schlechter switched the name again to Aa, as more species were being discovered making the new name more significant.
The Doberman Pinscher or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Doberman Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs or police dogs, this is less common today. In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention. Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Doberman Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed suitable for companionship and family life.Although many Dobermans have been outdoor dogs, they are best suited to live indoors.
A random walk is a mathematical formalization of a path that consists of a succession of random steps. For example, the path traced by a molecule as it travels in a liquid or a gas, the search path of a foraging animal, the price of a fluctuating stock and the financial status of a gambler can all be modeled as random walks, although they may not be truly random in reality. The term random walk was first introduced by Karl Pearson in 1905. Random walks have been used in many fields: ecology, economics, psychology, computer science, physics, chemistry, and biology. Random walks explain the observed behaviors of processes in these fields, and thus serve as a fundamental model for the recorded stochastic activity. Various different types of random walks are of interest. Often, random walks are assumed to be Markov chains or Markov processes, but other, more complicated walks are also of interest. Some random walks are on graphs, others on the line, in the plane, or in higher dimensions, while some random walks are on groups. Random walks also vary with regard to the time parameter. Often, the walk is in discrete time, and indexed by the natural numbers, as in . However, some walks take their steps at random times, and in that case the position is defined for the continuum of times . Specific cases or limits of random walks include the Lévy flight. Random walks are related to the diffusion models and are a fundamental topic in discussions of Markov processes. Several properties of random walks, including dispersal distributions, first-passage times and encounter rates, have been extensively studied.
Bloody Mary is a fictional extraterrestrial vampire in the DC Comics universe. She first appeared in Hawk and Dove vol. 2 #21, and was created by Karl Kesel and Barbara Kesel.
Bonapartism is often defined as a political expression in the vocabulary of Marxism and Leninism, deriving from the career of Napoleon Bonaparte. Karl Marx was a student of Jacobinism and the French Revolution as well as a contemporary critic of the Second Republic and Second Empire. The term Bonapartism is often used to refer to a situation in which counter-revolutionary military officers seize power from revolutionaries, and then use selective reformism to co-opt the radicalism of the popular classes. In the process, Marx argued, Bonapartists preserve and mask the power of a narrower ruling class. Marx saw both Bonaparte and his nephew Napoleon III as having corrupted revolutions in France in this way. Marx offered this definition of and analysis of Bonapartism in "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte," written in 1852. In this document, he drew attention to what he calls the phenomenon's repetitive history with one of his most quoted lines: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce." A Bonapartist regime appears to have great power, but only because there is no class with enough confidence or power to firmly establish its authority in its own name, so a leader who appears to stand above the struggle can take the mantle of power. It is an inherently unstable situation where the apparently all-powerful leader is swept aside once the struggle is resolved one way or the other.
Media Whore is a short subject made in 2002. It was directed by Karl T. Hirsch of Aglet Productions, in something of a parody of MTV, and written by Ali MacLean, who also plays the subject of the film, Astrid.
Unanimous was a United Kingdom-based game show broadcast on Channel 4 from 27 October 2006 to 15 December 2006. It was based on an American game show titled Unan1mous. Unanimous: The Fallout, was shown on E4 later at night after Unanimous. It was hosted by comedians Paddy McGuinness and Olivia Lee and featured regular guest Karl Daly, played by Tom Bennett. The 'Host' of the show was Alex Humes. Although fairly unknown, Humes starred in the reality TV programme Space Cadets, also for Channel 4, where he played one of the Russian pilots. The voice-over for the programme was provided by Phil Gallagher. The show was not live but was recorded many weeks before airing. Contestants were not informed of the rules or objectives of the game before it started - only that they were going to be playing in a game show with a substantial prize fund, and they would be filmed non-stop in an enclosed environment.
|Rainer Maria Rilke|
Rainer Maria Rilke
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke —better known as Rainer Maria Rilke—was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. Rilke is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", writing in both verse and highly lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as inherently "mystical". His writings include one novel, several collections of poetry, and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes haunting images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief, solitude, and profound anxiety. These deeply existential themes tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers. Rilke was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, travelled extensively throughout Europe and North Africa, including Russia, Spain, Germany, France, Italy, and in his later years settled in Switzerland—settings that were key to the genesis and inspiration for many of his poems. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were originally written in French and dedicated to the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Among English-language readers, his best-known works include the poetry collections Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus, the semi-autobiographical novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, and a collection of ten letters that was published after his death under the title Letters to a Young Poet. In the later 20th century, his work has found new audiences through its use by New Age theologians and self-help authors, and through frequently quoting in television programs, books and motion pictures. In the United States, Rilke is one of the more popular, best-selling poets—along with 13th-century Sufi mystic Rumi and 20th-century Lebanese-American poet Khalil Gibran.
Falsifiability or refutability is the trait of a statement, hypothesis, or theory whereby it could be shown to be false if some conceivable observation were true. In this sense, falsify is synonymous with nullify, meaning not "to commit fraud" but "show to be false". By the problem of induction, no number of confirming observations can verify a universal generalization, such as All swans are white, yet it is logically possible to falsify it by observing a single black swan. Thus, the term falsifiability is sometimes synonym to testability. Some statements, such as It will be raining here in one million years, are falsifiable in principle, but not in practice. The concern with falsifiability gained attention by way of philosopher of science Karl Popper's scientific epistemology "falsificationism". Popper stresses the problem of demarcation—distinguishing the scientific from the unscientific—and makes falsifiability the demarcation criterion, such that what is unfalsifiable is classified as unscientific, and the practice of declaring an unfalsifiable theory to be scientifically true is pseudoscience. In falsificationism, an unfalsifiable and thus unscientific theory is not necessarily intrinsically false or inappropriate, since metaphysical theories might be true or contain truth, but one cannot know for sure. Simply, to be scientific, a theory must entail at least one observation, which may or may not be the case.
In numerical analysis, the Durand–Kerner method established 1960–66 and named after E. Durand and Immo Kerner, also called the method of Weierstrass, established 1859–91 and named after Karl Weierstrass, is a root-finding algorithm for solving polynomial equations. In other words, the method can be used to solve numerically the equation where ƒ is a given polynomial, which can be taken to be scaled so that the leading coefficient is 1.
|Honoré de Balzac|
Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Due to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature. He is renowned for his multifaceted characters, who are morally ambiguous. His writing influenced many subsequent novelists such as Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gustave Flaubert, Benito Pérez Galdós, Marie Corelli, Henry James, William Faulkner, Jack Kerouac, and Italo Calvino, and philosophers such as Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. Many of Balzac's works have been made into or have inspired films, and they are a continuing source of inspiration for writers, filmmakers and critics. An enthusiastic reader and independent thinker as a child, Balzac had trouble adapting to the teaching style of his grammar school. His willful nature caused trouble throughout his life and frustrated his ambitions to succeed in the world of business. When he finished school, Balzac was an apprentice in a law office, but he turned his back on the study of law after wearying of its inhumanity and banal routine. Before and during his career as a writer, he attempted to be a publisher, printer, businessman, critic, and politician; he failed in all of these efforts. La Comédie humaine reflects his real-life difficulties, and includes scenes from his own experience.
Communalism is a term with three distinct meanings according to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary. These include: "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation"; "the principles and practice of communal ownership". Many experiments in utopian socialism did implement internal rules of communalist property ownership in the context of federated communalism. It is at least theoretically possible for a federation of communes to include communes which do not practice communalist rules of property, which is to say, that the overall national government may be a federation of communes, but that private property rather than communalist property is the order within each such commune. Karl Marx, often viewed as the founder of communism, criticized other socialists of his era, and made particularly blistering criticisms of utopianism which was generally conceived along communalist principles, both federational communalism and local property communalism.
The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. It forms isometric crystals, and is usually associated with rare tellurium and gold minerals, often with silver, mercury, and copper. The name comes from chemist W. Petz, who first analyzed the mineral from the type locality in Săcărâmb, Transylvania, Romania in 1845. It was described by Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger in 1845 and dedicated to W. Petz who had carried out the first analyses. It occurs with other tellurides in vein gold deposits. It is commonly associated with native gold, hessite, sylvanite, krennerite, calaverite, altaite, montbrayite, melonite, frohbergite, tetradymite, rickardite, vulcanite and pyrite. Petzite forms together with uytenbogaardtite and fischesserite the uytenbogaardtite group.
Romania is a country located at the intersection of Central and Southeastern Europe, bordering on the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. At 238,400 square kilometres, Romania is the eighth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population of the European Union with 18,631,386 people. Its capital and biggest city is Bucharest, the 10th largest city in the EU. The United Principalities emerged when the territories of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza in 1859. In 1866 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was called to the throne as the Ruling Prince of the Romanian Principate and in 1881 he was finally crowned as King Carol I the first monarch of the Kingdom of Romania. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on 9 May 1877, and was internationally recognised the following year. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania.
Zinkenite is a steel-gray metallic sulfosalt mineral composed of lead antimony sulfide Pb9Sb22S42. Zinkenite occurs as acicular needle-like crystals. It was first described in 1826 for an occurrence in the Harz Mountains, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany and named after its discoverer, German mineralogist and mining geologist, Johann Karl Ludwig Zinken.
Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, The Open Society and its Enemies Volume 2, and Conjectures and Refutations.
|Peter Carl Fabergé|
Peter Carl Fabergé
Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as "Karl Gustavovich Fabergé", was a Russian jeweller, best known for the famous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
The valorisation or valorization of capital is a theoretical concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. The German original term is "Verwertung" but this is difficult to translate, and often wrongly rendered as "realisation of capital", "creation of surplus-value" or "self-expansion of capital" or "increase in value". In German, the general meaning of "Verwertung" is the productive use of a resource, and more specifically the use or application of something so that it makes money, or generates value, with the connotation that the thing validates itself and proves its worth when it results in earnings, a yield. Thus, something is "valorised" if it has yielded its value. Similarly, Marx's specific concept refers both to the process whereby a capital value is conferred or bestowed on something, and to the increase in the value of a capital asset, within the sphere of production. In modern translations of Marx's economic writings, such as the Penguin edition of Capital and the English Marx-Engels Collected Works, the term valorisation is preferred because it is recognized that it denotes a highly specific economic concept, i.e., a term with a technical meaning.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is about 7500 nucleotides long. The viral particle is about 30 nanometres in diameter with icosahedral symmetry. Because of its short genome and its simple composition—only RNA and a non-enveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it—poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. Poliovirus was first isolated in 1909 by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper. In 1981, the poliovirus genome was published by two different teams of researchers: by Vincent Racaniello and David Baltimore at MIT and by Naomi Kitamura and Eckard Wimmer at Stony Brook University. Poliovirus is one of the most well-characterized viruses, and has become a useful model system for understanding the biology of RNA viruses.
All is an American punk rock band originally from Los Angeles, currently based in Fort Collins, Colorado, formed by Descendents members Bill Stevenson, Karl Alvarez, and Stephen Egerton.
Dialectical materialism is a strand of Marxism, synthesizing Hegel's dialectics, which proposes that every economic order grows to a state of maximum efficiency, while simultaneously developing internal contradictions and weaknesses that contribute to its systemic decay. Philosophically, dialectical materialism — that Man originates History through active consciousness — was originated by Moses Hess, and developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Moreover, Joseph Dietzgen developed the hypotheses of dialectical materialism independent of Marx, Engels, and Hess.
A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole, there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. The hole is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater. Objects whose gravity fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Long considered a mathematical curiosity, it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed black holes were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.
Fray is an eight-issue comic book limited series, a futuristic spin-off of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Written by Buffy creator Joss Whedon, the series follows a Slayer named Melaka Fray, a chosen one in a time where vampires are returning to the slums of New York City, and the rich-poor divide is even greater. Volume one is drawn by Karl Moline and Andy Owens. The series was published by Dark Horse Comics beginning in 2001, with delays between the first six and the final two issues caused by Whedon's TV commitments, during which Moline illustrated Route 666 for CrossGen Comics. After the series' conclusion in August 2003, a trade paperback collecting the whole series was also published by Dark Horse. In a short video promoting the charity Equality Now Joss Whedon confirmed that "Fray is not done, Fray is coming back. More than that, I will not say." This was reiterated in 2007's Comic Con where Joss stated that he "absolutely would be returning to that world." Fray next appears as a main character in the 2008 Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight crossover story arc, "Time of Your Life", by Whedon and Moline. The series was closely linked to the concurrently airing seventh season of Buffy, with coinciding depictions of the Slayer's mystical scythe and her origins, a major contributor to the expansion of the canonical "Buffyverse" in which Buffy the Vampire Slayer and other related stories are set. Melaka Fray also appears in the story "Tales", by the same creative team as the series, in the anthology comic book Tales of the Slayers.
Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance, successful foragers can share, with other members of the colony, information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen, to water sources, or to new housing locations. A waggle dance with a very short waggle run used to be characterized as a distinct recruitment dance. Austrian ethologist and Nobel laureate Karl von Frisch was one of the first who translated the meaning of the waggle dance.
Responsions was the first of the three examinations once required for an academic degree at the University of Oxford. It was nicknamed the Little Go and was generally taken by students prior to or shortly after matriculation, the idea being that without standardised qualifications from school examinations, the University had to verify for itself the quality of the students that colleges were accepting. The examination consisted of comparatively simple questions on Latin, Ancient Greek, and mathematics. It was abolished in 1960. John Henry Newman wrote to his father on 29th May 1818: "I go up for my Little tomorrow", and records in his journal for the following day that he had 'passed Responsions'. The equivalent at Cambridge was the Previous Examination, so called because it was given a year previous to graduation, and often called the 'Little Go'. Says one writer of the Cambridge 'Little Go': 'The examination held in the Cambridge University in the second year of residence. Called also "the previous examination", because it precedes by a year the examination for a degree. In Oxford the corresponding examination is called The Smalls.' Karl Pearson's obituary of Raphael Weldon refers to Weldon "preparing for Little-Go and the London Preliminary Scientific. For the classical part of the former he seems to have worked by himself." Pearson also refers to 'Little-Go' in Cambridge in 1842 in his biography of Francis Galton.
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf, in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed petrol engine and the first four-wheel automobile. Daimler and his lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach were two inventors whose goal was to create small, high-speed engines to be mounted in any kind of locomotion device. In 1885 they designed a precursor of the modern petrol engine which they subsequently fitted to a two-wheeler, the first internal combustion motorcycle and, in the next year, to a stagecoach, and a boat. Daimler baptized it the Grandfather Clock engine because of its resemblance to an old pendulum clock. In 1890, they founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. They sold their first automobile in 1892. Daimler fell ill and took a break from the business. Upon his return he experienced difficulty with the other stockholders that led to his resignation in 1893. This was reversed in 1894. Maybach resigned at the same time, and also returned. In 1900 Daimler died and Wilhelm Maybach quit DMG in 1907. In 1924, the DMG management signed a long term co-operation agreement with Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and in 1926 the two companies merged to become Daimler-Benz AG, which is now part of Daimler AG.
Time Limit is a 1957 legal drama film directed by Karl Malden, his only directing credit. In his autobiography, Malden stated that he "preferred being a good actor to being a fairly good director." Richard Widmark co-produced the film and stars.
Immanent critique is the philosophical or sociological strategy that analyzes cultural forms by locating contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. Contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy, this method aims to contextualize not only the object of its investigation, but also the ideological basis of that object; both the object and the category to which it belongs are shown to be products of a historical process. Immanent critique has its roots in the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx; it is now strongly associated with critical theorists such as Theodor Adorno. Roy Bhaskar has advocated it as one of the key methodological elements of critical realism. Quoting Marx, Robert J. Antonio writes in the British Journal of Sociology, According to David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York,
In Greek mythology, Rhode also known as Rhodos was the sea nymph or goddess of the island of Rhodes. Though she does not appear among the lists of nereids in Iliad XVIII or Bibliotheke 1.2.7, such an ancient island nymph in other contexts might gain any of various Olympian parentages: she was thought of as a daughter of Poseidon with any of several primordial sea-goddesses— with whom she might be identified herself— notably Halia or Amphitrite. Pindar even urges his hearers to "Praise the sea maid, daughter of Aphrodite, bride of Helios, this isle of Rhodes." "All three names— Halia, Aphrodite, Amphitrite, and furthermore also Kapheira— must have been applied to one and the same great goddess", Karl Kerenyi observes. In Rhodes, to which she gave her name, she was the consort of Helios, as Pindar says, and a co-protector of the island, which was the sole center of her cult. Her name was applied to the rose, which appeared on Rhodian coinage. The first inhabitants of Rhodes were identified by Hellenes as the Telchines. Helios made the island rise from the sea and with Rhode, fathered seven sons there, the Heliadae: Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macareus, Actis, Tenages, Triopas, and Candalus) and one daughter, Electryone. Electryone died a virgin and the sons became legendary astronomers and rulers of the island, accounting for the cities among which it was divided. Rhode was worshipped on Rhodes in her own name, as well as Halia, the embodiment of the "salt sea" or as the "white goddess", Leucothea.
Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea or an entity. The term's antonyms include agreement, consensus and consent, when one party agrees to a proposition made by another. In some political systems, dissent may be formally expressed by way of opposition politics, while politically repressive regimes may prohibit any form of dissent, leading to suppression of dissent and the encouragement of social or political activism. Individuals who do not conform or support the policies of certain states are as "dissidents". Several thinkers have argued that a healthy society needs not only to protect, but also to encourage dissent. In a well-known letter to Arnold Ruge in 1843, Karl Marx wrote: "if constructing the future and settling everything for all times are not our affair, it is all the more clear what we have to accomplish at present: I am referring to ruthless criticism of all that exists, ruthless both in the sense of not being afraid of the results it arrives at and in the sense of being just as little afraid of conflict with the powers that be".
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use". Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the fields of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine. The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Semasiology is a discipline within linguistics concerned with the question "what does the word X mean?". It studies the meaning of words regardless of their phonetic expression. Semasiology departs from a word or lexical expression and asks for its meaning, its different senses, i.e. polysemy. The opposite approach is known as onomasiology. The term was first used by Christian Karl Reisig in 1825 in his Vorlesungen über lateinische Sprachwissenschaft and was in use in English by 1847. Semantics replaced it in its original meaning, beginning in 1893. Currently, the discipline is most commonly understood as a branch of lexicology, the study of words, and as a branch of semantics, and more narrowly ascribed as a subfield of lexical semantics, though sometimes referred to as a synonym of semantics. The exact meaning of the term is somewhat obscure, because according to some authors semasiology merged with semantics in modern times, while at the same time the term is still in use when defining onomasiology.
Today is an Australian breakfast television program, currently presented by Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson. It has been broadcast live by the Nine Network since 1982. The program airs after Nine Early Morning News and runs from 5.30am to 9am before Mornings.
Skag is a short-lived American drama series that aired on NBC and starred Karl Malden. Skag originated as a three-hour television movie that aired on January 6, 1980. Over a week later, it then premiered as a weekly series, Thursdays at 10/9c, which ran from January 17, 1980 until its cancellation on February 21, 1980. Skag focused on the life of a foreman at a Pittsburgh steel mill. Malden described his character, Pete Skagska, as a simple man trying to keep his family together. The series was created by Abby Mann, and executive produced by Mann and Lee Rich.
Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, by Karl Marx, is a critical analysis of political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel, and signed the unconditional surrender of Germany as a representative for German president Karl Dönitz. At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death and hanged as a war criminal, although he was later exonerated by a German court.
Electronic were an alternative dance supergroup formed by New Order singer and guitarist Bernard Sumner and ex-Smiths guitarist Johnny Marr. They co-wrote the majority of their output between 1989 and 1998, collaborating with Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe, of the Pet Shop Boys, on three tracks in their early years, and former Kraftwerk member Karl Bartos on nine songs in 1995.
|Le Chatelier's principle|
Le Chatelier's principle
In chemistry, Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. The principle is named after Henry Louis Le Chatelier and sometimes Karl Ferdinand Braun who discovered it independently. It can be summarized as: This principle has a variety of names, depending upon the discipline using it. See, for example, homeostasis. It is common to take Le Chatelier's principle to be a more general observation, roughly stated: In chemistry, the principle is used to manipulate the outcomes of reversible reactions, often to increase the yield of reactions. In pharmacology, the binding of ligands to the receptor may shift the equilibrium according to Le Chatelier's principle, thereby explaining the diverse phenomena of receptor activation and desensitization. In economics, the principle has been generalized to help explain the price equilibrium of efficient economic systems. In simultaneous equilibrium systems, phenomena that are in apparent contradiction to Le Chatelier's principle can occur; these can be resolved by the theory of response reactions.
In probability theory and statistics, kurtosis is any measure of the "peakedness" of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable. In a similar way to the concept of skewness, kurtosis is a descriptor of the shape of a probability distribution and, just as for skewness, there are different ways of quantifying it for a theoretical distribution and corresponding ways of estimating it from a sample from a population. There are various interpretations of kurtosis, and of how particular measures should be interpreted; these are primarily peakedness, tail weight, and lack of shoulders. One common measure of kurtosis, originating with Karl Pearson, is based on a scaled version of the fourth moment of the data or population, but it has been argued that this measure really measures heavy tails, and not peakedness. For this measure, higher kurtosis means more of the variance is the result of infrequent extreme deviations, as opposed to frequent modestly sized deviations. It is common practice to use an adjusted version of Pearson's kurtosis, the excess kurtosis, to provide a comparison of the shape of a given distribution to that of the normal distribution. Distributions with negative or positive excess kurtosis are called platykurtic distributions or leptokurtic distributions respectively.
Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true. It serves as part of the primary basis of an ideology or belief system, and it cannot be changed or discarded without affecting the very system's paradigm, or the ideology itself. They can refer to acceptable opinions of philosophers or philosophical schools, public decrees, religion, or issued decisions of political authorities. The term derives from Greek δόγμα "that which seems to one, opinion or belief" and that from δοκέω, "to think, to suppose, to imagine". Dogma came to signify laws or ordinances adjudged and imposed upon others by the First Century. The plural is either dogmas or dogmata, from Greek δόγματα. The term "dogmatics" is used as a synonym for systematic theology, as in Karl Barth's defining textbook of neo-orthodoxy, the 14-volume Church Dogmatics.
The T.O.T.E. or TOTE, standing for "Test - Operate - Test - Exit", is an iterative problem solving strategy based on feedback loops. It was described by George A. Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram in their 1960 book, Plans and the Structure of Behavior which outlined their conception of cognitive psychology.
Picamar is a colorless, hydrocarbon oil extracted from the creosote of beechwood tar with a peculiar odor and bitter taste. It consists of derivatives of pyrogallol. It was discovered by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach in the 1830s.
Hantaviruses are negative sense RNA viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. Humans may be infected with hantaviruses through urine, saliva or contact with rodent waste products. Some hantaviruses cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, but others have not been associated with known human disease. Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent human-to-human transmission has been reported with the Andes virus in South America. The name hantavirus is derived from the Hantan River area in South Korea, which provided the founding member of the group: Hantaan virus, isolated in the late 1970s by Ho-Wang Lee, Karl M. Johnson and his colleagues. Hantaan, Dobrava, Saaremaa, Seoul, and Puumala are several hantaviruses species that cause HFRS, also known as Korean hemorrhagic fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever and nephropathis epidemica.
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman". His ideas, expressed largely through a succession of journals such as l'Industrie, La politique and L'Organisateur centered on a perception that growth in industrialization and scientific discovery would have profound changes on society. He believed, nonetheless, that society would restructure itself by abandoning traditional ideas of temporal and spiritual power, an evolution that would lead, inevitably, to a productive society based on, and benefiting from, a " ... union of men engaged in useful work", the basis of "true equality". These ideas influenced Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and many other thinkers and social theorists.
The telson is the last division of the body of a crustacean. It is not considered a true segment because it does not arise in the embryo from teloblast areas as do real segments. It never carries any appendages, but a forked "tail" called the caudal furca is often present. Together with the uropods, the telson forms the tail fan of lobsters, shrimp and other decapods. These are used as a paddle in the caridoid escape reaction, whereby an alarmed animal rapidly flexes its tail, causing it to dart backwards. Krill can reach speeds of over 60 cm per second by this means. The trigger time to optical stimulus is, in spite of the low temperatures, only 55 milliseconds. The same term telson is widely used for the caudal spine of Chelicerata. The chelicerate telson can be clearly seen in a number of fossil species and in extant animals. Some authorities, like Karl-Ernst Lauterbach, have urged that the usage of this word in this context be discouraged.
|Swiss Army knife|
Swiss Army knife
The Swiss Army knife is a brand of pocket knife or multi-tool manufactured by Victorinox AG and Wenger SA. The term "Swiss Army knife" was coined by US soldiers after World War II due to the difficulty they had in pronouncing the German name. The Swiss Army knife generally has a blade, as well as various tools, such as screwdrivers and can openers and many others. These attachments are stowed inside the handle of the knife through a pivot point mechanism. The handle is usually red, and features a Victorinox or Wenger "cross" logo or, for military issue knives, the coat of arms of Switzerland. Originating in Ibach, Switzerland, the Swiss Army knife was first produced in 1891 after the company Karl Elsener, which later became Victorinox, won the contract to produce the Swiss Army's Modell 1890 knife from the previous German manufacturer. In 1893 the Swiss cutlery company Paul Boéchat & Cie, which later became Wenger, received its first contract from the Swiss military to produce model 1890 knives; the two companies split the contract for provision of the knives from 1908 until Victorinox acquired Wenger in 2005.
|Plan of Attack|
Plan of Attack
Plan of Attack is a 2004 book by the well known US author and investigative reporter Bob Woodward. It was promoted as "a behind-the-scenes account of how and why President [George W.] Bush decided to go to war against Iraq" The book's chief contention, which provides the rationale for its title, is that President Bush planned from early in his presidency to remove Saddam Hussein from power by force, rather than making any serious effort to use diplomacy or other means. The book describes White House deliberations implying that if Saddam were removed from power without a military invasion, Iraq would need a foreign-implemented regime change. It focuses mainly on President Bush, Vice President of the United States Dick Cheney, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, U.S. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, General Tommy Franks, and CIA Director George Tenet, as well as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair. Other fixtures are White House advisers such as Karen Hughes and Karl Rove.
Zoysia is a genus of creeping grasses native to southeast and east Asia and Australasia. These species, commonly called zoysia or zoysiagrass, are found in coastal areas or grasslands. The genus is named after the Austrian botanist Karl von Zois.
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Fredrick Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.
Nosema is a genus of microsporidian parasites. The genus, circumscribed by Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1857, contains 81 species.
In set theory and logic, a relation is a property that assigns truth values to -tuples of individuals. Typically, the property describes a possible connection between the components of a -tuple. For a given set of -tuples, a truth value is assigned to each -tuple according to whether the property does or does not hold. An example of a ternary relation is: " was introduced to by ", where is a 3-tuple of persons; for example, "Beatrice Wood was introduced to Henri-Pierre Roché by Marcel Duchamp" is true, while "Karl Marx was introduced to Friedrich Engels by Queen Victoria" is false. The variable giving the number of "places" in the relation, 3 for the above example, is a non-negative integer, called the relation's arity, adicity, or dimension. A relation with places is variously called a -ary, a -adic, or a -dimensional relation. Relations with a finite number of places are called finite-place or finitary relations. It is possible to generalize the concept to include infinitary relations between infinitudes of individuals, for example infinite sequences; however, in this article only finitary relations are discussed, which will from now on simply be called relations.
Metallism is the economic principle that money derives its value from the purchasing power of the commodity upon which it is based. The currency in a metallist monetary system may be made from the commodity itself or use tokens such as national banknotes redeemable in that commodity. The term was coined by Georg Friedrich Knapp to describe monetary systems using coin minted in silver, gold or other metals. In metallist economic theory, the value of the currency derives from the market value of the commodity upon which it is based independent of its monetary role. Karl Menger theorized money came about when buyers and sellers in a market agreed on a common commodity as a medium of exchange in order to reduce the costs of barter. The intrinsic value of that commodity must be sufficient to make it highly “saleable”, or readily accepted as payment. In this system buyers and sellers of real goods and services establish the medium of exchange, not a sovereign state. Metallists view the state's role in the minting or official stamping of coins as one of authenticating the quality and quantity of metal used in making the coin. Knapp distinguished metallism from chartalism, a monetary system in which the state has monopoly power over its own currency and creates a unique market and demand for that currency by imposing taxes or other such legally enforceable debts upon its people which can only be paid in that currency.
Scientism is a term used, usually pejoratively, to refer to belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or most valuable part of human learning to the exclusion of other viewpoints. It has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society." An individual who subscribes to scientism is referred to as a scientismist. The term scientism frequently implies a critique of the more extreme expressions of logical positivism and has been used by social scientists such as Friedrich Hayek, philosophers of science such as Karl Popper, and philosophers such as Hilary Putnam and Tzvetan Todorov to describe the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that which is measurable. Scientism may refer to science applied "in excess". The term scientism can apply in either of two equally pejorative senses: ⁕To indicate the improper usage of science or scientific claims. This usage applies equally in contexts where science might not apply, such as when the topic is perceived to be beyond the scope of scientific inquiry, and in contexts where there is insufficient empirical evidence to justify a scientific conclusion. It includes an excessive deference to claims made by scientists or an uncritical eagerness to accept any result described as scientific. In this case, the term is a counterargument to appeals to scientific authority.
Verisimilitude is a philosophical or theoretical concept that distinguishes truth and falsity of assertions or hypotheses. The problem of verisimilitude is the problem of articulating what it takes for one false theory to be closer to the truth than another false theory. This problem was central to the philosophy of Karl Popper, largely because Popper was among the first to affirm that truth is the aim of scientific inquiry while acknowledging that most of the greatest scientific theories in the history of science are, strictly speaking, false. If this long string of purportedly false theories is to constitute progress with respect to the goal of truth then it must be at least possible for one false theory to be closer to the truth than others.
Manliness is a book by Harvey C. Mansfield first published by Yale University Press in 2006. Mansfield is a professor of government at Harvard University. In this book, he defines manliness as "confidence in a situation of risk" and suggests this quality is currently undervalued in Western society. He suggests the quality is more common in men than in women, but doesn't strictly exclude women, for example he names Margaret Thatcher. He also suggests the quality is "good and bad", not all good, but not all bad. His main point is that gender neutral ideology denies both the reality of sex-specific qualities, and the valuable components of these, to the detriment of society. Mansfield attributes the rise of gender neutral ideology firstly to Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre, and then to feminists who repackaged the ideas as part of a political program. He names Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan and Germaine Greer.
Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry based upon a materialist interpretation of historical development, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis of class-relations within society and their application in the analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. In the mid-to-late 19th century, the intellectual tenets of Marxism was inspired by two German philosophers: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements throughout history. Marxism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a philosophical method, and a revolutionary view of social change. There is no one definitive Marxist theory; Marxist analysis has been applied to a variety of different subjects and has been misconceived and modified during the course of its development, resulting in multiple and sometimes contradictory theories that fall under the rubric of Marxism or Marxian analysis. Marxism is based on a materialist understanding of societal development, taking as its starting point the necessary economic activities required by human society to provide for its material needs. The form of economic organization, or mode of production, is understood to be the basis from which the majority of other social phenomena — including social relations, political and legal systems, morality and ideology — arise. These social relations form the superstructure, for which the economic system forms the base. As the forces of production improve, existing forms of social organization become inefficient and stifle further progress. These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in the form of class struggle.
Marks, also spelled Marx, named after Karl Marx, is a town in Saratov Oblast, Russia, located 60 kilometers northeast of Saratov. Population: 31,531; 32,849; 31,908.
Acca sellowiana, a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, is native to the highlands of southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern Argentina,and Colombia. It is widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree in New Zealand, and can be found as a garden plant elsewhere such as in Australia, Azerbaijan, West part of Georgia, South part of Russia and South Africa. Common names include feijoa pineapple guava and guavasteen. It is an evergreen, perennial shrub or small tree, 1–7 metres in height, widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree. The German botanist Otto Karl Berg named feijoa after João da Silva Feijó, a Portuguese botanist born in the colony of Brazil.
Amel is a Belgian municipality in the Walloon province of Liège, and is part of the German-speaking Community of Belgium. On January 1, 2006 Amel had a total population of 5,282. The total area is 125.15 km² which gives a population density of 42 inhabitants per km². There are seventeen villages in Amel: Schoppen, Stephanshof, Iveldingen, Eibertingen, Montenau, Born, Deidenberg, Medell, Möderscheid, Hepscheid, Heppenbach, Halenfeld, Mirfeld, Valender, Wereth, Meyerode and Herresbach. The name Amel is of Celtic origin and means water. The river Amblève flows through the municipality. Amel is the birthplace of Karl-Heinz Lambertz, current leader of the community executive of the German-speaking community of Belgium.
A spendthrift is someone who spends money prodigiously and who is extravagant and recklessly wasteful, often to a point where the spending climbs well beyond his or her means. The word derives from an obsolete sense of the word "thrift" to mean prosperity rather than frugality, so that a "spendthrift" is one who has spent his prosperity. Historical figures who have been characterized as spendthrifts include German philosopher Karl Marx George IV of Great Britain, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and Marie Antoinette. The term is often used by the press as an adjective applied to governments who are thought to be wasting public money.
The word homophile is an alternative to the words homosexual or gay. The homophile movement also refers to the gay rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. The term homophile is favoured by some because it emphasizes love rather than sex. Coined by the German astrologist, author and psychoanalyst Karl-Günther Heimsoth in his 1924 doctoral dissertation "Hetero- und Homophilie," the term was in common use in the 1950s and 1960s by homosexual organizations and publications; the groups of this period are now known collectively as the homophile movement. The term homophile began to disappear with the emergence of the Gay Liberation movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s, replaced by a new set of terminology such as gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender, although some of the homophile groups survived until the 1980s, 1990s and even the present day.
Optogenetics is a neuromodulation technique employed in neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control the activity of individual neurons in living tissue—even within freely-moving animals—and to precisely measure the effects of those manipulations in real-time. The earliest approaches, now Waynflete Professor of Physiology at the University of Oxford, and Richard Kramer and Ehud Isacoff at the University of California, Berkeley conferred light sensitivity but were never reported to be useful by other laboratories due to the multiple components these approaches required. A distinct single-component approach involving microbial opsin genes introduced in 2005 turned out to be widely applied as described below. Optogenetics is known for the high spatial and temporal resolution that it provides in altering the activity of specific types of neurons within defined brain areas to control a subject's behavior. In 2010 Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University was awarded the inaugural HFSP Nakasone Award "for his pioneering work on the development of optogenetic methods for studying the function of neuronal networks underlying behavior."
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary, philosopher, and theorist of collectivist anarchism. Many scholars argue he is the founder of anarchist theory in general. Bakunin grew up in Premukhino, a family estate near Moscow, where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French encyclopédistes, leading to enthusiasm for the philosophy of Fichte. From Fichte, Bakunin went on to immerse himself in the works of Hegel, the most influential thinker among German intellectuals at the time. That led to his whole-hearted embrace of Hegelianism, bedazzled by Hegel's famous maxim; "Everything that exists is rational". In 1840 Bakunin traveled to St. Petersburg and Berlin, aiming at preparing himself for a professorship in philosophy or history at the University of Moscow. Bakunin moved from Berlin, in 1842, to Dresden. Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and Karl Marx. Bakunin's increasing radicalism - including staunch opposition to imperialism in east and central Europe by Russia and other powers - changed his life, putting paid to hopes of a professorial career. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russia's oppression of Poland.
|Karl von Frisch|
Karl von Frisch
Karl Ritter von Frisch ForMemRS was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. His work centered on investigations of the sensory perceptions of the honey bee and he was one of the first to translate the meaning of the waggle dance. His theory was disputed by other scientists and greeted with skepticism at the time. Only recently was it definitively proved to be an accurate theoretical analysis.
Libel is a 1959 British drama film. It stars Olivia de Havilland, Dirk Bogarde, Paul Massie, Wilfrid Hyde-White and Robert Morley. The film's screenplay was written by Anatole de Grunwald and Karl Tunberg from a 1935 play of the same name by Edward Wooll, and it was directed by Anthony Asquith. The Broadway play, which had starred Colin Clive, was adapted for radio in 1941 using the original references to World War I. Ronald Colman played the leading role in the Jan. 13, 1941, CBS network Lux Radio Theater broadcast, with Otto Kruger and Frances Robinson. The role of an amnesiac World War I veteran had similarities to Colman's 1942 hit Random Harvest. A 1938 BBC television production, featured actor Wyndham Goldie, husband of eventual BBC television producer Grace Wyndham Goldie.
Feeder are a British alternative rock band based in Newport, Wales. The band was formed in 1992 under the name of "Reel" by the remaining members Grant Nicholas, Jon Lee and Simon Blight of electroacoustic group Raindancer, after the departure of their guitarist John Canham, although Simon Blight departed in 1992 to make way for Taka Hirose, after the band had used many session bassists from 1992-1995. Feeder's lineup after signing with The Echo Label in 1994 consisted of Grant Nicholas and Jon Lee, while still using session bassists and were heard on early demos. In January 2002, Jon Lee took his own life in his Miami home before former Skunk Anansie drummer Mark Richardson, began to record and play with the band before being made an official member. In May 2009 he parted company with Feeder to return to a reformed Skunk Anansie. Since Mark's departure, Feeder have employed drummer Karl Brazil, although for sessions and touring commitments for Renegades they employed Australian Damon Wilson and former Mexicolas drummer Tim Trotter. Feeder has released eight studio albums, three compilations, two EP's and 34 singles. Feeder's music has been inspired by a wide variety of artists and styles, including The Police, Nirvana and Smashing Pumpkins. The band's sound was radically changed from that of Rain Dancer on their debut release the Two Colours EP, but has since introduced more acoustic aspects to their music, including elements of pianos and string orchestras.
Odontoglossum, first named in 1816 by Karl Sigismund Kunth, is a genus of about 100 orchids. The scientific name is derived from the Greek words odon and glossa, referring to the two tooth-like calluses on the base of the lip. This genus of cool to cold growing orchids is to be found on open spots in the humid cloud forest at higher elevations from Central- and West South America to Guyana, with most species around the northern Andes. The abbreviation for this genus is Odm. in the horticultural trade. Most are sympodial epiphytes, or rarely terrestrials. The pseudobulbs are compact with leaf-like bracts at the base. They give one to three apical leaves. An arching inflorescence grows from its base. The ruffled sepals and petals of these spectacular flowers are spreading. The lip is rather complex, entire or with three lobes. It stands erect or parallel to the long column. The high altitude species show long inflorescences with up to 150 flowers, while the lower altitude species have shorter inflorescences with up to 20 flowers. These flowers may be white, red, purple, brown, yellow, or even be blotched with a showy blend of many colors.
The Schwarzschild radius is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the mass of an object is compressed within that sphere, the escape speed from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light. An example of an object smaller than its Schwarzschild radius is a black hole. Once a stellar remnant collapses below this radius, light cannot escape and the object is no longer visible. It is a characteristic radius associated with every quantity of mass. The Schwarzschild radius was named after the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild who calculated this exact solution for the theory of general relativity in 1915.
Pathfinder is a 2007 American epic action film directed by Marcus Nispel, distributed by 20th Century Fox, and stars Karl Urban, Clancy Brown, Ralf Möller, Moon Bloodgood, Russell Means, Jay Tavare, and Nathaniel Arcand. It is a loose remake of an Oscar-nominated 1987 Norwegian movie of the same name although the geographic setting and peoples involved are very different. Pathfinder takes place in "Vinland" and the story involves a fictional conflict between the Native Americans and Viking marauders from across the Atlantic Ocean, who have come to the Americas in search of colonization. Pathfinder received a widely negative critical reception upon release and was not successful at the box office, although the film did enjoy much better home video sales whereby the studio recouped its costs and developed a small cult following. It was also adapted into a graphic novel by Dark Horse Comics.
Economism is reduction of all social facts to economic dimensions. The term is often used to criticize economics as an ideology, in which supply and demand are the only important factors in decisions, and outstrip or permit ignoring all other factors. It is believed to be a side effect of neoclassical economics and blind faith in an "invisible hand" or "laissez-faire" means of making decisions, extended far beyond controlled and regulated markets, and used to make political and military decisions. Conventional ethics would play no role in decisions under pure economism, except insofar as supply would be withheld, demand curtailed, by moral choices of individuals. Thus, critics of economism insist on political and other cultural dimensions in society. The term of "economism" has been widely used in the Marxist discourse since Lenin who criticized Karl Kautsky. Marxist theorists have also often criticized "vulgar Marxism" for its economism about ideological discourse. It was also used by economist Charles Bettelheim, and is sometimes used today to criticize neoliberalism. Old Right social critic Albert Jay Nock used the term more broadly, denoting a moral and social philosophy "which interprets the whole sum of human life in terms of the production, acquisition, and distribution of wealth". He went on to say "I have sometimes thought that here may be the rock on which Western civilization will finally shatter itself. Economism can build a society which is rich, prosperous, powerful, even one which has a reasonably wide diffusion of material well-being. It can not build one which is lovely, one which has savor and depth, and which exercises the irresistible power of attraction that loveliness wields. Perhaps by the time economism has run its course the society it has built may be tired of itself, bored of its own hideousness, and may despairingly consent to annihilation, aware that it is too ugly to be let live any longer."
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific, engineering, and technological education and research. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, the institute used a polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction. MIT's early emphasis on applied technology at the undergraduate and graduate levels led to close cooperation with industry. Curricular reforms under Karl Compton and Vannevar Bush in the 1930s re-emphasized basic scientific research. MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the northern bank of the Charles River basin. In the past 60 years, MIT's educational disciplines have expanded beyond the physical sciences and engineering into fields such as biology, economics, linguistics, and management.
Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". As an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of the The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in Britain in 1897, Marconi succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1924, he was ennobled as a Marchese.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, and is a sub-topic of zoology. The focus of ethology is on animal behaviour under natural conditions, as opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioural response studies in a laboratory setting. Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. The modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and by Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to certain other disciplines such as neuroanatomy, ecology, and evolution. Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioural process rather than in a particular animal group, and often study one type of behaviour, such as aggression, in a number of unrelated animals. The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing field. Since the turn of the 21st century, many aspects of animal communication, animal emotions, animal culture, learning, and even sexual conduct that experts long thought they understood, have been re-examined, and new conclusions reached. New fields have developed, such as neuroethology.
Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility, and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor. It was first described, in 1874, by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum in Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein. In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association it is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, as well as drug abuse or overdose. It may also be seen in many medical disorders including infections, autoimmune disorders, focal neurologic lesions, metabolic disturbances, alcohol withdrawal and abrupt or overly rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal. It can be an adverse reaction to prescribed medication. It bears similarity to conditions such as encephalitis lethargica and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. There are a variety of treatments available; benzodiazepines are a first-line treatment strategy. Electro-convulsive therapy is also sometimes used. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of NMDA antagonists for benzodiazepine resistant catatonia. Antipsychotics are sometimes employed but require caution as they can worsen symptoms and have serious adverse effects.
Telltale were a group of six musicians who regularly appeared on the first series of the British TV series Rainbow in 1972. Telltale began with Tim Thomas and Hugh Portnow who were working with the Freehold Theatre Company. In 1970, Tim concentrated on forming a group of musicians and actors, and Hugh joined him a year later. Hugh Fraser, Chris Ashley and Fluff Joinson joined later, with the final member Ted Richards joining the group in the summer of 1972. The three members of Portnow, Fraser and Thomas also wrote the theme tune to Rainbow. The group recorded a total of 14 songs for the show, including "Shapes", and "Walk in the country". The band feature on a vinyl LP album released by MFP in 1973 called Rainbow, which occasionally surfaces on sites such as eBay. After series two of the show, Telltale were replaced with singing trio Charmian, Karl and Julian in 1974. And that trio were then replaced with Rod, Jane and Matthew, the precursors to Rod, Jane and Roger and the more familiar Rod, Jane and Freddy.
A conjecture is a proposition that is unproven. Karl Popper pioneered the use of the term "conjecture" in scientific philosophy. Conjecture is contrasted by hypothesis, which is a testable statement based on accepted grounds. In mathematics, a conjecture is an unproven proposition that appears correct.
|The Communist Manifesto|
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto, originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party, is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the Communist League, it laid out the League's purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The book contains Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.
The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people, also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota, are a Siouan Native American/First Nations people originally from the Northern Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Today, they are center in present-day Saskatchewan they have also populated parts of Alberta, southwestern Manitoba, northern Montana and western North Dakota. They were well known throughout much of the late 18th and early 19th century. Images of Assiniboine people were painted by such 19th-century artists as Karl Bodmer and George Catlin.
In Greek mythology the Horae or Hours were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time. They were originally the personifications of nature in its different seasonal aspects, but in later times they were regarded as goddessess of order in general and natural justice. "They bring and bestow ripeness, they come and go in accordance with the firm law of the periodicities of nature and of life", Karl Kerenyi observed: "Hora means 'the correct moment'." Traditionally, they guarded the gates of Olympus, promoted the fertility of the earth, and rallied the stars and constellations. The course of the seasons was also symbolically described as the dance of the Horae, and they were accordingly given the attributes of spring flowers, fragrance and graceful freshness. For example, in Hesiod's Works and Days, the fair-haired Horai, together with the Charites and Peitho crown Pandora—she of "all gifts"— with garlands of flowers. Similarly Aphrodite, emerging from the sea and coming ashore at Cyprus, is dressed and adorned by the Horai, and, according to a surviving fragment of the epic Cypria, Aphrodite wore clothing made for her by the Charites and Horai, dyed with spring flowers, such as the Horai themselves wear.
KARL is a radio station broadcasting a country music format. Licensed to Tracy, Minnesota, the station serves the Marshall, Minnesota area. The station is currently owned by Linder Radio Group. It carries Dial Global "Hot Country" music format satellite network.
|Time After Time|
Time After Time
Time After Time is a 1979 American science fiction film starring Malcolm McDowell, David Warner and Mary Steenburgen. It was the directing debut of screenwriter Nicholas Meyer, whose screenplay is based largely on the uncredited novel of the same name by Karl Alexander and a story by the latter and Steve Hayes. The film concerns British author H. G. Wells and his fictional use of a time machine to pursue Jack the Ripper into the 20th century.
The open society is a concept originally suggested in 1932 by the French philosopher Henri Bergson, and developed during World War Two by Austrian and British philosopher Karl Popper. Popper saw the open society as standing on a historical continuum reaching from the organic, tribal or closed society, through the open society marked by a critical attitude to tradition, up to the abstract or depersonalised society lacking all face-to-face transactions. For its advocates, government in the open society is purported to be responsive and tolerant, and political mechanisms are said to be transparent and flexible.
Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr was an American theologian, ethicist, public intellectual, commentator on politics and public affairs, and professor at Union Theological Seminary for more than 30 years. Also known for authoring the Serenity Prayer, Niebuhr received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964. Among his most influential books are Moral Man and Immoral Society and The Nature and Destiny of Man, the latter of which was written as the result of Niebuhr's delivery of the Gifford Lectures. Niebuhr was also the brother of another prominent theologian and ethicist, H. Richard Niebuhr. Starting as a leftist minister in the 1920s indebted to theological liberalism, he shifted to neo-orthodox theology in the 1930s, explaining how the sin of pride created evil in the world, and developed the theo-philosophical perspective known as Christian realism. He attacked utopianism as ineffectual for dealing with reality, writing in The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness: Niebuhr's realism deepened after 1945 and led him to support the United States' efforts to confront Soviet communism around the world. A powerful speaker, he was one of the "most influential religious leaders of the 1940s and 1950s in American public affairs. Niebuhr battled with religious liberals over what he called their naïve views of the contradictions of human nature and the optimism of the Social Gospel, and battled with the religious conservatives over what he viewed as their naïve view of scripture and their narrow definition of "true religion". During this time he was viewed by many as the intellectual rival of John Dewey. Niebuhr was also one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action and spent time at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Castroism is a left-wing ideology, lined with and created by Fidel Castro. Castroism is influenced by many ideologies but particularly the theories of Cuban revolutionary José Martí, and after 1961, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and according to some, fellow 26th of July Movement partner Che Guevara. Castroism's main focus is the practice and theory behind revolution and revolutionary government in Cuba and promotes Cuban nationalism, Latin American solidarity, social justice and people's democracy.
Giulio Natta was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate. He won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 with Karl Ziegler for work on high polymers. He was also a recipient of Lomonosov Gold Medal in 1969.
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and political philosophy, officially based upon the theories of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin, that promotes the creation and development of an international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party presiding over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship of the proletariat. A society organised through a vanguard party on Marxist-Leninist principles seeks to purge anything considered bourgeois, or idealist from it; in addition, it seeks to achieve universal atheism through the abolition of religious institutions and the deterioration of religion with the advancement of materialist science. It supports the creation of a single-party state; it rejects political pluralism external to communism, claiming that the proletariat need a single, able and unifying political party through which to represent themselves and exercise political leadership. Through the policy of democratic centralism, the communist party is the supreme political institution of the Marxist-Leninist state and is the prime legal force of societal organisation. Marxism–Leninism is a far-left ideology based on principles of class conflict, egalitarianism, dialectical materialism, rationalism, and social progress. It is anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist, anti-conservative, anti-fascist, anti-imperialist, anti-liberal, anti-reactionary, and is opposed to bourgeois democracy.
Albanology is the science that studies Albanian language and culture. The father of Albanology is often considered to be the Austrian Norbert Jokl, while the Croat Milan Šufflay, the Hungarian Franz Nopcsa von Felső-Szilvás and the German Karl Reinhold are also among its famous founders. Among modern important Albanologists are Robert Elsie, Shannon Woodcock who is also a historian of Roma communities across European cultures.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them." In philosophy, the term critical theory describes the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. Frankfurt theorists drew on the critical methods of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Critical theory maintains that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation. Critical theory was established as a school of thought primarily by five Frankfurt School theoreticians: Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, and Erich Fromm. Modern critical theory has been influenced by the second generation Frankfurt School scholars Jürgen Habermas, György Lukács, and Antonio Gramsci. In Habermas's work, critical theory transcended its theoretic roots in German idealism, and progressed closer to American pragmatism. Concern for social "base and superstructure" is one of the remaining Marxist philosophic concepts in much of the contemporary critical theory.
Velocipede is a human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels. The most common type of velocipede today is the bicycle. The term was coined by Frenchman Nicéphore Niépce in 1818 to describe his version of the Laufmaschine, which was invented by the German Karl Drais in 1817. The term "velocipede" is today, however, mainly used as a collective term for the different forerunners of the monowheel, the unicycle, the bicycle, the dicycle, the tricycle and the quadracycle developed between 1817 and 1880.
Amyloid degeneration is a type of degeneration with the deposit of lardacein in the tissues. It indicates impairment of nutritive function and is seen in wasting diseases. ⁕Also sometimes called Abercrombie's disease, Abercrombie's syndrome, Virchow's syndrome, bacony disease, cellulose disease, hyaloid disease, lardaceous disease, and waxy disease. It's alternate names honour Scottish physician John Abercrombie and German physician Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow.
Baby Doll is a 1956 American black comedy and drama film directed by Elia Kazan, and starring Carroll Baker, Karl Malden and Eli Wallach. The film also features Mildred Dunnock and Rip Torn. It was produced by Kazan and Tennessee Williams, and adapted by Williams from his own one-act play 27 Wagons Full of Cotton. The plot focuses on a feud between two rival cotton gin owners in rural Mississippi; after one of the men commits arson against the other's gin, the owner retaliates by attempting to seduce the arsonist's nineteen-year-old virgin bride with the hopes of receiving an admission by her of her husband's guilt. The film was controversial when it was released due to its implicit sensual themes, provoking a largely successful effort to ban it, waged by the Roman Catholic National Legion of Decency. Nevertheless, the film received multiple nominations for major awards and performed decently at the box office. Kazan won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director and the film was nominated for four other Golden Globe awards, as well as four Academy Awards and four BAFTA Awards awards, with Eli Wallach taking the BAFTA prize for "Most Promising Newcomer to Film." The film is credited with originating the name and popularity of the babydoll nightgown, which derives from the costume worn by Baker's character.
|Meeting of Minds|
Meeting of Minds
Meeting of Minds is a television series, created by Steve Allen, which aired on PBS from 1977 to 1981. The show featured guests who played significant roles in world history. Guests would interact with each other and host Steve Allen, discussing philosophy, religion, history, science, and many other topics. It was conceptually quite similar to the Canadian television series Witness to Yesterday, created by Arthur Voronka, which preceded Meeting Of Minds to the air by three years. Steve Allen actually appeared on a 1976 episode of Witness to Yesterday as George Gershwin, one year before Meeting Of Minds premiered. As nearly as was possible, the actual words of the historical figures were used. The show was fully scripted, yet the scripts were carefully crafted to give the appearance of spontaneous discussion among historic figures. Guests included: Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Martin Luther, Cleopatra, Marie Antoinette, Florence Nightingale, Thomas Paine, Francis Bacon, Thomas Jefferson, Voltaire, Karl Marx and Charles Darwin. Typically, each episode would be split into two parts, broadcast separately, with most or all of the guests introduced over the course of the first part, and the discussions continuing into the second part. A total of 24 episodes were produced.
Rudolf Karl Bultmann was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of New Testament at the University of Marburg. He was one of the major figures of early 20th century biblical studies and a prominent voice in liberal Christianity. Bultman is known for his belief that the historical analysis of the New Testament is both futile and unnecessary, given that the earliest Christian literature showed little interest in specific locations. Bultman argued that all that matters is the "thatness", not the "whatness" of Jesus, i.e. only that Jesus existed, preached and died by crucifixion matters, not what happened throughout his life. Bultman's approach relied on his concept of demythology, and interpreted the mythological elements in the New Testament existentially. Bultmann contended that only faith in the kerygma, or proclamation, of the New Testament was necessary for Christian faith, not any particular facts regarding the historical Jesus.
The Nehru jacket is a hip-length tailored coat for men or women, with a mandarin collar, and with its front modeled on the South Asian achkan or sherwani, an apparel worn by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. However, unlike the achkan, which falls somewhere below the knees of the wearer, the Nehru jacket is not only shorter, but also, in all respects other than the collar, resembles the suit jacket. Nehru, notably, never wore the Nehru jacket himself. The apparel was created in India in the 1940s as Band Gale Ka Coat and has been popular on the Indian subcontinent since, especially as the top half of a suit worn on formal occasions. It began to be marketed as the Nehru jacket in the West in the mid-1960s; it was briefly popular there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, its popularity spurred by growing awareness of foreign cultures, by the minimalism of the Mod lifestyle, and, in particular, by the Monkees and the Beatles, who popularized the garment. Several villains in the James Bond series of films, including Dr. No, Ernst Blofeld and Karl Stromberg, appear wearing a Nehru jacket.
The Veo is a cryptid described in The Beasts That Hide from Man: Seeking the World's Last Undiscovered Animals by Karl Shuker as living on the island of Rintja and resembling other pangolins, or scaly ant-eaters. This creature is reported to be as big as a horse. No modern Pangolin approaches that size but on the nearby islands of Java and Borneo, large pangolins of up to 8 feet did once live. Sightings of the Cryptid have linked them to relic dinosaurs, particularly Stegosaurus or Ankylosaurus due to superficial similarities. The Veo is described as being a nocturnal, mountain-dwelling creature, subsisting on a diet of ants and termites. Cryptozoologists have suggested that the Veo may represent a relict population of the extinct Manis paleojavanicus.
|Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast|
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast within the borders of the Azerbaijan SSR, mostly inhabited by ethnic Armenians. According to Robert Service, in 1921 Joseph Stalin, then acting Commissar of Nationalities for the Soviet Union, included Nakhchivan ASSR and Karabakh under Azerbaijani control to try and placate Turkey to join the Soviet Union. Had Turkey not been an issue, Stalin would likely have left Karabakh under Armenian control. As a result, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was established with the Azerbaijan SSR on July 7, 1923. According to Karl R. DeRouen it was created as an enclave so that a narrow strip of land would separate it from Armenia proper. According to Audrey L. Altstadt the oblast's borders were drawn to include Armenian villages and to exclude as much as possible Azerbaijani villages. The resulting district ensured an Armenian majority. After the beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 1987 between the Armenian and Azerbaijan SSRs, it grew into a full-scale war by the end of 1991. On November 26, 1991, the Parliament of the Azerbaijan SSR abolished the autonomous status of the NKAO. Its internal administrative divisions were also abolished, and its territory was split up and redistributed amongst the neighboring administrative rayons of Khojavend, Tartar, Goranboy, Shusha and Kalbajar In response, the majority Armenian population of the oblast unilaterally declared independence as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Most of territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast is under the control of the ethnic Armenian forces of Nagorno-Karabakh as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. When the Soviet Union dissolved, the Nagorno-Karabakh region was reaffirmed as part of the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan by the United Nations Security Council Resolutions. Today, the area of the former NKAO includes the de facto established Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, although it is not recognized by any state or international government organization, and is de jure part of Azerbaijan.
Short for "nose ollie", a nollie is an ollie executed at the front of the board while the rider is positioned in his/her natural stance. Professional skateboarders Karl Watson, Shuriken Shannon, Tuukka Korhonen, and Sean Malto have been recognized for their ability to perform the nollie trick. A nollie can be easily confused with a fakie ollie, whereby the rider uses his/her original foot position but is instead riding backwards.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics.
|Dictatorship of the proletariat|
Dictatorship of the proletariat
In Marxist socio-political thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a socialist state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power. The term, coined by Joseph Weydemeyer, was adopted by the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in the 19th century. The use of the term "dictatorship" does not refer to the Classical Roman concept of the dictatura, but instead to the Marxist concept of dictatorship. Following on from the theories of Marx and Engels, Marxists believe that such a socialist state is an inevitable step in the evolution of human society. They argue that it is a transitional phase that emerges out of the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", or capitalist society, in which the private ownership of industry and resources leads to a monopoly of economic power by the capitalist class. With an economy under democratic control, Marxists expect political power to be held by the majority working class. Whether or not capitalists are disenfranchised would depend upon the particular circumstances of a nation. In a period immediately after the Russian Revolution, the mode in which democracy was organised automatically disenfranchised capitalists; however, Marxists such as Lenin argued that other forms of a 'dictatorship of the proletariat' in more developed countries would include capitalists among the electorate. However, as large-scale capitalism is phased out, future generations would not become capitalist owners, and class divisions would no longer exist within the electorate. As a result, the 'dictatorship of the proletariat' would wither away, resulting in an entirely classless, stateless form of society known as pure communism.
Wittgenstein is a 1993 film by the English director Derek Jarman. It is loosely based on the life story as well as the philosophical thinking of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The adult Wittgenstein is played by Karl Johnson. The original screenplay was by the literary critic Terry Eagleton. Jarman heavily rewrote the script during pre-production and shooting, radically altering the style and structure, although retaining much of Eagleton's dialogue. The story is not played out in a traditional setting, but rather against a black backdrop within which the actors and key props are placed, as if in a theatre setting.
Highgate is an area of North London on the north-eastern corner of Hampstead Heath. Highgate is one of the most expensive London suburbs in which to live. It has an active conservation body, the Highgate Society, to protect its character. Until late Victorian times it was a distinct village outside London, sitting astride the main road to the north. The area retains many green expanses including the eastern part of Hampstead Heath, three ancient woods, Waterlow Park and the eastern-facing slopes known as Highgate bowl. At its centre is Highgate village, a collection of largely Georgian shops, pubs, restaurants and residential streets, interspersed with diverse landmarks such as St Michael's Church and steeple, St. Joseph's Church and its green copper dome, Highgate School, Jacksons Lane arts centre housed in a Grade II listed former church, the Gatehouse Inn dating from 1670 and Berthold Lubetkin's 1930s Highpoint buildings. Highgate is also famous for its atmospheric Victorian cemetery in which the Communist philosopher Karl Marx is buried. The village sits atop a hill which provides views across London, climbing 446 feet above sea level at its highest point.
A political party described as a Communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy. The name originates from the 1848 tract Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. According to Leninist theory, a Communist party is the vanguard party of the working class, whether ruling or non-ruling, but when such a party is in power in a specific country, the party is said to be the highest authority of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin's theories on the role of a Communist party were developed as the early 20th-century Russian social democracy divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, argued that a revolutionary party should be a small vanguard party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy; the Menshevik faction, however, argued that the party should be a broad-based mass movement. The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. With the creation of the Communist International, the Leninist concept of party building was copied by emerging Communist parties worldwide.
Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.
|Wilhelm von Opel|
Wilhelm von Opel
Wilhelm von Opel, known as Wilhelm Opel before being granted nobility in 1917, was one of the founding figures of the German automobile manufacturer Opel. He introduced the assembly line to the German automobily industry. His father, Adam Opel, founded the Opel firm as a manufacturer of sewing machines, then expanded into bicycle manufacturing. After Adam's death in 1895, control of the company passed to his five sons. In 1898, Wilhelm and his brother Fritz brought Opel into the automobile industry with the purchase of the small Lutzmann automobile factory of Dessau. Along with his brother Heinrich, Wilhelm was raised to grand-ducal nobility in 1917. Their brother Karl was raised to the same level in the next year.
Mercedes-Benz is a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG, and the brand is used for luxury automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz but traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first automobile. Mercedes-Benz's slogan is "Das Beste oder nichts". Mercedes-Benz is part of the "German Big 3" luxury automakers, along with Audi and BMW, which are the three best selling luxury automakers in the world.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant, and keeps the plant growing. The Shoot Apical Meristem gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers. The cells of the apical meristems - SAM and RAM - divide rapidly and are considered to be indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end fate. In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, which have an analogous behavior and function. The term meristem was first used in 1858 by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in his book Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik. It is derived from the Greek word merizein, meaning to divide, in recognition of its inherent function. In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. Meristematic cells are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of continued cellular division. Furthermore, the cells are small and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The vacuoles are extremely small. The cytoplasm does not contain differentiated plastids, although they are present in rudimentary form. Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular cavities. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall.
Rammelsbergite is a nickel arsenide mineral with formula NiAs2. It forms metallic silvery to tin white to reddish orthorhombic prismatic crystals, and is usually massive in form. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 7.1. It was first described in 1854 from its type locality in the Schneeberg District in Saxony, Germany. It was named after the German chemist and mineralogist, Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. It occurs as a hydrothermal mineral in medium temperature veins association with skutterudite, safflorite, lollingite, nickeline, native bismuth, native silver, algodonite, domeykite and uraninite.
Karl Theodor Jaspers was a German psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers turned to philosophical inquiry and attempted to discover an innovative philosophical system. He was often viewed as a major exponent of existentialism in Germany, though he did not accept this label.
Pulling is a BBC comedy series, produced by Silver River Productions and broadcast on BBC Three, about three single female friends who live in Penge, south-east London. It was co-written by Sharon Horgan and Dennis Kelly and stars Sharon Horgan as Donna, Tanya Franks as Karen, Rebekah Staton as Louise and Cavan Clerkin as Karl. Pulling was the last comedy show developed by Harry Thompson before his death. The first series of six episodes was first shown in 2006 on BBC Three, then repeated on BBC Two in early 2008. A second six-episode series of Pulling aired on BBC Three from 23 March to 27 April 2008 and a final one-hour episode aired on BBC Three on 17 May 2009. In Australia, series one and two was first aired back-to-back on ABC2 each Thursday at 10pm from 5 March 2009 although the final one-hour episode is yet to be screened by the network. Repeats have been screening on rotation through UKTV. In 2007, the series was BAFTA nominated for Best Situation Comedy while Horgan won a British Comedy Award for Best Comedy Entertainment Actress in 2008. In the same year, it was announced that Pulling had been cancelled by BBC Three.
The Weimaraner is a dog that was originally bred for hunting in the early 19th century. Early Weimaraners were used by royalty for hunting large game such as boar, bear, and deer. As the popularity of large game hunting began to decline, Weimaraners were used for hunting smaller animals like fowl, rabbits, and foxes. Weimaraners are great water dogs as evidenced by their webbed toes. The Weimaraner is an all purpose gun dog. The name comes from the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Karl August, whose court, based in the city of Weimar, enjoyed hunting.
Max Christian Friedrich Bruch, also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The initial detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was made in the 1930s, when Karl Jansky observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which provided compelling evidence for the Big Bang, was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis. The use of interferometry allows radio astronomy to achieve high angular resolution, as the resolving power of an interferometer is set by the distance between its components, rather than the size of its components.
In statistics, a histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable and was first introduced by Karl Pearson. A histogram is a representation of tabulated frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals, with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval. The height of a rectangle is also equal to the frequency density of the interval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the interval. The total area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the total area equaling 1. The categories are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The categories must be adjacent, and often are chosen to be of the same size. The rectangles of a histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous. Histograms are used to plot the density of data, and often for density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable. The total area of a histogram used for probability density is always normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot.
Calvinism is a major branch of Western Christianity that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke with the Roman Catholic church but differed with Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Lord's supper, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things. Calvinism is a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called "Calvinism" by Lutherans who opposed it, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word "Reformed" rather than "Calvinist." Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed are divided into Arminians and Calvinists, however it is now rare to call Arminians Reformed, as many see these two schools of thought as opposed, making the terms Calvinist and Reformed synonymous. Early influential Reformed theologians include Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodor Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, Karl Barth, and Cornelius Van Til were influential, while modern Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, R. C. Sproul, David F. Wells, and Michael Horton.
The flux unit or jansky is a non-SI unit of spectral flux density equivalent to 10−26 watts per square metre per hertz. The flux density or monochromatic flux, of a source is the integral of the spectral radiance, over the source solid angle: The unit is named after pioneering US radio astronomer Karl Guthe Jansky, and is defined as: The flux density in Jy can be converted to a magnitude basis, for suitable assumptions about the spectrum. For instance, converting an AB magnitude to a flux-density in microjanskys is straightforward: Since the jansky is obtained by integrating over the whole source solid angle, it is most simply used to describe point sources; for example, the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources reports results in Jy. For extended sources, the surface brightness is often described with units of Jy per solid angle; for example, Far Infra-Red maps from the IRAS satellite are in MJy/sr. While extended sources at all wavelengths can be reported with these units, for radio frequency maps, extended sources have traditionally been described in terms of a brightness temperature; for example the Haslam et al. 408 MHz all-sky continuum survey is reported in terms of a brightness temperature in K.
|Francis Peyton Rous|
Francis Peyton Rous
Peyton Rous ForMemRS born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1879 and received his B.A. and M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He was involved in the discovery of the role of viruses in the transmission of certain types of cancer. In 1966 he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work. As a pathologist he made his seminal observation, that a malignant tumor growing on a domestic chicken could be transferred to another fowl simply by exposing the healthy bird to a cell-free filtrate, in 1911. This finding, that cancer could be transmitted by a virus, was widely discredited by most of the field's experts at that time. Since he was a relative newcomer, it was several years before anyone even tried to replicate his prescient results. Although clearly some influential researchers were impressed enough to nominate him to the Nobel Committee as early as 1926. In his later life he wrote biographies of Simon Flexner, and Karl Landsteiner.
Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen FRS was a Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals. In the 1960s he collaborated with filmmaker Hugh Falkus on a series of wildlife films, including The Riddle of the Rook and Signals for Survival, which won the Italia prize in that year and the American blue ribbon in 1971.
Cultural Marxism refers to a school or offshoot of Marxism that conceives of culture as central to the legitimation of oppression, in addition to the economic factors that Karl Marx emphasized. An outgrowth of Western Marxism and finding popularity in the 1960s as cultural studies, Cultural Marxism argues that what appear as traditional cultural phenomena intrinsic to Western society, for instance the drive for individual acquisition associated with capitalism, nationalism, the nuclear family, gender roles, race and other forms of cultural identity; are historically recent developments that help to justify and maintain hierarchy. Cultural Marxists use Marxist methods to try and understand the complexity of power in contemporary society and to make it possible to criticise what, cultural Marxists propose, appears natural but is in fact 'ideological'. In current politics, the term has also been associated by Conservatives with a set of values that, it is claimed, are in simple contradiction with traditional values of Western society and Christian religion. Undermining these is believed to be the true purpose of Political correctness and Multiculturalism, which are then identified with Cultural Marxism. This use is popular among some right-wing English-speaking political pundits, who see themselves in a cultural war with Marxists they believe to have subverted Western institutions like schools, universities, media, entertainment industry and religion. This approach elides the significant philosophical and political differences between the thinkers associated with cultural Marxism and proposes that cultural change is brought about by a covert conspiracy of academics rather than, as cultural Marxists argue, by deep-rooted social, political and economic forces. This usage originates with a 1992 essay in a Lyndon LaRouche movement journal, and is covered in Frankfurt School conspiracy theory.
Karl Gunnar Myrdal was a Swedish Nobel Laureate economist, sociologist, and politician. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for "their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena." He is best known in the United States for his study of race relations, which culminated in his book An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. The study was influential in the 1954 landmark U.S. Supreme Court Decision Brown v. Board of Education.
A biocoenosis, coined by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes the interacting organisms living together in a habitat. This term is rarely used in English, as this concept has not been popularized in Anglophone countries. Instead, English-speaking scientists normally use the terms ecosystems or communities. Descriptors in an ecosystem are: ⁕Zoocoenosis for the faunal community, ⁕Phytocoenosis for the floral community, ⁕Microbiocoenosis for the microbial community. The geographical extent of a biocenose is limited by the requirement of a more or less uniform species composition.
Bellatrix were an Icelandic rock group. The group was founded in 1992 in Keflavík as Kolrassa krókríðandi by four women, all aged sixteen: Eliza M Geirsdóttir, Sigrún Eiríksdóttir, Ester Bíbí Ásgeirsdóttir and Birgitta Vilbersdóttir. The band released the mini-album Drápa in 1992. In 1994, they released Kynjasögur with Anna Margrét Hraundal and Karl Ágúst Guðmundsson replacing Birgitta. Two years later, in 1996, they released Köld eru kvennaráð. They also released Stranger Tales in 1995, which featured some English versions of Icelandic songs. This was also their first CD published under the name Bellatrix. This was followed by G in 1998 released on Global Warming Records. In 1999 they signed to Fierce Panda and released It's All True in 2000 under the name Bellatrix. Their single, "Jedi Wannabe", peaked at #65 in the UK Singles Chart in September 2000. They co-headlined a UK tour with Coldplay, but split up the following year.
Karl Johan Schuster, known professionally as Shellback, is a Swedish songwriter, record producer and musician. Shellback was listed as the #1 producer of 2012 on Billboard Magazine's year end chart, and he also topped the list of their "Top 10 Songwriters Airplay Chart" the same year. He regularly collaborates with songwriter Max Martin, and together they've written "So What", "Raise Your Glass" and "Fuckin' Perfect" by Pink, "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together", "I Knew You Were Trouble", and "22" by Taylor Swift, "Whataya Want from Me" by Adam Lambert, "3" and "I Wanna Go" by Britney Spears, and "DJ Got Us Fallin' in Love" and "Scream" by Usher, all of which have charted within the top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States. Shellback also co-wrote and produced "One More Night", "Payphone" and "Moves Like Jagger" by Maroon 5, the latter spent eight weeks at #1 on the World Chart.
In statistics, a contingency table is a type of table in a matrix format that displays the frequency distribution of the variables. The term contingency table was first used by Karl Pearson in "On the Theory of Contingency and Its Relation to Association and Normal Correlation", part of the Drapers' Company Research Memoirs Biometric Series I published in 1904. A crucial problem of multivariate statistics is finding dependence structure underlying the variables contained in high dimensional contingency tables. If some of the conditional independences are revealed, then even the storage of the data can be done in a smarter way. In order to do this one can use information theory concepts, which gain the information only from the distribution of probability, which can be expressed easily from the contingency table by the relative frequencies.
David Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology. Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labor in Society. In 1895, he published his Rules of the Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. In 1898, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide, a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, presented a theory of religion, comparing the social and cultural lives of aboriginal and modern societies.
State socialism has various meanings, but is generally described as an economic system with a limited number of socialist characteristics, including public ownership of major industries, remedial measures to benefit the working class, and a gradual process of developing socialism through government policy. Alternatively, it is used to classify any variety of socialist philosophies and ideologies that calls for ownership of the means of production by the state apparatus, either as a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism, or as an end-goal in itself. State socialism is generally held in contrast with libertarian socialism and socialist anarchism, which reject the view that socialism can be achieved by using the existing state apparatus or by government policy. In India, Tipu Sultan's government is considered, having characteristics of "State Socialism". The philosophy of state socialism was first expounded by Ferdinand Lassalle. In contrast to Karl Marx and his adherents, Lassalle rejected the idea that the state was a class-based power structure with the function of preserving existing class relations and destined to "wither away" in a future classless society. Instead, Lassalle considered the state as an independent entity, an instrument of justice essential for the achievement of the socialism.
Fixed capital is a concept in economics and accounting, first theoretically analysed in some depth by the economist David Ricardo. It refers to any kind of real or physical capital that is not used up in the production of a product and is contrasted with circulating capital such as raw materials, operating expenses and the like. Fixed capital is that portion of the total capital that is invested in fixed assets that stay in the business almost permanently, or at the very least, for more than one accounting period. Fixed assets can be purchased by a business, in which case the business owns them, but also leased, hired or rented, if that is cheaper or more convenient, or if owning the fixed assets is practically impossible. Refining the classical distinction between fixed and circulating capital in Das Kapital, Karl Marx emphasizes that it is really purely relative, i.e. refers only to the comparative rotation speeds of different types of physical capital assets. Fixed capital also "circulates", except that the circulation time is much longer, because a fixed asset may be held for 5, 10 or 20 years before it has yielded its value and is discarded for its salvage value. A fixed asset may also be resold and re-used, which often happens with vehicles and planes.
The gear shift is the part of the gearbox which has the shift forks and allows the contact from the driver to the synchronization. Most of the time they are so much like the gear counter plus the reverse gear. And they make it possible to choose the gear and to switch this in or out. The invention of the gear shift is attributed to Karl Benz. These are the parts for which it is possible to make an automation. Further these parts can be designed so compact so that it is also possible to build a very modular transmission with less weight. The benefit of the compact build of the shifting is not only the gain of modulation and less weight but also the time during the production and space in the whole drivetrain. Depending on the space around the whole drivetrain and type of car, for automatisation a hydraulic, pneumatic or electric actuator can be used. For personal cars, a hydraulic or electric actuator is most often used. Further, such a system also needs an electronic application.
A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. It is always used in conjunction with a means to determine at what pressure blood flow is just starting, and at what pressure it is unimpeded. Manual sphygmomanometers are used in conjunction with a stethoscope. The word comes from the Greek σφυγμός, plus the scientific term manometer. The device was invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881. Scipione Riva-Rocci introduced a more easily used version in 1896. In 1901, Harvey Cushing modernized the device and popularized it within the medical community. A sphygmomanometer consists of an inflatable cuff, a measuring unit, and a mechanism for inflation which may be a manually operated bulb and valve or a pump operated electrically. The usual unit of measurement of blood pressure is millimeters of mercury as measured directly by a manual sphygmomanometer.
Capnomor is a colorless and limpid oil with a peculiar odor, extracted by distillation from beechwood tar. It was discovered in the 1830s by the German chemist Baron Karl von Reichenbach.
Denner is a discount supermarket chain in Switzerland. It is Switzerland's third largest supermarket chain after Migros and Coop with 11.4% market share. It was started in 1881 and later developed by Karl Schweri just after the Second World War, it later made Switzerland's first discounter in 1967 in Zurich. In 1973, it broke the country's tobacco cartel. In 2004, the sales of its 580 outlets exceeded CHF 1.8 billion. In January 2007 it was announced that Migros has purchased a majority stake in Denner.
Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception, most often clairvoyance. Perceptual psychologist Karl Zener designed the cards in the early 1930s for experiments conducted with his colleague, parapsychologist J. B. Rhine.
In Greek mythology, Asterion denotes two sacred kings of Crete. The first Asterion or Asterius, the son of Tectamus son of Dorus called by the Greeks "king" of Crete, was the consort of Europa and stepfather of her sons by Zeus, who had to assume the form of the Cretan bull of the sun to accomplish his role. The sons were Minos, the just king in Crete who judged the Underworld; Rhadamanthus, presiding over the Garden of the Hesperides or in the Underworld; and Sarpedon, likewise a judge in the Afterlife. When he died, Asterion gave his kingdom to Minos, who promptly "banished" his brothers after quarrelling with them. Crete, daughter of Asterion, was a possible wife of Minos. According to Karl Kerenyi and other scholars, the second Asterion, the star at the center of the labyrinth on Cretan coins, was in fact the Minotaur, as the compiler of Bibliotheca asserts: Pasiphaë gave birth to Asterius, who was called the Minotaur. He had the face of a bull, but the rest of him was human; and Minos, in compliance with certain oracles, shut him up and guarded him in the Labyrinth. "Minotaur" is simply a name of Hellene coining to describe his Cretan iconic bull-man image: see Minotaur. Coins minted at Cnossus from the fifth century showed the kneeling bull or the head of a goddess crowned with a wreath of grain and on the reverse—the "underside"—a scheme of four meander patterns joined at the centre windmill fashion, sometimes with sickle moons or with a star-rosette at the center: "it is a small view of the nocturnal world on the face of the coin that lay downward in the printing process, and is, as it were, oriented downward".
Parrish is a 1961 drama film made by Warner Bros.. It was written, produced and directed by Delmer Daves, based on the novel by Mildred Savage. The music score was by Max Steiner, the cinematography by Harry Stradling Sr., the art direction by Leo K. Kuter and the costume design by Howard Shoup. The film stars Troy Donahue, Claudette Colbert, Karl Malden and Dean Jagger, with Connie Stevens, Diane McBain, Sharon Hugueny, Sylvia Miles, Madeleine Sherwood and Hayden Rorke. The film marked Claudette Colbert's last role on the big screen.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a philosopher and mathematician and the founder of the 20th century philosophical school of phenomenology. He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic. Not limited to empiricism, but believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, he worked on a method of phenomenological reduction by which a subject may come to know directly an essence. Although born into a Jewish family, Husserl was baptized as a Lutheran in 1886. He studied mathematics under Karl Weierstrass and Leo Königsberger, and philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf. Husserl himself taught philosophy as a Privatdozent at Halle from 1887, then as professor, first at Göttingen from 1901, then at Freiburg from 1916 until he retired in 1928. Thereafter he gave two notable lectures: at Paris in 1929, and at Prague in 1935. The notorious 1933 race laws of the Nazi regime took away his academic standing and privileges. Following an illness, he died at Freiburg in 1938.