Definitions containing müller, johannes von

We've found 250 definitions:

Mullerian

Mullerian

of, pertaining to, or discovered by, Johannes Muller

— Webster Dictionary

Bernstorff

Bernstorff

Bernstorff is a German-Danish noble family of Mecklenburgian origin. Notable members of the family include: Albrecht von Bernstorff diplomat, Prussian Foreign Minister Albrecht von Bernstorff, German diplomat and resistance fighter Andreas Bernstorff, Danish military officer Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, a Hanoverian minister who accompanied George I to Britain when he became King Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Danish statesman Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, German diplomat Andreas Peter Bernstorff, Danish state minister Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman Joachim Frederik Bernstorff, Danish statesman Georg Ernst von Bernstorff, German politician Percy von Bernstorff, German public official

— Freebase

Geiger counter

Geiger counter

A Geiger–Müller counter, also called a Geiger counter, is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. It detects the emission of nuclear radiation — alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays — by the ionization produced in a low-pressure gas in a Geiger–Müller tube, which gives its name to the instrument. In wide and prominent use as a hand-held radiation survey instrument, it is perhaps society's best-known radiation instrument. The original operating principle was discovered in 1908 in early radiation research. Since the subsequent development of the Geiger-Müller tube in 1928 the Geiger-Müller counter has been a popular instrument for use in radiation dosimetry, health physics, experimental physics, the nuclear industry, geological exploration and other fields, due to its robust sensing element and relatively low cost. However there are limitations in measuring high radiation rates and in measuring the energy of incident radiation.

— Freebase

Hyalite

Hyalite

Hyalite is a form of opal with a glassy and clear appearance which exhibits an internal play of colors and has natural inclusions. It is also called Muller's glass, water opal and jalite. Its Mohs hardness is 5.5 to 6 and it has a specific gravity of 2.1. It is an amorphous form of silica. Its has a conchoidal fracture, a vitreous luster and a white streak. It is sometimes mistaken for resin opal, since they both look like little globs. It glows bright green under blacklight. The name Müller's glass derived from the name of its discoverer, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein

— Freebase

Regiomontanus

Regiomontanus

Johannes Müller von Königsberg, today best known by the Latin epithet Regiomontanus, was a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, translator, instrument maker and Catholic bishop. He was born in the Franconian village of Unfinden — not in the more famous East-Prussian Königsberg. He was also known as Johannes der Königsberger. His writings were published under the name of Joannes de Monte Regio, a Latinized version of his name. Both names mean "John of King's Mountain". The name "Regiomontanus" was first coined by Phillip Melanchthon in 1534, fifty-eight years after Regiomontanus' death.

— Freebase

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand was an internist from Finland. The son of a district engineer in Vaasa, von Willebrand got his medical degree in the University of Helsinki. He graduated in 1896, and did his doctoral thesis on the changes that occurred in blood following significant blood loss. For the remainder of his professional career, the properties of blood and its coagulation continued to be the focus of his interest. Von Willebrand was the first to describe the blood coagulation disorder later named for him, von Willebrand disease. The condition first aroused his interest in the case of a 5-year-old girl from Åland with an extensive history of bleeding in her family. Mapping her family history, von Willebrand found 23 of the girl's 66 family members were affected, and that the disease was more common in women. In his personal life, von Willebrand was described as a very modest man. He also published two papers concerning the use of hot air as a form of medical treatment.

— Freebase

Max Müller

Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller, generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life. He was one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian studies and the discipline of comparative religion. Müller wrote both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology and the Sacred Books of the East, a 50-volume set of English translations, was prepared under his direction. He also put forward and promoted the idea of a Turanian family of languages and Turanian people.

— Freebase

Cancridae

Cancridae

Cancridae is a family of crabs. It comprises six extant genera, and eleven exclusively fossil genera, in two subfamilies: Cancrinae Latreille, 1802 ⁕Anatolikos Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕†Anisospinos Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕Cancer Linnaeus, 1758 ⁕†Ceronnectes De Angeli & Beschin, 1998 ⁕†Cyclocancer Beurlen, 1958 ⁕Glebocarcinus Nations, 1975 ⁕Metacarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1862 ⁕†Microdium Reuss, 1867 ⁕†Notocarcinus Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000 ⁕Platepistoma Rathbun, 1906 ⁕Romaleon Gistel, 1848 ⁕†Santeecarcinus Blow & Manning, 1996 ⁕†Sarahcarcinus Blow & Manning, 1996 †Lobocarcininae Beurlen, 1930 ⁕†Lobocarcinus Reuss, 1857 ⁕†Miocyclus Müller, 1978 ⁕†Tasadia Müller in Janssen & Müller, 1984 Before 2000, the extant species were all placed in a single genus, but in that year Carrie Schweitzer and Rodney Feldmann elevated the existing subgenera to the rank of genus, and described three additional genera. Most of the family's current diversity is found in temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere.

— Freebase

Rhinoptera

Rhinoptera

Rhinoptera is a genus of eagle rays, family Myliobatidae, commonly known as the cownose rays It contains the following species: ⁕Rhinoptera adspersa J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 ⁕Rhinoptera bonasus ⁕Rhinoptera brasiliensis J. P. Müller, 1836 ⁕Rhinoptera javanica J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 ⁕Rhinoptera jayakari Boulenger, 1895 ⁕Rhinoptera marginata ⁕Rhinoptera neglecta J. D. Ogilby, 1912 ⁕Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & O. P. Jenkins, 1891

— Freebase

Lunik

Lunik

Lunik is a band from Switzerland. There are currently three members. Lunik started in 1997 with Adi Amstutz, Luk Zimmermann, Mats Marti, Walo Müller and Anton Höglhammer. Singer Jaël joined the band in 1998 and Anton Höglhammer left the line-up. 1999 saw the release of their debut album Rumour, recorded largely in an atmospheric trip hop style. Bassist Walo Müller left the band after the accompanying tour, and the second album Ahead saw the band steering towards a pop sound. Oli Müller supported the band as bassist in the live performances, and Adi Amstutz left the band. The third album Weather was a huge success in Switzerland, with an acoustic approach from Jaël, Luk, and Mats replacing the electronica of the earlier albums. Cédric Monnier and Jacob Suske joined the band as supporting players on the acoustic tour for Weather. A live album, Life is On Our Side, appeared in 2004. Cédric Monnier and Jacob Suske joined the official line-up in 2005, and Mats Marti departed at the same time. In the beginning of 2006, Chrigel Bosshard joined Lunik as the new drummer, but left the band at the end of 2011. Jacob Suske left the band again in September 2008.

— Freebase

01

01

Released in 2001,´01 is the seventh solo album by the Slovak singer Richard Müller. Müller wrote most of the lyrics and, due to the death of his favourite composer Jaro Filip, Müller also composed half of the music. The album was critically well received, and placed at number 9 in the Czech musicserver.cz's list of the 25 best Czech and Slovak albums of the decade.

— Freebase

The Mission

The Mission

The Mission: Memory of a Revolution, also known as The Task, is a postmodern drama by the German playwright Heiner Müller. The play was written and first published in 1979. Müller and his wife Ginka Cholakova co-directed its first theatrical production in 1980, at the intimate 'Theatre im 3.Stock' studio space of the Volksbühne in Berlin. Müller also directed a full-house production in 1982 at the Bochum Theatre in West Germany.

— Freebase

Hans Geiger

Hans Geiger

Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm Geiger was a German physicist. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger-Marsden experiment which discovered the Atomic nucleus. Geiger was born at Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He was one of five children born to the Indologist Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, who was professor at the University of Erlangen. In 1902, Geiger started studying physics and mathematics in University of Erlangen and was awarded a doctorate in 1906. In 1907 he began work with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester and in 1909, along with Ernest Marsden, conducted the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment called the "gold foil experiment". Together they created the Geiger counter. In 1911 Geiger and John Mitchell Nuttall discovered the Geiger-Nuttall law and performed experiments that led to Rutherford's atomic model. In 1928 Geiger and his student Walther Müller created an improved version of the Geiger counter, the Geiger-Müller counter. Geiger also worked with James Chadwick. In 1912 he became leader of the Physical-Technical Reichsanstalt in Berlin, 1925 professor in Kiel, 1929 in Tübingen, and from 1936 in Berlin.

— Freebase

Johann Muller

Johann Muller

Gysbert Johannes Muller, more commonly known as Johann Muller, is a South African Rugby Union player. He played lock for the Natal Sharks, Sharks in and the Springboks, before a move to Northern Ireland to play with Ulster in 2010, where he is currently team captain.

— Freebase

von

von

In German, von is a preposition which approximately means of or from. When it is used as a part of a German family name, it is usually a nobiliary particle, like the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese de. At certain times and places, it has been illegal for anyone who was not a member of the nobility to use von before the family name. However, in Northern Germany and Switzerland the von particle is still a common part of surnames and is widely used also by commoners, whereas in the Middle Ages this was common practice in all German-speaking areas; thus, "Hans von Duisburg" meant Hans from [the city of] Duisburg. The Dutch van, which is a cognate of von but does not indicate nobility, can be said to have preserved this meaning.

— Freebase

Von Restorff effect

Von Restorff effect

The Von Restorff effect, also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered than other items. A bias in favour of remembering the unusual. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity. Von Restorff worked as a postdoctoral assistant to Wolfgang Köhler at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin up to the time that Köhler resigned in protest against Nazi interference with the Institute. During her time in Köhler’s laboratory, von Restorff published two papers, the second of which she co-authored with Köhler. Von Restorff proposed the isolation effect in a paper she wrote in 1933 on the topic of spontaneous reminding which included a prescient discussion of the role of intentionality in the memory test.

— Freebase

Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture

The term Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, derives from a 1945 computer architecture description by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The design of a Von Neumann architecture is simpler than the more modern Harvard architecture which is also a stored-program system but has one dedicated set of address and data buses for reading data from and writing data to memory, and another set of address and data buses for fetching instructions.

— Freebase

Henotheism

Henotheism

Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling to depict early stages of monotheism, however Max Müller, a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism, focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Factor

von Willebrand Factor

A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Schwenkfeldian

Schwenkfeldian

a member of a religious sect founded by Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a Silesian reformer who disagreed with Luther, especially on the deification of the body of Christ

— Webster Dictionary

kepler's law

Kepler's law, Kepler's law of planetary motion

(astronomy) one of three empirical laws of planetary motion stated by Johannes Kepler

— Princeton's WordNet

kepler's law of planetary motion

Kepler's law, Kepler's law of planetary motion

(astronomy) one of three empirical laws of planetary motion stated by Johannes Kepler

— Princeton's WordNet

Hyalite

Hyalite

a pellucid variety of opal in globules looking like colorless gum or resin; -- called also Muller's glass

— Webster Dictionary

Joe

Joe

see Johannes

— Webster Dictionary

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.

— Freebase

Ritter

Ritter

Ritter is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and would generally be used together with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr". In addition to the described system, some states like Württemberg and Bavaria introduced orders of merit beginning in the late 18th century which also conferred nobility as "Ritter von" but kept the title limited to the recipient's lifetime. In heraldry, from the late 18th century a Ritter would often be indicated by the use of a coronet with five points, although not everyone who was a Ritter and displayed arms actually made use of such a coronet.

— Freebase

Von Neumann entropy

Von Neumann entropy

In quantum statistical mechanics, von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics. For a quantum-mechanical system described by a density matrix ρ, the von Neumann entropy is where tr denotes the trace. If ρ is written in terms of its eigenvectors |1〉, |2〉, |3〉, ... as then the von Neumann entropy is In this form, S can be seen to be related to the Shannon entropy.

— Freebase

Ristocetin

Ristocetin

Ristocetin is an antibiotic, obtained from Amycolatopsis lurida, previously used to treat staphylococcal infections. It is no longer used clinically because it caused thrombocytopenia and platelet agglutination. It is now used solely to assay those functions in vitro in the diagnosis of conditions such as von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Platelet agglutination caused by ristocetin can occur only in the presence of von Willebrand factor multimers, so if ristocetin is added to blood lacking the factor, the platelets will not clump. In an unknown fashion, the antibiotic ristocetin causes von Willebrand factor to bind the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib, so when ristocetin is added to normal blood, it causes agglutination. In some types of vWD, even very small amounts of ristocetin cause platelet aggregation when the patient's platelet-rich plasma is used. This paradox is explained by these types having gain-of-function mutations which cause the vWD high molecular-weight multimers to bind more tightly to their receptors on platelets. In the case of type 2B vWD, the gain-of-function mutation involves von Willebrand's factor, and in platelet-type vWD, the receptor is the object of the mutation. This increased binding causes vWD because the high-molecular weight multimers are removed from circulation in plasma since they remain attached to the patient's platelets. Thus, if the patient's platelet-poor plasma is used, the ristocetin cofactor assay will not agglutinate standardized platelets, similar to the other types of vWD.

— Freebase

Von Kármán

Von Kármán

Von Kármán is a lunar crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. The northern third of this formation is overlain by the rim and outer rampart of the walled plain Leibnitz, forming a deep indentation in the formation. The remainder of the outer wall is roughly circular in shape, although it is irregular and heavily worn by subsequent impacts. The interior of Von Kármán has been subjected to flooding by lava flows after the original crater formed, leaving the southern portion of the floor nearly flat. This surface has a lower albedo than the surrounding terrain, and is nearly as dark as the interior of Leibnitz. There is a central peak at the location where the midpoint of the original Von Kármán was formed, which joins with the rougher surface in the northern part of the crater. In addition to Leibnitz to the north, the crater Oresme is located to the west-northwest, and Finsen lies to the northeast on the edge of Leibnitz's rim. Nearly attached to the southeast rim is the unusual figure-eight-shaped Von Kármán L formation. Directly to the east of this is the crater Alder.

— Freebase

Müller

Müller

Unternehmensgruppe Theo Müller is a multinational producer of dairy products, with a headquarters in Fischach in the German state of Bavaria. Müller made a net turnover of €2.1 billion in 2006 and has 5,400 employees.

— Freebase

Proportional counter

Proportional counter

The proportional counter is a type of gaseous ionization detector device used to count particles of ionizing radiation. A key feature is its ability to measure the energy of incident radiation, and it is widely used where discrimination between radiation types is required, such as between alpha and beta particles. A proportional counter uses a combination of the mechanisms of a Geiger-Muller tube and an ionisation chamber, and operates in an intermediate voltage region between these. Considering a gas-filled chamber with a wire anode, if the field strength everywhere in the volume is below a critical value, Townsend avalanches do not occur at all, and the detector operates as an ionization chamber. If the applied voltage is too high, complete ionisation of the fill gas occurs with almost each ion pair and the detector operates as a Geiger-Müller counter, with the consequent loss of incident particle energy information. The accompanying plot shows the proportional operating region for a co-axial cylinder arrangement.

— Freebase

Fling

Fling

Fling, internationally titled Lie to Me, is an independent film about a couple navigating the hazards of an open relationship. It is the feature directorial debut of director John Stewart Muller and stars Brandon Routh, Steve Sandvoss, Courtney Ford, Nick Wechsler, Shoshana Bush and Ellen Hollman. It is the first feature from Santa Monica-based Steele Films and was written and produced by John Stewart Muller and his partner Laura Boersma. Fling features Brandon Routh in his first lead role since Superman Returns. It premiered to a sold out crowd at the 2008 Newport Beach Film Festival on April 26 in the Lido Theater on the Balboa Peninsula. The film received an award for "Outstanding Achievement in Filmmaking" from the festival's jury. Fling had its official Los Angeles premiere on October 18th at the Fine Arts Theatre on Wilshire Blvd. as part of the 2008 LA Femme Film Festival. Shortly thereafter, it had its completely sold out East Coast premiere on November 7 at the 2008 Fort Lauderdale International Film Festival. One week later on November 14, Fling had its Midwest premiere at the Screenland Theatre in the Crossroads District of Kansas City, Missouri which kicked off a month-long run at the theater.

— Freebase

Electroretinography

Electroretinography

Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors, inner retinal cells, and the ganglion cells. Electrodes are usually placed on the cornea and the skin near the eye, although it is possible to record the ERG from skin electrodes. During a recording, the patient's eyes are exposed to standardized stimuli and the resulting signal is displayed showing the time course of the signal's amplitude. Signals are very small, and typically are measured in microvolts or nanovolts. The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions can elicit stronger response from certain components. If a flash ERG is performed on a dark-adapted eye, the response is primarily from the rod system. Flash ERGs performed on a light adapted eye will reflect the activity of the cone system. Sufficiently bright flashes will elicit ERGs containing an a-wave followed by a b-wave. The leading edge of the a-wave is produced by the photoreceptors, while the remainder of the wave is produced by a mixture of cells including photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine, and Muller cells or Muller glia. The pattern ERG, evoked by an alternating checkerboard stimulus, primarily reflects activity of retinal ganglion cells.

— Freebase

Kathenotheism

Kathenotheism

Kathenotheism is a term coined by the philologist Max Müller to mean the worship of one god at a time. It is closely related to henotheism. Müller coined the term in reference to the Vedas; where he explained each deity is treated as supreme in turn.

— Freebase

Culcita

Culcita

Culcita is a genus of cushion stars. They are found in tropical waters. Some are kept in home aquaruims. The genus contains three species: ⁕Culcita coriacea Müller & Troschel, 1842 ⁕Culcita novaeguineae Müller & Troschel, 1842 ⁕Culcita schmideliana

— Freebase

Hermann Joseph Muller

Hermann Joseph Muller

Hermann Joseph Muller was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation as well as his outspoken political beliefs. Muller frequently warned of the long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear testing, helping to raise public awareness in this area.

— Freebase

Winterreise

Winterreise

Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert, a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on Müller's poems, the earlier being Die schöne Müllerin. Both were originally written for tenor voice but are frequently transposed to suit other vocal ranges - the precedent being established by Schubert himself. These two works have posed interpretative demands on listeners and performers due to their scale and structural coherence. Although Ludwig van Beethoven's cycle An die ferne Geliebte had been published earlier, in 1816, Schubert's two cycles hold the foremost place in the history of the genre.

— Freebase

Misesian

Misesian

A person who substantially agrees with the economic analyses of Ludwig von Mises.

— Wiktionary

Linnean

Linnean

of, or relating to Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish nobleman, born as Carolus Linnaeus: "the Linnean Society".

— Wiktionary

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

A Von Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street.

— Wiktionary

Linnaeus

Linnaeus

Carl (or the latinized Carolus) Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy."

— Wiktionary

Bismarck

Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck, one of the prominent German statesmen of the nineteenth century.

— Wiktionary

copper captain

copper captain

A Brummagem captain; a person with an artificial title of captain; a General von Poffenburgh.

— Wiktionary

Clausewitzian

Clausewitzian

Adhering to or described by the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz.

— Wiktionary

Joh

Joh

A diminutive form of the male given name Johannes.

— Wiktionary

Gutenberg

Gutenberg

Johannes Gutenberg, a German printer who independently invented movable type (though it had previously been invented in East Asia centuries earlier).

— Wiktionary

Rydberg

Rydberg

Johannes Rydberg, Swedish physicist.

— Wiktionary

Christianopolis

Christianopolis

A proposed utopian society proposed by Johannes Valentinus Andreae in the 17th century.

— Wiktionary

Keplerian

Keplerian

Of or pertaining to Johannes Kepler, German astronomer and mathematician.

— Wiktionary

Purkinjean

Purkinjean

Of or pertaining to Jan Evangelista Purkynu011B (Johannes Evangelists Purkinje, 1787-1869), Czech anatomist and physiologist, or to his discoveries.

— Wiktionary

Gutenbergian

Gutenbergian

Of or pertaining to Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1398u20131468), inventor of the European technology of printing with movable type.

— Wiktionary

johanneses

johanneses

Plural form of johannes.

— Wiktionary

Johannes Peter Müller

Johannes Peter Müller

Johannes Peter Müller, was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.

— Freebase

Imigrante

Imigrante

Imigrante is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, located in south Brazil, situated in the state's Taquari Valley region. It was established by German and Italian immigrants. Imigrante calls itself, Terra do Cactos, or Land of the Cactus. The city is 100 m above sea level. Its climate is subtropical. Imigrante's economy centers on the metallurgy industry. The mayor is Paulo Gilberto Altmann, of the PP party. ⁕ Rosenthal Cascade. ⁕ Dr. Ito Snell Main Street, Arroio da Seca Neighbourhood. ⁕ Johannes Fells, 539m. ⁕ Johannes Fells, 539m. ⁕ Daltro Filho Neighbourhood, and the Boa Vista 37 Mountain. ⁕ Arroio da Seca Valley.

— Freebase

Christingle

Christingle

A Christingle is a symbolic object, related to the pomander, used in the advent services of many Christian denominations. A Christingle consists of: ⁕an orange representing the world; ⁕a red ribbon around it representing the blood of Christ; ⁕dried fruits skewered on cocktail sticks pushed into the orange, representing the fruits of the earth and the four seasons; and ⁕a lit candle pushed into the centre of the orange, representing Jesus Christ as the light of the world. The base of the candle is commonly wrapped in tinfoil. This is purely functional. The Christingle has its origins in the Moravian Church, but the representation of the four seasons was a later addition. At Christmas 1747 in Germany, Bishop Johannes de Watteville thought about how he could explain the love of Jesus and what Christmas really means to the children in the church. He decided to make a simple symbol to express the message of Christmas in a fresh and lively way. Pastor Johannes de Watteville gave each child a lighted candle wrapped in a red ribbon, with a prayer that said "Lord Jesus, kindle a flame in these dear children's hearts". In 1968, John Pensom of The Children's Society introduced Christingle services to the Church of England, where the custom spread quickly. It is celebrated sometime around Christmas. Various hymns about Christingle include: The Christingle begins with an orange, We haven't come far, It's rounded like an orange, and When the frost turns the berries red.

— Freebase

German Catholics

German Catholics

The German Catholics were a schismatic sect formed in December 1844 by German dissidents from the Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of Johannes Ronge. The movement originated in Breslau. They were joined for a time by somewhat more conservative dissidents under the leadership of Johannes Czerski. This latter movement took the name of Christian Catholics and originated in Schneidemühl.

— Freebase

Ars nova

Ars nova

Ars nova refers to a musical style which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages: more particularly, in the period between the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel and the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377. Sometimes the term is used more generally to refer to all European polyphonic music of the 14th century, thereby including such figures as Francesco Landini, who was working in Italy. Occasionally the term "Italian ars nova" is used to denote the music of Landini and his compatriots. In ancient and medieval Latin the term ars nova does not mean "new art", but rather "new technique", and was first used in two contemporaneous manuscripts, titled Ars novae musicae by Johannes de Muris, and Ars nova notandi attributed to Philippe de Vitry. However, the term was only first used to describe an historical era by Johannes Wolf in 1904. Ars nova is generally used in conjunction with another term, ars antiqua, which refers to the music of the immediately preceding age, usually extending back to take in the period of Notre Dame polyphony. Roughly, then, the ars antiqua is the music of the thirteenth century, and the ars nova the music of the fourteenth; many music histories use the terms in this more general sense.

— Freebase

Jan Davidsz. de Heem

Jan Davidsz. de Heem

Jan Davidsz. de Heem or in-full Jan Davidszoon de Heem, also called Johannes de Heem or Johannes van Antwerpen, was a still life painter who was active in Utrecht and Antwerp. He is a major representative of that genre in both Dutch and Flemish Baroque painting.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a partial deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from qualitative deficiencies of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. The subtype is divided into several variants with each variant having a distinctive pattern of PLATELET-interaction.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a total or near total deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

John von Neumann

John von Neumann

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer. Von Neumann's mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." Along with Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.

— Freebase

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs, and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats. There are three forms of vWD: inherited, acquired and pseudo or platelet type. There are three types of hereditary vWD: vWD Type I, vWD Type II and vWD III. Within the three inherited types of vWD there are various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition. vWD Type I is the most common type of the disorder and those that have it are typically asymptomatic or may experience mild symptoms such as nosebleeds although there may be severe symptoms in some cases. There are various factors that affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD such as blood type. vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish pediatrician who first described the disease in 1926.

— Freebase

Iduna

Iduna

Iduna was an important literary association founded in May 1891 by a circle of writers around Fritz Lemmermayer. Lemmermayer acted as a sort of "middle man" between an older generation of authors and a group of younger writers and thinkers. The society had the descriptive subtitle of "Free German Society for Literature". The name Iduna was provided by Guido von List himself and is that of a North Germanic goddess of eternal youth and renewal. Richard von Kralik and Joseph Kalasanz Poestion, authors with specifically neo-Germanic leanings, where also involved in the circle. The circle dissolved in 1893 when the 'Literarische Donaugesellschaft' grew out of its ashes and was founded by Guido von List and Fanny Wschiansky.

— Freebase

Lutetium

Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal which resists corrosion in dry, but not moist, air. It is the last element in the lanthanide series, and traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these men found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and von Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain as he published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium for element 71 proposed by von Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s. Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, though significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust; it has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, and so used to determine the age of meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy on neuroendocrine tumours.

— Freebase

Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Factor VIII is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor. In humans, factor VIII is encoded by the F8 gene. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. Factor VIII is produced in liver sinusoidal cells and endothelial cells outside of the liver throughout the body. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs. In response to injury, coagulation factor VIII is activated and separates from von Willebrand factor. The active protein interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. This interaction sets off a chain of additional chemical reactions that form a blood clot. Factor VIII participates in blood coagulation; it is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca+2 and phospholipids forms a complex that converts factor X to the activated form Xa. The factor VIII gene produces two alternatively spliced transcripts. Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand factor in a noncovalent complex. This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which consists primarily of the phospholipid binding domain of factor VIIIc. This binding domain is essential for coagulant activity.

— Freebase

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from 1916, he and his deputy, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg gradually gained more influence in Germany than the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany. Hindenburg, as German President, appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. Hindenburg personally despised Hitler, condescendingly referring to Hitler as that "Bohemian corporal". Hitler repeatedly and forcefully pressured Hindenburg to appoint him as Chancellor, Hindenburg repeatedly refused Hitler's demand. Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. Although he was opposing Hitler, the deteriorating political stability of the Weimar Republic let him play an important role in the Nazi Party's rise to power. He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In February, he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act, in which the parliament gave Hitler's administration legislative powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and, as "Führer und Reichskanzler", made himself head of state.

— Freebase

Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, in the United States. He is credited as being the "Father of Rocket Science". In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the V-2 combat rocket during World War II. After the war, he and some select members of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip. Von Braun worked on the United States Army intermediate range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated by NASA. Under NASA, he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. According to one NASA source, he is "without doubt, the greatest rocket scientist in history". His crowning achievement was to lead the development of the Saturn V booster rocket that helped land the first men on the Moon in July 1969. In 1975 he received the National Medal of Science.

— Freebase

Universal Turing machine

Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some to be the origin of the stored program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. It is also known as universal computing machine, universal machine, machine U, U. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.

— Freebase

Technological singularity

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the theoretical emergence of superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the technological singularity is seen as an occurrence beyond which events cannot be predicted. The first use of the term "singularity" in this context was by mathematician John von Neumann. Neumann in the mid-1950s spoke of "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue". The term was popularized by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement, or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. Futurist Ray Kurzweil cited von Neumann's use of the term in a foreword to von Neumann's classic The Computer and the Brain. Proponents of the singularity typically postulate an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, that might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human.

— Freebase

Sphygmograph

Sphygmograph

The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

— Freebase

Useful idiot

Useful idiot

In political jargon, useful idiot is a pejorative term for people perceived as propagandists for a cause whose goals they do not understand, and who are used cynically by the leaders of the cause. The term has been used to refer to Soviet sympathizers in Western countries. The implication was that, although the people in question naïvely thought of themselves as an ally of the Soviet Union, they were actually held in contempt and were being cynically used. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naïvely believe to be a force for good. Despite often being attributed to Lenin, in 1987, Grant Harris, senior reference librarian at the Library of Congress, declared that "We have not been able to identify this phrase among [Lenin's] published works." A New York Times article from 1948, on contemporary Italian politics, documented usage of the term in an article from the social-democratic Italian paper L'Umanita. The French equivalent, "idiots utiles", was used in a newspaper article title as early as 1946. An earlier usage of a similar term, useful innocents, appears in Austrian-American economist Ludwig von Mises' "Planned Chaos". Von Mises claims the term was used by communists for liberals that von Mises describes as "confused and misguided sympathizers". The term useful innocents also appears in a Readers Digest article titled "Yugoslavia's Tragic Lesson to the World", an excerpt from a, at the time, forthcoming book authored by Bogdan Raditsa, a "high ranking official of the Yugoslav Government". Raditsa says: "In the Serbo-Croat language the communists have a phrase for true democrats who consent to collaborate with them for 'democracy.' It is Korisne Budale, or Useful Innocents." Although Raditsa translates the phrase as "Useful Innocents", the word budala actually translates as "fool" and synonyms thereof.

— Freebase

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen was a German politician descended from an old Hanoverian family. His father, Karl von Bennigsen, was an officer in the Hanoverian army who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments. The anthropologist Moritz von Leonhardi was his nephew. After studying at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of the Corps Hannovera, Bennigsen entered the Hanoverian civil service. In 1855, he was elected a member of the second chamber, and because the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties, he resigned his post in the public service. He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Alexander Levin, Count of Bennigsen, a member of the same family and son of the distinguished Russian General Bennigsen, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time, serving as Hanover's minister-president between 1848 and 1850 and afterwards as president first of the first chamber, then of the second chamber of the Estates Assembly of the Kingdom of Hanover. What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the German National Association, which was due to him, and of which he was president. This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the Austro-Sardinian War, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland. It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of King George V of Hanover to suppress it. Bennigsen was also one of the founders of the Protestantenverein in 1863.

— Freebase

Polylux

Polylux

Polylux, the self-appointed "last/worst on the first [channel]", is a weekly half-hour German television program hosted by Tita von Hardenberg. It was produced by RBB for Das Erste and was aired in the timeslot on Thursdays at 11:15 CET. The show, which was concerned with politics, culture and social trends, offers a vivid blend of documentary & satirical segments. Typically it began with a satirical 'report' by Carsten von Ryssen related to a current matter of public concern. The show's essential hipness, which was underlined by von Hardenberg's crisp announcements and the visual & thematic backdrop of the city of Berlin, infuses the subsequent documentary pieces with a certain esprit. Thematically, their scope ran from coverage of political and social movements to current trends in underground and popular culture, whereby one piece was usually biographical in nature, setting it off from the more panoramic style of the rest of the show. Less serious segments often echoed the satire of the keynote feature. Regular items included the "Berlin for Beginners" and the show's end note, in which Manfred Dumke, an elderly pensioner, shared his curious insights on current affairs with the rest of Germany from the comfort of his front room.

— Freebase

Fenris

Fenris

Fenris are two fictional characters from the Marvel Comics universe, namely German twins Andrea and Andreas von Strucker. They are the children of supervillain Baron Wolfgang von Strucker of HYDRA and the half-brother of Werner von Strucker. Andrea is female, Andreas is male. They first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #194 as Andrea and Andreas and were first called Fenris in Uncanny X-Men #200. They were created by Chris Claremont and John Romita, Jr. Fenris is also the name of the terrorist organization the two are head of, which is made up of armored soldiers based on technology developed by HYDRA.

— Freebase

Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

— Freebase

Weltpolitik

Weltpolitik

"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.

— Freebase

Steve von Till

Steve von Till

Steve von Till is best known as singer and guitarist for the atmospheric metal band Neurosis, replacing Chad Salter in 1989. He is also in Tribes of Neurot and Culper Ring, and records solo work under both his given name and the moniker Harvestman. His solo albums are composed of original songs and traditional folk arrangements, using minimalistic acoustic guitar and vocal styles. Outside his semi-professional role as a musician, he works as an elementary school teacher. His father, Steven von Till, Sr, is a civil attorney in the San Francisco Bay Area. His mother, Beth von Till, is a communications professor at San Jose State University. He resides with his wife Niela and his kids in Idaho.

— Freebase

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, Graf, later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 with the Duke of Wellington. The honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock bore the nickname "Marschall Vorwärts" because of his approach to warfare.

— Freebase

Tellurium

Tellurium

Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. A brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid which looks similar to tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is occasionally found in native form, as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the universe as a whole than it is on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of platinum, is partly due to its high atomic number, but also due to its formation of a volatile hydride which caused the element to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of the planet. Tellurium was discovered in Transylvania in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing tellurium and gold. Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for "earth", tellus. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production. Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is in alloys, foremost in steel and copper to improve machinability. Applications in solar panels and as a semiconductor material also consume a considerable fraction of tellurium production.

— Freebase

Klatcher

Klatcher

Klatcher.com is a free self-publishing platform that provides authors with impactful, automated business technologies to fuel their online publishing success. Its tools enable everyone to publish texts, rich media and all file formats, build and retain their reader base, and take part in an advanced creative economy that maximizes productivity and income for authors. Klatcher’s strategic goal is to empower every creative mind to make a living from its creativity in less than 60 days.Klatcher currently has a headcount of 9, located in the San Francisco Bay Area (CA), New York (NY), Berlin (Germany), and Chennai (India). It was first launched in August 2008 as a universal publishing tool, focusing on easy to use publishing tools and a one click monetization technology. In beginning of 2009, powerful social networking features, a new user interface and a monetary stimulus technology were added, and launched in public beta testing in April 2009.The company is led by Johannes Bhakdi (CEO) and Robert Kunze (CTO), and is currently a division of Sophotec VC Inc., a Silicon Valley based innovation company focusing on knowledge and mind technologies.

— CrunchBase

angiohemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

ardennes counteroffensive

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the ardennes bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

bismarckian

Bismarckian

of or relating to Prince Otto von Bismarck or his accomplishments

— Princeton's WordNet

dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl wilhelm siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

maria magdalene von losch

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

marlene dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

richard strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir charles william siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

vascular hemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

von neumann machine

von Neumann machine

any digital computer incorporating the ideas of stored programs and serial counters that were proposed in 1946 by von Neumann and his colleagues

— Princeton's WordNet

von willebrand's disease

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.

— Freebase

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene. In his lifetime, Brahms's popularity and influence were considerable; following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow, he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs". Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished. Brahms is often considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. He was a master of counterpoint, the complex and highly disciplined art for which Johann Sebastian Bach is famous, and of development, a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and other composers. Brahms aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers.

— Freebase

Ewald, Georg Heinrich August von

Ewald, Georg Heinrich August von

a distinguished Orientalist and biblical scholar, born at Göttingen, and professor both there and at Tübingen; his works were numerous, and the principal were "The Poetic Books of the Old Testament," "The Prophets," and "The History of the People of Israel"; he was a student and interpreter of the concrete, and belonged to no party (1803-1875).

Ewald, Johannes

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Le Clerc, John

Le Clerc, John

otherwise Johannes Clericus, liberal Swiss theologian and controversialist, born at Geneva; studied philosophy and theology there, and at Paris and London; became professor in the Remonstrant Seminary in Amsterdam in 1684, but lost his speech in 1728; his voluminous writings include commentaries on the whole Bible, which contained opinions on the authorship and composition of the Pentateuch, and the inspiration of the wisdom books, then startling but since much in favour (1657-1736).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sickingen, Franz von

Sickingen, Franz von

a German free-lance, a man of a knightly spirit and great prowess; had often a large following, Götz von Berlichingen of the number, and joined the cause of the Reformation; lost his life by a musket-shot when besieged in the castle of Landstuhl; he was a warm friend of Ulrich von Hutten (1481-1523).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Agito Networks

Agito Networks

Agito Networks, Inc. is the award-winning technology leader in the enterprise mobility space. Its product, the RoamAnywhereâ„¢ Mobility Routerâ„¢, is an innovative enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC) platform enabling enterprises to extend voice and Unified Communications to cell phones. RoamAnywhere is the first and only network appliance that fuses enterprise wireless LANs, carrier cellular networks, IP telephony and location technology to mobilize voice and data applications, while remaining agnostic to customers™ choices of carrier and equipment vendors. Agito Networks enables low-cost in-building voice coverage, reduced cellular costs, improved enterprise visibility and control over cellular usage, and better accessibility and responsiveness for mobile workers. A Red Herring 100 winner, Agito was named a Coolest Emerging Technology Vendor for 2008 by CRN, as well as a Top Innovator by VON Magazine. The Company™s RoamAnywhere has received numerous industry awards as wel, including earning CTIA Emerging Technology and eWEEK Excellence awards, and receiving Product of the Year honors from Unified Communications and Internet Telephony magazines. CTO Timothy Olson was also named one of the Best CTOs of 2008 by InfoWorld.Founded and led by industry experts in the areas of WiFi, cellular, telephony and mobile operating systems, Agito Networks is delivering its innovative, patent-pending solution to enterprises in a variety of markets, including healthcare, education, manufacturing and high tech. Agito Networks™ RoamAnywhere represents the next generation of enterprise mobility products for enterprises seeking the promise of improved productivity and cost savings from enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC).Headquartered in Santa Clara, Calif., Agito Networks is well funded with approximately $20 million in investment from Battery Ventures, Castile Ventures and ITX International Holdings, Inc.

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app2you

app2you

app2you provides a web service that enables anyone to create their own custom, hosted, interactive web applications simply by outlining the pages of the application.app2you’s licensed, patent-pending technology originated in UCSD’s web and databases lab and won the UCSD von Liebig Technology Commercialization award in May 2006.

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CakeStyle

CakeStyle

CakeStyle is a virtual personal styling service for women designed to take the hassle out of shopping by shipping a box of handpicked clothing and accessories to members’ doors each season.After signing up at www.cakestyle.com, each member has a consultation with her stylist so that CakeStyle knows how she needs to dress each day, what pieces she owns, and how she likes her clothes to fit. Then, her stylist hand-selects pieces for her from designers like Elie Tahari, Diane von Furstenberg, Theory and more, creating four to six outfits with accessories. The box is shipped directly to each member’s door and she tries on the outfits at home. Once she has decided which looks to keep, she ships the rest of the pieces back to CakeStyle, paying only for the items she keeps.All clothing and accessories are priced at retail, with boxes valued at about $2,500 to $3,000 each. Shipping both ways, and the stylists’ services, are free. CakeStyle has no minimum purchase requirement.CakeStyle also has a style blog where the team posts about trends, style advice, designers, and other fashion-related content. CakeStyle was founded in August 2011 by Cecelia Myers and Millie Tadewaldt, and launched officially in November of that year. In August 2012, CakeStyle announced that it had raised $1M in seed funding from the Sandbox Advantage Fund.

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Polyvore

Polyvore

Polyvore is the leading community site for online style where users are empowered to discover their style and set trends around the world. The company collaborates with prominent brands such as Calvin Klein, Diane Von Furstenberg, Lancôme, Net-a-Porter, Gap and Coach to drive product engagement; and its user-generated fashion campaigns have been judged by Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, Polyvore is funded by Benchmark Capital and Matrix Partners.In September 2013, Polyvore launched a section dedicated to home decor.

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Ley

Ley

Ley is a lunar impact crater that is located across the southern rim of the much larger walled plain Campbell. Intruding into the south-southwestern rim of Ley is the slightly larger crater Von Neumann. The debris from the formation of Von Neumann has produced a bulging rampart that occupies the southwest interior floor of Ley. The outer rim of Ley has undergone impact erosion, and is marked by a number of small craterlets. The inner wall is also worn, and the interior floor is pock-marked by a number of tiny craterlets. There is a small, cup-shaped crater on the floor to the northwest of the midpoint.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."

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Dishonored

Dishonored

Dishonored is a 1931 romantic spy film made by Paramount Pictures. It was co-written, directed and edited by Josef von Sternberg. The costume design was by Travis Banton. The film stars Marlene Dietrich, Victor McLaglen, Gustav von Seyffertitz and Warner Oland.

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Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness", it was first described by the neurologist Constantin von Economo in 1917. The disease attacks the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless. Between 1915 and 1926, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread around the world; no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported, though isolated cases continue to occur.

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Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend. Gottfried's work is regarded, alongside Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Nibelungenlied, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages. He is probably also the composer of a small number of surviving lyrics. His work became a source of inspiration for Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde.

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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel–Lindau disease is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic condition that predisposes individuals to benign and malignant tumours. The most common tumours found in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, pancreatic cysts, endolymphatic sac tumors and epididymal papillary cystadenomas. VHL results from a mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25.3.

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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis. It is deficient or defective in von Willebrand disease and is involved in a large number of other diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heyde's syndrome, and possibly hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Increased plasma levels in a large number of cardiovascular, neoplastic, and connective tissue diseases are presumed to arise from adverse changes to the endothelium, and may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis.

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Hauerite

Hauerite

Hauerite is a manganese sulfide mineral with the chemical formula MnS2. It forms reddish brown or black octahedral crystals and it is usually found associated with the sulfides of other transition metals such as rambergite. It occurs in low temperature, sulfur rich environments associated with solfataras and salt deposits in association with native sulfur, realgar, gypsum and calcite. It was discovered in Austro-Hungarian Monarchy near Banska Bystrica in what is now Slovakia in 1846 and named after the Austrian geologists, Joseph Ritter von Hauer and Franz Ritter von Hauer.

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Encirclement

Encirclement

Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces. This situation is highly dangerous for the encircled force: at the strategic level, because it cannot receive supplies or reinforcements, and on the tactical level, because the units in the force can be subject to an attack from several sides. Lastly, since the force cannot retreat, unless it is relieved or can break out, it must either fight to the death or surrender. Encirclement has been used throughout the centuries by military leaders, including generals such as Alexander the Great, Khalid bin Waleed, Hannibal, Sun Tzu, Shaka Zulu, Wallenstein, Napoleon, Moltke, Heinz Guderian, von Rundstedt, von Manstein, Zhukov, and Patton. Sun Tzu suggests that an army should not be completely encircled, but should be given some room for escape, in order to prevent that 'encircled' army's men lifting their morale and fighting till the death –- a better situation would be them considering the possibility of a retreat. Examples of this might be the battles of Dunkirk, in 1940, and the Falaise Gap in 1944. The main form of encircling, the "double pincer," is executed by attacks on the flanks of a battle, where the mobile forces of the era, such as light infantry, cavalry, tanks, or APCs attempt to force a breakthrough to utilize their speed to join behind the back of the enemy force, and complete the "ring", while the main enemy force is stalled by probing attacks. The encirclement of the German Sixth Army in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942 is a typical example of this.

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Game theory

Game theory

Game theory is a study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, to include both human and non-humans, like computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.

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Von Neumann

Von Neumann

Von Neumann is a lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, in the northern hemisphere. It is nearly attached to the south-southeastern rim of the walled plain Campbell. The crater Ley is attached to the northeastern rim of Von Neumann, and is somewhat overlain by the outer rampart. To the west is the prominent Wiener, and to the south-southwest is Nikolayev. This crater has a wide inner wall with multiple terraces. The width of the inner wall varies around the perimeter, with the widest section to the south. There is some slumping along the inner wall to the northwest where the rim makes its closest approach to Campbell, and the narrow terrain between these two craters is rugged and irregular. But the remaining terrain that surrounds the crater is almost equally rugged. The rim appears somewhat straighter along the southwest side, but is roughly circular elsewhere. The interior floor is nearly flat and level along the western side. There is a small range of ridges running from the south to the northern edge of the floor, and the ground is more irregular in the eastern half. There are no significant impacts within the crater interior and the sides are generally unworn.

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Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack is a studio album by jazz pianist Andrew Hill, recorded in 1963 and released in 1966 on the Blue Note Records label. It was his second recording as leader on the record label. "Ode to Von" is dedicated to saxophonist Von Freeman, whilst "Verne" is dedicated to Hill's first wife, Laverne Gillette. The album is notable for its use of two basses playing contemporaneously.

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Empiricism

Empiricism

Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism, and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. Philosophers associated with empiricism include Aristotle, Alhazen, Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, Robert Grosseteste, William of Ockham, Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Robert Boyle, John Locke, George Berkeley, Hermann von Helmholtz, David Hume, Leopold von Ranke, and John Stuart Mill.

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Heldenbuch

Heldenbuch

Heldenbücher is the conventional title under which a group of manuscripts and prints of the 15th and 16th centuries has come down to us. Each Heldenbuch contains a collection of primarily German epic poetry, typically including material from the Theodoric cycle, and the cycle of Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit. The Heldenbuch texts are thus based on medieval German literature, but adapted to the tastes of the Renaissance, remodelled in rough Knittelvers or doggerel. The Heldenbücher group was edited in 19th-century German scholarship, by Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, Müllenhoff, Simrock and A. von Keller.

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Schiller

Schiller

Schiller is an electronic music project led by Christopher von Deylen, a German musician, composer and producer. The band is named after poet and dramatist Friedrich Schiller. Schiller won the ECHO award in 2002 for the Best Dance Single of the Year with 'Dream of You'. Schiller has sold over 7 million albums worldwide. Christopher von Deylen does not provide any vocals for Schiller productions himself. Vocals are sung by guest artists including Sarah Brightman, Moya Brennan of Clannad, Adam Young of Owl City, Andrea Corr of The Corrs, Colbie Caillat, Sarah Howells of Welsh emotional folk / indie band Paper Aeroplanes, Ben Becker, Peter Heppner of synth pop band Wolfsheim, MiLù - also known as Mila Mar, Xavier Naidoo, Maya Saban, Kim Sanders formerly of Culture Beat, Ana Torroja of the Spanish pop group Mecano, Tarja Turunen formerly of power metal group Nightwish, Despina Vandi, Alexander Veljanov of Darkwave group Deine Lakaien, Swedish singer September. Other musicians that have collaborated with Schiller include Lang Lang, Klaus Schulze, Mike Oldfield, Helen Boulding, Kate Havnevik, Damae of Fragma, Jaël of Swiss band Lunik, Stephenie Coker and German actress Anna Maria Mühe.

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Ghazal

Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi and Hafiz, the Azeri poet Fuzûlî, as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert and August von Platen. The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

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Chorology

Chorology

Chorology can mean ⁕the study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region ⁕the study of the spatial distribution of organisms. In geography, the term was first used by Strabo. In the twentieth century, Richard Hartshorne worked on that notion again. The term was popularized by Ferdinand von Richthofen, uncle of Manfred von Richthofen.

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Saturn V

Saturn V

The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload. It remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds the record for the heaviest launch vehicle payload. The largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, with Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company, and IBM as the lead contractors. Von Braun's design was based in part on his work on the Aggregate series of rockets, especially the A-10, A-11, and A-12, in Germany during World War II. To date, the Saturn V is the only launch vehicle to transport human beings beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 24 astronauts were launched to the Moon, three of them more than once, in the four years spanning December 1968 through December 1972.

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Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I or von Gierke's disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. This genetic disease results from deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, and has an incidence in the American population of approximately 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 births. The deficiency impairs the ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. Since these are the two principal metabolic mechanisms by which the liver supplies glucose to the rest of the body during periods of fasting, it causes severe hypoglycemia and results in increased glycogen storage in liver and kidneys. This can lead to enlargement of both. Both organs function normally in childhood, but are susceptible to a variety of problems in adult years. Other metabolic derangements include lactic acidosis and hyperlipidemia. Frequent or continuous feedings of cornstarch or other carbohydrates are the principal treatment. Other therapeutic measures may be needed for associated problems. The disease was named after Edgar von Gierke, the German doctor who discovered it.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. Linnaeus received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, "The Pliny of the North," and "The Second Adam".

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Grey goo

Grey goo

Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all matter on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy. The original idea assumed machines designed to have this capability, while popularizations have assumed that machines might somehow gain this capability by accident. Self-replicating machines of the macroscopic variety were originally described by mathematician John von Neumann, and are sometimes referred to as von Neumann machines. The term grey goo was coined by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler in his 1986 book Engines of Creation. In 2004 he stated "I wish I had never used the term 'grey goo'." Engines of Creation mentions "grey goo" in two paragraphs and a note, while the popularized idea of grey goo was first publicized in a mass-circulation magazine, Omni, November 1986.

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Heilbronn

Heilbronn

Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with approximately 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state. The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is also the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn.

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Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis is a non-neoplastic condition presenting with little knots of capillaries in various organs. It consists of many angiomas. It is also known as Von Hippel-Lindau Disease and is a rare genetic multi system disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of tumours in the body. Symptoms may include headaches, problems with balance and walking, dizziness, weakness of the limbs, vision problems and high blood pressure. Prognosis depends on the size and location of the tumour, untreated angiomatosis may lead to blindness and/ or permanent brain damage. Death may occur, with complications in the kidney or brain. These tend to be cavernous hemangiomas, which are sharply defined, sponge-like tumors composed of large, dilated, cavernous vascular spaces. They often appear in: ⁕Von Hippel-Lindau disease ⁕Bacillary angiomatosis ⁕Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome ⁕Sturge-Weber syndrome

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Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica, abbreviated OFC, and also known as osteitis fibrosa, osteodystrophia fibrosa, Von Recklinghausen's Disease of Bone, not to be confused with Von Recklinghausen's disease. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica is a skeletal disorder caused by a surplus of parathyroid hormone from over-active parathyroid glands. This surplus stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone, in a process known as osteoclastic bone resorption. The over-activity of the parathyroid glands can be triggered by parathyroid adenoma, hereditary factors, parathyroid carcinoma, or renal osteodystrophy. Osteoclastic bone resorption releases minerals, including calcium, from the bone into the bloodstream. In addition to elevated blood calcium levels, over-activity of this process results in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue, and the formation of cyst-like brown tumors in and around the bone. The symptoms of the disease are the consequences of both the general softening of the bones and the excess calcium in the blood, and include bone fractures, kidney stones, nausea, appetite loss, and weight loss.

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Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, Leo von Klenze was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival style.

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JOHNNIAC

JOHNNIAC

The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by RAND that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine. It was named in honor of von Neumann, short for John v. Neumann Numerical Integrator and Automatic Computer. JOHNNIAC is arguably the longest-lived early computer, being used almost continuously from 1953 for over 13 years before finally being shut down on February 11, 1966, logging over 50,000 operational hours. After two "rescues" from the scrap heap, the machine currently resides at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. Like the IAS machine, JOHNNIAC used 40-bit words, and included 1024 words of Selectron tube main memory, each holding 256 bits of data. Two instructions were stored in every word in 20-bit subwords consisting of an 8-bit instruction and a 12-bit address, the instructions being operated in series with the left subword running first. The initial machine had 83 instructions. A single A register supplied an accumulator, and the machine also featured a Q, for quotient, register as well. There was only one test condition, whether or not the high bit of the A register was set. There were no index registers, and as addresses were stored in the instructions, loops had to be implemented by modifying the instructions as the program ran. Since the machine only had 10 bits of address space, two of the address bits were unused and were sometimes used for data storage by interleaving data through the instructions.

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Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen was an officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, who ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He was a notable participant of the first Russian circumnavigation and subsequently a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica. Bellingshausen started his service in the Baltic Fleet, and after distinguishing himself, he joined the First Russian circumnavigation in 1803-1806, where he served on frigate Nadezhda under the captaincy of Adam Johann von Krusenstern. After the journey he published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently he commanded several ships of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. As a prominent cartographer, Bellingshausen was appointed to command the circumnavigation of the globe in 1819-1821, intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The expedition was prepared by Mikhail Lazarev, who was made Bellingshausen's second-in-command and the captain of sloop Mirny, while Bellingshausen himself commanded sloop Vostok. During this expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see the land of Antarctica on January 28, 1820. They managed to twice circumnavigate the continent and never lost each other from view. Thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice fields. The expedition discovered and named Peter I Island, Zavodovski, Leskov and Visokoi Islands, Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island, and made some discoveries in the tropical waters of the Pacific.

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Felix Weingartner

Felix Weingartner

Paul Felix von Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.

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SMIL

SMIL

SMIL was a first-generation computer built at Lund University in Lund, Sweden. SMIL was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann. Carl-Erik Froberg belonged to the group of five young Swedish scientists 1947-48 that IVA sent to the U.S. to gather information about the early computer development, and then came to strongly influence the development in Sweden. Froberg visited with Erik Stemme Institute for Advanced Study, and John von Neumann's research group. Back in Lund, he played a leading role in the creation of SMIL, which was the first computer developed in Lund and among the first in Sweden. SMIL was introduced in August 1956 and then was in operation until 1970. In February 1962 SMIL was fitted with a compiler for ALGOL 60. The compiler was constructed by Torgil Ekman and Leif Robertson. Carl-Erik Froberg was also behind the early emergence of numerical analysis as a separate university subject. In this context, he wrote himself and collaborated with others on several textbooks in computer education, for example, Textbook on Numerical Analysis and Textbook of Algol. These books were widely distributed and translated into several languages.

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Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl was a German botanist from Stuttgart. He was a son of the Württemberg statesman Benjamin Ferdinand von Mohl, the family being connected on both sides with the higher class of state officials of Württemberg. While a pupil at the gymnasium he pursued botany and mineralogy in his leisure time, till in 1823 he entered the University of Tübingen. After graduating with distinction in medicine he went to Munich, where he met a distinguished circle of botanists, and found ample material for research. This seems to have determined his career as a botanist, and he started in 1828 those anatomical investigations which continued till his death. In 1832 he was appointed professor of botany in Tübingen, a post which he never left. Unmarried, his pleasures were in his laboratory and library, and in perfecting optical apparatus and microscopic preparations, for which he showed extraordinary manual skill. He was largely a self-taught botanist from boyhood, and, little influenced in his opinions even by his teachers, preserved always his independence of view on scientific questions. He received many honours during his lifetime, and was elected foreign fellow of the Royal Society in 1868.

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Franz von Papen

Franz von Papen

Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician. He served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934. He belonged to the group of close advisers to president Paul von Hindenburg in the late Weimar Republic. It was largely Papen, believing that Hitler could be controlled once he was in the government, who persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in a cabinet not under Nazi Party domination. However, Papen and his allies were quickly marginalised by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of the Long Knives, during which some of his confidantes were killed by the Nazis.

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Seedo

Seedo

Seedo was a German composer who worked primarily in England. He was the son of Samuel Peter Sidow, a musician employed by the Elector of Brandenburg. By the mid-1720s, Seedo was working at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. In 1727 he married the singer Maria Manina, who had small parts in London’s Italian operas beginning in 1711 Between 1731 and 1734, Seedo worked on Drury Lane imitations. He wrote several successful stage works of which his ballad opera, The Devil to Pay, was the most successful. When the work initially premiered it was a failure, but when the composer cut the work significantly from a full opera of 42 airs to an afterpiece of 16 airs it became a hit. Apart from The Beggar's Opera, The Devil to Pay was by far the most popular ballad opera of the 18th century. The work was given regular London performances until well into the 19th century and a translation by C.W. von Borcke became popular in Germany as well. Von Borcke's translation was a major influence on the development of singspiel. Seedo died in Potsdam.

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Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen is a one act opera composed by Arnold Schoenberg, to a German libretto by "Max Blonda," the pseudonym of Gertrud Schoenberg, the composer's wife. It is the composer's opus 32. The opera was composed at the end of 1928, and was premiered in Frankfurt on 1 February 1930, with William Steinberg conducting Herbert Graf's production. It was the first twelve-tone opera, and Schoenberg's only comedy. The libretto may indeed be a contemporary comedy of manners, but the music is complex, the angular vocal-lines and large orchestra creating a frightening whirlwind of fury. In fact, the composer described his music in this opera: "The music is ugly, as always in my compositions; it corresponds with my artistic and spiritual disposition." Schoenberg also wrote: "I have proved in my operas Von heute auf morgen and Moses und Aron that every expression and characterization can be produced with the style of free dissonance," in contrast to Alban Berg, who believed that a contrast with tonal elements needed to be introduced for certain reasons, and did so in his opera Wozzeck.

— Freebase

Destructionism

Destructionism

Destructionism is a term used by Ludwig Von Mises, a classical liberal economist, to refer to policies that consume capital but do not accumulate it. It is the title of Part V of his seminal work Socialism. Since accumulation of capital is the basis for economic progress, Von Mises warned that pursuing socialist and etatist policies will eventually lead to the consumption and reliance on old capital, borrowed capital, or printed "capital" as these policies cannot create any new capital, instead only consuming the old.

— Freebase

Odic force

Odic force

The Odic force is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach. Von Reichenbach coined the name from that of the Norse god Odin in 1845.

— Freebase

Schlieffen Plan

Schlieffen Plan

The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff's early-20th-century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The First World War later became such a war, with both a Western and an Eastern Front. The plan took advantage of Russia's slowness and expected differences in the three countries' speed in preparing for war. In short, it was the German plan to avoid a two-front war by concentrating troops in the West and quickly defeating the French and then, if necessary, rushing those troops by rail to the East to face the Russians before they had time to mobilize fully. The Schlieffen Plan was created by Count Alfred von Schlieffen and modified by Helmuth von Moltke the Younger after Schlieffen's retirement; it was Moltke who actually implemented the plan at the outset of World War I. In modified form, it was executed to near victory in the first month of the war. However, the modifications to the original plan, stronger than expected resistance from the Belgians and surprisingly speedy Russian offensives contributed to the plan's eventual failure. The plan ultimately collapsed when a French counterattack on the outskirts of Paris ended the German offensive and resulted in years of trench warfare. The Schlieffen Plan has been the subject of intense debate among historians and military scholars ever since. Schlieffen's last words were "remember to keep the right flank strong," which was significant in that Moltke strengthened the left flank in his modification.

— Freebase

Basic Channel

Basic Channel

Basic Channel is a production team and record label, composed of Moritz Von Oswald and Mark Ernestus, that originated in Berlin, Germany in 1993. The duo originally released a number of vinyl-only tracks under various aliases, each of which employed their signature brand of minimal techno. The original nine releases were each primarily identified as Basic Channel productions by their catalogue numbers, as the Basic Channel logo on the label became more distorted and unreadable with each subsequent release. The duo set up a studio in Berlin on Paul-Lincke-Ufer, in a building which was eventually to house Mark Ernestus’ distributing company and shop Hard Wax, and the label's mastering studio Dubplates & Mastering, set up to ensure a desired dynamic quality for the vinyl. The Basic Channel imprint ceased business in 1995, but were followed by a string of similar labels. Main Street handled Chicago house-inspired releases; Chain Reaction released non-Von Oswald/Ernestus productions and helped launch the careers of dub techno producers such as Monolake and Porter Ricks. Basic Channel has also shown a strong affinity for Jamaican music. The Rhythm & Sound label imprint saw the duo's sound move closer to dub reggae. Frequent Rhythm & Sound collaborator Paul St. Hilaire set up the subsidiary False Tuned in 2003.

— Freebase

Liberism

Liberism

Liberism is a term for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire capitalism first used by the philosopher Benedetto Croce, and popularized in English by the Italian-American political scientist Giovanni Sartori. Sartori imported the term from Italian in order to distinguish between social liberalism, which is generally considered a political ideology often advocating extensive government intervention in the economy, and those liberal theories of economics which propose to virtually eliminate such intervention. In informal usage, liberism overlaps with other concepts such as free trade, neoliberalism, right-libertarianism, the American concept of libertarianism, and the French notion of laissez-faire. In Italy, liberism is often identified with the political theories of Gaetano Mosca, Luigi Einaudi and Bruno Leoni. Internationally, liberism has been advocated by the Austrian School of economic theory, for instance by Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek.

— Freebase

Coutts

Coutts

Coutts & Co. is a private bank and wealth manager. It is one of the world’s oldest banks and is wholly owned by the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. RBS acquired Coutts when it bought NatWest in 2000. Coutts then acquired Zurich-based Bank von Ernst & Cie in 2003 and in 2008, Coutts Bank von Ernst and other Coutts International subsidiaries became RBS Coutts Bank. These traded as RBS Coutts International to align them with the parent RBS Group until 2011, when RBS Coutts was renamed Coutts & Co. Limited. Headquartered in London, Coutts is the wealth division of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, with clients from over 40 offices in financial centres in the UK, Switzerland, the Middle East and Asia.

— Freebase

Spione

Spione

Spione (English title: Spies, under which title it was released in the United States) is a German silent espionage thriller written and directed by Fritz Lang in 1928. Lang's wife, Thea von Harbou, worked as a co-writer. The film was Lang's penultimate silent film, and the first for his own production company; Fritz Lang-film GmbH. As in Lang's Mabuse films, such as Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse, Rudolf Klein-Rogge plays a master criminal aiming for world domination. Spione was restored to its original length by the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung during 2003 and 2004. No original negatives survive, but a high quality nitrate copy is held at the Národni Filmovy Archiv at Prague. Beautiful Russian spy Sonja Baranikowa (Gerda Maurus) seduces Colonel Jellusic (Fritz Rasp) into betraying his country for her employer, Haghi (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a seemingly respectable bank director who is actually the criminal mastermind of a powerful espionage organization. Jason (Craighall Sherry), head of the Secret Service, gives the task of bringing the mysterious Haghi down to a handsome young agent known only as Number 326. 326 believes his identity is a secret, but Haghi is well aware of him. He assigns Sonja to worm her way into 326's confidence. She convinces 326 that she has just shot a man who tried to force himself on her. He hides her from the police. What Haghi does not anticipate is that the couple will fall in love. Unwilling to betray 326, she quietly slips away after they spend the afternoon and evening together. He trails her to Colonel Jellusic, whom he mistakes for her lover (she is actually paying him for his treason). Haghi suspects Sonya's feelings for 326. When she refuses to act against 326, he confines her to a room in his secret headquarters. Meanwhile, Haghi is after a crucial, secret Japanese treaty. He blackmails Lady Leslane (Hertha von Walther), an opium addict, into betraying what her husband knows of the negotiations. Akira Masimoto (Lupu Pick), the Japanese head of security responsible for the treaty's safekeeping, crosses paths with 326. When 326 seeks out Sonya, he finds her apartment stripped bare. Masimoto finds him drowning his sorrows in a bar and informs him that he would have arrested the woman as a spy had she not disappeared. Masimoto gives each of three couriers a sealed packet to deliver to Tokyo; he informs them that a copy of the treaty is inside one of them. Haghi obtains all three packages, but finds only newspapers. However, Haghi has one more card up his sleeve. Masimoto pities Kitty (Liene Dyers), a young woman he finds huddling in a doorway during a rainstorm, and takes her in. When he prepares to leave for Japan with the treaty, she begs him to spend a few hours with her. He gives in, attracted by her beauty. However, when he wakes up later, she is gone, as is the treaty. Disgraced, he commits ritual suicide. 326 tracks Jellusic down, but too late. To tie up loose ends, Haghi has already betrayed the colonel. When confronted by his superiors, Jellusic shoots himself to avoid a scandal. 326 wires the serial numbers of the bank notes used to pay Jellusic, which Jason passes on to agent 719, working undercover as a circus clown, to trace. On the train trip back, 326 is nearly killed in a trap set by Haghi. While he is sleeping, his car is detached and left in a tunnel. He awakens just before another train smashes into it. Sonya, tricked into trying to smuggling the treaty out of the country by Haghi's promise not to harm 326, learns of the crash, races to the site and is reunited with her love. 326 orders Haghi's bank surrounded. Then he sends Sonya away with his trusted chauffeur, Franz (Paul Hörbiger), while he and his men search for Haghi. However, Haghi captures Sonya and Franz, and sends 326 an ultimatum: clear the building within 15 minutes or Sonya will die. After agonizing, 326 continues searching, even after poison gas is released. Fortunately, Franz...

— Freebase

Religious Studies

Religious Studies

Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives. While theology attempts to understand the nature of transcendent or supernatural forces, religious studies tries to study religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and history of religion. Religious studies originated in the nineteenth century, when scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, and Hindu and Buddhist texts were first being translated into European languages. Early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the Netherlands. Today religious studies is practiced by scholars worldwide. In its early years, it was known as Comparative Religion or the Science of Religion and, in the USA, there are those who today also know the field as the History of religion. The field is known as Religionswissenschaft in Germany and Sciences des religions in the French-speaking world.

— Freebase

DDT

DDT

DDT is an organochlorine insecticide which is a colorless, crystalline solid, tasteless and almost odorless chemical compound. Technical DDT has been formulated in almost every conceivable form including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles, and charges for vaporisers and lotions. First synthesized in 1873, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed. In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned for agricultural use in the US in 1972. DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial.

— Freebase

Helminthology

Helminthology

Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ἕλμινς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich Müller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.

— Freebase

Barfly

Barfly

Barfly is a 1987 American film which is a semi-autobiography of poet/author Charles Bukowski during the time he spent drinking heavily in Los Angeles. The screenplay by Bukowski was commissioned by the French film director Barbet Schroeder – it was published, with illustrations by the author, in 1984 when film production was still pending. Barfly stars Mickey Rourke and Faye Dunaway, with direction by Schroeder, and was presented by Francis Ford Coppola. The movie also features a silent cameo appearance by Bukowski himself. The Kino Flo light, now a ubiquitous tool in the film industry, was specially created by Robby Muller's electrical crew for a scene in this film which would have been difficult to light using the conventional lampheads available at the time. The film was entered into the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.

— Freebase

ECM Records

ECM Records

ECM is a record label founded in Munich, Germany, in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. While ECM is best known for jazz music, the label has released a wide variety of recordings, and ECM's artists often refuse to acknowledge boundaries between genres. ECM's motto is the Most Beautiful Sound Next to Silence, taken from a 1971 review of ECM releases in CODA, a Canadian jazz magazine. The label was distributed in the USA by Warner Bros. Records, PolyGram Records, BMG, and, since 1999, by Universal Music, the successor of PolyGram. Its album covers have been profiled in two books thus far, Sleeves of Desire and Windfall Light, both published by Lars Müller.

— Freebase

Cardinal Sin

Cardinal Sin

Cardinal Sin are a death/black metal band formed in 1995 by ex-Dissection member John Zwetsloot. In 1996, they released a 4-track EP called Spiteful Intents, which featured a trademark classical composition by Zwetsloot. Having disbanded after the EP, they reformed in 2003 with a partially new lineup, but have yet to release anything beyond Spiteful Intents. Daniel Ekeroth described their musical style as "typical mid-90’s death/thrash". Metal Hammer journalist Robert Müller wrote that since the group were focussed around the guitarists John Zwetsloot and Devo Andersson there were no doubts about the technical quality, though the EP's sound was "established and all to well-known".

— Freebase

Tragedy

Tragedy

Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it. From its obscure origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2,500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, and Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Freud, Benjamin, Camus, Lacan, and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, and criticised the tragic form.

— Freebase

Orthodox

Orthodox

Orthodox is the fourth album by the Czech death metal band Krabathor. It was released in March 1998. The album was recorded in December 1997 at Exponent Studio in Hlohovec, Slovak Republic, and mastered at TTM Mastering in Berlin, Germany by Tom Müller. The recording line-up consisted of Christopher, Bruno and Skull. Tomáš Kmeť, a studio engineer, played keyboards in the last song About Death. The title track Orthodox was previously released on Mortal Memories album. A videoclip for the second song Liquid was released. Shit Comes Brown is an anti-Nazi song and To Red Ones is an anti-communist song.

— Freebase

Paul Hermann Müller

Paul Hermann Müller

Paul Hermann Müller also known as Pauly Mueller was a Swiss chemist who received the 1948 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of insecticidal qualities and use of DDT in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.

— Freebase

Schreibkraft

Schreibkraft

Schreibkraft is an Austrian literary magazine, which was founded in 1998 by the Literature Council of the Forum Stadtpark in Graz. The magazine prints feature articles. Since 1999 the edition schreibkraft is the publisher. Schreibkraft appears twice a year. Every issue has a specific topic. The essays and feature articles are chosen by the five editors. In addition, the magazine publishes some narrative texts and book reviews; the latter review primarily books from small publishing houses. Published authors stem from Austria, Switzerland and Germany. E.g. the following authors have published in Schreibkraft: Bettina Balàka, Moritz Baßler, Julian Blunk, Helwig Brunner, Thomas E. Brunnsteiner, Martin Büsser], Ann Cotten, Julius Deutschbauer & Gerhard Spring, Hans Durrer, Klaus Ebner, Helmut Eisendle, Bernhard Flieher, Franzobel, Harald A. Friedl, Brigitte Fuchs, Egyd Gstättner, Wolf Haas, Sonja Harter, Klaus_Händl, Christian Ide Hintze, Paulus Hochgatterer, Elfriede Jelinek, Ralf B. Korte, Christian Loidl, Friederike Mayröcker, Gisela Müller, Andreas Okopenko, Andreas R. Peternell, Claus Philipp, Peter Piller, Rosemarie Poiarkov, Wolfgang Pollanz, Birgit Pölzl, Manfred Prisching, Peter Rosei, Werner Schandor, Ferdinand Schmatz, Katja Schmid, Helmuth Schönauer, Franz Schuh, Werner Schwab, Gudrun Sommer, Enno Stahl, Christine Werner, Serjoscha Wiemer, and Christiane Zintzen.

— Freebase

Ionization chamber

Ionization chamber

The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays and beta particles. Conventionally, the term "ionization chamber" is used exclusively to describe those detectors which collect all the charges created by direct ionisation within the gas through the application of an electric field. It only uses the discrete charges created by each interaction between the incident radiation and the gas, and does not involve the gas multiplication mechanisms used by other radiation instruments, such as the Geiger-Muller counter or the proportional counter. Ion chambers have a good uniform response to radiation over a wide range of energies and are the preferred means of measuring high levels of gamma radiation. They are widely used in the nuclear power industry, research labs, radiography and other medical radiation fields, and in environmental monitoring.

— Freebase

Anobiidae

Anobiidae

Anobiidae is a family of beetles. The larvae of a number of species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". A few species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture and house structures, notably the death watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, and the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum. It includes the subgroups: ⁕Anobiinae Kirby, 1837 ⁕Anobium Fabricius, 1775 ⁕Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val, 1860 ⁕Hadrobregmus Thomson, 1859 ⁕Microbregma Seidlitz, 1889 ⁕Oligomerus Redtenbacher, 1849 ⁕Priobium Motschulsky, 1845 ⁕Stegobium Motschulsky, 1860 ⁕Dorcatominae Thomson, 1859 ⁕Anitys Thomson, 1863 ⁕Caenocara Thomson, 1859 ⁕Dorcatoma Herbst, 1792 ⁕Stagetus Wollaston, 1861 ⁕Dryophilinae LeConte, 1861 ⁕Dryophilus Chevrolat, 1832 ⁕Grynobius Thomson, 1859 ⁕Ernobiinae Pic, 1912 ⁕Episernus Thomson, 1863 ⁕Ernobius Thomson, 1859 ⁕Ochina Sturm, 1826 ⁕Xestobium Motschulsky,1845 ⁕Eucradinae Le Conte, 1861 ⁕Hedobia Dejean, 1821 ⁕Ptilininae Shuckard, 1840 ⁕Pseudoptilinus Leiler, 1963 ⁕Ptilinus Müller, 1764 ⁕Ptininae Latreille, 1802 ⁕Eupauloecus Mulsant & Rey, 1868 ⁕Gibbium Scopoli, 1777Mezium Curtis, 1828Niptus Boieldieu, 1856Pseudeurostus Heyden, 1906Ptinus Linnaeus, 1767Sphaericus Wollaston, 1854Trigonogenius Solier, 1849

— Freebase

Psorosperm

Psorosperm

Psorosperm is a name formerly given to a number of parasitic protozoa which produce cystlike or sporelike structures in the tissue of hosts, but now essentially obsolete. ⁕Some which affect vertebrate hosts are now identified as coccidia. ⁕Others, such as the cause of pébrine in silkworms, are now recognized as microsporidians, and some are regarded as myxosporidians. ⁕The genus Psorospermium itself is a parasite of crayfishes, and belongs to an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms which some biologists think may be related to the common ancestors of animals and fungi. The term was introduced in German by J. Müller in 1841. Psorosperm was at one point believed to be the cause of Darier's disease. "Psorospermiasis" is classified under 136.4 in ICD-9.

— Freebase

Field emission microscopy

Field emission microscopy

Field emission microscopy is an analytical technique used in materials science to investigate molecular surface structures and their electronic properties. Invented by Erwin Wilhelm Müller in 1936, the FEM was one of the first surface analysis instruments that approached near-atomic resolution.

— Freebase

Foveola

Foveola

The foveola is located within a region called the macula, a yellowish, cone photo receptor filled portion of the human retina. The foveola is approximately 0.35 mm in diameter and lies in the center of the fovea and contains only cone cells, and a cone-shaped zone of Müller cells. In this region the cone receptors are found to be longer, slimmer and more densely packed than anywhere else in the retina, thus allowing that region to have the potential to have the highest visual acuity in the eye.

— Freebase

Genetic load

Genetic load

In population genetics, genetic load or genetic burden is a measure of the cost of lost alleles due to selection or mutation. It is a value in the range, where 0 represents no load. The concept was first formulated in 1937 by JBS Haldane, independently formulated, named and applied to humans in 1950 by H. J. Muller, and elaborated further by Haldane in 1957.

— Freebase

Liebfraumilch

Liebfraumilch

Liebfraumilch or Liebfraunmilch is a style of semi-sweet white German wine which may be produced, mostly for export, in the regions Rheinhessen, Palatinate, Rheingau and Nahe. The name is a German word literally meaning "Beloved lady's milk". The original German spelling of the word is Liebfrauenmilch, given to the wine produced from the vineyards of the Liebfrauenkirche or Church of Our Lady in the Rhineland-Palatinate city of Worms since the 18th century. The spelling Liebfraumilch is more common on labels of exported wine. The generic label Liebfraumilch is typically used to market vintages from anywhere in the most of the major wine growing areas of Germany, the notable exception being the Mosel. Wine with very similar characteristics but made from higher quality grapes can be labeled as Spätlese or Auslese. In the U.S. and the UK, perhaps the best known example has been Blue Nun, which no longer uses the Liebfraumilch designation. While the term Liebfraumilch is associated with low quality wine, German Wine Law requires it to be at the Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete level - the 3rd rank of 4. It must also be from Rheinhessen, Pfalz, Nahe or Rheingau, the grapes used must be at least 70% Riesling, Silvaner or Müller-Thurgau, and it must have 18-40g/li residual sugar.

— Freebase

Rule The School

Rule The School

CBBC's Rule the School is a modern role-reversal, reality TV show for teenagers. The basis of the show was to take five talented school pupils and 10 school teachers and swap roles. The pupils became the teachers and the teachers became the pupils. The series first aired in 2002, with lessons including text-messaging, break-dancing, computer gaming, customising clothes, popstar skills and 'funky footballing'. The series was nominated for a BAFTA in 2003 when lessons included dance, rap and, slightly more conventionally, physical education. In 2004 the timetable included dance lessons, djing, skateboarding and fashion. The BAFTA nominated show ended in 2005 after four seasons, with lessons including Music, Dance, IT Factor, Taekwondo and Web Design. The Headteacher was Adelaide Lumor who also appeared in the 2007 Muller commercial 'Lid Lickers'. The show was presented by Jake Humphrey.

— Freebase

Hyporchema

Hyporchema

The hyporchema was a lively kind of mimic dance which accompanied the songs used in the worship of Apollo, especially among the Dorians. It was performed by men and women. It is comparable to the geranos, the ritual "crane dance" associated with Theseus. A chorus of singers at the festivals of Apollo usually danced around the altar, while several other persons were appointed to accompany the action of the song with an appropriate mimic performance. Hyporchema was thus a lyric dance, and often passed into the playful and comic, whence Athenaeus compares it with the cordax of comedy. It had, according to the supposition of Müller, like all the music and poetry of the Dorians, originated in Crete, but was at an early period introduced in the island of Delos, where it seems to have continued to be performed down to the time of Lucian. A similar kind of dance was the geranos, which Theseus on his return from Crete was said to have performed in Delos, and which was customary in this island as late as the time of Plutarch. The leader of this dance was called geranoulkos. It was performed with blows, and with various turnings and windings, and was said to be an imitation of the windings of the Cretan labyrinth. When the chorus was at rest, it formed a semicircle, with leaders at the two wings.

— Freebase

Petaurista

Petaurista

Petaurista is a genus of rodent in the Sciuridae family. Squirrels in this family are generally large nocturnal squirrels. It contains the following species, listed alphabetically: ⁕Petaurista alborufus Milne-Edwards, 1870 – Red And White Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista elegans Müller, 1840 – Spotted Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista leucogenys Temminck, 1827 – Japanese Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista magnificus Hodgson, 1836 – Hodgson's Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista nobilis Gray, 1842 – Bhutan Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista petaurista Pallas, 1766 – Red Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista philippensis Elliot, 1839 – Indian Giant Flying Squirrel ⁕Petaurista xanthotis Milne-Edwards, 1872 – Chinese Giant Flying Squirrel

— Freebase

Brainfuck

Brainfuck

The brainfuck programming language is an esoteric programming language noted for its extreme minimalism. It is a Turing tarpit, designed to challenge and amuse programmers, and was not made to be suitable for practical use. It was created in 1993 by Urban Müller. The name of the language is generally not capitalized except at the start of a sentence, although it is a proper noun.

— Freebase

James Van Allen

James Van Allen

James Alfred Van Allen was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. He was instrumental in establishing the field of magnetospheric research in space. The Van Allen radiation belts were named after him, following their discovery by his Geiger–Müller tube instruments on the 1958 satellites: during the International Geophysical Year. Van Allen led the scientific community for the inclusion of scientific research instruments on space satellites.

— Freebase

Hermann Müller

Hermann Müller

Hermann Müller, born in Mannheim, was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Foreign Minister, and twice as Chancellor of Germany under the Weimar Republic. In his capacity as Foreign Minister, he was one of the German signatories of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.

— Freebase

Catch the Sun

Catch the Sun

"Catch the Sun" is the second single from Doves' debut studio album Lost Souls. The single was released on 29 May 2000 in the UK on 2 CDs and 10" vinyl, and charted at #32 on the UK Singles Chart. The psychedelic, kaleidoscopic music video for "Catch the Sun" was directed by Sophie Muller. Jamie Cullum covered "Catch the Sun" on his album Catching Tales. "Down to Sea" is an early demo of "Sea Song." The B-sides for CD2 are songs from Doves' previous incarnation as Sub Sub. The versions of "Crunch" and "Lost In Watts" differ slightly from those found on Sub Sub's album Delta Tapes. "Crunch" is an edit, and "Lost in Watts" is an alternate mix omitting some background vocals. The B-side "Valley" features the piano riff from The Beach Boys' Smile-era songs "Do You Like Worms" and "Heroes And Villains". The song was also featured in the soundtrack of the videogame Project Gotham Racing.

— Freebase

Affentheater

Affentheater

Affentheater is a musical album by Marius Müller-Westernhagen.

— Freebase

Nahaufnahme

Nahaufnahme

Nahaufnahme is a 2005 studio album by Marius Müller-Westernhagen.

— Freebase

C-Block

C-Block

C-Block were a German platinum-selling hip-hop group, founded in 1995 by music producers Frank Müller, Ulrich Buchmann and Jörg Wagner. The group is fronted by Anthony "Red Dogg" Joseph and James "Mr.P" White. C-Block were a well-known hip hop act in Europe in the 1990s, who along with Down Low and Nana, signified the rise of the American-influenced rap music in Europe.

— Freebase

Tonny

Tonny

Tonny is a 1962 Norwegian drama film directed by Nils R. Müller and Per Gjersøe. It was entered into the 12th Berlin International Film Festival.

— Freebase

Hans Christian Korting

Hans Christian Korting

Hans Christian Korting was a German dermatologist and medical researcher specializing in causes and treatment of infectious and non-infectious inflammatory skin diseases as well as non-melanoma skin cancer". Korting graduated with an M.D. from the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in 1977, and subsequently was trained in medical microbiology at central medical services units of the German Army until 1979. Thereupon he was trained as a dermatologist at the Department of Dermatology and Allergology of Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. In 1985 he obtained his post-doctoral degree. He has been working there ever since, currently as a professor and Executive Academic Director. The focus of his scientific activities is on the characterization of the development of localized fungal infections of the skin and related mucosal surfaces. He concentrates on secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans as virulence factors and toll-like receptors as relevant mediators of the inflammatory host response. It is his prime concern to develop active pharmaceutical ingredients for the treatment and prevention of fungal infections reflecting the increased understanding of pathogenesis. In particular, it is intended to address virulence factors rather than structure and function of the pathogen cell wall according to the motto "targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antifungals". Moreover, he is interested in the development of new biological drugs such as plasmin as well as small molecules which are capable of influencing inflammation in the context of signal transduction such as sphingosine-1-phosphate. In addition, there now is a focus on small molecules modulating the function of human polymerase alpha which at a time modulates proliferation of keratinocytes and various viruses including human papilloma viruses, which is most relevant in the context of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment.

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Illuminate

Illuminate

Illuminate is a successful German Gothic music band from Karlsruhe formed in 1993 by Johannes Berthold.

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Alban Berg

Alban Berg

Alban Maria Johannes Berg was an Austrian composer. He was a member of the Second Viennese School with Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern, and produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with a personal adaptation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique.

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Eleven

Eleven

Eleven was a hard rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1990 by Alain Johannes, Natasha Shneider, and Jack Irons.

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Charles Proteus Steinmetz

Charles Proteus Steinmetz

Charles Proteus Steinmetz was a mathematician and electrical engineer. He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers. He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to design better electromagnetic apparatus equipment including especially electric motors for use in industry. Steinmetz was born as Carl August Rudolph Steinmetz into a Jewish family in Breslau, Province of Silesia. Steinmetz suffered from dwarfism, hunchback, and hip dysplasia, as did his father and grandfather. Steinmetz attended Johannes Gymnasium and astonished his teachers with his proficiency in mathematics and physics.

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Printing

Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. The earliest form of printing was woodblock printing, with existing examples from China dating to before 220 A.D. and Egypt to the fourth century. Later developments in printing include the movable type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China, and the printing press, a more efficient printing process for western languages with their more limited alphabets, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the fifteenth century.

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Autogenic training

Autogenic training

Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz and first published in 1932. The technique involves the daily practice of sessions that last around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening. During each session, the practitioner will repeat a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation. Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures. The technique can be used to alleviate many stress-induced psychosomatic disorders. Schultz emphasized parallels to techniques in yoga and meditation. It is a method for influencing one's autonomic nervous system. Abbe Faria and Emile Coue are the forerunners of Schultz. There are many parallels to progressive relaxation. In 1963 Luthe discovered the significance of "autogenic discharges", paroxysmic phenomena of motor, sensorial, visual and emotional nature related to the traumatic history of the patient, and developed the method of "Autogenic Abreaction". His disciple Luis de Rivera, a McGill trained psychiatrist, introduced psychodynamic concepts into Luthe's approach, developing "Autogenic Analysis" as a new method for uncovering the unconscious.

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Disa

Disa

Disa is the heroine of a Swedish legendary saga, which was documented by Olaus Magnus, in 1555. It is believed to be from the Middle Ages, but includes Old Norse themes. It was elaborated by Johannes Messenius in his drama Disa, which was the first historic play in the Swedish language, and was played at the Disting of 1611. It was also presented in an exaggerated version by Olaus Rudbeck in his Atlantica

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Rydberg

Rydberg

Rydberg is a lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon, just past the southwest limb. It lies due south of the Mare Orientale, in the outer skirt of ejecta that surrounds the Orientale impact feature. Just to the southeast is the crater Guthnick. This is a little-eroded crater formation with a relatively sharp edge. The inner walls do not have much terracing, although slumped piles of talus lie along the base. At the midpoint of the interior is a central ridge, with a low spur that runs halfway toward the southern inner wall. This feature was named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg.

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Printer

Printer

In publishing, printers are both companies providing printing services and individuals who directly operate printing presses. The profession of printer became established after the invention of the moveable type printing press by Johannes Gutenberg around 1450, and proliferated throughout Europe. Such early printers often were recognizable by individual characteristics in the works they produced, such as type or typography, and since early printed books were made in relatively small quantities they are rare and collectible. Today's printers include: ⁕Newspaper printers, often owned by newspaper publishers ⁕Magazine printers, usually independent of magazine publishers ⁕Book printers, often not directly connected with book publishers ⁕Stationery printers ⁕Packaging printers ⁕Commercial printers, often offering digital and traditional printing services ⁕Trade printers, who offer wholesale rates within the printing industry An artist who operates a printing press to execute their own works, especially by hand in limited runs, is usually distinguished from other printers by the term printmaker.

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Lorenzenite

Lorenzenite

Lorenzenite is a rare sodium titanium silicate mineral with the formula Na2Ti2Si2O9 It is an orthorhombic mineral, variously found as colorless, grey, pinkish, or brown crystals. It was first identified in 1897 in rock samples from Narsarsuk, Greenland. In 1947 it was discovered to be the same as the mineral ramsayite, discovered in the 1920s in the Kola peninsula of Russia. It is also found in northern Canada. It occurs in nepheline syenites and pegmatites in association with aegirine, nepheline, microcline, arfvedsonite, elpidite, loparite, eudialyte, astrophyllite, mangan-neptunite, lavenite, rinkite, apatite, titanite and ilmenite. It was named in honour of Danish mineralogist Johannes Theodor Lorenzen.

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Paul Tillich

Paul Tillich

Paul Johannes Tillich was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and theologian. Tillich is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the 20th century. Among the general public, he is best known for his works The Courage to Be and Dynamics of Faith, which introduced issues of theology and modern culture to a general readership. Theologically, he is best known for his major three-volume work Systematic Theology, in which he developed his "method of correlation", an approach of exploring the symbols of Christian revelation as answers to the problems of human existence raised by contemporary existential philosophical analysis.

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Catholicon

Catholicon

The Summa grammaticalis quae vocatur Catholicon, or Catholicon, is a 13th century Latin dictionary which found wide use throughout Christendom. Some of the entries contain encyclopedic information, and a Latin grammar is also included. The work was created by John Balbi, of Genoa, a Dominican, who finished it on March 7, 1286. The work served in the late Middle Ages to interpret the Bible "correctly". The educated citizen could gather from it the substantial knowledge of his time. From 1286 to the late 15th century it was available mainly in manuscripts held by monastic libraries. The Catholicon was one of the first books to be printed, using the new printing technology of Johannes Gutenberg in 1460. It should be distinguished from Lagadeuc's Catholicon, a Latin-Breton-French dictionary compiled in 1464 by a priest of Tréguier called Jehan Lagadeuc which was published 5 November 1499.

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Hexalogy

Hexalogy

A hexalogy is a compound literary or narrative work that is made up of six distinct works. The word apparently first appeared in English as a borrowing from German, in discussions of August Bungert's Wagnerian opera cycle entitled Homerische Welt based on the Iliad and the Odyssey. Both pentalogie and hexalogie were used by Théophile Gautier in 1859. In 1923 the word was applied by an American reviewer to Johannes V. Jensen's The Long Journey.

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Bandog

Bandog

The term Bandog originated around 1250-1300 in Middle England, referring to a mastiff type dog that was bound by a chain during the daytime and was released at night to guard against intruders. In 1570 Johannes Caius published a book in Latin which in 1576 was translated into English by Abraham Fleming under the name Of Englishe Dogges, in which he described Bandog as a vast, stubborn, eager dog of heavy body.

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Steganography

Steganography

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. The word steganography is of Greek origin and means "concealed writing" from the Greek words steganos meaning "covered or protected", and graphei meaning "writing". The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography disguised as a book on magic. Generally, messages will appear to be something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other covertext and, classically, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that messages do not attract attention to themselves. Plainly visible encrypted messages—no matter how unbreakable—will arouse suspicion, and may in themselves be incriminating in countries where encryption is illegal. Therefore, whereas cryptography protects the contents of a message, steganography can be said to protect both messages and communicating parties.

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Astrology

Astrology

Astrology consists of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes that claim to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their life based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other planetary objects at the time of their birth. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, and Mayans developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Among Indo-European peoples, astrology has been dated to the 3rd millennium BCE, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia. Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty. Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, creating Horoscopic astrology. Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with 'Chaldean wisdom'. After the collapse of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, and Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe and translated into Latin, helping to initiate the European Renaissance, when major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of poets such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer, and of playwrights such as Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare.

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Sextans

Sextans

Sextans is a minor equatorial constellation which was introduced in 1687 by Johannes Hevelius. Its name is Latin for the astronomical sextant, an instrument that Hevelius made frequent use of in his observations.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel

Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel, popularly known as The Desert Fox, was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He earned the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought. Rommel was a highly decorated officer in World War I and was awarded the Pour le Mérite for his exploits on the Italian front. In World War II, he further distinguished himself as the commander of the 7th Panzer Division during the 1940 invasion of France. His leadership of German and Italian forces in the North African campaign established him as one of the most able commanders of the war, and earned him the appellation of the Desert Fox. He is regarded as one of the most skilled commanders of desert warfare in the conflict. He later commanded the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion in Normandy. His assignments never took him to the Eastern Front. Rommel is regarded as having been a humane and professional officer. His Afrika Korps was never accused of war crimes, and soldiers captured during his Africa campaign were reported to have been treated humanely. Orders to kill Jewish soldiers, civilians and captured commandos were ignored. Late in the war, Rommel was linked to the conspiracy to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Because Rommel was a national hero, Hitler desired to eliminate him quietly. He forced Rommel to commit suicide with a cyanide pill, in return for assurances that Rommel's family would not be persecuted following his death. He was given a state funeral, and his cause of death announced as old battle wounds.

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Infinitesimal

Infinitesimal

Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. The insight with exploiting infinitesimals was that objects could still retain certain specific properties, such as angle or slope, even though these objects were quantitatively small. The word infinitesimal comes from a 17th-century Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infinite-th" item in a series. It was originally introduced around 1670 by either Nicolaus Mercator or Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object which is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size; or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective, "infinitesimal" in the vernacular means "extremely small". In order to give it a meaning it usually has to be compared to another infinitesimal object in the same context. Infinitely many infinitesimals are summed to produce an integral. Archimedes used what eventually came to be known as the Method of indivisibles in his work The Method of Mechanical Theorems to find areas of regions and volumes of solids. In his formal published treatises, Archimedes solved the same problem using the Method of Exhaustion. The 15th century saw the work of Nicholas of Cusa, further developed in the 17th century by Johannes Kepler, in particular calculation of area of a circle by representing the latter as an infinite-sided polygon. Simon Stevin's work on decimal representation of all numbers in the 16th century prepared the ground for the real continuum. Bonaventura Cavalieri's method of indivisibles led to an extension of the results of the classical authors. The method of indivisibles related to geometrical figures as being composed of entities of codimension 1. John Wallis's infinitesimals differed from indivisibles in that he would decompose geometrical figures into infinitely thin building blocks of the same dimension as the figure, preparing the ground for general methods of the integral calculus. He exploited an infinitesimal denoted in area calculations.

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Ulfilas

Ulfilas

Ulfilas, or Gothic Wulfila: little wolf, bishop, missionary, and Bible translator, was a Goth or half-Goth and half-Greek from Cappadocia who had spent time inside the Roman Empire at the peak of the Arian controversy. Ulfilas was ordained a bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary. In 348, to escape religious persecution by a Gothic chief, probably Athanaric he obtained permission from Constantius II to migrate with his flock of converts to Moesia and settle near Nicopolis ad Istrum in modern northern Bulgaria. There, Ulfilas translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language. For this he devised the Gothic alphabet. Fragments of his translation have survived, notably the Codex Argenteus held since 1648 in the University Library of Uppsala in Sweden. A parchment page of this Bible was found in 1971 in the Speyer Cathedral. According to Karl Lund, Ulfilas created the Gothic alphabet based on the Getae's alphabet, with minor alterations. Karl Lund is quoting Bonaventura Vulcanius' book, De literis et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum, and Johannes Magnus, Gothus, Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, Roma, 1554, a book in which it has been published, for the first time, both the Getic alphabet, and the laws of the Getae legislator Zamolxis.

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Dioptre

Dioptre

A dioptre, or diopter, is a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres. It is thus a unit of reciprocal length. For example, a 3-dioptre lens brings parallel rays of light to focus at ¹⁄3 metre. The same unit is also sometimes used for other reciprocals of distance, particularly radii of curvature and the vergence of optical beams. The usage was proposed by French ophthalmologist Ferdinand Monoyer in 1872, based on earlier use of the term dioptrice by Johannes Kepler. The main benefit of using optical power rather than focal length is that the lens-maker's equation has the object distance, image distance, and focal length all as reciprocals. A further benefit is that when relatively thin lenses are placed close together their powers approximately add. Thus, a thin 2-dioptre lens placed close to a thin 0.5-dioptre lens yields almost the same focal length as a 2.5-dioptre lens would have. Though the dioptre is based on the SI-metric system it has not been included in the standard so that there is no international name or abbreviation for this unit of measurement—within the international system of units this unit for optical power would need to be specified explicitly as the inverse metre. However most languages have borrowed the original name and some national standardization bodies like DIN specify a unit name and derived unit symbol "dpt".

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Waldmeister

Waldmeister

Waldmeister is an operetta written by Johann Strauss II. It was first performed on 4 December 1895 at the Theater an der Wien. Although not as popular as some of Strauss' other operettas, such as Der Zigeunerbaron and Die Fledermaus, it was given eighty-eight performances, and was much admired by Johannes Brahms, a friend of the composer.

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Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period. It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.

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Rydberg constant

Rydberg constant

The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ or RH, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy. The constant first arose as an empirical fitting parameter in the Rydberg formula for the hydrogen spectral series, but Niels Bohr later showed that its value could be calculated from more fundamental constants, explaining the relationship via his "Bohr model". As of 2012, R∞ is the most accurately measured fundamental physical constant. The Rydberg constant represents the limiting value of the highest wavenumber of any photon that can be emitted from the hydrogen atom, or, alternatively, the wavenumber of the lowest-energy photon capable of ionizing the hydrogen atom from its ground state. The spectrum of hydrogen can be expressed simply in terms of the Rydberg constant, using the Rydberg formula. The Rydberg unit of energy, symbol Ry, is closely related to the Rydberg constant. It corresponds to the energy of the photon whose wavenumber is the Rydberg constant, i.e. the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom.

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Karl Baedeker

Karl Baedeker

Karl Ludwig Johannes Baedeker, known universally as Karl Baedeker, was a German publisher whose company Baedeker set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. Karl Baedeker was descended from a long line of printers, booksellers and publishers. He was the eldest of ten children of Gottschalk Diederich Bädeker, who had inherited the publishing house founded by his own father, Zacharias Gerhard Bädeker. The company also published the local newspaper, the Essendische Zeitung, and the family expected that Karl, too, would eventually join the firm. Karl changed the spelling of the family name from Bädeker with the umlaut to Baedeker around 1850.

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Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed with movable type in the West. It marked the start of the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of the printed book in the West. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has an iconic status. Written in Latin, the Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany, in the 1450s. Forty-eight copies, or substantial portions of copies, survive, and they are considered by many sources to be the most valuable books in the world, even though a complete copy has not been sold since 1978. The 36-line Bible, believed to be the second printed version of the Bible, is also sometimes referred to as a Gutenberg Bible, but is likely the work of another printer.

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A major

A major

A major is a major scale based on A, with the pitches A, B, C♯, D, E, F♯, and G♯. Its key signature has three sharps. Its relative minor is F-sharp minor and its parallel minor is A minor. The key of A major is the only key where a Neapolitan sixth chord on requires both a flat and a natural accidental. In the treble, alto, and bass clefs, the G♯ in the key signature is placed higher than C♯. However, in the tenor clef, it would require a ledger line and so G♯ is placed lower than C♯. Although not as rare in the symphonic literature as sharper keys, examples of symphonies in A major are not as numerous as for D major or G major. Beethoven's Symphony No. 7, Bruckner's Symphony No. 6 and Mendelssohn's Symphony No. 4 comprise a nearly complete list of symphonies in this key in the Romantic era. Mozart's Clarinet Concerto and Clarinet Quintet are both in A major, and generally Mozart was more likely to use clarinets in A major than in any other key besides E-flat major. A major occurs frequently in chamber music. Franz Schubert's Piano Quintet known as the Trout Quintet and Antonín Dvořák's Piano Quintet No. 2 are both in A major. Johannes Brahms, César Franck, and Gabriel Fauré wrote violin sonatas in A major. In connection to Beethoven's Kreutzer Sonata, Peter Cropper said that A major "is the fullest sounding key for the violin."

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always composing abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons. Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and maturity of style that encompassed the light and graceful along with the dark and passionate. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence on subsequent Western art music is profound; Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years."

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Endotoxin

Endotoxin

The term endotoxin was coined by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxin, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the environment, and endotoxin, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and to be released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. Today, the term 'endotoxin' is used synonymously with the term lipopolysaccharide., which is a major constituent of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Larger amounts of endotoxins can be mobilized if Gram-negative bacteria are killed or destroyed by detergents. The term "endotoxin" came from the discovery that portions of Gram-negative bacteria themselves can cause toxicity. Studies of endotoxin over the next 50 years revealed that the effects of "endotoxin" are, in fact, due to lipopolysaccharide. The key effects of endotoxins on vertebrates are mediated by their interaction with specific receptors on immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and others. Upon challenge with endotoxin, these cells form a broad spectrum of immune mediators such as cytokines, nitric oxide, and eicosanoids.

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Veduta

Veduta

A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Brill painted vedute as early as the 16th century. In the 17th century Dutch painters made a specialty of detailed and accurate recognizable city and landscapes that appealed to the sense of local pride of the wealthy Dutch middle class. An archetypal example is Johannes Vermeer's View of Delft. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. By the mid-18th century, Venice became renowned as the centre of the vedutisti. The genre's greatest practitioners belonged to the Canal and Guardi families of Venice. Some of them went to work as painters in major capitals of Europe, e.g., Canaletto in London and his nephew Bernardo Bellotto in Dresden and Warsaw. In other parts of 18th-century Italy, idiosyncratic varieties of the genre evolved. Giovanni Paolo Pannini was the first veduta artist to concentrate on painting ruins. Vanvitelli and others painted veduta esatta. Later, Pannini's veduta morphed into the scenes partly or completely imaginary, known as capricci and vedute ideate or veduta di fantasia. Giambattista Piranesi was the foremost master of vedute ideate etchings. His topographical series, Vedute di Roma, went through many printings.

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Galilean moons

Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in January 1610. They are the largest of the many moons of Jupiter and derive their names from the lovers of Zeus: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are among the most massive objects in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets, with radii larger than any of the dwarf planets. The three inner moons – Ganymede, Europa, and Io – participate in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance. The four moons were discovered sometime between 1609 and 1610 when Galileo made improvements to his telescope, which enabled him to observe celestial bodies more distinctly than had ever been possible before. Galileo's discovery showed the importance of the telescope as a tool for astronomers by proving that there were objects in space that cannot be seen by the naked eye. More importantly, the incontrovertible discovery of celestial bodies orbiting something other than the Earth dealt a serious blow to the then-accepted Ptolemaic world system, or the geocentric theory in which everything orbits around the Earth. Galileo initially named his discovery the Cosmica Sidera, but names that eventually prevailed were chosen by Simon Marius. Marius discovered the moons independently at the same time as Galileo, and gave them their present names, which were suggested by Johannes Kepler, in his Mundus Jovialis, published in 1614.

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Trecento

Trecento

The Trecento refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history. Commonly the Trecento is considered to be the beginning of the Renaissance in art history. Painters of the Trecento included Giotto di Bondone, as well as painters of the Sienese School, which became the most important in Italy during the century, including Duccio, Simone Martini, Lippo Memmi, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and his brother Pietro. Important sculptors included two pupils of Giovanni Pisano: Arnolfo di Cambio and Tino di Camaino, and Bonino da Campione. The Trecento was also famous as a time of heightened literary activity, with writers working in the vernacular instead of Latin. Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were the leading writers of the age. Dante produced his famous La divina commedia, a summation of the medieval worldview, and Petrarch wrote verse in a lyrical style influenced by the Provençal poetry of the troubadours. In music, the Trecento was a time of vigorous activity in Italy, as it was in France, with which there was a frequent interchange of musicians and influences. Distinguishing the period from the preceding century was an emphasis on secular song, especially love lyrics; much of the surviving music is polyphonic, but the influence of the troubadours who came to Italy, fleeing the Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century, is evident. In contrast to the artistic and literary achievements of the century, Trecento music flourished in the second half of the century, and the period is often extended into the first decades of the fifteenth century, as a so-called "Long Trecento." Musicians and composers of the Trecento included the renowned Francesco Landini, as well as Maestro Piero, Gherardello da Firenze, Jacopo da Bologna, Giovanni da Cascia, Paolo "Tenorista" da Firenze, Niccolò da Perugia, Bartolino da Padova, Antonio Zachara da Teramo, Matteo da Perugia, and Johannes Ciconia.

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Ballata

Ballata

The ballata is an Italian poetic and musical form in use from the late 13th to the 15th century. It has the musical structure AbbaA, with the first and last stanzas having the same texts. It is thus most similar to the French musical 'forme fixe' virelai. The first and last "A" is called a ripresa, the "b" lines are piedi, while the fourth line is called a "volta". Longer ballate may be found in the form AbbaAbbaA, etc. Unlike the virelai, the two "b" lines usually have exactly the same music and only in later ballate pick up the first and second endings. The term comes from the verb ballare, to dance, and the form certainly began as dance music. The ballata was one of the most prominent secular musical forms during the trecento, the period often known as the Italian ars nova. Ballate are sung at the end of each day of Boccaccio's Decameron. Early ballate, such as those found in the Rossi Codex are monophonic. Later, ballate are found for two or three voices. The most notable composer of ballate is Francesco Landini, who composed in the second half of the 14th century. Other composers of ballata include Andrea da Firenze, a contemporary of Francesco Landini, as well as Bartolino da Padova, Johannes Ciconia, Prepositus Brixiensis and Zacara da Teramo. In the 15th century both Arnold de Lantins and Guillaume Dufay wrote ballate; they were among the last to do so.

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Missiology

Missiology

Missiology is the area of practical theology that investigates the mandate, message, and mission of the Christian church, especially the nature of missionary work. Missiology is a multi-disciplinary and cross-cultural field of study incorporating theology, anthropology, history, geography, theories and methods of communication, comparative religion, Christian apologetics, methodology, and interdenominational relations. "Inherent in the discipline is the study of the nature of God, the created world, and the Church, as well as the interaction among these three." Johannes Verkuyl states, “Missiology’s task in every age is to investigate scientifically and critically the presuppositions, motives, structures, methods, patterns of cooperation and leadership which the churches bring to their mandate” While in the past many Western countries that were predominately Christian often attempted to use their political and economic power in missions and evangelism, some missiologists are now disavowing these methods and attempting to construct a new paradigm that does not employ such imperialistic approaches which lead to language and cultural imposition. One goal of missiology is to distinguish between practices that are essential to Christianity which must be practiced by Christians in all cultures, and other strictly cultural expressions of Christianity that can vary between societies while still expressing the Christian faith.

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Printing press

Printing press

A printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium such as paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of moveable type, thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as among the most influential events in the second millennium revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity. The world's first movable type printing technology was invented and developed in China by the Han Chinese printer Bi Sheng between the years 1041 and 1048. In the West, the invention of an improved movable type mechanical printing technology in Europe is credited to the German printer Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. The exact date of Gutenberg's press is debated based on existing screw presses. Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a printing system by both adapting existing technologies and making inventions of his own. His newly devised hand mould made possible the rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. The printing press displaced earlier methods of printing and led to the first assembly line-style mass production of books. A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to about 2,000 by typographic block-printing and a few by hand-copying. Books of bestselling authors like Luther or Erasmus were sold by the hundreds of thousands in their lifetime.

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Cattierite

Cattierite

Cattierite is a cobalt sulfide mineral found in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It was discovered together with the nickel sulfide vaesite by Johannes F. Vaes, a Belgian mineralologist and named after Felicien Cattier, Chairman of the Board, Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. The mineral belongs to the pyrite group, in which all minerals share the same building principle. The metal in the oxidation state +2 forms a sodium chloride structure together with the anion S22-. This formalism recognizes that the sulfur atoms in pyrite occur in pairs with clear S-S bonds. It occurs with pyrite, chalcopyrite and members of the linnaeite – polydymite group in ore deposits in carbonate rocks. In addition to the type locality in the Katanga district it is reported from Gansberg, Black Forest, Germany; near Filipstad, Varmland, Sweden; Bald Knob, near Sparta, Alleghany County, North Carolina and in the Fletcher mine of Reynolds County, Missouri.

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Geographer

Geographer

A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or the human society, but they also study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to the human society and how the human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study the human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are often employed by local, state, and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms. There is a well-known painting by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer, which is often linked to Vermeer's The Astronomer. These paintings are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting, 1668–69.

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Lacerta

Lacerta

Lacerta is one of the 88 modern constellations defined by the International Astronomical Union. Its name is Latin for lizard. A small, faint constellation, it was created in 1687 by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius. Its brightest stars form a "W" shape similar to that of Cassiopeia, and it is thus sometimes referred to as 'Little Cassiopeia'. It is located between Cygnus, Cassiopeia and Andromeda on the northern celestial sphere. The northern part lies on the Milky Way.

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Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer known for his symphonies, masses, and motets. The first are considered emblematic of the final stage of Austro-German Romanticism because of their rich harmonic language, strongly polyphonic character, and considerable length. Bruckner's compositions helped to define contemporary musical radicalism, owing to their dissonances, unprepared modulations, and roving harmonies. Unlike other musical radicals, such as Richard Wagner or Hugo Wolf who fit the enfant terrible mould, Bruckner showed extreme humility before other musicians, Wagner in particular. This apparent dichotomy between Bruckner the man and Bruckner the composer hampers efforts to describe his life in a way that gives a straightforward context for his music. His works, the symphonies in particular, had detractors, most notably the influential Austrian critic Eduard Hanslick, and other supporters of Johannes Brahms, who pointed to their large size, use of repetition, and Bruckner's propensity to revise many of his works, often with the assistance of colleagues, and his apparent indecision about which versions he preferred. On the other hand, Bruckner was greatly admired by subsequent composers, including his friend Gustav Mahler, who described him as "half simpleton, half God".

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Festgesang

Festgesang

The Festgesang, also known as Festgesang zur Eröffnung der am ersten Tage der vierten Säkularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, was composed by Felix Mendelssohn in the first half of 1840 for performance in Leipzig at the celebrations to mark the putative quatercentenary of the invention of printing with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg. It was first performed in the market-square at Leipzig on 24 June 1840. The piece is scored for male chorus with two brass orchestras and timpani, and consists of four parts, the first and last based on established Lutheran chorales. Part 2, beginning "Vaterland, in deinen Gauen", was later adapted to the words of Wesley's Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing". The original German words for the Festgesang were by Adolf Eduard Proelss. The use of a large choir and two orchestras was designed to make use of the natural acoustics of the market-place to produce an impressive, resonant sound. Mendelssohn wrote at least two other "Festgesänge", with which the present work are sometimes confused, known as "Festgesang an die Künstler" and "Festgesang".

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Vaesite

Vaesite

Vaesite is a mineral found together with cattierite in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is named after Johannes F. Vaes, a Belgian mineralologist.

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Obscurantism

Obscurantism

Obscurantism is the practice of deliberately preventing the facts or the full details of some matter from becoming known. There are two common historical and intellectual denotations to Obscurantism: deliberately restricting knowledge—opposition to the spread of knowledge, a policy of withholding knowledge from the public; and, deliberate obscurity—an abstruse style characterized by deliberate vagueness. The term obscurantism derives from the title of the 16th-century satire Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum, based upon the intellectual dispute between the German humanist Johann Reuchlin and Dominican monks, such as Johannes Pfefferkorn, about whether or not all Jewish books should be burned as un–Christian. Earlier, in 1509, the monk Pfefferkorn had obtained permission from Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor, to incinerate all copies of the Talmud known to be in the Holy Roman Empire; the Letters of Obscure Men satirized the Dominican monks' arguments at burning "un–Christian" works. In the 18th century, Enlightenment philosophers used the term "obscurantism" to denote the enemies of the Enlightenment, and its concept of the liberal diffusion of knowledge. Moreover, in the 19th century, in distinguishing the varieties of obscurantism found in metaphysics and theology from the "more subtle" obscurantism of the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and of modern philosophical skepticism, Friedrich Nietzsche said: "The essential element in the black art of obscurantism is not that it wants to darken individual understanding, but that it wants to blacken our picture of the world, and darken our idea of existence."

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Johannes Vilhelm Jensen

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was a Danish author, often considered the first great Danish writer of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1944. One of his sisters, Thit Jensen, was also a well-known writer and a very vocal, and occasionally controversial, early feminist.

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Van der Waals force

Van der Waals force

In physical chemistry, the van der Waals force, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules other than those due to covalent bonds, the hydrogen bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules or charged molecules. The term includes: ⁕force between two permanent dipoles ⁕force between a permanent dipole and a corresponding induced dipole ⁕force between two instantaneously induced dipoles. It is also sometimes used loosely as a synonym for the totality of intermolecular forces. Van der Waals forces are relatively weak compared to covalent bonds, but play a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. Van der Waals forces define many properties of organic compounds, including their solubility in polar and non-polar media. In low molecular weight alcohols, the hydrogen-bonding properties of the polar hydroxyl group dominate the weaker van der Waals interactions. In higher molecular weight alcohols, the properties of the nonpolar hydrocarbon chain dominate and define the solubility. Van der Waals forces quickly vanish at longer distances between interacting molecules.

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Kemi Sami language

Kemi Sami language

Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. A complex of local variants which had a distinct identity from other Sami dialects, but existed in a linguistic continuum between Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. Extinct now for over 100 years, few written examples of Kemi Sami survive. Johannes Schefferus's Lapponia from 1673 contains two yoik poems by the Kemi Sami Olof Sirma, "Guldnasas" and "Moarsi favrrot". A short vocabulary was written by the Finnish priest Jacob Fellman in 1829 after he visited the villages of Salla and Sompio. Also, the following translation of the Lord's Prayer survives: Lord's Prayer, village of Sompio This is Sirma's first poem Guldnasas; a Sami love story which he sang to spur on his reindeer so that they will run faster: This is Sirma's second poem Moarsi favrrot; the one he sang when he was far away from his love to prize her beauty.

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Seleucia

Seleucia

Seleucia – also transliterated as Seleukeia or Seleukheia – was an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast of Pamphylia, in Anatolia, approximately 15 km northeast of Side; the site is currently about 1k north of the village of Bucakşeyhler, approximately 12 km northeast of Manavgat, Antalya Province, Turkey. It is situated on a hilltop with steep escarpments on several sides making a strong defensive position. The track from the village has recently been clearfelled but the main site is still within a mature pine forest. The German researcher Johannes Nollé has suggested, however, that the remains at this location are not those of Seleucia but rather those of Lyrba. There are remains of an agora containing a row of two-storey and three-storey building facades, a gate, a mausoleum, a Roman bath, a necropolis, in addition to several temples and churches.Because of its remote location,the site has not been plundered for building materials and the area is littered with columns and other items like large grindstones for flour making. During the late Byzantine era, that is starting in the 8th or 9th century, Seleucia was the headquarters of one of the Themes in Asia Minor.

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Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Leopold Dvořák was a Czech composer. Following the nationalist example of Bedřich Smetana, Dvořák frequently employed features of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia. Dvořák's own style has been described as 'the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them'. Born in Nelahozeves, Dvořák displayed his musical gifts at an early age. After graduating from an organ school in Prague, he began writing his first composition at the age of 20. In the 1860s, he played as a violist in the Bohemian Provisional Theater Orchestra and taught piano lessons. In 1873, he married Anna Čermáková, and left the orchestra to pursue another career as a church organist. He wrote several compositions during this period. Dvořák's music attracted the interest of Johannes Brahms, who assisted his career; he was also supported by the critic Eduard Hanslick. After the premiere of his cantata Stabat Mater, Dvořák visited the United Kingdom and became popular there; his Seventh Symphony was written for London. After a brief conducting stint in Russia in 1890, Dvořák was appointed as a professor at the Prague Conservatory in 1891. In 1892, Dvořák moved to the United States and became the director of the National Conservatory of Music of America in New York City, where he also composed. However, a salary dispute, along with increasing recognition in Europe and an onset of homesickness made him decide to return to Bohemia. From 1895 until his death, he composed mainly operatic and chamber music. At his death, he left several unfinished works.

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Polygenesis

Polygenesis

In the field of linguistics, polygenesis is the view that human languages evolved as several lineages independent of one another. It is contrasted with monogenesis, which is the view that human languages all go back to a single common ancestor. Polygenesis is not to be confused with the wave theory, originally propounded by Johannes Schmidt.

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Joseph Joachim

Joseph Joachim

Joseph Joachim was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. A close collaborator of Johannes Brahms, he is widely regarded as one of the most significant violinists of the 19th century.

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Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Johannes Diderik van der Waals was a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids. His name is primarily associated with the van der Waals equation of state that describes the behavior of gases and their condensation to the liquid phase. His name is also associated with van der Waals forces, with van der Waals molecules, and with van der Waals radii. He became the first physics professor of the University of Amsterdam when it opened in 1877 and won the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics.

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Browallia

Browallia

Browallia is a genus of Solanaceae family. It is named after Johannes Browallius, also known as Johan Browall, a Swedish botanist, physician and bishop.

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Ziz

Ziz

The Ziz is a giant griffin-like bird in Jewish mythology, said to be large enough to be able to block out the sun with its wingspan. It is considered a giant animal/monster corresponding to archetypal creatures. Rabbis have said that the Ziz is comparable to the Persian Simurgh, while modern scholars compare the Ziz to the Sumerian Anzu and the Ancient Greek phoenix. Behemoth, Leviathan and Ziz were traditionally a favorite decoration motif for rabbis living in Germany. There is only passing mention of the Ziz in the Bible, found in Psalms 50:11 "I know all the birds of the mountains and Zīz śāday is mine" and Psalms 80:13-14 "The boar from the forest ravages it, and Zīz śāday feeds on it.", and these are often lost in translation from the Hebrew. The Jewish Aggadah says of the Ziz: Gentiles also knew of the Ziz. Johannes Buxtorf's 1603 Synagoga Judaica discusses the Ziz. His text is echoed in English by Samuel Purchas in 1613: Humphrey Prideaux in 1698 describes the Ziz as being like a giant celestial rooster:

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Fletschhorn

Fletschhorn

The Fletschhorn is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between the Saas Valley and the Simplon Valley, in the canton of Valais. It lies in the Weissmies group, north of the Lagginhorn. The Fletschhorn is shown to be 3,993 metres high on the 1:200'000 Swisstopo map. However, the largest-scale map indicates a precise elevation of 3,984.5 metres above sea level. It was first climbed by Michael Amherdt and his guides Johannes Zumkemmi and Friedrich Clausen in August 1854. The imposing north face was first ascended by E. R. Blanchet with guides Oskar Supersaxo and Kaspar Mooser on 25 July 1927.

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Sonor

Sonor

Sonor is a German percussion manufacturer. Founded in 1875 as a percussion manufacturer, Sonor drum sets and hardware are historically known for being constructed in a very durable, and therefore, unusually heavy manner. One of the oldest existing models of drums manufactured by Sonor is a 1942 Johannes Link Parade Snare, a very heavy snare drum with an alumininum shell and thick tension rods. Sonor drums historically had a reputation for being very expensive, and were well respected by many studios and professional musicians; although their current models span the range from beginner to professional. In the 1980s, Sonor's tagline was "The Rolls of drums". This was an allusion to the perfectionist way they constructed their drum shells. They made very thick and heavy shells that were beech wood, with an innermost and outermost ply of furniture-grade veneers, such as rosewood and bubinga. Nicko McBrain of Iron Maiden was one of the most prominent Sonor artists of the 80's, along with Steve Smith of Journey, Phil Rudd of AC/DC, Thomas Haake of Meshuggah and jazz legend Jack DeJohnette. Sonor is the inventor of the modern screw thread drum-construction, that laid the foundation for today's modern drum set, and the inventor of the metal snare drum. Both were invented in the early 20th century. William F. Ludwig got this idea in his early years back in Germany from Sonor and began to use it later in Chicago.

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Ars antiqua

Ars antiqua

Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, refers to the music of Europe of the late Middle Ages between approximately 1170 and 1310, covering the period of the Notre Dame school of polyphony and the subsequent years which saw the early development of the motet. Usually the term is restricted to sacred music, excluding the secular song of the troubadours and trouvères; however sometimes the term is used more loosely to mean all European music of the thirteenth century and slightly before. The term ars antiqua is used in opposition to ars nova, which refers to the period of musical activity between approximately 1310 and 1375. Almost all composers of the ars antiqua are anonymous. Léonin and Pérotin were the two composers known by name from the Notre Dame school; in the subsequent period, Petrus de Cruce, a composer of motets, is one of the few whose name has been preserved. In music theory the ars antiqua period saw several advances over previous practice, most of them in conception and notation of rhythm. The most famous music theorist of the first half of the 13th century, Johannes de Garlandia, was the author of the De Mensurabili Musica, the treatise which defined and most completely elucidated the rhythmic modes. A German theorist of a slightly later period, Franco of Cologne, was the first to describe a system of notation in which differently shaped notes have entirely different rhythmic values, an innovation which had a massive impact on the subsequent history of European music. Most of the surviving notated music of the 13th century uses the rhythmic modes as defined by Garlandia.

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Kolchose

Kolchose

The Kolchose is a group of Hip hop artists in the southern German city of Stuttgart. The group was founded in 1993 and includes the artists Freundeskreis, Massive Töne, Afrob, Breite Seite and Skillz en Masse, to name a few. The Kolchose Members Jean-Christophe "Schowi" Ritter and Johannes "Strachi" Strachwitz started the 0711Büro, out of which the company "0711 Entertainment" developed. The name "Kolchose" is derived from the German word for kolkhoz, a type of collective farm that was common in the Soviet Union.

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Johannes Rau

Johannes Rau

Johannes Rau was a German politician of the SPD. He was President of Germany from 1 July 1999 until 30 June 2004, and Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia from 1978 to 1998.

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Canes Venatici

Canes Venatici

Canes Venatici is one of the 88 official modern constellations. It is a small northern constellation that was created by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century. Its name is Latin for "hunting dogs", and the constellation is often depicted in illustrations as representing the dogs of Boötes the Herdsman, a neighboring constellation.

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Automated Transfer Vehicle

Automated Transfer Vehicle

The Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an expendable, unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency. ATVs are designed to supply the International Space Station with propellant, water, air, payloads, and experiments. ATVs can also reboost the station into a higher orbit. Four ATVs, Jules Verne, Johannes Kepler, Edoardo Amaldi and Albert Einstein, have been launched since March 2008. ESA has contracted suppliers to produce one more ATV to be flown before 2015. On 2 April 2012 the ESA announced that the ATV program would end after the fifth ATV is launched in 2014. Further developments of the ATV have been studied by the European Space Agency and EADS Astrium. ESA member states decided in 2012 that the ATV would be adapted to serve as the service module of the NASA Orion spacecraft. In January 2013, the ESA and NASA announced the combined Orion and ATV derived service module.

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Cornflower blue

Cornflower blue

Cornflower blue, a shade of azure, is a shade of light blue with relatively little green compared to blue. This color was one of the favorites of the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer, the other being yellow. Cornflowers are among the few "blue" flowers that are truly blue, most "blue" flowers being a darker blue-purple. The most valuable blue sapphires are those that are cornflower blue, having a medium-dark violet-blue tone.

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Alterity

Alterity

Alterity is a philosophical term meaning "otherness", strictly being in the sense of the other of two. In the phenomenological tradition it is usually understood as the entity in contrast to which an identity is constructed, and it implies the ability to distinguish between self and not-self, and consequently to assume the existence of an alternative viewpoint. The concept was established by Emmanuel Lévinas in a series of essays, collected under the title Alterity and Transcendence. The term is also deployed outside of philosophy, notably in anthropology by scholars such as Nicholas Dirks, Johannes Fabian, Michael Taussig and Pauline Turner Strong to refer to the construction of "cultural others". The term has gained further use in seemingly somewhat remote disciplines, e.g. historical musicology where it is effectively employed by John Michael Cooper in a study of Goethe and Mendelssohn.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer. In a short lifespan of less than 32 years, Schubert was a prolific composer, writing some 600 Lieder, nine symphonies, liturgical music, operas, some incidental music and a large body of chamber and solo piano music. Appreciation of Schubert's music during his lifetime was limited, but interest in his work increased significantly in the decades following his death. Franz Liszt, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn, among others, discovered and championed his works in the 19th century. Today, Schubert is seen as one of the leading exponents of the early Romantic era in music and he remains one of the most frequently performed composers.

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Leo Minor

Leo Minor

Leo Minor is a small and faint constellation in the northern celestial hemisphere. Its name is Latin for "the smaller lion", in contrast to Leo, the larger lion. It lies between the larger and more recognizable Ursa Major to the north and Leo to the south. Leo Minor was not regarded as a separate constellation by classical astronomers; it was designated by Johannes Hevelius in 1687. There are 37 stars brighter than apparent magnitude 6.5 in the constellation; three are brighter than magnitude 4.5. 46 Leonis Minoris, an orange giant of magnitude 3.8, is located some 95 light years from Earth. At magnitude 4.4, Beta Leonis Minoris is the second brightest star and the only one in the constellation with a Bayer designation. It is a binary star, the brighter component of which is an orange giant and the fainter a yellow-white main sequence star. The third brightest star is 21 Leonis Minoris, a rapidly rotating white main sequence star of average magnitude 4.5. The constellation also includes two stars with planetary systems, two pairs of interacting galaxies, and the unique deep-sky object Hanny's Voorwerp.

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Rijksmuseum

Rijksmuseum

The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, and the Concertgebouw. The Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague in 1800 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, where it was first located in the Royal Palace and later in the Trippenhuis. The current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and was originally opened in 1885, but was closed for renovation from 2003 to 2013. On 13 April 2013, the main building was reopened by Queen Beatrix after the ten year renovation which cost € 375 million. The museum has on display 8,000 objects of art and history, from their total collection of 1 million objects from the years 1200–2000, among which are some masterpieces by Rembrandt, Frans Hals, and Johannes Vermeer. The museum also has a small Asian collection which is on display in the Asian Pavilion.

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Robert Fludd

Robert Fludd

Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus was a prominent English Paracelsian physician. He is remembered as an astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist, Qabalist, and Rosicrucian apologist. Fludd is best known for his compilations in occult philosophy. He had a celebrated exchange of views with Johannes Kepler concerning the scientific and hermetic approaches to knowledge.

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Ridgewood

Ridgewood

Ridgewood is a village in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the village population was 24,958, reflecting an increase of 22 from the 24,936 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 784 from the 24,152 counted in the 1990 Census. Ridgewood is a suburban bedroom community of New York City, located approximately 20 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan. The Village of Ridgewood was created on November 20, 1894, with the same boundaries as Ridgewood Township. The Village became the municipal government while the Township remained as a school district. In 1902, the village added portions of Orvil Township, which were returned to Orvil Township in 1915. In 1925, Ridgewood Village acquired area from Franklin Township. On February 9, 1971, Ridgewood Village acquired area from Washington Township. On May 28, 1974, it acquired area from Ho-Ho-Kus. In 1700, Johannes Van Emburgh built the first home in Ridgewood, having purchased a 250 acres property in 1698. Ridgewood was ranked 26th in Money magazine's "Best Places to Live" in America, 2011. Neighborhood Scout website ranked Ridgewood as the 6th safest city in America in its 2013 rankings of the "NeighborhoodScout’s® Top 100 Safest Cities in the U.S.

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monochrom

monochrom

monochrom is an international art-technology-philosophy group, founded in 1993. Its offices are located at Museumsquartier/Vienna. The group's members are: Johannes Grenzfurthner, Evelyn Fürlinger, Harald List, Anika Kronberger, Franz Ablinger, Frank Apunkt Schneider, Daniel Fabry, Günther Friesinger. In November 2005 Roland Gratzer joined as PR content manager, and in December 2006 Jacob Appelbaum became official monochrom ambassador. The group works with different media and art formats and publishes the German book and zine/magazine series Monochrom. Monochrom is known for its left-wing political work/civil society work and popularized the idea of "context hacking". The group's website functions as a collaborative digital art community. Monochrom administrates Dorkbot Vienna. Together with David "Daddy D" Dempsey they are running the DIY project "Hackbus". In December 2005 Monochrom bought the Lord Jim Lodge, an art brand founded by Jörg Schlick, Martin Kippenberger, Wolfgang Bauer und Albert Oehlen. Since 2007 Monochrom is European correspondent for Boing Boing Video.

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J. Hans D. Jensen

J. Hans D. Jensen

Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen was a German nuclear physicist. During World War II, he worked on the German nuclear energy project, known as the Uranium Club, in which he made contributions to the separation of uranium isotopes. After the war Jensen was a professor at the University of Heidelberg. He was a visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the Institute for Advanced Study, Indiana University, and the California Institute of Technology. Jensen shared half of the 1963 Nobel Prize for Physics with Maria Göppert-Mayer for their proposal of the nuclear shell model.

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Landini cadence

Landini cadence

A Landini cadence, or under-third cadence, is a type of cadence, a technique in music composition, named after Francesco Landini, a blind Florentine organist, in honor of his extensive use of the technique. The technique was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century. In a typical Medieval cadence, a major sixth musical interval is expanded to an octave by having each note move outwards one step. In Landini's version, an escape tone in the upper voice narrows the interval briefly to a perfect fifth before the octave. There could also be an inner voice; in the example the inner voice would move from F♯ to G, in the same rhythm as the lower voice. Landini was not the first to use the cadence, and was not the last: the cadence was still in use well into the 15th century, appearing particularly frequently in the songs of Gilles Binchois and in the music of Johannes Wreede. However Landini seems to have been the first to use it consistently. The term was coined in the late 19th century by German writer A.G. Ritter, in his Zur Geschichte des Orgelspiels, Leipzig.

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Lites

Lites

Lites was a Unix-like operating system, based on 4.4BSD and the Mach microkernel. Specifically, Lites was a multi-threaded server and emulation library that provided unix functionality to a Mach based system. At the time of its release Lites provided binary compatibility with 4.4BSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, 386BSD, UX and Linux. Lites was originally written by Johannes Helander at Helsinki University of Technology, and was further developed by The Flux Research Group at the University of Utah.

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John Field

John Field

John Field was an Irish pianist, composer, and teacher. He was born in Dublin into a musical family, and received his early education there. The Fields soon moved to London, where Field studied under Muzio Clementi. Under his tutelage, Field quickly became a famous and sought-after concert pianist; together, master and pupil visited Paris, Vienna, and St. Petersburg. The Russian capital impressed Field so much that he eventually decided to stay behind when Clementi left, and from about 1804 was particularly active in Russia. Field was very highly regarded by his contemporaries and his playing and compositions influenced many major composers, including Frédéric Chopin, Johannes Brahms, Robert Schumann, and Franz Liszt. He is best known today for originating the piano nocturne, a form later made famous by Chopin, as well as for his substantial contribution, through concerts and teaching, to the development of the Russian piano school.

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Formicarius

Formicarius

The Formicarius, written 1435-1437 by Johannes Nider during the Council of Basel and first printed in 1475, is the second book ever printed to discuss witchcraft. Nider dealt specifically with witchcraft in the fifth section of the book. Unlike his successors, he did not emphasize the idea of the witches' Sabbath and was skeptical of the claim that witches could fly by night. The Formicarius is an important work for the study of the origins of the Witch trials in Early Modern Europe as it sheds light on their earliest phase during the first half of the 15th century. Nider was one of the first to transform the idea of sorcery to its more modern perception of witchcraft. Prior to the fifteenth century, magic was thought to be performed by educated males who performed intricate rituals. In Nider's Formicarius, the witch is described as uneducated and more commonly female. The idea that any persons could perform acts of magic simply by devoting themselves to the devil scared people of this time and proved to be one of the many factors that led people to begin fearing magic. The idea that the magician was primarily female was also shocking to some. Nider explained that females were capable of such acts by pointing out what he considered their inferior physical, mental, and moral capacity.

— Freebase

Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt is a town in the district of Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated on the river Eider approx. 12 km south of Husum. It was founded in 1621 by Dutch settlers. Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp pursued them to invest capital and knowledge in this region in turn for freedom of their Mennonite and Remonstrant religion and opportunities to reclaim fen and marsh land in the vicinity of the town. One of them was Johannes Narssius. Dutch became an official language. By 1630, many Arminians had already returned to the Netherlands. In 1633 Frederick III sent an embassy to Persia with a view to setting up Friedrichstadt as the European terminus. Despite being led by Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Otto Bruggemann or Brugman, merchant, the project proved fruitless. The city did not become as successful as anticipated.

— Freebase


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