Definitions containing la rochefoucauld, françois, duc de

We've found 213 definitions:

François de La Rochefoucauld

François de La Rochefoucauld

François VI, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Prince de Marcillac was a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. His is a clear-eyed, worldly view of human conduct that indulges in neither condemnation nor sentimentality. Born in Paris on the Rue des Petits Champs, at a time when the royal court was oscillating between aiding the nobility and threatening it, he was considered an exemplar of the accomplished 17th-century nobleman. Until 1650, he bore the title of Prince de Marcillac.

— Freebase

shotty

shotty

A gauzeless pipe for smoking cannabis, more like a Vietnamese Duc Lau than a bong.

— Wiktionary

jacques lucien monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacques monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

François Certain Canrobert

François Certain Canrobert

François Certain de Canrobert, usually known as François Certain-Canrobert and later simply as Maréchal Canrobert, was a marshal of France.

— Freebase

baby doc

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

duvalier

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

jean-claude duvalier

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

rabelaisian

Rabelaisian

of or relating to or characteristic of Francois Rabelais or his works

— Princeton's WordNet

François Fénelon

François Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, more commonly known as François Fénelon, was a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer. He today is remembered mostly as the author of The Adventures of Telemachus, first published in 1699.

— Freebase

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe Fénelon was a Sulpician missionary in New France. He was ten years older than his half-brother, François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai. Little is known of François in his early years until he left for the missions of New France in 1667 as yet not an ordained priest. Bishop Laval took care of this matter, ordaining him in June, 1668. He and M. Trouvé left almost immediately to establish a mission for the Iroquois, at their request, near the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario..

— Freebase

Polysynody

Polysynody

Polysynody was the system of government in use in France between 1715 and 1718 and in which each minister was replaced by a council. At the end of the reign of King Louis XIV of France, there was a reaction of the aristocracy against the concentration of powers in the person of the king, and against the takeover of the administration by commoners from the bourgeoisie. An aristocratic ideal of government emerged around the personalities of Fénelon, the duc de Beauvilliers, the duc de Chevreuse, and the duc de Saint-Simon. They advocated the creation of councils made up of aristocrats which would assist the king in the exercise of government power. At the death of Louis XIV, the regent Philippe d'Orléans, in search of political support, satisfied the aristocracy by replacing the ministers and secretaries of state with eight councils which were dominated by the ancient aristocracy. The Council of the Regency, chaired by the regent, had no real power. The other councils shared government power. There was: the Council of Matters within the Kingdom, the Council of Conscience for religious matters, the Council of War, the Council of the Navy, the Council of Finance, the Council of Foreign Affairs, and the Council of Commerce for internal and foreign trade as well as for royal factories. Each council had ten members and elected one president.

— Freebase

Daniel Auber

Daniel Auber

Daniel François Esprit Auber was a French composer.

— Freebase

François de Malherbe

François de Malherbe

François de Malherbe was a French poet, critic, and translator.

— Freebase

Chambord, Comte de

Chambord, Comte de

Duc de Bordeaux, son of the Duc de Berri and grandson of Charles X., born at Paris; exiled in 1830, he retired to the château of Frohsdorf, in Austria, where he died without issue; his father and grandfather being dead, the monarchical party resolved to attempt a restoration in his behalf in 1872, but he refused to adopt the tricolor flag of the Revolution, and the scheme was abandoned, a like opportunity offering itself twice before being let slip (1820-1883).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Kering

Kering

Kering is a French multinational holding company which develops a worldwide brand portfolio distributed in 120 countries. The company was founded in 1963 by the businessman François Pinault and is now run by his son François-Henri Pinault. It is quoted on Euronext Paris and is a constituent of the CAC 40 index. On 22 March 2013, Pinault announced that the group would rename itself as Kering, and was approved by shareholders on 18 June 2013.

— Freebase

Constable de Bourbon

Constable de Bourbon

Charles, Duc de Bourbon, a brilliant military leader, and a powerful enemy of Francis I.; killed when leading the assault on Rome (1489-1527).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grater

Grater

A grater is a kitchen utensil used to grate foods into fine pieces. It was invented by François Boullier in the 1540s.

— Freebase

Ivan IV

Ivan IV

Ivan IV is an opera in five acts by Georges Bizet, with a libretto by Francois-Hippolyte Leroy and Henri Trianon.

— Freebase

Choiseul

Choiseul

Choiseul is an illustrious family from Champagne, France, descendents of the comtes of Langres. The family's head was Renaud III de Choiseul, comte de Langres and sire de Choiseul, who in 1182 married Alix de Dreux, daughter of Louis VI of France. It has formed into the Langres, Clémont, Aigremont, Beaugré, Allecourt, Frontières, Praslin, Plessis branches, among others. It also took the name Choiseul-Gouffier from the 18th century onwards. It has produced several marshals: ⁕Jean de Baudricourt, seigneur of Baudricourt and of Choiseul ⁕Charles de Choiseul, comte of the Plessis-Praslin, who served under Henri IV and Louis XIII ⁕César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, duc de Choiseul, who defied Turenne at Rethel, when he commanded the Spanish army ⁕Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French marshal and diplomat, generally known for the best part of his life as marshal du Plessis-Praslin ⁕Claude de Choiseul, comte de Choiseul-Francières, who distinguished himself in the battle of Seneffe against the Dutch Republic and made a marshal in 1693 Two bishops and an archbishop: ⁕Gilbert de Choiseul du Plessis Praslin, brother of marshal César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Bishop of Comminges from 1644 to 1670.

— Freebase

Joseph François Dupleix

Joseph François Dupleix

Joseph-François, Marquis Dupleix was governor general of the French establishment in India, and the rival of Robert Clive.

— Freebase

Dettingen

Dettingen

a village in Bavaria, where an army of English, Hanoverians, and Austrians under George II., in 1743 defeated the French under Duc de Noailles.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jean-François Berthelier

Jean-François Berthelier

Jean-François-Philibert Berthelier was a French actor and singer, who performed many light tenor roles in opéra-comique and opéra-bouffe.

— Freebase

Verdun

Verdun

Verdun is a small city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is the slightly smaller city of Bar-le-Duc.

— Freebase

Champollion

Champollion

Champollion was a planned cometary rendezvous and landing spacecraft. It was named after Jean-François Champollion, a French Egyptologist known for translating the Rosetta stone.

— Freebase

Jean-Francois Millet

Jean-Francois Millet

Jean-Francois Millet is a fictional character in Mark Twain's play Is He Dead?, named after the famous French painter of the same name.

— Freebase

Clarke, Henri

Clarke, Henri

Duc de Feltre, of Irish origin, French marshal, and minister of war under Napoleon; instituted the prevotal court, a pro re nata court without appeal (1767-1818).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Fabre d'Églantine

Fabre d'Églantine

Philippe François Nazaire Fabre d'Églantine, commonly known as Fabre d'Églantine, was a French actor, dramatist, poet, and politician of the French Revolution.

— Freebase

Duc Tho District

Duc Tho District

Đức Thọ is a rural district of Ha Tinh province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. The village of Đông Thái, where the noted 19th century anti-colonial leader Phan Đình Phùng was born, is located in Đức Thọ. As of 2003 the district had a population of 117,730. The district covers an area of 203 km². The district capital lies at Duc Tho.

— Freebase

Fromental Halévy

Fromental Halévy

Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy, usually known as Fromental Halévy, was a French composer. He is known today largely for his opera La Juive.

— Freebase

François Couperin

François Couperin

François Couperin was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family.

— Freebase

Brown, Amy

Brown, Amy

the first wife of the Duc de Berri, born in England, died in France; the Pope, in 1816, annulled her marriage, but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Michel Ney

Michel Ney

Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen, 1st Prince de la Moskowa, popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of France created by Napoleon. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men and nicknamed le Brave des Braves by Napoleon.

— Freebase

Jarnac

Jarnac

a town on the Charente, celebrated as the scene of a victory which the Catholics, commanded by the Duc d'Anjou, afterwards Henry III. obtained in 1569 over the Huguenots commanded by Condé.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Parisine

Parisine

Parisine is a typeface created by Jean-François Porchez. Distributed by Typofonderie. It is used in Paris Métro, tramways, buses and RER parts operated by the RATP in Île-de-France.

— Freebase

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte, Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. She had also an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut.

— Freebase

René Magritte

René Magritte

René François Ghislain Magritte was a Belgian surrealist artist. He became well known for a number of witty and thought-provoking images that fell under the umbrella of surrealism. His work challenges observers' preconditioned perceptions of reality.

— Freebase

Battle of Rocroi

Battle of Rocroi

The Battle of Rocroi was fought on 19 May 1643 - mere days after the passing of Louis XIII of France that left his five-year old son Louis XIV of France on the throne - late in the Thirty Years' War. It resulted in a victory of the French army under the Duc d'Enghien, against the Spanish army under General Francisco de Melo. Further, it is considered the turning point of the perceived invincibility of the Spanish tercio.

— Freebase

Alluaudite

Alluaudite

Alluaudite is a relatively common alkaline manganese iron phosphate mineral with formula Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3, of secondary origin, related with granitic pegmatites mainly. Named by Alexis Damour in 1847 after François Alluaud.

— Freebase

Charles Gounod

Charles Gounod

Charles-François Gounod was a French composer, most well known for his Ave Maria as well as his opera Faust. Another opera by Gounod is Roméo et Juliette.

— Freebase

François

François

François is the French-language debut album by Desireless, released in 1989. The single "Voyage, voyage" was a chart topper in many European and Asian single charts and sold over five million copies.

— Freebase

François Mauriac

François Mauriac

François Charles Mauriac was a French author, member of the Académie française, and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958.

— Freebase

Chambord

Chambord

spacious château in the dep. of Loire-et-Cher, France, built by Francis I.; after being long a residence for royalty and people of distinction, was presented in 1821 to the Duc de Bordeaux, the Comte de Chambord.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hot air balloon

Hot air balloon

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. It is part of a class of aircraft known as balloon aircraft. On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first untethered manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes in a hot air balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more specifically, thermal airships. A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket, which carries passengers and a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the air surrounding.

— Freebase

Flesh Color

Flesh Color

Flesh Color is a 35 mm film by François Weyergans. Weyergans is one of the forty members known as immortals of the French Academy. It features a band called Flesh Colour formed in 1976 in Brussels-Capital.

— Freebase

Albert François Lebrun

Albert François Lebrun

Albert François Lebrun was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940. He was the last president of the Third Republic. He was a member of the center-right Democratic Republican Alliance.

— Freebase

Oudinot, Duke of Reggio

Oudinot, Duke of Reggio

marshal of France, born at Bar-le-Duc; served with distinction under the Revolution and the Empire; led the retreat from Moscow, and was wounded; joined the Royalists after the fall of Napoleon, and died Governor of the Hôtel des Invalides (1767-1847).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Vano Language

Vano Language

Lovono is a nearly extinct language of the island of Vanikoro in the easternmost province of the Solomon Islands. As of 2012, it is only spoken by four speakers: it has been replaced by the island’s dominant language, Teanu. Some information on Lovono, as well as on the two other languages of the island, can be found in François.

— Freebase

Adela

Adela

Adela is a 2000 Argentine thriller film directed and written by Eduardo Mignogna. The film was based on the novel Le Coup de lune by Georges Simenon, adapted by François-Olivier Rousseau. The film starred Eulalia Ramón and Grégoire Colin.

— Freebase

Holy Family

Holy Family

The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph. Veneration of the Holy Family was formally begun in the 17th century by Blessed François de Laval, the first bishop of New France, who founded a Confraternity.

— Freebase

Pelissier

Pelissier

a French marshal, born near Rouen; was made Duc de Malakoff for storming the Malakoff tower, which led to the fall of Sebastopol in 1855; rose from the ranks to be Governor-General of Algeria, the office he held when he died (1794-1864).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

De Sade

De Sade

De Sade is an American-German 1969 drama film starring Keir Dullea and Senta Berger. It is based on the life of Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade, named Louis Alphonse Donatien in the film.

— Freebase

François Jacob

François Jacob

François Jacob was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Jacques Monod and André Lwoff.

— Freebase

Eugène Dubois

Eugène Dubois

Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois was a Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist. He earned worldwide fame for his discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus, or "Java Man". Although hominid fossils had been found and studied before, Dubois was the first anthropologist to embark upon a purposeful search for them.

— Freebase

Battle of Ivry

Battle of Ivry

The Battle of Ivry was fought on 14 March 1590, during the French Wars of Religion. The battle was a decisive victory for Henry IV of France, leading Huguenot forces against the Catholic League forces led by the Duc de Mayenne. Henry's forces were victorious and he went on to lay siege to Paris. The battle occurred on the plain of Épieds, Eure near Ivry, Normandy. Ivry-la-Bataille is located on the Eure River and about thirty miles west of Paris, at the boundary between the Île-de-France and the Beauce regions.

— Freebase

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand was a French gunsmith who worked in Liege and Paris, France. He manufactured many revolvers for civilian and military use, including the Galand Revolver, the Tue Tue, and the tiny Le Novo. The Velo-dog, developed from the Tue Tue and the Novo, was designed by Charles-François' son René in 1904. The original Galand revolver was a double-action, open frame revolver patented in 1868. Military versions were produced in 9 mm while civilian versions were made in 12 mm. The gun is easily recognizable due to its long extraction lever, which stretches under the gun to form the trigger guard. Pulling the lever forward separates the barrel and cylinder from the rest of the gun. At the same time the extractor plate is blocked which catches any cartridges in the cylinder, thereby extracting them. The first model was manufactured both in Liege and in Birmingham, England by the British arms firm Braendlin and Sommerville, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Galand-Sommerville. Sommerville shared the patent for the case extracting system with Galand. The Galand-Perrin is an identical model which uses the Perrin cartridge.

— Freebase

Codework

Codework

Codework is the mixing of Sondheim's writing with the code of various computer languages. The word 'codework' was originally created and given its name by Alan Sondheim, but also popularized by other Internet artist such as Mez Breeze. It is also sometimes referred to as net.writing. It is said to have been inspired by the eclectic poetry of e.e.cummings. Codework has been used for many forms of writing, mostly poetry and fiction. Duc Thuan's Days of the Java Moon is an example of fiction in the codework style. For example:

— Freebase

Bonamia

Bonamia

Bonamia is a genus of the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, commonly known as the bindweed family and named after the French physician and botanist François Bonamy. Members of the genus are commonly known as the Lady's Nightcap.

— Freebase

Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. Its name is from Latin caulis and flower,. Brassica oleracea also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups. For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture, as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy", but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.

— Freebase

Coucy

Coucy

an old noble family of Picardy, who had for device, "Roi ne suis, ne duc, ne comte aussi; je suis le sire de Coucy." Raoul, a court-poet of the family in the 12th century, lost his life at the siege of Acre in the third crusade.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Couperin family

Couperin family

The Couperin family were a musical dynasty of professional composers and performers. They were the most prolific family in French musical history, active during the Baroque era. Louis Couperin and his nephew, François Couperin le grand, are the best known members of the family.

— Freebase

Marne

Marne

Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne which flows through the department. The prefecture of Marne is Châlons-en-Champagne. The subprefectures are Épernay, Reims, Sainte-Menehould, and Vitry-le-François. The Champagne vineyards producing the world-famous sparkling wine are located within Marne.

— Freebase

Forks

Forks

Forks is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States. The population was 3,532 at the 2010 census. The population was 3,545 at 2012 Estimate from Office of Financial Management. It is named after the forks in the nearby Quillayute, Bogachiel, Calawah, and Sol Duc rivers. For many years, the city's economy was fueled by the local timber industry. With recent declines in the industry, Forks has had to rely on the nearby Clallam Bay Corrections Center and Olympic Corrections Center as a source of jobs. Forks is a popular destination for sport fishers who fish for salmon and rainbow trout in nearby rivers. It is also supported by visitors to Olympic National Park. The city has gained popularity for being a key setting in Stephenie Meyer's Twilight series.

— Freebase

La Fayette, Madame de

La Fayette, Madame de

novelist, born in Paris; is credited with being the originator of the class of fiction in which character and its analysis are held of chief account; she was the daughter of the governor of Havre, and contracted a Platonic affection for La Rochefoucauld in his old age, and was besides on intimate terms with Madame Sévigné and the most eminent literary men of the time; her "Princess de Clèves" is a classic work, and the merit of it is enhanced by the reflection that it preceded by nearly half a century the works both of Le Sage and Defoe (1634-1693).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Epizod

Epizod

Epizod is a Bulgarian heavy metal band formed in 1983 in Sofia. The first songs of the band were inspired by the French poet François Villon. Epizod are famous in Bulgaria for their concerts which include theatre, an Orthodox church choir, and an ensemble for Bulgarian folk songs and dances.

— Freebase

Didot family

Didot family

Didot is the name of a family of French printers, punch-cutters and publishers. Through its achievements and advancements in printing, publishing and typography, the family has lent its name to typographic measurements developed by François-Ambroise Didot and the Didot typeface developed by Firmin Didot.

— Freebase

Sitcom

Sitcom

Sitcom is a 1998 French surrealistic satire film written and directed by François Ozon. The story documents the moral decline of a once esteemed suburban family, whose descent into degeneracy begins with the purchase of a small white rat. The film's name is a direct reference to American sitcoms, which are noted for their focus on traditional family values and whimsical humour.

— Freebase

François Boucher

François Boucher

François Boucher was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste, known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories representing the arts or pastoral occupations, intended as a sort of two-dimensional furniture. He was perhaps the most celebrated decorative artist of the 18th century. He also painted several portraits of his illustrious patroness, Madame de Pompadour.

— Freebase

François Rabelais

François Rabelais

François Rabelais was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs. His best known work is Gargantua and Pantagruel. Rabelais is considered one of the great writers of world literature and among the creators of modern European writing.

— Freebase

Pioche

Pioche

Pioche is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Lincoln County, Nevada, United States, about 180 miles northeast of Las Vegas. Its elevation is 6,060 feet above sea level. Pioche is the county seat of Lincoln County. It is named after François Louis Alfred Pioche, a San Francisco financier. The town's population was 1,002 at the 2010 census.

— Freebase

Henri Labrouste

Henri Labrouste

Pierre-François-Henri Labrouste was a French architect from the famous École des Beaux Arts school of architecture. After a six-year stay in Rome, Labrouste opened an architectural training workshop, which quickly became the center of the rationalist view. He became noted for his use of iron-frame construction and was one of the first to realize the importance of its use.

— Freebase

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition is a peer-reviewed academic journal of linguistics, focusing on the study of multilingualism, including bilingual language competence, perception and production, bilingual language acquisition in children and adults, neurolinguistics of bilingualism, and non-linguistic cognitive processes in bilinguals. The journal is currently published by Cambridge University Press and was cofounded by François Grosjean in 1998.

— Freebase

Limonade

Limonade

Limonade is a municipality in the Cap-Haïtien Arrondissement, in the Nord Department of Haiti. It has 69,256 inhabitants. Christopher Columbus and his crew celebrated the first Christmas in the Americas at Limonade in 1492. Limonade is also the city in which François Capois, a renowned hero of the Haitian Revolution, died. Sonje Ayiti is a notable NGO that currently works in Limonade and maintains a website honoring the historic community.

— Freebase

Thomas Young

Thomas Young

Thomas Young was an English polymath. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations" in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work. He was admired by, among others, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein.

— Freebase

François Truffaut

François Truffaut

François Roland Truffaut was a French influential film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film critic, as well as one of the founders of the French New Wave. In a film career lasting over a quarter of a century, he remains an icon of the French film industry, having worked on over 25 films. Truffaut's film The 400 Blows came to become a defining film of the New Wave genre.

— Freebase

Christie's

Christie's

Christie's is an art business and a fine arts auction house, currently the world's largest, with sales for the first half of 2012, some $3.5 billion, representing the highest total for a corresponding period in company and art market history. Christie's has its main headquarters in London King Street and in Rockefeller Plaza New York. It is owned by Groupe Artémis, the holding company of François-Henri Pinault.

— Freebase

Lucile

Lucile

Lucile is an opéra comique, described as a comédie mêlée d'ariettes, in one act by the Belgian composer André Grétry, The French text was by Jean-François Marmontel, and the characters in the opera, though not the actual story, were derived from Marmontel's L'école des pères. The melody from "Où peut-on être mieux qu'au sein de sa famille?" was later reused in Vieuxtemp's Violin Concerto No. 5, Op.37.

— Freebase

Proth number

Proth number

In number theory, a Proth number, named after the mathematician François Proth, is a number of the form where is an odd positive integer and is a positive integer such that . Without the latter condition, all odd integers greater than 1 would be Proth numbers. The first Proth numbers are: The Cullen numbers and Fermat numbers are special cases of Proth numbers.

— Freebase

Zut!

Zut!

Zut! was a Canadian sketch comedy television series which aired Saturday evenings from 1970 to 1971 on CBC Television. It was based loosely on relations between Quebec and the rest of Canada. The cast included Peter Cullen, Barrie Baldaro, Joan Stuart, Ted Zeigler, Dave Broadfoot, Wally Martin, Al Boliska, Dave Harriman, as well as singer Donald Lautrec and an orchestra conducted by François Cousineau. The series was produced in Montreal by Dale Barnes.

— Freebase

François Blondel

François Blondel

Nicolas-François Blondel was a soldier, engineer of fortifications, diplomat, civil engineer and military architect, called "the Great Blondel", to distinguish him in a dynasty of French architects. He is remembered for his Cours d'architecture which remained a central text for over a century. His precepts placed him in opposition with Claude Perrault in the larger culture war known under the heading Querelle des anciens et des modernes. If François Blondel was not the most highly reputed among the académiciens of his day, his were the writings that most generally circulated among the general public, the Cours de Mathématiques, the Art de jetter les Bombes, the Nouvelle manière de fortifier les places and, above all his Cours d'Architecture. He was well educated in languages as a youth, and participated for a time in the Thirty Years' War In 1640 the Cardinal de Richelieu entrusted him with diplomatic missions in Portugal, Spain and Italy, which gave him an opportunity to study at first hand the fortification systems of those nations. Richelieu named him sub-lieutenant of one of his galleys, La Cardinale, aboard which he participated in the attack on the port of Tarragona and served for a time as governor at Palamos. In 1647 Blondel commanded the artillery of the naval expedition against the Spanish at Naples. With the peace he finished his military career with the brevet of maréchal des camps.

— Freebase

Triboulet

Triboulet

Triboulet was a microcephalic jester of kings Louis XII and Francis I of France. He appears in Book 3 of François Rabelais's Pantagrueline chronicles. He appears in Victor Hugo's Le Roi s'amuse and its opera version, Giuseppe Verdi's Rigoletto: "Rigoletto" was a blend of "Triboulet" and French rigoler, intending to deflect the censorship that Hugo's work had received. A triboulet, a jester dressed entirely in red, is a character associated with the carnival of Monthey in Switzerland.

— Freebase

Feuillans

Feuillans

a reformed brotherhood of Cistercian monks, founded in 1577 by Jean de la Barrière, abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Feuillans, in Languedoc. The movement thus organised was a protest against the laxity which had crept into the Church, and probably received some stimulus from the Reformation, which was then in progress. The Feuillans settled in a convent in the Rue St. Honoré, Paris, which in after years became the meeting-place of a revolutionary club, which took the name of Feuillans; founded in 1790 by Lafayette, La Rochefoucauld, &c., and which consisted of members of the respectable property classes, whose views were more moderate than those of the Jacobins. They could not hold out against the flood of revolutionary violence, and on March 28, 1791, a mob burst into their place of meeting and dispersed them.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

François Villon

François Villon

François Villon was a French poet, thief, killer, barroom brawler, and vagabond. He is perhaps best known for his Testaments and his Ballade des Pendus, written while in prison. The question "Mais où sont les neiges d'antan?", taken from the Ballade des dames du temps jadis and translated by Dante Gabriel Rossetti as "Where are the snows of yesteryear?", is one of the most famous lines of translated secular poetry in the English-speaking world.

— Freebase

Abel Tasman

Abel Tasman

Abel Janszoon Tasman was a Dutch seafarer, explorer and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the VOC. He was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji islands. His navigator François Visscher, and his merchant Isaack Gilsemans, mapped substantial portions of Australia, New Zealand and some Pacific Islands.

— Freebase

Yasuhiro Nakasone

Yasuhiro Nakasone

Yasuhiro Nakasone is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 27 November 1982 to 6 November 1987. A contemporary of Brian Mulroney, Ronald Reagan, Helmut Kohl, François Mitterrand, Margaret Thatcher, and Mikhail Gorbachev, he is best known for pushing through the privatization of state-owned companies, and for helping to revitalize Japanese nationalism during and after his term as prime minister. Nakasone is currently the oldest living Japanese prime minister.

— Freebase

Metanarrative

Metanarrative

A metanarrative is a grand narrative common to all. The term refers, in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism, to a comprehensive explanation, a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a master idea. The term was brought into prominence by Jean-François Lyotard in 1979, with his claim that the postmodern was characterised precisely by a mistrust of the grand narratives which had formed an essential part of modernity.

— Freebase

Pacific Time

Pacific Time

Pacific Time was a weekly radio program that covered a wide range of Asian American, East Asian and Southeast Asian issues, including economics, language, politics, public policy, business, the arts and sports. With news bureaus in Bangkok, Beijing, and Tokyo, it was the only public radio program devoted to Asian-American issues. Produced by KQED in San Francisco, California, the show was syndicated by as many as 37 other public radio stations in markets around the United States. The show premiered in 2000 and was hosted by Nguyen Qui Duc until September, 2006, when Nguyen returned to Vietnam. After Nguyen's departure it was hosted by K. Oanh Ha. Citing financial difficulties, KQED cancelled the show and its last broadcast was October 11, 2007. At the time it was cancelled the program cost $500,000 per year to produce and had a weekly audience of 190,000.

— Freebase

Boccaccio

Boccaccio

Boccaccio, or the Prince of Palermo is an operetta in three acts by Franz von Suppé to a German libretto by Camillo Walzel and Richard Genée, based on the play by Jean-François-Antoine Bayard, Adolphe de Leuven, Léon Lévy Brunswick and Arthur de Beauplan, based in turn on the Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio. The opera was first performed at the Carltheater, Vienna, February 1, 1879. An English translation was done by Oscar Weil and Gustav Hinrichs ca. 1883.

— Freebase

Amanita verna

Amanita verna

Amanita verna, commonly known as the fool's mushroom, Destroying angel or the mushroom fool, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Occurring in Europe in spring, A. verna associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees. The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn; the caps, stipes and gills are all white in colour. Initially described by the French botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard, the fool's mushroom's specific epithet verna is derived from its springtime fruiting habit.

— Freebase

Massena

Massena

Duc de Rivoli, Prince of Essling, one of the most illustrious marshals of France, born at Nice; he distinguished himself at Rivoli in 1796, at Zurich in 1799, at the siege of Genoa in 1800, at Eckmühl and at Wagram in 1809, and was named by Napoleon L'enfant chéri de la Victoire, i. e. the favoured child of victory; he was recalled from the Peninsula by Napoleon for failing to expel Wellington, and it appears he never forgot the affront (1758-1817).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

François Mansart

François Mansart

François Mansart was a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France. The Encyclopædia Britannica cites him as the most accomplished of 17th-century French architects whose works "are renowned for their high degree of refinement, subtlety, and elegance". Mansart, as he is generally known, made extensive use of a four-sided, double slope gambrel roof punctuated with windows on the steeper lower slope, creating additional habitable space in the garrets that ultimately became named for him – the mansard roof.

— Freebase

Shinjuku Thief

Shinjuku Thief

Shinjuku Thief is an experimental recording project of Australian musician Darrin Verhagen, that could be described as dark ambient or gothic industrial. Shinjuku Thief began in 1992 as a trio, consisting of Verhagen, Charles Tétaz and François Tétaz. Eventually, Verhagen became the mainstay. Shinjuku Thief's first LP, Bloody Tourist, was released on the Extreme label. Subsequent LPs were released on Verhagen's own Dorobo label. Verhagen's side-project, Shinjuku Filth, released music in the industrial music genre.

— Freebase

Carcassonne

Carcassonne

Carcassonne is a fortified French town in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture, in the former province of Languedoc. It is divided into the fortified Cité de Carcassonne and the more expansive lower city, the ville basse. Carcassone was founded by the Visigoths in the fifth century, though the Romans had fortified the settlement earlier. The fortress, which was thoroughly restored in 1853 by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. The folk etymology – involving a châtelaine named Carcas, a ruse ending a siege and the joyous ringing of bells – though memorialized in a neo-Gothic sculpture of Mme. Carcas on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention. The name can be derived as an augmentative of the name Carcas. Similarly in Italian, there are derived names like Castellino – Castello – Castellone, or Ombrellino – Ombrello – Ombrellone. The double 's' in the name appears for phonetic reasons, as a single 's' would be pronounced as 'z'.

— Freebase

Decal

Decal

A decal or transfer is a plastic, cloth, paper or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a pattern or image that can be moved to another surface upon contact, usually with the aid of heat or water. The word is short for decalcomania, which is the English version of the French word décalcomanie. The technique was invented by Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process he called "decalquer"; it became widespread during the decal craze of the late 19th century.

— Freebase

Grand duke

Grand duke

The title grand duke or great duke is used in Western Europe and particularly in Germanic countries for provincial sovereigns. Grand duke ranks in order of precedence below a king but higher than a sovereign duke. Grand duke is also the usual and established translation of grand prince in languages which do not differentiate between princes who are children of a monarch and ruling princes. English and French also use grand duke in this way. The title grand duke as translation of grand prince and the proper title grand duke have clearly different meanings and a separate background. Compare with the article grand prince. The territory of a grand duke is referred to as a grand duchy. The feminine form of grand duke is grand duchess. Translations for grand duke include: in Latin, magnus dux; in Spanish, gran duque; in Russian, великий князь; in German, Großherzog, Italian gran duca; in French, grand-duc; in Portuguese, grão-duque; in Finnish, suurherttua; in Polish, wielki książę; in Hungarian, nagyherceg; in Swedish, storhertig; in Dutch & Afrikaans, groothertog; in Danish, storhertug; in Lithuanian, didysis kunigaikštis; in Latvian, lielhertogs; in Czech velkovévoda or velkokníže.

— Freebase

Chronovisor

Chronovisor

The chronovisor is a time viewer described by Father François Brune in his 2002 book Le nouveau mystère du Vatican. Brune is the author of several books on the paranormal and religion. In the book, Brune relates that the chronovisor was built by Pellegrino Ernetti, an Italian priest and scientist. Although Father Ernetti was a real person, the existence of the chronovisor has never been confirmed; its alleged capabilities are strongly reminiscent of the fictional time viewer which features in T. L. Sherred's 1947 science fiction novella, E for Effort.

— Freebase

Diane de Poitiers

Diane de Poitiers

Diane de Poitiers was a French noblewoman and a prominent courtier at the courts of kings Francis I and his son, Henry II of France. She became notorious as the latter's favourite. It was in this capacity that she wielded much influence and power at the French Court, which continued until Henry was mortally wounded in a tournament accident, during which his lance wore her favour rather than his wife's. The subject of paintings by François Clouet as well other anonymous painters, Diane was also immortalised in a statue by Jean Goujon.

— Freebase

Laportea

Laportea

Laportea is a genus of plants in the family Urticaceae. They are herbaceous, either annual or perennial. Like many plants of the Urticaceae, they have stinging hairs, and have stinging and non-stinging hairs on the same plant. The genus contains 22 species, including: ⁕Laportea aestuans Chew. - West Indian woodnettle ⁕Laportea canadensis Weddell. - Canadian woodnettle ⁕Laportea cuneata Chew. - Weedy woodnettle ⁕Laportea cuspidata ⁕Laportea interrupta Chew. - Hawaiian woodnettle ⁕Laportea pterostigma Weddell. - Poisonous woodnettle ⁕Laportea urentissima Gagnep. The genus was named after the French naturalist François Louis de la Porte, comte de Castelnau.

— Freebase

Exelmans, Remy Joseph Isodore, Comte

Exelmans, Remy Joseph Isodore, Comte

a distinguished French marshal, born at Bar-le-Duc; entered the army at 16; won distinction in the Naples campaign, and for his services at Eylau in 1807 was made a Brigadier-General; was taken prisoner in Spain while serving under Murat, and sent to England, where he was kept prisoner three years; liberated, took part in Napoleon's Russian campaign, for his conduct in which he was appointed a General of Division; after Napoleon's fall lived in exile till 1830; received honours from Louis Philippe, and was created a Marshal of France by Louis Napoleon in 1851 (1775-1852).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

VSD

VSD

VSD is a French weekly news, celebrity and leisure magazine, published on Thursdays. The name is formed from the first letters of the French names for Friday, Saturday and Sunday. VSD was first published on 9 September 1977 by Maurice Siegel. After Siegel's death in 1985, direction passed to his sons François and Jean-Dominique. Publication ceased in August 1995. The title was purchased by Prisma Presse and relaunched in June 1996. Like its rival Paris Match it relies heavily on paparazzi photography. Circulation in the 1980s reached 400,000 copies. In 2005, average sales were over 200,000.

— Freebase

Charles Fourier

Charles Fourier

François Marie Charles Fourier was a French philosopher. An influential thinker, some of Fourier's social and moral views, held to be radical in his lifetime, have become main currents in modern society. Fourier is, for instance, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837. Fourier's views inspired the founding of the community of Utopia, Ohio, as well as La Reunion near present-day Dallas, Texas and several other communities within the United States of America, including the North American Phalanx in Red Bank, New Jersey; Brook Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts; and the Community Place and Sodus Bay Phalanx in New York State.

— Freebase

Breathless

Breathless

Breathless is a 1960 French film directed by Jean-Luc Godard. It was his first feature-length work, and one of the earliest, most influential of the French New Wave. At the time, the film attracted much attention for its bold visual style and the innovative use of jump cuts. Breathless, together with François Truffaut's The 400 Blows and Alain Resnais's Hiroshima, Mon Amour, both released a year earlier, brought international acclaim to the French nouvelle vague. A fully restored version of the film was released in the U.S. for the 50th anniversary of the film in May 2010. When originally released in France, the film had 2,082,760 cinema goers.

— Freebase

Academy figure

Academy figure

An academy figure is a drawing, painting or sculpture in a literal manner, of the nude human body using a live model, typically at half life size. It is a common exercise required of students at art schools and academies, both in the past and present, hence the name. ⁕ Young Student Drawing, Jean Siméon Chardin, ca. 1738. ⁕ École des beaux-arts. ⁕ Christian Krohg, seated center, lecturing a class at Statens kunstakademi in Oslo. ⁕ The Anatomy Class at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, François Sallé, 1888. ⁕ Edouard Manet, Academy, ca. 1875. ⁕ Pedro Américo, Academy, ca. 1870. ⁕ Pablo Gargallo, Academy, 1934. ⁕ Manuel Teixeira da Rocha Modelo de Academia.

— Freebase

Only Child

Only Child

Only Child is DJ and musician, Justin Crawford from Manchester, England. He was formerly a member of the English band New Fast Automatic Daffodils. Crawford was signed to Grand Central Records independent record label under the moniker Only Child, prior to its closure in 2006. He is also one half of The Unabombers, along with Luke Cowdrey, who together run The Electric Chair in Manchester, England. Guest DJs at The Electric Chair include François Kevorkian, DJ Spinna, Carl Craig and Jazzanova. The Electric Chair is also the name of the independent record label which releases The Unabombers mix albums.

— Freebase

Tonality

Tonality

Tonality is a system/language of music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center"—the tonic triad; that is, on hierarchical relationships between the triads. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most often used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period, and of Western-influenced popular music throughout much of the world today.

— Freebase

Auber

Auber

Auber is a station on Line A of the RER in Paris, France. Opened on 23 November 1971 it was at the time the largest underground station in the world, and represents a feat of underground engineering. The station comprises a main train hall with a superposed ticket hall, together with an extensive network of particularly spacious tunnels connecting to the neighbouring métro stations Opéra, Havre-Caumartin and Saint-Lazare, as well as Haussmann - Saint-Lazare on the RER Line E. It takes its name from the rue Auber, under which it is situated. This street is in turn named after the 19th-century composer Daniel-François-Esprit Auber.

— Freebase

Grignard reaction

Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl- or aryl-magnesium halides add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone. This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent. Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard, who was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds.

— Freebase

Bityite

Bityite

Bityite is considered a rare mineral, and it is an endmember to the margarite mica sub-group found within the phyllosilicate group. The mineral was first described by Antoine François Alfred Lacroix in 1908, and later its chemical composition was concluded by Professor Hugo Strunz. Bityite has a close association with beryl, and it generally crystallizes in pseudomorphs after it, or in cavities associated with reformed beryl crystals. The mineral is considered a late-stage constituent in lithium bearing pegmatites, and has only been encountered in a few localities throughout the world. The mineral was named by Lacroix after Mt. Bity, Madagascar from where it was first discovered.

— Freebase

Damara

Damara

Damara is a town located in the Central African Republic prefecture of Ombella-M'Poko. It is located about an hour from the national capital, Bangui. In March 2013, rebels from the Séléka Coalition overtook a checkpoint in Damara. Part of the 2012-2013 Central African Republic conflict, the rebels claimed that President of the Central African Republic François Bozizé had violated the terms of a January cease-fire agreement. After storming the Damara checkpoint, however, the rebels were prevented from taking Bangui by a helicopter attack. "The helicopter opened fire on the column, forcing it to disperse... The rebels have not reached Bangui," said a senior military analyst quoted by Reuters.

— Freebase

Oulipo

Oulipo

Oulipo is a loose gathering of French-speaking writers and mathematicians who seek to create works using constrained writing techniques. It was founded in 1960 by Raymond Queneau and François Le Lionnais. Other notable members have included novelists Georges Perec and Italo Calvino, poets Oskar Pastior, Jean Lescure and poet/mathematician Jacques Roubaud. The group defines the term littérature potentielle as: "the seeking of new structures and patterns which may be used by writers in any way they enjoy." Constraints are used as a means of triggering ideas and inspiration, most notably Perec's "story-making machine", which he used in the construction of Life A User's Manual. As well as established techniques, such as lipograms and palindromes, the group devises new methods, often based on mathematical problems, such as the knight's tour of the chess-board and permutations.

— Freebase

François Duvalier

François Duvalier

François Duvalier was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death in 1971. Duvalier first won acclaim in fighting diseases, earning him the nickname "Papa Doc". He opposed a military coup d'état in 1950, and was elected president in 1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform. His rule, based on a purged military, a rural militia and the use of a personality cult and voodoo, resulted in the murder of an estimated 30,000 Haitians and an ensuing "brain drain" from which the country has still not recovered. Ruling as President for Life from 1964 until his death in 1971, Duvalier was succeeded by his son, Jean-Claude, nicknamed "Baby Doc".

— Freebase

The Man Who Knew Too Much

The Man Who Knew Too Much

The Man Who Knew Too Much is a 1956 suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Doris Day. The film is a somewhat altered remake in widescreen VistaVision and Technicolor of Hitchcock's 1934 film of the same name. In the book-length interview Hitchcock/Truffaut, in response to fellow filmmaker François Truffaut's assertion that aspects of the remake were by far superior, Hitchcock replied "Let's say the first version is the work of a talented amateur and the second was made by a professional". The film won an Academy Award for Best Song for "Whatever Will Be, Will Be", sung by Doris Day. It was also entered into the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.

— Freebase

Seiche

Seiche

A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water. Seiches and seiche-related phenomena have been observed on lakes, reservoirs, swimming pools, bays, harbors and seas. The key requirement for formation of a seiche is that the body of water be at least partially bounded, allowing the formation of the standing wave. The term was promoted by the Swiss hydrologist François-Alphonse Forel in 1890, who was the first to make scientific observations of the effect in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. The word originates in a Swiss French dialect word that means "to sway back and forth", which had apparently long been used in the region to describe oscillations in alpine lakes.

— Freebase

Voltaire

Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite strict censorship laws with harsh penalties for those who broke them. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.

— Freebase

René

René

René is a short novella by François-René de Chateaubriand, which first appeared in 1802. The work had an immense impact on early Romanticism, comparable to that of Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther. Like the German novel, it deals with a sensitive and passionate young man who finds himself at odds with contemporary society. René was first published as part of Chateaubriand's Génie du christianisme along with another novella, Atala, although it was in fact an excerpt from a long prose epic the author had composed between 1793 and 1799 called Les Natchez, which would not be made public until 1826. René enjoyed such immediate popularity that it was republished separately in 1805 along with Atala.

— Freebase

Charles X.

Charles X.

brother of Louis XVI. and Louis XVIII., the latter of whom he succeeded on the throne of France in 1824; was unpopular in France as Duc d'Artois in the time of the Revolution, and had to flee the country at the outbreak of it, and stayed for some time as an exile in Holyrood, Edinburgh; on his accession he became no less unpopular from his adherence to the old régime; at an evil hour in 1830 he issued ordinances in defiance of all freedom, and after an insurrection of three days in the July of that year had again to flee; abdicating in favour of his son, found refuge for a time again in Holyrood, and died at Görtz in his eightieth year (1757-1837).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

François Delsarte

François Delsarte

François Alexandre Nicolas Chéri Delsarte was a French musician and teacher. Though he achieved some success as a composer, he is chiefly known as a teacher in singing and declamation. He went on to develop an acting style that attempted to connect the inner emotional experience of the actor with a systematized set of gestures and movements based upon his own observations of human interaction. This “Delsarte” method became so popular that it was taught throughout the world, but particularly in America, by many teachers who did not fully understand or communicate the emotional connections behind the gestures, and as a result the method devolved into melodramatic posing, the kind in response to which Constantin Stanislavski would later develop his inner psychological methods.

— Freebase

Dugommier

Dugommier

Dugommier is a station of the Paris Métro on line 6 in the 12th arrondissement. The station opened on 1 March 1909 with the opening of the original section of line 6 from Place d'Italie to Nation. It is named after the Rue Dugommier, which was named after Jacques François Dugommier, a general and member of the Convention, which governed France, 1792–1795. It was the location of the Barrière de Charenton, a gate built for the collection of taxation as part of the Wall of the Farmers-General; the gate was built between 1784 and 1788 and demolished during the nineteenth century. Nearby are the Promenade Plantée—a 4.5 km long elevated garden along the abandoned railway which led to the former Gare de La Bastille railway station–and the town hall of the 12th arrondissement.

— Freebase

Vincent Voiture

Vincent Voiture

Vincent Voiture, French poet, was the son of a rich merchant of Amiens. He was introduced by a schoolfellow, the count Claude d'Avaux, to Gaston, Duke of Orléans, and accompanied him to Brussels and Lorraine on diplomatic missions. Although a follower of Gaston, he won the favour of Cardinal Richelieu, and was one of the earliest members of the Académie française. He also received appointments and pensions from Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He published nothing in book form, but his verses and his prose letters were the delight of the coteries, and were copied, handed about and admired more perhaps than the work of any contemporary. He had been early introduced to the Hôtel de Rambouillet, where he was the especial friend of Julie d'Angennes, who called him her "dwarf king." His ingenuity in providing amusement for the younger members of the circle ensured his popularity, which was never seriously threatened except by Antoine Godeau, and this rivalry ceased when Richelieu appointed Godeau bishop of Grasse. When at the desire of the duc de Montausier nineteen poets contributed to the Guirlande de Julie, which was to decide the much-fêted Julie in favour of his suit, Voiture refused to take part. The quarrel between the Uranistes and the Jobelins arose over the respective merits of a sonnet of Voiture addressed to a certain Uranie, and of another composed by Isaac de Benserade, till then unknown, on the subject of Job.

— Freebase

Solresol

Solresol

Solresol is a constructed language devised by François Sudre, beginning in 1827. His major book on it, Langue musicale universelle, was published after his death in 1866, though he had already been publicizing it for some years. Solresol enjoyed a brief spell of popularity, reaching its pinnacle with Boleslas Gajewski's 1902 posthumous publication of Grammaire du Solresol. The teaching of sign languages to the deaf was discouraged between 1880 and 1991 in France, contributing to Solresol's descent into obscurity. After a few years of popularity, Solresol nearly vanished in the face of more successful languages, such as Volapük and Esperanto. There is still a small community of Solresol enthusiasts scattered across the world, better able to communicate with one another now more than before thanks to the Internet.

— Freebase

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania is the compulsive urge to pull out one's own hair leading to noticeable hair loss, distress, and social or functional impairment. It is classified as an impulse control disorder by DSM-IV and is often chronic and difficult to treat. Trichotillomania may be present in infants, but the peak age of onset is 9 to 13. It may be triggered by depression or stress. Due to social implications the disorder is often unreported and it is difficult to accurately predict its prevalence; the lifetime prevalence is estimated to be between 0.6% and may be as high as 1.5% to 3.4%. Common areas for hair to be pulled out are the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, arms, hands, and pubic hairs. The name, coined by French dermatologist François Henri Hallopeau, derives from the Greek: trich-, till, and mania.

— Freebase

Nef

Nef

A nef is an extravagant table ornament and container used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, made of precious metals in the shape of a ship – nef was another word for a carrack in French. If not just used for decoration, it could hold salt or spices, or cutlery, or even napkins. The large nef depicted in the well-known calendar miniature for January from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry is being used to hold, and perhaps wash, gilt dishes from the table service. Nefs are recorded in France as early as 1239, initially consisting of just the hull, and perhaps initially used to drink from; by the 15th century the most elaborate had masts, sails and even crew, and had become too crowded with such details to be used as containers for anything. The so-called Mechanical Galleon in the British Museum is a late 16th century German nef which was also a clock and automaton, with moving figures and music. A nef was usually made of silver, silver-gilt or gold, often further embellished with enamel and jewels. A nautilus shell often formed the hull of the ship, as in the Burghley Nef. Some nefs had wheels to allow them to be rolled from one end of the table to the other, but most had legs or pedestals. The nef was placed in front of the most important person at table as a mark of their status.

— Freebase

Cholesterol

Cholesterol

Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- and stereos followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule. It is a sterol, and an essential structural component of animal cell membranes that is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition to its importance within cells, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals; in vertebrates it is formed predominantly in the liver. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes, although there are some exceptions such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth. François Poulletier de la Salle first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones in 1769. However, it was not until 1815 that chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul named the compound "cholesterine".

— Freebase

Henry IV.

Henry IV.

king of France from 1594 till 1610, surnamed "The Great" and "The Good"; during his reign the great struggle between the Huguenots and the Catholics continued with unabated fury; Henry saved his life in the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day by renouncing his early Calvinism, but was imprisoned; four years later he was again at the head of the Huguenot army and defeating the Bourbon claimant for the throne, was crowned king, but not before waiving his Protestant principles to conciliate the people; in 1598 he issued the famous Edict of Nantes, giving freedom of worship to the Huguenots; during his administration the nation was consolidated, new roads and a growing trade knit the towns together; financial reforms of great importance were carried out by his celebrated minister, Duc de Sully (q. v.); Henry was assassinated by instigation of the Jesuits (1553-1610).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Duxelles

Duxelles

Duxelles is a finely chopped mixture of mushrooms or mushroom stems, onions, shallots and herbs sautéed in butter, and reduced to a paste. It is a basic preparation used in stuffings and sauces or as a garnish. Duxelles can also be filled into a pocket of raw pastry and baked as a savory tart. Duxelles is made with any cultivated or wild mushroom, depending on the recipe. Duxelles made with wild porcini mushrooms will be much stronger flavored than that made with white or brown mushrooms. Fresh mushrooms are usually used; however, reconstituted dried varieties are used, as well. Duxelles is said to have been created by the 17th-century French chef François Pierre La Varenne and to have been named after his employer, Nicolas Chalon du Blé, marquis d'Uxelles, maréchal de France.

— Freebase

Bergie

Bergie

Bergie is a term used for a subsection of homeless people in Cape Town, South Africa. The word originates from the Afrikaans berg meaning "mountain" - the term originally referred to the homeless people who sheltered in the forests of the slopes of Table Mountain. Nowadays, however they are more commonly found in the city where shelter and food are more readily available. Most of them speak Afrikaans mixed with a few English terms. They often make money by acting as informal car guards in the city centre or close to the popular beaches of Cape Town, relying on tips they receive to get by. Although many also beg, and steal. Their lifestyle is portrayed in the documentary Pavement Aristocrats: The Bergies of Cape Town by François Verster as well as the play Suip by Heinrich Reisenhofer.

— Freebase

Genlis, Stephanie Félicité, Comtesse de

Genlis, Stephanie Félicité, Comtesse de

a celebrated French novelist, born at Champceri, near Autun, Burgundy; at the age of 16 she was married to the Comte de Genlis, who eventually fell a victim to the fury of the Revolution; in 1770 she was a lady-in-waiting to the Duchesse de Chartres, and 12 years later became governess to the children of the Duc d'Orléans, amongst whom was the future king of the French, Louis-Philippe; the Revolution drove her to Switzerland, but on the elevation of Napoleon she returned to Paris, and received from him a pension, which continued to be paid her even under the restored Bourbon dynasty: she was a voluminous writer of moral tales, comedies, &c., and her works amount to about 90 vols., among them the celebrated "Mémoirs" of her life and times; she was ill-natured, and in her "Memoirs" inaccurate, as well as prejudiced (1746-1830).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Paulette

Paulette

La Paulette was the name commonly given to the "annual right", a special tax levied by the French Crown during the Ancien Régime. It was first instituted on December 12, 1604 by King Henry IV's minister Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully. Originally under the terms of the Paulette, the holders of various government and judicial offices could secure the right to transfer their office at will by annually paying the Crown one sixtieth of the value of their office. The transmission of judicial offices had been a common practice in France since the late Middle Ages, and by the beginning of the sixteenth century the practice had extended to almost all levels of the ever-increasing Renaissance state administration and played an important role in state finances. Custom had permitted officers to transfer their offices to their heirs with royal permission in return for the payment of a fee. Before it was made illegal in 1521, it had been possible to leave open-ended the date that the transfer was to take effect. In 1534, the "forty days rule" was instituted, which made the successor's right void if the preceding office holder died within forty days of the transfer; however, a new fee, called the survivance jouissante protected against the forty days rule. Still, the new office holder had to meet the minimum qualifications needed for the office or else the office went back to the crown. A modification of the preceding, the Paulette tax substituted an annual tax to protect against the clauses of the forty days rule.

— Freebase

Duke

Duke

A duke or duchess can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank, and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. During the Middle Ages the title signified first among the Germanic monarchies. Dukes were the rulers of the provinces and the superiors of the counts in the cities and later, in the feudal monarchies, the highest-ranking peers of the king. A duke may or may not be, ipso facto, a member of the nation's peerage: in the United Kingdom and Spain all dukes are/were also peers of the realm, in France some were and some were not, while the term is not applicable to dukedoms of other nations, even where an institution similar to the peerage existed. During the 19th century many of the smaller German and Italian states were ruled by Dukes or Grand Dukes. But presently, with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there are no ruling dukes. Duke remains the highest hereditary title in Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain and the United Kingdom. The Pope, as a temporal sovereign, has also, though rarely, granted the title of Duke or Duchess to persons for services to the Holy See. In some realms the relative status of "duke" and "prince", as titles borne by the nobility rather than by members of reigning dynasties, varied, e.g. in Italy and the Netherlands.

— Freebase

Windhoek

Windhoek

Windhoek is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres above sea level. The population of Windhoek in 2011 was 322,500 and grows continually due to an influx from all over Namibia. The town developed at the site of a permanent spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities. It developed rapidly after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. However, in the decades thereafter multiple wars and hostilities led to the neglect and destruction of the new settlement such that Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German army Major Curt von François. Windhoek is the social, economic, and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body, educational and cultural institution is headquartered there.

— Freebase

Euripus Strait

Euripus Strait

The Euripus Strait, is a narrow channel of water separating the Greek island of Euboea in the Aegean Sea from Boeotia in mainland Greece. The strait's principal port is Chalcis on Euboea, located at the strait's narrowest point. The strait is subject to strong tidal currents which reverse direction approximately four times a day. Tidal flows are very weak in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the strait is a remarkable exception. Water flow peaks at about 12 km/hour, either northwards or southwards, and lesser vessels are often incapable of sailing against it. When nearing flow reversal, sailing is even more precarious because of vortex formation. The Swiss scholar Francois-Alphonse Forel helped to solve this enigma owing to his study of limnology and the discovery of the seiche phenomenon. But the complete solving of the problem is due to the Greek D. Eginitis, director of the Athens Observatory, who published his conclusions in 1929.

— Freebase

Fragaria chiloensis

Fragaria chiloensis

Fragaria chiloensis, the beach strawberry, Chilean strawberry, or coastal strawberry, is one of two species of strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern garden strawberry. It is noted for its large berries. Its natural range is the Pacific Ocean coasts of North and South America, and also Hawaiʻi. Migratory birds are thought to have dispersed F. chiloensis from the Pacific coast of North America to the mountains of Hawaiʻi, Chile, and Argentina. It is an evergreen plant growing to 15–30 centimetres tall, with glossy green trifoliate leaves, each leaflet around 5 centimetres long. The flowers are white, produced in spring and early summer. The fruit is edible, red on the surface, white inside. Its fruit is still sold as a local delicacy in some South American produce markets. Amédée-François Frézier was the first to bring back specimens of Fragaria chiloensis to the Old World.

— Freebase

Colombard

Colombard

Colombard is a white French wine grape variety that is the offspring of Gouais blanc and Chenin blanc. This makes the grape the sibling of the Armagnac Meslier-Saint-François and the nearly extinct Cognac grape Balzac blanc. In France it was traditionally grown in the Charentes and Gascony for distilling into Cognac and Armagnac respectively. Today it is still among the permitted white grape varieties in Bordeaux wine, and in Gascony for Vins de Pays Côtes de Gascogne and the white Floc de Gascogne. Old vine grapes are crushed by some northern Californian producers and made into a fruity white wine of interesting character in both dry and sweet versions. This grape is mainly grown in California to provide backbone, due to its natural acidic character, for white "jug wine" blends. It is also widely grown in South Africa where it is known as Columbar, and to a lesser extent in Australia.

— Freebase

Auteur theory

Auteur theory

In film criticism, auteur theory holds that a director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes even because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through all kinds of studio interference and through the collective process. In law, the film is treated as a work of art, and the auteur, as the creator of the film, is the original copyright holder. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory has influenced film criticism since 1954, when it was advocated by film director and critic François Truffaut. This method of film analysis was originally associated with the French New Wave and the film critics who wrote for the French film review periodical Cahiers du Cinéma. Auteur theory was developed a few years later in the United States through the writings of The Village Voice critic Andrew Sarris. Sarris used auteur theory as a way to further the analysis of what defines serious work through the study of respected directors and their films.

— Freebase

Ebullioscope

Ebullioscope

An ebullioscope is an instrument for measuring the boiling point of a liquid. This can be used for determining the alcoholic strength of a mixture, or for determining the molecular weight of a non-volatile solute based on the boiling-point elevation. The procedure is known as ebullioscopy. The first ebullioscope was invented in 1838 by Brossard-Vidal, and was used for measuring alcoholic content. The advantage of this method was that the boiling point is relatively insensitive to other components such as sugars. Older alcoholimeters were based on measuring the density, which is more sensitive to the presence of other solutes. A later version was built by the French chemist François-Marie Raoult, but the difficulty to determine the exact temperature was overcome by the invention of the Beckmann thermometer by Ernst Otto Beckmann in 1887. This improvement made the ebullioscope a standard apparatus to determine the molecular weight of substances in solution by using the ebullioscopic constant of the solvent.

— Freebase

Bertrand de Molleville

Bertrand de Molleville

Comte Antoine François Bertrand de Molleville was a French politician. He was considered a fiery partisan of royalty, and surnamed the enfant terrible of the monarchy. He was first conseiller to the Parlement de Toulouse in 1766, then maîtres des requêtes in 1774 and finally Intendant de Bretagne, in 1784. Bertrand de Molleville was then charged in 1788 with the difficult task of dissolving the Parliament of Brittany. Favourable to the gathering of the estates general in 1789, he advised Louis XVI after the dissolution of the Assemblée. Made ministre de la Marine et des Colonies from 1790 to 1792, he organised the mass emigration of officers. Due to numerous denunciations, he retired from his functions and became chief of the royal secret police. Before and after the 10 August 1792, he tried to organise an escape for the king, but he was eventually forced to resolve to flee to England himself. Despite his dedication and his friendship for, he was one of his most untalented servants.

— Freebase

Mansard roof

Mansard roof

A mansard or mansard roof is a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper. The steep roof with windows creates an additional floor of habitable space, and reduces the overall height of the roof for a given number of habitable storeys. The upper slope of the roof may not be visible from street level when viewed from close proximity to the building. The earliest known example of a Mansard roof is credited to Pierre Lescot on part of the Louvre built around 1550. This roof design was popularised in the early 17th century by François Mansart, an accomplished architect of the French Baroque period. It became especially fashionable during the Second French Empire of Napoléon III. Mansard in Europe also means the attic space itself, not just the roof shape and is often used in Europe to mean a gambrel roof.

— Freebase

Weltschmerz

Weltschmerz

Weltschmerz is a term coined by the German author Jean Paul Richter and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who understands that physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind. This kind of world view was widespread among several romantic authors such as Lord Byron, Giacomo Leopardi, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alfred de Musset, Nikolaus Lenau, Hermann Hesse, and Heinrich Heine. It is also used to denote the feeling of sadness when thinking about the evils of the world. The modern meaning of Weltschmerz in the German language is the psychological pain caused by sadness that can occur when realizing that someone's own weaknesses are caused by the inappropriateness and cruelty of the world and circumstances. Weltschmerz in this meaning can cause depression, resignation and escapism, and can become a mental problem. The modern meaning should also be compared with the concept of anomie, or a kind of alienation, that Émile Durkheim wrote about in his sociological treatise Suicide.

— Freebase

Gwendoline

Gwendoline

The Perils of Gwendoline in the Land of the Yik-Yak, original title Gwendoline, is a 1984 French action/sexploitation film directed by Just Jaeckin, written by Jaeckin and John Willie and starring Tawny Kitaen and Brent Huff. The film is loosely based on the bondage-themed comics of Willie and on the figure of Gwendoline. François Schuiten worked as a graphic designer for the movie. The story concerns Gwendoline, a woman who, accompanied by a soldier of fortune, Willard, and her French maid, journeys deep into the jungle and desert to capture a butterfly that has eluded her late father's scientific quest. They eventually discover the lost underground realm of the Yik-Yak, an all-female society ruled by a queen who plans to kill Willard after he mates with a female gladiator champion. Severin Films has re-released the 88 minutes U.S. release of The Perils of Gwendoline in the Land of the Yik-Yak and released a 106 minutes Gwendoline: Unrated Director's Cut based on the French release.

— Freebase

Orléanist

Orléanist

The Orléanists were a French right-wing/center-right party which arose out of the French Revolution. It governed France 1830-1848 in the "July Monarchy" of king Louis Philippe. It is generally seen as a transitional period dominated by the bourgeoisie and the conservative Orleanist doctrine in economic and foreign policies. The chief leaders included Prime Minister François Guizot. It went into exile during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III and collapsed with the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870. It took its name from the Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, who were its leaders. The faction comprised many liberals and intellectuals who wanted to restore the monarchy as a constitutional monarchy with limited powers for the king and most power in the hands of parliament. Orleanists were opposed by the more conservative Bourbon faction, who wanted the heirs of Louis XVI restored to the throne with great powers. Both Orleanists and Bourbons were opposed by republicans who wanted no king at all.

— Freebase

Gauche caviar

Gauche caviar

Gauche caviar is a pejorative French term to describe someone who claims to be a socialist while living in a way that contradicts socialist values. The expression is a political neologism dating from the 1980s and implies a degree of hypocrisy. It is broadly similar to the English champagne socialist, the American Limousine liberal, the German "Salonkommunist" the Italian "Radical Chic", the Brazilian/Portuguese "esquerda festiva", and the Danish "Kystbanesocialist", referring to well-off coastal neighborhoods north of Copenhagen. Similar terms in English include Hampstead liberal, liberal elite, chardonnay socialist, Bollinger Bolshevik, champagne socialist, champagne-and-caviar socialist. The dictionary Petit Larousse defines "left caviar" as a pejorative expression for a "Progressivism combined with a taste for society life and its accoutrements". The term was once prevalent in Parisian circles, applied deprecatingly to those who professed allegiance to the Socialist Party, but who maintained a far from proletarian lifestyle that distinguished them from the working-class base of the French Socialist Party. It was often employed by detractors of François Mitterrand.

— Freebase

Pantagruel

Pantagruel

Pantagruel is an international Early Music ensemble specialising in semi-staged performances of Renaissance music. The group was formed in Essen, Germany at the end of 2002 by the English lutenist Mark Wheeler and the German born Dominik Schneider. With the arrival of the Scottish Soprano Hannah Morrison in 2004 the ensemble began to perform throughout Europe. Recent Pantagruel performances have taken place at the Münster Baroque Festival, Utrecht Early Music Festival, Aachen Bach Festival and the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 2009 Morrison was replaced by Danish Soprano Anna Maria Wierød. Named after Pantagruel, the protagonist of François Rabelais’s 1532 novel Gargantua and Pantagruel, they have adopted the book's motto "do what thou wilt" to describe their fresh approach to early music. They combine serious musicological research with their experience not only in classical music, but also in rock music, jazz, theatre and dance, and their performances further expand classical concert conventions by using renaissance practices of medley, improvisation and gesture.

— Freebase

Erik Satie

Erik Satie

Éric Alfred Leslie Satie was a French composer and pianist. Satie was a colourful figure in the early 20th century Parisian avant-garde. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, and the Theatre of the Absurd. An eccentric, Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies. Later, he also referred to himself as a "phonometrician" preferring this designation to that of a "musician", after having been called "a clumsy but subtle technician" in a book on contemporary French composers published in 1911. In addition to his body of music, Satie also left a remarkable set of writings, having contributed work for a range of publications, from the dadaist 391 to the American culture chronicle Vanity Fair. Although in later life he prided himself on always publishing his work under his own name, in the late nineteenth century he appears to have used pseudonyms such as Virginie Lebeau and François de Paule in some of his published writings.

— Freebase

Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu

Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu

duke of Dalmatia and marshal of France, born at St. Amans-la-Bastide, department of Tarn; enlisted as a private in 1785, and by 1794 was general of a brigade; gallant conduct in Swiss and Italian campaigns under Masséna won him rapid promotion, and in 1804 he was created a marshal; served with the emperor in Germany, and led the deciding charge at Austerlitz, and for his services in connection with the Treaty of Tilsit received the title of Duc de Dalmatia; at the head of the French army in Spain he outmanoeuvred the English in 1808, conquered Portugal, and opposed to Wellington a skill and tenacity not less than his own, but was thwarted in his efforts by the obstinate incompetence of Joseph Bonaparte; turned Royalist after the abdication of Napoleon, but on his return from Elba rallied to the emperor's standard, and fought at Waterloo; was subsequently banished, but restored in 1819; became active in the public service, and was honoured as ambassador in England in 1838; retired in 1845 with the honorary title of "Marshal-General of France" (1769-1851).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sylvite

Sylvite

Sylvite is potassium chloride in natural mineral form. It forms crystals in the isometric system very similar to normal rock salt, halite. The two are, in fact, isomorphous. Sylvite is colorless to white with shades of yellow and red due to inclusions. It has a Mohs hardness of 2.5 and a specific gravity of 1.99. It has a refractive index of 1.4903. Sylvite has a salty taste with a distinct bitterness. Sylvite is one of the last evaporite minerals to precipitate out of solution. As such, it is only found in very dry saline areas. Its principal use is as a potassium fertilizer. Sylvite is found in many evaporite deposits worldwide. Massive bedded deposits occur in New Mexico and western Texas, and in Utah in the US, but the largest world source is in Saskatchewan, Canada. The vast deposits in Saskatchewan, Canada were formed by the evaporation of a Devonian seaway. Sylvite is the official mineral of Saskatchewan. Sylvite was first described in 1832 at Mt. Vesuvius near Napoli in Italy and named for the Dutch chemist, François Sylvius de le Boe.

— Freebase

Battle of Valmy

Battle of Valmy

The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution. The action took place on 20 September 1792 as Prussian troops commanded by the Duke of Brunswick attempted to march on Paris. Generals François Kellermann and Charles Dumouriez stopped the advance near the northern village of Valmy in Champagne-Ardenne. In this early part of the Revolutionary Wars—known as the War of the First Coalition—the new French government was in most every way unproven, and thus the small, localized victory at Valmy became a huge psychological victory for the Revolution at large. The battle was considered a "miraculous" event and a "decisive defeat" for the vaunted Prussian army. After the battle, the newly assembled National Convention was emboldened enough to formally declare the end of monarchy in France and the establishment of the First French Republic. Valmy permitted the development of the Revolution and all its resultant ripple effects, and for that it is regarded as one of the most significant battles of all time.

— Freebase

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.

— Freebase

Louis XIV.

Louis XIV.

the "Grand Monarque," son of the preceding, was only nine when his father died, and the government was in the hands of his mother, Anne of Austria, and Cardinal Mazarin, her minister; under the regency the glory of France was maintained in the field, but her internal peace was disturbed by the insubordination of the parlement and the troubles of the Fronde; by a compact on the part of Mazarin with Spain before he died Louis was married to the Infanta Maria Theresa in 1659, and in 1660 he announced his intention to rule the kingdom alone, which he did for 54 years with a decision and energy no one gave him credit for, in fulfilment of his famous protestation L'état, c'est moi, choosing Colbert to control finance, Louvois to reorganise the army, and Vauban to fortify the frontier towns; he sought to be as absolute in his foreign relations as in his internal administration, and hence the long succession of wars which, while they brought glory to France, ended in exhausting her; at home he suffered no one in religious matters to think otherwise than himself; he revoked the Edict of Nantes, sanctioned the dragonnades in the Cévennes, and to extirpate heresy encouraged every form of cruelty; yet when we look at the men who adorned it, the reign of Louis XIV. was one of the most illustrious in letters and the arts in the history of France: Corneille, Racine, and Molière eminent in the drama, La Fontaine and Boileau in poetry, Bossuet in oratory, Bruyère and Rochefoucauld in morals, Pascal in philosophy, Saint-Simon and Retz in history, and Poussin, Lorraine, Lebrun, Perault, &c., in art (1636-1715).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Marquis de Sade

Marquis de Sade

Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis of Sade was a French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality. His works include novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts; in his lifetime some were published under his own name, while others appeared anonymously and Sade denied being their author. He is best known for his erotic works, which combined philosophical discourse with pornography, depicting sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence, criminality and blasphemy against the Catholic Church. He was a proponent of extreme freedom, unrestrained by morality, religion or law. The words "sadism" and "sadist" are derived from his name. Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and in an insane asylum for about 32 years of his life; 11 years in Paris, a month in the Conciergerie, two years in a fortress, a year in Madelonnettes, three years in Bicêtre, a year in Sainte-Pélagie and 13 years in the Charenton asylum. During the French Revolution he was an elected delegate to the National Convention. Many of his works were written in prison.

— Freebase

Vanilla

Vanilla

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, simply translates as little pod. Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs, and Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. Initial attempts to cultivate vanilla outside Mexico and Central America proved futile because of the symbiotic relationship between the vanilla orchid and its natural pollinator, the local species of Melipona bee. Pollination is required to set the fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant. The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a 12-year-old slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.

— Freebase

Jeannot

Jeannot

Jeannot was a leader of the 1791 slave rising that began the Haïtian Revolution. With Biassou and Jean François, he was prophesied by Dutty Boukman to lead the revolution, and fought with the Spanish royalists against the French Revolutionary authorities in colonial Haiti. He launched vicious attacks on whites and mulattoes, devising gruesome methods of putting them to death. Toussaint Louverture was sickened by his attitudes and actions. "Small, thin man with a forbidding manner and a veiled crafty face. He was utterly remorseless... even towards his own kind. ... He would stop at nothing to gain his own ends, he was daring, seizing quickly on chances, quick-witted and capable of total hypocrisy. He feared no one and nothing; unfortunately he found inspiration in cruelty, a sadist without the refinements that so-called civilization brings." "He hanged those he had captured by hooks stuck under their chins. He himself put out their eyes with red-hot pincers. He cut the throat of a prisoner and lapped at the blood as it flowed, encouraging those around him to join him: "Ah, my friends, how good, how sweet is the blood of the whites. Drink it deep and swear revenge against our oppressors, never peace, never surrender, I swear by God.".

— Freebase

Amende honorable

Amende honorable

Amende honorable was originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender, barefoot and stripped to his shirt, and led into a church or auditory with a torch in his hand and a rope round his neck held by the public executioner, to beg pardon on his knees of his God, his king, and his country; now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. The amende honorable was sometimes incorporated into a larger ritual of capital punishment for parricides and regicides; this is described in the 1975 book Discipline and Punish by Michel Foucault, notably in reference to Robert-François Damiens who was condemned to make the amende honorable before the main door of the Church of Paris in 1757. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed.. "". Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. James and John Knapton, et al. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.

— Freebase

Shut-in

Shut-in

A shut-in is an Ozark term for a river that's naturally confined within a deep, narrow channel. The river becomes unnavigable even by canoe due to the rapids and narrow channels produced as the stream encounters a more resistant rock that is more difficult to erode. In the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park in Missouri hard rhyolite and a diabase dike diverts the stream into many little streamlets following a complex joint system "shutting" the river. The term had an origin in Appalachia where it was used to refer to a narrow river gorge confined by resistant rock layers. Examples can be found in Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park in Missouri, where the Black River has become confined in a shut-in. More than ninety other "shut–ins" occur within and around the St. Francois Mountains region of southeast Missouri. In southern Illinois the Burden Falls Wilderness area includes a narrow canyon below a waterfall that is confined by a resistant sandstone layer. The gorge is referred to as a shut–in following the Appalachian usage for the term.

— Freebase

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl is a German conservative politician and statesman. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1982–98 and the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973–98. His 16-year tenure was the longest of any German chancellor since Otto von Bismarck, and the longest for any democratically elected German leader. Kohl oversaw the end of the Cold War, and is widely regarded as the main architect of the German reunification. Together with French president François Mitterrand, he is also considered the architect of the Maastricht Treaty, which established the European Union. Kohl and Mitterrand were the joint recipients of the Charlemagne Prize in 1988. In 1996, he won the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award in International Cooperation. In 1998, Kohl was named Honorary Citizen of Europe by the European heads of state or government for his extraordinary work for European integration and cooperation, an honour previously only bestowed on Jean Monnet. Kohl was described as "the greatest European leader of the second half of the 20th century" by U.S. Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton.

— Freebase

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain, "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements. Born into a family of mariners, Champlain, while still a young man, began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont, From 1604 to 1607 Champlain participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida, Port Royal, Acadia. Then, in 1608, he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City. Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and later with others farther west, with Algonquin and with Huron Wendat, and agreed to provide assistance in their wars against the Iroquois.

— Freebase

Facticity

Facticity

Facticity has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence. The term is first used by Fichte and has a variety of meanings. It can refer to facts and factuality, as in nineteenth-century positivism, but comes to mean that which resists explanation and interpretation in Dilthey and Neo-Kantianism. The Neo-Kantians contrasted facticity with ideality, as does Jürgen Habermas in Between Facts and Norms. It is a term that takes on a more specialized meaning in 20th century continental philosophy, especially in phenomenology and existentialism, including Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Recent philosophers such as Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy, and François Raffoul have taken up the notion of facticity in new ways. Facticity plays a key part in Quentin Meillassoux's philosophical project to challenge the thought-world relationship of correlationism. It is defined by him as “the absence of reason for any reality; in other words, the impossibility of providing an ultimate ground for the existence of any being.”

— Freebase

Decipherment

Decipherment

Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. It is closely related to cryptanalysis — the difference being that the original document was deliberately written to be difficult to interpret. The term has also been used to describe the analysis of the genetic code information encoded in DNA - see the Human Genome Project article for more on this. Some people have also used the word metaphorically to mean something like 'understanding'. Examples of successful script decipherment: ⁕Cuneiform script ⁕Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Kharoshthi script ⁕Linear B ⁕Maya script ⁕Tangut script Famous documents that have been the subject of decipherments, successful or failed: ⁕the Behistun Inscription ⁕the Dresden Codex ⁕the Edicts of Ashoka ⁕the Phaistos Disc ⁕the Rohonc Codex ⁕the Rosetta Stone ⁕the Voynich Manuscript ⁕the Franks Casket Famous decipherers: ⁕Magnus Celsius, decipherer of the Staveless runes ⁕Jean-François Champollion, decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Georg Friedrich Grotefend, decipherer of the Old Persian Cuneiform ⁕Edward Hincks, decipherer of the Babilonian Cuneiform script ⁕Bedřich Hrozný, decipherer of the Hittite cuneiform script and language

— Freebase

Logistic function

Logistic function

A logistic function or logistic curve is a common sigmoid function, given its name in 1844 or 1845 by Pierre François Verhulst who studied it in relation to population growth. A generalized logistic curve can model the "S-shaped" behaviour of growth of some population P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as saturation begins, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops. A simple logistic function may be defined by the formula where the variable P might be considered to denote a population, where e is Euler's number and the variable t might be thought of as time. For values of t in the range of real numbers from −∞ to +∞, the S-curve shown is obtained. In practice, due to the nature of the exponential function e−, it is often sufficient to compute t over a small range of real numbers such as [−6, +6]. The logistic function finds applications in a range of fields, including artificial neural networks, biology, biomathematics, demography, economics, chemistry, mathematical psychology, probability, sociology, political science, and statistics. It has an easily calculated derivative: It also has the property that Thus, the function is odd.

— Freebase

Decalcomania

Decalcomania

Decalcomania, from the French décalcomanie, is a decorative technique by which engravings and prints may be transferred to pottery or other materials. It was invented in England about 1750 and imported into the United States at least as early as 1865. Its invention has been attributed to Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process, which he called "decalquer". The first known use of the French term décalcomanie, in Mary Elizabeth Braddon's Eleanor's Victory, was followed by the English decalcomania in an 1865 trade show catalog; it was popularized during the ceramic transfer craze of the mid-1870s. Today the shortened version is "Decal". The surrealist Oscar Domínguez took up the technique in 1936, using gouache spread thinly on a sheet of paper or other surface, which is then pressed onto another surface such as a canvas. Dominguez used black gouache, though colours later made their appearance. German artist Max Ernst also practiced decalcomania, as did Hans Bellmer and Remedios Varo.

— Freebase

Strawberry

Strawberry

Fragaria × ananassa, commonly known as strawberry or garden strawberry, is a hybrid species that is cultivated worldwide for its fruit. The fruit is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in prepared foods such as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams, milkshakes, and chocolates. Artificial strawberry aroma is also widely used in many industrialized food products. The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, which was brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, which was the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century. Technically, the strawberry is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries. Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it.

— Freebase

Phrenology

Phrenology

Phrenology is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. The distinguishing feature of phrenology is the idea that the sizes of brain areas were meaningful and could be inferred by examining the skull of an individual. Following the materialist notions of mental functions originating in the brain, phrenologists believed that human conduct could best be understood in neurological rather than philosophical or religious terms. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840. The principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820. In 1843, François Magendie referred to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day." Phrenological thinking was, however, influential in 19th-century psychiatry and modern neuroscience. Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in localized parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology.

— Freebase

Bighorn River

Bighorn River

The Bighorn River is a tributary of the Yellowstone, approximately 461 miles long, in the western United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. The river was named in 1805 by fur trader François Larocque for the Bighorn Sheep he saw along its banks as he explored the Yellowstone River. The upper reaches of the Bighorn, south of the Owl Creek Mountains in Wyoming, are known as the Wind River. The two rivers are sometimes referred to as the Wind/Bighorn. The Wind River officially becomes the Bighorn River at the Wedding of the Waters, on the north side of the Wind River Canyon near the town of Thermopolis. From there, it flows through the Bighorn Basin in North Central Wyoming, passing through Thermopolis and Hot Springs State Park. At the border with Montana, the river turns northeast, and flows past the north end of the Bighorns, through the Crow Indian Reservation, where the Yellowtail Dam forms the reservoir Bighorn Lake. The reservoir and the surrounding gorge are part of the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. It is joined by the Little Bighorn River near the town of Hardin, Montana. Approximately fifty miles further downriver, it joins the Yellowstone.

— Freebase

Gaultheria

Gaultheria

Gaultheria is a genus of about 170-180 species of shrubs in the family Ericaceae. The name memorializes Jean François Gaultier of Quebec, a mis-spelt honour bestowed by the Scandinavian Pehr Kalm in 1748. These plants are native to Asia, North and South America, and Australasia. In the past, the Southern Hemisphere species were often treated in a separate genus Pernettya; however, there is no consistent reliable morphological or genetic difference to support recognition of two genera, and they are now united in the single genus Gaultheria. The species vary from low, ground-hugging shrubs less than 10 cm tall, up to 2.5 m tall, or, in the case of G. fragrantissima from the Himalaya, even a small tree up to 5–6 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, and vary between species from 0.3–10 cm long; the margins are finely serrated or bristly in most species, but entire in some. The flowers are solitary or in racemes, bell-shaped, with a five-lobed corolla; flower colour ranges from white to pink to red. The fruit is a fleshy berry in many species, a dry capsule in some, with numerous small seeds.

— Freebase

Baroque music

Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era follows the Renaissance, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl, a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period. Later, the name came to apply also to the architecture of the same period. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, François Couperin, Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Pachelbel, and Henry Purcell. The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality. During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera, cantata, oratorio, concerto, and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.

— Freebase

Passepied

Passepied

The passepied is a French court dance and instrumental form of the 16th to 18th centuries, found frequently in French Baroque opera and ballet, particularly in pastoral scenes. In the mid- and late Baroque, it was used also in orchestral and keyboard suites, where passepieds usually occurred in pairs, with the first reappearing after the second, as a da capo. The music is an example of a dance movement in Baroque music with a fast tempo and a time signature of 3 8 or 6 8, occasionally 3 4, each section beginning with an upbeat. Passepieds occasionally appear in suites such as Handel's Water Music or J.S. Bach's Overture in the French Style for harpsichord where there are two Passepieds in minor and major keys respectively, to be played alternativement in the order I, II, I. The earliest historical mention of the passepied was by Noël du Fail in 1548, who said it was common at Breton courts. François Rabelais and Thoinot Arbeau, writing later in the 16th century, confirm the dance as a type of branle characteristic of Brittany. At this time, however, it was a fast duple-time dance with three-bar phrases, therefore of the branle simple type.

— Freebase

Chambre Ardente

Chambre Ardente

A Chambre ardente was an extraordinary court of justice in Ancien Régime France, mainly held for the trials of heretics. The name is perhaps an allusion to the fact that the proceedings took place in a room from which all daylight was excluded, the only illumination being from torches, or there may be a reference to the severity of the sentences in ardente, suggesting the burning of the prisoners at the stake. These courts were originated by the Cardinal of Lorraine, the first of them meeting in 1535 under Francis I. The Chambre Ardente co-operated with an inquisitorial tribunal also established by Francis I, the duty of which was to discover cases of heresy and hand them over for final judgment to the Chambre Ardente. The reign of Henry II of France was particularly infamous for the cruelties perpetrated by this court on the Huguenots. The marquise de Brinvilliers and her associates were tried in the Chambre Ardente between 1675 and 1680. The court was abolished in 1682. See N Weiss, La Chambre Ardente, and François Ravaisson, Archives de la Bastille. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.

— Freebase

François Achille Bazaine

François Achille Bazaine

François Achille Bazaine was a French General and from 1864, a Marshal of France, who surrendered the last organized French army to the Prussians during the Franco-Prussian war. He was the first Marshal who had started as a legionnaire and like the great Marshals of the First Empire, had risen from the ranks. During four decades of distinguished service under Louis-Philippe and then Napoleon III, he held every rank in the Army from Fusilier to Marshal of France. He became renowned for his determination to lead from the front, for his impassive bearing under fire and for personal bravery verging on the foolhardy. He was sentenced to death by the government of the Third Republic, for his surrender of the fortress city of Metz and his army of 180,000 men to the Prussians on 27 October 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. This sentence was commuted to 20 years imprisonment in exile, from which he subsequently escaped. He eventually settled in Spain where aged 77, he died alone and impoverished in 1888. To the Foreign Legion he remains a hero and to this day is honoured as one of their bravest soldiers.

— Freebase

Smithsonite

Smithsonite

Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate, a mineral ore of zinc. Historically, smithsonite was identified with hemimorphite before it was realised that they were two distinct minerals. The two minerals are very similar in appearance and the term calamine has been used for both, leading to some confusion. The distinct mineral smithsonite was named in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant in honor of English chemist and mineralogist, James Smithson, whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institution and who first identified the mineral in 1802. Smithsonite is a variably colored trigonal mineral which only rarely is found in well formed crystals. The typical habit is as earthy botryoidal masses. It has a Mohs hardness of 4.5 and a specific gravity of 4.4 to 4.5. Smithsonite occurs as a secondary mineral in the weathering or oxidation zone of zinc-bearing ore deposits. It sometimes occurs as replacement bodies in carbonate rocks and as such may constitute zinc ore. It commonly occurs in association with hemimorphite, willemite, hydrozincite, cerussite, malachite, azurite, aurichalcite and anglesite. It forms two limited solid solution series, with substitution of manganese leading to rhodochrosite, and with iron, leading to siderite.

— Freebase

Lekain

Lekain

Lekain was the stage name of Henri Louis Cain, a French actor. He was born in Paris, the son of a silversmith. He was educated at the Collège Mazarin, and joined an amateur company of players against which the Comédie-Française obtained an injunction. Voltaire supported him for a time and enabled him to act in his private theatre and also before the duchess of Maine. Owing to the hostility of the actors it was only after a struggle of seventeen months that, by the command of King Louis XV he was accepted at the Comédie-Française. His success was immediate. Among his best parts were Herod the Great in Mariamne, Nero in Britannicus and similar tragic roles, in spite of the fact that he was short, stout, and lacking in good looks. His name is connected with several important scenic reforms. It was he who had the benches removed on which privileged spectators sat obstructing the stage; Count Lauragais paid the excessive indemnity demanded. Lekain also protested against the method of sing-song declamation which was prevalent, and endeavoured to correct the costuming of the plays, although unable to obtain the historic accuracy at which François Joseph Talma aimed.

— Freebase

Guillotine

Guillotine

The guillotine is a device designed for carrying out executions by decapitation. It consists of a tall upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured at the bottom of the frame, with his or her neck held directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to fall swiftly and sever the head from the body. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, when it "became a part of popular culture, celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the Revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror by opponents." However, it continued to be used long after the Revolution and remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment with the backing of President François Mitterrand in 1981. The last person guillotined in France was Hamida Djandoubi, on 10 September 1977. The guillotine has also been employed in other countries. In Germany, it saw rapid and prolific use during the Third Reich and was used once by West Germany in 1949 and by the German Democratic Republic as late as 1966.

— Freebase

A cause

A cause

"A cause" is the third and last single released in France from Céline Dion's French album D'elles. It was sent to the radio stations on January 21, 2008. At the same time "Alone" was released to promote Dion's English album Taking Chances. Both tracks were included on the "A cause" promotional single. "A cause" was written by Françoise Dorin and Jacques Veneruso, who also produced this track. Céline Dion performed it during the French TF1 TV special dedicated to the issue of her album D'elles, in May 2007. She also performed "A cause" on Vivement Dimanche during her visit in France, in November 2007. The performance was supposed to be broadcast on France 2 in May 2008, during the French leg of the Taking Chances Tour, but it was cancelled. "A cause" was remixed by Dj Rien - French producer, composer and remixer. There was no music video made for this track. D'elles includes also another version of "A cause," called "On s'est aimé à cause." It was recorded with music by Marc Dupré and Jean-François Breau, and produced by Tino Izzo. This version includes the original lyrics written by Françoise Dorin, which were modified to fit the danceable arrangement of "A cause." In August 2007, "On s'est aimé à cause" was released as a radio single in Quebec. Radio stations in France started to play it at the end of January 2008, together with "A cause."

— Freebase

Feudalism

Feudalism

Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum, then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the medieval period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof, feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs. There is also a broader definition, as described by Marc Bloch, that includes not only warrior nobility but all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clerics, and the peasantry bonds of manorialism; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Since 1974 with the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown's The Tyranny of a Construct, and Susan Reynolds' Fiefs and Vassals, there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.

— Freebase

Counts of Clermont-Tonnerre

Counts of Clermont-Tonnerre

Clermont-Tonnerre is the name of a French family, members of which played some part in the history of France, especially in Dauphiné, from about 1100 to the French Revolution. Sibaud, lord of Clermont in Viennois, who first appears in 1080, was the founder of the family. His descendant, another Sibaud, commanded some troops which aided Pope Calixtus II in his struggle with the Antipope Gregory VIII; and in return for this service it is said that the pope allowed him to add certain emblems, two keys and a tiara to the arms of his family. A direct descendant, Ainard, called vicomte de Clermont, was granted the dignity of captain-general and first baron of Dauphiné by his suzerain Humbert, dauphin of Viennois, in 1340; and in 1547 Clermont was made a county for Antoine, who was governor of Dauphiné and the French king's lieutenant in Savoy. In 1572, Antoine's son Henri was created a duke, but as this was only a brevet title it did not descend to his son. Henri was killed before La Rochelle in 1573. In 1596 Henri's son, Charles Henri, count of Clermont, added Tonnerre to his heritage; but in 1648 this county was sold by his son and successor, François.

— Freebase

Champfleury

Champfleury

Jules François Felix Fleury-Husson, who wrote under the name Champfleury, was a French art critic and novelist, a prominent supporter of the Realist movement in painting and fiction. In 1843 Fleury-Husson moved to Paris. He met Charles Baudelaire and the next year started writing art criticism under the pen-name "Champfleury" for the journal L'Artiste. He was one of the first to promote the work of Gustave Courbet, in an article appearing in an issue of Le Pamphlet in 1848. In 1850 he advocated the work of El Greco, and wrote about the Le Nain brothers and Maurice Quentin de La Tour. He also had a brief affair in 1851 with Eveline Hańska, the widow of his friend Honoré de Balzac. He edited the periodical Le réalisme in 1856 and 1857. His novels, of which the best-known is Les bourgeois de Molinchart, were among the earliest Realist works. In 1869 his book Les Chats, a series of essays about cats including portrayals of cats by prominent artists of the time, was published by Librarie de la Societe Botanique de France, edited by J. Rothschild. From 1872 until his death in 1889 he was Chief of Collections at the Sèvres porcelain factory.

— Freebase

Physiocracy

Physiocracy

Physiocracy is an economic theory developed by the Physiocrats, a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development." Their theories originated in France and were most popular during the second half of the 18th century. Physiocracy is perhaps the first well-developed theory of economics. The movement was particularly dominated by François Quesnay and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot. It immediately preceded the first modern school, classical economics, which began with the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. The most significant contribution of the Physiocrats was their emphasis on productive work as the source of national wealth. This is in contrast to earlier schools, in particular mercantilism, which often focused on the ruler's wealth, accumulation of gold, or the balance of trade. At the time the Physiocrats were formulating their ideas, economies were almost entirely agrarian. That is presumably why the theory considered only agricultural labor to be valuable. Physiocrats viewed the production of goods and services as consumption of the agricultural surplus, since the main source of power was from human or animal muscle and all energy was derived from the surplus from agricultural production.

— Freebase

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin. Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony. He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests. His debut, Hippolyte et Aricie, caused a great stir and was fiercely attacked for its revolutionary use of harmony by the supporters of Lully's style of music. Nevertheless, Rameau's pre-eminence in the field of French opera was soon acknowledged, and he was later attacked as an "establishment" composer by those who favoured Italian opera during the controversy known as the Querelle des Bouffons in the 1750s. Rameau's music had gone out of fashion by the end of the 18th century, and it was not until the 20th that serious efforts were made to revive it. Today, he enjoys renewed appreciation with performances and recordings of his music ever more frequent.

— Freebase

Kaolinite

Kaolinite

Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as kaolin or china clay. The name is derived from Chinese Kao-Ling, a village near Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, China. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of the word: "kaolin", following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen. In Africa, kaolin is sometimes known as kalaba, calaba, and calabachop. Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity. It is a soft, earthy, usually white mineral, produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. In many parts of the world, it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide, giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white, yellow or light orange colors. Alternating layers are sometimes found, as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia, United States. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder, semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry.

— Freebase

Panurge

Panurge

Panurge is one of the principal characters in the Pantagruel of Rabelais, an exceedingly crafty knave, a libertine, and a coward. In Chapter 9 of the first book he shows he can speak many languages, including some of the first examples of a constructed language. In French, reference to Panurge occurs in the phrase mouton de Panurge, which describes an individual that will blindly follow others regardless of the consequences. This, after a story in which Panurge buys a sheep from the merchant Dindenault and then, as a revenge for being overcharged, throws the sheep into the sea. The rest of the sheep in the herd follow the first over the side of the boat, in spite of the best efforts of the shepherd. "Suddenly, I do not know how, it happened, I did not have time to think, Panurge, without another word, threw his sheep, crying and bleating, into the sea. All the other sheep, crying and bleating in the same intonation, started to throw themselves in the sea after it, all in a line. The herd was such that once one jumped, so jumped its companions. It was not possible to stop them, as you know, with sheep, it's natural to always follow the first one, wherever it may go." --Francois Rabelais, Quart Livre, chapter VIII

— Freebase

François Guizot

François Guizot

François Pierre Guillaume Guizot was a French historian, orator, and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848, a conservative liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power, and worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830. He then served the "citizen king" Louis Philippe, as Minister of Education, 1832–37, ambassador to London, Foreign Minister 1840–1847, and finally Prime Minister of France from 19 September 1847 to 23 February 1848. Guizot's influence was critical in expanding public education, which under his ministry saw the creation of primary schools in every French commune. But as a leader of the "Doctrinaires", committed to supporting the policies of Louis Phillipe and limitations on further expansion of the political franchise, he earned the hatred of more left-leaning liberals and republicans through his unswerving support for restricting suffrage to propertied men, advising those who wanted the vote to "enrich yourselves" through hard work and thrift. As Prime Minister, it was Guizot's ban on the political meetings of an increasingly vigorous opposition in January 1848 that catalyzed the revolution that toppled Louis Philippe in February and saw the establishment of the French Second Republic.

— Freebase

Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy is a concept developed by French philosopher François Laruelle. Laruelle argues that all forms of philosophy are structured around a prior decision, and remain constitutively blind to this decision. The 'decision' that Laruelle is concerned with here is the dialectical splitting of the world in order to grasp the world philosophically. Examples from the history of philosophy include Immanuel Kant's distinction between the synthesis of manifold impressions and the faculties of the understanding; Martin Heidegger's split between the ontic and the ontological; and Jacques Derrida's notion of différance/presence. The reason Laruelle finds this decision interesting and problematic is because the decision itself cannot be grasped without introducing some further scission. Laruelle further argues that the decisional structure of philosophy can only be grasped non-philosophically. In this sense, non-philosophy is a science of philosophy. Non-philosophy is not metaphilosophy because, as Laruelle scholar Ray Brassier notes, "philosophy is already metaphilosophical through its constitutive reflexivity". Brassier also defines non-philosophy as the "theoretical practice of philosophy proceeding by way of transcendental axioms and producing theorems which are philosophically uninterpretable". The reason why the axioms and theorems of non-philosophy are philosophically uninterpretable is because, as explained, philosophy cannot grasp its decisional structure in the way that non-philosophy can.

— Freebase

Garganta

Garganta

Garganta is a fictional comic book character published by AC Comics appearing in several of their titles, most commonly Femforce the title in which she debuted in 1990. Originally appearing as a one-off antagonist, she proved so popular with readers that she re-appeared two issues later and eventually became a regular character. In 2001, Garganta appeared her own comic book Garganta's Thrilling Science. A live-action movie entitled Gargantarama, starring Brenna Barry as Garganta, was released on DVD in February 2006. A sequel, Ghost of Garganta, was released December 14, 2010. Storylines have exploited Garganta's size-changing ability as both a blessing and as a curse. Although she can usually regulate her size by mental effort, she sometimes experiences uncontrolled growth and causes havoc. She is for the most part gentle and friendly and uses her giant size to help others. Because her powers would destroy her normal clothes, she wears only her Span-XX bikini. Garganta's name was given to her by Ellen McFarland, a reporter who had a minor supporting role in Femforce and was covering her initial rampage. It comes from the adjective gargantuan which is in turn derived from Gargantua, a fictional giant created by François Rabelais.

— Freebase

Tartiflette

Tartiflette

Tartiflette is a French dish from the Haute Savoie region of France. It is made with potatoes, reblochon cheese, lardons and onions. A popular variation of this dish is to replace the lardons with smoked salmon. The word tartiflette is probably derived from the Arpitan word for potato, tartifla. " This modern recipe was inspired by a truly traditional dish called "péla": a gratin of potatoes, onions and cheese made in a long-handled pan called a pelagic in the Provence region of France. It was developed in the 1980s by the Union Interprofessional Reblochon to promote sales of reblochon, as is confirmed also by Christian Millau in his gastronomic dictionary. Tartiflette was first mentioned in a book of 1705, Le Cuisinier Royal et Bourgeois written by François Massialot and his assistant cook B Mathieu. The name derives from the Savoyard word for potatoes, tartifles, a term also found in Provençal. The Savoyards first heard of tartiflette when it began to appear on the menus of restaurants in the ski stations, conveying an image of authenticity and mountain terroir. A common, related preparation found throughout the region is the Croziflette. The format of this adheres to that of the original dish in everything but the use of potatoes, in place of which are found minuscule squares of locally produced pasta

— Freebase

Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts, it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Originally displayed within a temple, the stone was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period and eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in 1799 by a soldier, Pierre-François Bouchard, of the French expedition to Egypt. As the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, the Rosetta Stone aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this hitherto untranslated ancient language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. Meanwhile, British troops defeated the French in Egypt in 1801, and the original stone came into British possession under the Capitulation of Alexandria. Transported to London, it has been on public display at the British Museum since 1802. It is the most-visited object in the British Museum.

— Freebase

Tantieme

Tantieme

Tantième was a French Thoroughbred horse racing champion and prominent sire who twice won the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, France's most prestigious horse race. He also won several other important conditions races including the Grand Critérium in 1949, the Poule d'Essai des Poulains, Prix Lupin and his first Arc de Triomphe in 1950. Racing as a four-year-old, in 1951 Tantième won the Prix Ganay plus his second Arc de Triomphe and in England he captured the Coronation Cup. After winning twelve of his fifteen races, Tantième was retired to stand at stud at François Dupre's Haras d'Ouilly where he became the Champion French Sire of 1962 and 1965. A few of the horses Tantième sired are: ⁕Tanerko - In France won Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud, Prix Juigne, Prix Noailles, Prix Lupin, Prix du Prince d'Orange, Prix Ganay, Prix d'Harcourt. ⁕Reliance - In France won the 1965 Prix du Jockey Club, Grand Prix de Paris, Prix Royal-Oak. ⁕Match II - In France won the 1961 Prix Royal-Oak, 1962 Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud. In England: 1962 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes and in the United States, the 1962 Washington, D.C. International. ⁕La Sega - In France won the Prix de Diane, Poule d'Essai des Pouliches, Prix Saint-Alary, Prix d'Ispahan, Prix de la Grotte.

— Freebase

Diastase

Diastase

A diastase is any one of a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose. Alpha amylase degrades starch to a mixture of the disaccharide maltose, the trisaccharide maltotriose, which contains three α-linked glucose residues, and oligosaccharides known as dextrins that contain the α-linked glucose branches. Diastase was the first enzyme discovered. It was extracted from malt solution in 1833 by Anselme Payen and Jean-François Persoz, chemists at a French sugar factory. The name "diastase" comes from the Greek word διάστασις because when beer mash is heated, the enzyme causes the starch in the barley seed to transform quickly into soluble sugars and hence the husk to separate from the rest of the seed. Today, diastase means any α-, β-, or γ-amylase that can break down carbohydrates. The commonly used -ase suffix for naming enzymes was derived from the name diastase. When used as a pharmaceutical drug, diastase has the ATC code A09AA01. These days, diastase can be taken out from the barley seed even after all the beer ingredients were mixed and heated. This beneficial enzyme can also be extracted from various other sources. These include plants, saliva and milk. However, for obtaining a natural diastase there can be used numerous natural sources.

— Freebase

Antimicrobial

Antimicrobial

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibacterials are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classed according to their function. Antimicrobials that kill microbes are called microbicidal; those that merely inhibit their growth are called microbiostatic. Disinfectants such as bleach are non-selective antimicrobials. Use of substances with antimicrobial properties is known to have been common practice for at least 2000 years. Ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks used specific molds and plant extracts to treat infection. More recently, microbiologists such as Louis Pasteur and Jules Francois Joubert observed antagonism between some bacteria and discussed the merits of controlling these interactions in medicine. In 1928, Alexander Fleming became the first to discover a natural antimicrobial fungus known as penicillium rubens. He named the substance extracted from the fungus penicillin and in 1942 it was successfully used to treat a streptococcus infection. Penicillin also proved successful in the treatment of many other infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, strep throat and pneumonia, which were potentially fatal to patients up until then.

— Freebase

Châteaubriand, François René de

Châteaubriand, François René de

eminent French littérateur, born in St. Malo, younger son of a noble family of Brittany; travelled to N. America in 1791; returned to France on the arrest of Louis XVI., and joined the Emigrants (q. v.) at Coblenz; was wounded at the siege of Thionville, and escaped to England; wrote an "Essay on Revolutions Ancient and Modern," conceived on liberal lines; was tempted back again to France in 1800; wrote "Atala," a story of life in the wilds of America, which was in 1802 followed by his most famous work, "Génie du Christianisme"; entered the service of Napoleon, but withdrew on the murder of the Duc d'Enghien; though not obliged to leave France, made a journey to the East, the fruit of which was his "Itinéraire de Paris à Jerusalem"; hailed with enthusiasm the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814; supported the Bourbon dynasty all through, though he wavered sometimes in the interest of liberty; withdrew from public life on the elevation of Louis Philippe to the throne; he was no thinker, but he was a fascinating writer, and as such exercised no small influence on the French literature of his day; he lived in a transition period, and hovered between legitimism and liberty, the revolution and reaction, and belonged to the Romantic school of literature—was perhaps the father of it in France (1766-1848).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jean-Claude Duvalier

Jean-Claude Duvalier

Jean-Claude Duvalier, nicknamed "Bébé Doc" or "Baby Doc" was the President of Haiti from 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986. He succeeded his father, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, as the ruler of Haiti upon his father's death in 1971. After assuming power, he introduced cosmetic changes to his father's regime and delegated much authority to his advisors, though thousands of Haitians were killed or tortured, and hundreds of thousands fled the country. He maintained a notoriously lavish lifestyle, and made millions from involvement in the drug trade and from selling body parts from dead Haitians while poverty among his people remained the most widespread for any country in the Americas. Relations with the United States improved after Duvalier's ascension to the presidency, and later deteriorated under the Carter administration, only to again improve under Ronald Reagan due to the strong anti-communist stance of the Duvaliers. Duvalier unexpectedly returned to Haiti on 16 January 2011 after two decades in self-imposed exile in France. The following day, he was arrested by Haitian police, facing possible charges for embezzlement. On 18 January, Duvalier was charged with corruption. On February 28, 2013, Duvalier pleaded not guilty to charges of corruption and human rights abuse.

— Freebase

George Frederick Handel

George Frederick Handel

This sculpture of composer George Frideric Handel is by Louis-François Roubiliac. It was commissioned by the impresario Jonathan Tyers for his famous pleasure gardens at Vauxhall. Handel is shown in the guise of Orpheus, holding a lyre. Despite the classical allusion, he wears informal contemporary dress: a soft cap, a long shirt open at the neck, a full loose gown, and slippers, one of which lies beneath his right foot. His post is also casual. He is seated cross-legged, leaning on a pile of bound scores of his works, including Alexander's Feast which was completed the same month the statue was finished. The statue is unprecedented, for not only was the sitter portrayed with startling informality, but it was the first life-size marble depicting a living artist. Until this date such public statues were erected only for monarchs, noblemen or military leaders. Roubiliac was a native of France, although his known surviving work was executed in England. Handel is his earliest known independent sculpture. When it went on display in Vauxhall Gardens in 1738 it proved an immediate success, helping to establish Roubiliac as one of the leading sculptors in England. Roubiliac was trained in Lyon, later working in Dresden under a leading Baroque sculpture, Balthasar Permoser, and then studying in Paris before moving to London in about 1730. All his known surviving works were executed in Britain. He specialised in portrait busts and funerary monuments, and was renowned for his handling of marble, particularly his creation of subtle surface textures.

— Freebase

Tribolet

Tribolet

Tribolet was an obscure troubadour, known only for one song, the obscene Us fotaires que no fo amoros. The song's rubric was read as t'bolet by Giulio Bertoni, who identified its composer as Tremoleta, but Alfred Jeanroy suggested the reading "Tribolet", which is widely accepted. He also suggested that the composition attributed to him is a parody of a piece now lost. The song is preserved in one chansonnier dating from the final third of the thirteenth century, the same period in which the song may have been written. The phrase "the one he loves" found in the ninth and eighteenth verses has caused some confusion, since le seems masculine: "the one [man] he loves." On this reading, it appears that the composer is a frustrated homosexual, who has plenty of sex with women but misses sex with the man he desires. Francesco Carapezza has argued, however, that just as celes is an aberrant form of the usual celas, so le is just an unusual form of feminine la, in which case the poem is a comic exaggeration of heterosexual lust. According to C. H. Grandgent, the form le as masculine may indicate influence from Old French, and François Zufferey has catalogued other instances of the normal masculine lo replaced by le in Old Occitan.

— Freebase

Conservatism

Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions. A person who follows the philosophies of conservatism is referred to as a traditionalist or conservative. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context was by François-René de Chateaubriand in 1819, following the French Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus, conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an Anglo-Irish politician who served in the British House of Commons and opposed the French Revolution, is credited as one of the founders of conservatism in Great Britain. According to Quintin Hogg, a former chairman of the British Conservative Party, "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself."

— Freebase

Armata Corsa

Armata Corsa

Armata Corsa was an underground separatist terrorist organization in Corsica, today disbanded. Armata Corsa was founded in 1999. Its suspected leaders, François Santoni and Jean-Michel Rossi, allegedly resigned from another organization National Liberation Front of Corsica the previous year to form their own group. The organization claims that it acts against links between nationalistic and criminal organizations in Corsica. It denounces mafia-style activities of groups like FLNC and regards itself as the only one serving a pure nationalist cause. Its stated goals include destruction of Corsican organized crime and the nationalist groups involved with it; transfer of Corsican terrorists currently incarcerated in French prisons to Corsica; and Corsican independence. The first acts of terrorism the group claimed responsibility for were five bomb attacks against Departmental Amenities Directorate buildings in Ajaccio, Calvi, Corte, Porto-Vecchio and Sartène. Two days later police also found an unexploded bomb in Bastia. Two months later there was an explosion in Bonifacio that destroyed a hotel owned by Italians. Corsica is the main area of AC activities although they have claimed responsibility of some explosions in mainland France as well. They target public infrastructure, banks, tourists, police and army buildings and targets they regards as symbols of French power over Corsica.

— Freebase

Classical period

Classical period

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1730 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense to describe a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1750 to 1820. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic. Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.

— Freebase

Buccina

Buccina

A buccina or bucina, anglicized buccin or bucine, is a brass instrument used in the ancient Roman army similar to the Cornu. An aeneator who blew a buccina was called a "buccinator" or "bucinator". It was originally designed as a tube measuring some 3.4 to 3.7 meters in length, of narrow cylindrical bore, and played by means of a cup-shaped mouthpiece. The tube is bent round upon itself from the mouthpiece to the bell in the shape of a broad C and is strengthened by means of a bar across the curve, which the performer grasps while playing, in order to steady the instrument; the bell curves over his head or shoulder. The buccina was used for the announcement of night watches and various other purposes in the camp. The instrument is the ancestor of both the trumpet and the trombone. The German word for "trombone", Posaune, is linguistically derived from Buccina. The buccin was revived during the French Revolution, along with the "tuba curva". Both instruments were first used in music that François Joseph Gossec composed for the translation of the remains of Voltaire to the Pantheon, on 11 July 1791. In the final section of his orchestral work Pini di Roma, Respighi calls for six instruments of different ranges notated as "Buccine", although he expected them to be played on modern saxhorns or flugelhorns. Similarly, he also used these instruments in the opening movement of his Feste Romane.

— Freebase

Jacques Monod

Jacques Monod

Jacques Lucien Monod was a French biologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis". Monod is famous for his work on the E. coli lac operon, which encodes proteins necessary for the transport and breakdown of the sugar lactose. From their own work and the work of others, he and Jacob came up with a model for how the levels of some proteins in a cell are controlled. In their model, the manufacture of proteins, such as the ones encoded within the lac operon, is prevented when a repressor, encoded by a regulatory gene, binds to its operator, a specific site on the DNA next to the genes encoding the proteins. It is now known that repressor bound to the operator physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter, the site where transcription of the adjacent genes begins. Study of the control of expression of genes in the lac operon provided the first example of a transcriptional regulation system. He also suggested the existence of mRNA molecules that link the information encoded in DNA and proteins. Monod is widely regarded as one of the founders of molecular biology. Monod's interest in the lac operon originated from his doctoral dissertation, for which he studied the growth of bacteria in culture media containing two sugars.

— Freebase

Agrarianism

Agrarianism

Agrarianism has two common meanings. The first meaning refers to a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values. It stresses the superiority of a simpler rural life as opposed to the complexity of city life, with its banks and factories. The American Thomas Jefferson was a representative agrarian who built Jeffersonian Democracy around the notion that farmers are “the most valuable citizens” and the truest republicans. The philosophical roots of agrarianism include European and Chinese philosophers. The Chinese School of Agrarianism was a philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. This influenced European intellectuals like François Quesnay, an avid Confucianist and advocate of China's agrarian policies, forming the French agrarian philosophy of Physiocracy. The Physiocrats, along with the ideas of John Locke and the Romantic Era, formed the basis of modern European and American agrarianism. Secondly, the term "agrarianism" means political proposals for land redistribution, specifically the distribution of land from the rich to the poor or landless. This terminology is common in many countries, and originated from the "Lex Sempronia Agraria" or "agrarian laws" of Rome in 133 BC, imposed by Tiberius Gracchus, that seized public land used by the rich and distributed it to the poor. This definition of agrarianism is commonly known as “agrarian reform.”

— Freebase

Franz Xaver Richter

Franz Xaver Richter

Franz Xaver Richter, known as François Xavier Richter in France was an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral. From 1783 on Haydn’s favourite pupil Ignaz Pleyel was his deputy at the cathedral. The most traditional of the first generation composers of the so-called Mannheim school, he was highly regarded in his day as a contrapuntist. As a composer he was equally at home in the concerto and the strict church style. Mozart heard a mass by Richter on his journey back from Paris to Salzburg in 1778 and called it charmingly written. Richter, as a contemporary engraving clearly shows, must have been one of the first conductors to actually have conducted with a music sheet roll in his hand. Richter wrote chiefly symphonies, concertos for woodwinds, trumpet, chamber and church music, his masses receiving special praise. He was a man of a transitional period, and his symphonies in a way constitute one of the missing links between the generation of Bach and Handel and the Viennese classic. Although sometimes contrapuntal in a learned way, Richter’s orchestral works nevertheless exhibit considerable drive and verve. Until a few years ago Richter "survived" with recordings of his trumpet concerto in D major but recently a number of chamber orchestras and ensembles have taken many of his pieces, particularly symphonies and concertos, in their repertoire.

— Freebase

Harpsichordist

Harpsichordist

A harpsichordist is a person who plays the harpsichord. Many baroque composers played the harpsichord, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Domenico Scarlatti, George Frideric Handel, François Couperin and Jean-Philippe Rameau. At this time, it was common for such musicians also to play the organ, and all keyboard instruments, and to direct orchestral music while playing continuo on the instrument. Modern harpsichord playing can be roughly divided into three eras, beginning with the career of the influential reviver of the instrument, Wanda Landowska. At this stage of the 'harpsichord revival', players generally used harpsichords of a heavy, piano-influenced type made by makers such as Pleyel; the revival of the instrument also led some composers to write specifically for the instrument, often on the request of Landowska. An influential later group of English players using post-Pleyel instruments by Thomas Goff and the Goble family included George Malcolm and Thurston Dart. The next generation of harpsichordists were pioneers of modern performance on instruments built according to the authentic practices of the earlier period, following the research of such scholar-builders as Frank Hubbard and William Dowd. This generation of performers included such players as Ralph Kirkpatrick, Igor Kipnis, and Gustav Leonhardt. More recently, many outstanding harpsichordists have appeared, such as Trevor Pinnock, Kenneth Gilbert, Christopher Hogwood, Jos van Immerseel, Ton Koopman, David Schrader and Alexander Frey, with many of them also directing a baroque orchestra from the instrument.

— Freebase

Tiefschwarz

Tiefschwarz

Tiefschwarz is a tech house group comprising brothers, Alexander "Ali" and Sebastian "Basti" Schwarz, which formed in Stuttgart in 1996. Peter Hoff, who runs the Benztown studios in Stuttgart, joined later, and completed the first Tiefschwarz production team. Their name means "deep black" in German, and is a combination of the brothers' surnames, and their love of deep house. Their earliest productions were released on the Continuemusics label in 1997, and their first taste of a well-respected label was with their Music track on François Kevorkian's Wave Music label in 1999. The team released their first album, RAL9005 on the Four Music label in 2001, which was later licensed to Derrick Carter and Luke Solomon's Classic Recordings label. Tiefschwarz continued to release on Classic until its collapse in 2005, as well as releasing on labels such as Fine and International DeeJay Gigolo Records. Many of their tracks have been licensed to compilations, from the Stereo Sushi series, to compilations for Bugged Out!, Get Physical and Renaissance, and in 2006, they released a mix of their own for the Fabric mix series. Their sound is considered, at least by those who have followed them from their Classic days, to have changed somewhat over the last few years. Instead of their original deep, mellow house, Tiefschwarz now represent a gritty and edgy electro house sound, their more recent tracks gaining recognition from the likes of Ivan Smagghe, Touché, Sasha and Danny Howells.

— Freebase

Tarot

Tarot

The tarot is a pack of playing cards, used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play a group of card games such as Italian tarocchini and French tarot. From the late 18th century until the present time the tarot has also found use by mystics and occultists in efforts at divination or as a map of mental and spiritual pathways. The tarot has four suits. Each of these suits has pip cards numbering from ace to ten and four face cards for a total of 14 cards. In addition, the tarot is distinguished by a separate 21-card trump suit and a single card known as the Fool. Depending on the game, the Fool may act as the top trump or may be played to avoid following suit. François Rabelais gives tarau as the name of one of the games played by Gargantua in his Gargantua and Pantagruel; this is likely the earliest attestation of the French form of the name. Tarot cards are used throughout much of Europe to play card games. In English-speaking countries, where these games are largely unplayed, tarot cards are now used primarily for divinatory purposes. Occultists call the trump cards and the Fool "the major arcana" while the ten pip and four court cards in each suit are called minor arcana. The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.

— Freebase

Bouts-Rimés

Bouts-Rimés

Bouts-Rimés, literally "rhymed-ends", is the name given to a kind of poetic game defined by Addison, in the Spectator, as lists of words that rhyme to one another, drawn up by another hand, and given to a poet, who was to make a poem to the rhymes in the same order that they were placed upon the list. The more odd and perplexing the rhymes are, the more ingenuity is required to give a semblance of common sense to the production. For instance, the rhyme scheme breeze, elephant, squeeze, pant, scant, please, hope, pope is submitted, and the following stanza is the result: The invention of bouts-rimés is attributed to a minor French poet of the 17th century named Dulot, of whom little else is remembered. According to the Menagiana, about the year 1648, Dulot was complaining one day that he had been robbed of a number of valuable papers, and, in particular, of three hundred sonnets. Surprise being expressed at his having written so many, Dulot explained that they were all blank sonnets, that is to say, that he had put down the rhymes and nothing else. The idea struck everyone as amusing, and what Dulot had done seriously was taken up as a jest. Bouts-rimés became the fashion, and in 1654 Jean François Sarrazin composed a satire against them, entitled La Défaite des bouts-rimés, which enjoyed a great success. Nevertheless, they continued to be abundantly composed in France throughout the 17th century and a great part of the 18th century.

— Freebase

Hamlet

Hamlet

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the play dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet, Claudius's brother and Prince Hamlet's father, and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude, the old king's widow and Prince Hamlet's mother. The play vividly portrays both true and feigned madness – from overwhelming grief to seething rage – and explores themes of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in English literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others." The play was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most-performed, topping the Royal Shakespeare Company's performance list since 1879. It has inspired writers from Goethe and Dickens to Joyce and Murdoch, and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella". Shakespeare based Hamlet on the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum as subsequently retold by 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest. He may also have drawn on or perhaps written an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet. He almost certainly created the title role for Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since, the role has been performed by highly acclaimed actors and actresses from each successive age.

— Freebase

Kanak people

Kanak people

Kanak are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific. According to the 2009 census, they constitute 40.3% of the total population of New Caledonia. Though Melanesian settlement is recorded on Grande Terre's Presqu'île de Foué peninsula as far back as the Lapita culture, the origin of Kanak people is unclear. Ethnographic research has shown that Polynesian seafarers have intermarried with the Kanaks over the centuries. The Kanaks refer to the European inhabitants of New Caledonia as Caldoches. New Caledonia was annexed to France in 1853, and became an overseas territory of France in 1956. A political movement, restarted by the Kanaks in 1984, after an initial failed revolt in 1967, has strongly pursued total independence status from the French rule. The movement is supported by the United Nations resolution of December 1986. A 2014 referendum will decide whether or not the territory will achieve sovereign status. When the 1988 Matignon agreements were signed between the representatives of France and New Caledonia to decide on holding the referendum for independence, Jean-Marie Tjibaou, the Kanak leader of the independence movement, had mooted a proposal to set up an Agency for the Development of Kanak Culture. After Tjibaou's assassination in 1989, the French President François Mitterrand ordered that a cultural centre on the lines suggested by Tjibaou be set up in Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia; it was to be the last of Mitterrand's Grands Projets. The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre was formally established in May 1998.

— Freebase

Alunite

Alunite

Alunite is a sulfate mineral that was first observed in the 15th century in Monti della Tolfa, north of Rome, where it was mined for the manufacture of alum. First called aluminilite by J.C. Delamétherie in 1797, this name was contracted by François Beudant in 1824 to alunite. Distinct crystals of alunite are rarely found in cavities in the massive material. Alunite crystallizes in the hexagonal system with crystals forming trigonal pyramids that resemble rhombohedra with interfacial angles of 90° 50', so that they resemble cubes in appearance. Minute glistening crystals have also been found loose in cavities in altered rhyolite. Alunite varies in color from white to yellow gray. The hardness is 4 and the specific gravity is between 2.6 and 2.8. The mineral is a hydrated aluminium potassium sulfate, KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. Sodium substitutes for potassium and when high in sodium it is called natroalunite. It is insoluble in water or weak acids, but soluble in sulfuric acid. Jarosite is an iron analogue in which Fe3+ replaces the aluminium. It occurs as a secondary mineral on iron sulfate ores. Alunite occurs as veins and replacement masses in trachyte, rhyolite, and similar potassium rich volcanic rocks. It is formed by the action of sulfuric acid bearing solutions on these rocks during the oxidation and leaching of metal sulfide deposits. Alunite also is found near volcanic fumaroles. The white, finely granular masses closely resemble finely granular limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, and magnesite in appearance. The more compact kinds from Hungary are so hard and tough that they have been used for millstones.

— Freebase

Polis

Polis

Polis, plural poleis, literally means city in Greek. It could also mean citizenship and body of citizens. In modern historiography "polis" is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, so polis is often translated as "city-state". Ancient Greek city-states, which developed during the Archaic period, the ancestor of city, state and citizenship, and persisted well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity. The term city-state which originated in English does not fully translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather a political entity ruled by its body of citizens. The traditional view of archaeologists, that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read as a sufficient index for the development of a polis was criticised by François Polignac in 1984 and has not been taken for granted in recent decades: the polis of Sparta for example was established in a network of villages. The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant city, changed with the development of the governance center in the city to indicate state, and finally with the emergence of a citizenship notion between the land owners it came to describe the entire body of citizens. The ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and other poleis as such; they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Thebans and so on. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece as a polis.

— Freebase

Auguste Rodin

Auguste Rodin

François-Auguste-René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with the predominant figure sculpture tradition, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin was sensitive to the controversy surrounding his work, but refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the government and the artistic community. From the unexpected realism of his first major figure — inspired by his 1875 trip to Italy — to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he later sought, Rodin's reputation grew, such that he became the preeminent French sculptor of his time. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, and he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. He married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community.

— Freebase

Chad

Chad

Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1978, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.

— Freebase

Parachute

Parachute

A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift. Parachutes are usually made out of light, strong cloth, originally silk, now most commonly nylon. Parachutes must slow an object's terminal vertical speed by a minimum 75% in order to be classified as such. Depending on the situation, parachutes are used with a variety of loads, including people, food, equipment, space capsules, and bombs. Drogue chutes are used to aid horizontal deceleration of a vehicle, or to provide stability. The word "parachute" comes from the French prefix paracete, originally from the Greek, meaning to protect against, and chute, the French word for "fall", and it was originally coined, as a hybrid word which meant literally "that which protects against a fall", by the French aeronaut François Blanchard in 1785. The earliest evidence for the parachute dates back to the Renaissance period. The oldest parachute design appears in an anonymous manuscript from 1470s Renaissance Italy, showing a free-hanging man clutching a cross bar frame attached to a conical canopy. As a safety measure, four straps run from the ends of the rods to a waist belt. The design is a marked improvement over another folio which depicts a man trying to break the force of his fall by the means of two long cloth streamers fastened to two bars which he grips with his hands. Although the surface area of the parachute design appears to be too small to offer effective resistance to the friction of the air and the wooden base-frame is superfluous and potentially harming, the revolutionary character of the new concept is obvious.

— Freebase

Idomeneus

Idomeneus

In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus, Cleisithyra, Leucus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was also one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, he is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, and escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors. He was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, and even fought Hector briefly and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well as the story comes to a close. He was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed thirteen men and at least one Amazon woman, Bremusa, at Troy. According to the fourth century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, and the French 17th century writer François Fénelon, the story continues as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm. He promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew. The first living thing was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed. The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete. The Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria, Italy and then Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, and then together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina.

— Freebase

François Mitterrand

François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand was the 21st President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, serving from 1981 until 1995. He is the longest-serving President of France and, as leader of the Socialist Party, the first figure from the left elected President under the Fifth Republic. Reflecting family influences, Mitterrand started political life on the Catholic nationalist right. He served under the Vichy Regime in its earlier years. Subsequently, however, he joined the Resistance, moved to the left, and held ministerial office repeatedly under the Fourth Republic. He opposed de Gaulle's establishment of the Fifth Republic. Although at times a politically isolated figure, Mitterrand outmanoeuvred rivals to become the left's standard bearer in every presidential election from 1965 to 1988, except 1969. Elected President in the May 1981 presidential election, he was re-elected in 1988 and held office until 1995. Mitterrand invited the Communist Party into his first government, a controversial move at the time. In the event, the Communists were boxed in as junior partners and, rather than taking advantage, saw their support erode. They left the cabinet in 1984. Early in his first term, Mitterrand followed a radical economic program, including nationalization of key firms, but after two years, with the economy in crisis, he reversed course. His foreign and defense policies built on those of his Gaullist predecessors. His partnership with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl advanced European integration via the Maastricht Treaty, but he accepted German reunification only reluctantly. During his time in office he was a strong promoter of culture and implemented a range of costly "Grands Projets". He was twice forced by the loss of a parliamentary majority into "cohabitation governments" with conservative cabinets led, respectively, by Jacques Chirac, and Édouard Balladur. Less than 8 months after leaving office, Mitterrand died from the prostate cancer he had successfully concealed for most of his presidency.

— Freebase

Central African Republic

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It borders Chad in the north, Sudan in the northeast, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo in the south and Cameroon in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 4.4 million as of 2008. The capital is Bangui. France called the colony it carved out in this region Oubangui-Chari, as most of the territory was located in the Ubangi and Chari river basins. It became a semi-autonomous territory of the French Community in 1958 and then an independent nation on 13 August 1960, taking its present name. For over three decades after independence, the CAR was ruled by presidents or an emperor, who either were unelected or who took power by force. Local discontent with this system was eventually reinforced by international pressure, following the end of the Cold War. The first multi-party democratic elections in the CAR were held in 1993, with the aid of resources provided by the country's donors and help from the United Nations. The elections brought Ange-Félix Patassé to power, but he lost popular support during his presidency and was overthrown in 2003 by the French-backed General François Bozizé, who went on to win a democratic election in May 2005. Bozizé's inability to pay public sector workers led to strikes in 2007, which led him to appoint a new government on 22 January 2008, headed by Faustin-Archange Touadéra. In February 2010, Bozizé signed a presidential decree which set 25 April 2010 as the date for the next presidential election. This was postponed, but elections were held in January and March 2011, which were won by Bozizé and his party. Despite maintaining a veneer of stability, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption, underdevelopment, nepotism and authoritarianism, which led to an open rebellion against his government. The rebellion was led by an alliance of armed opposition factions known as the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict. This eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013.

— Freebase

Pierrot

Pierrot

Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and Commedia dell'Arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a hypocorism of Pierre, via the suffix -ot. His character in postmodern popular culture—in poetry, fiction, the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin. Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat, usually with a close-fitting crown and wide round brim, more rarely with a conical shape like a dunce's cap. But most frequently, since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau, he wears neither collar nor hat, only a black skullcap. The defining characteristic of Pierrot is his naïveté: he is seen as a fool, always the butt of pranks, yet nonetheless trusting. It was a generally buffoonish Pierrot that held the European stage for the first two centuries of his history. And yet early signs of a respectful, even sympathetic attitude toward the character appeared in the plays of Jean-François Regnard and in the paintings of Antoine Watteau, an attitude that would deepen in the nineteenth century, after the Romantics claimed the figure as their own. For Jules Janin and Théophile Gautier, Pierrot was not a fool but an avatar of the post-Revolutionary People, struggling, sometimes tragically, to secure a place in the bourgeois world. And subsequent artistic/cultural movements found him equally amenable to their cause: the Decadents turned him, like themselves, into a disillusioned disciple of Schopenhauer, a foe of Woman and of callow idealism; the Symbolists saw him as a lonely fellow-sufferer, crucified upon the rood of soulful sensitivity, his only friend the distant moon; the Modernists converted him into a Whistlerian subject for canvases devoted to form and color and line. In short, Pierrot became an alter-ego of the artist, specifically of the famously alienated artist of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His physical insularity; his poignant lapses into mutism, the legacy of the great mime Deburau; his white face and costume, suggesting not only innocence but the pallor of the dead; his often frustrated pursuit of Columbine, coupled with his never-to-be vanquished unworldly naïveté—all conspired to lift him out of the circumscribed world of the Commedia dell'Arte and into the larger realm of myth. Much of that mythic quality still adheres to the "sad clown" of the postmodern era.

— Freebase


The Web's Largest Resource for

Definitions & Translations


A Member Of The STANDS4 Network