Definitions containing la bruyère, jean de

We've found 250 definitions:

Moxie Jean

Moxie Jean

Moxie Jean is an upscale resale site that allows busy moms to buy and sell high-quality, brand-name kids' clothes. By providing a curated stylish selection of like-new kids’ clothes, Moxie Jean makes it easy to keep up with fast-growing little bodies, from Newborn to size 8. And with the free, postage-paid Moxie Jean Mailer Bag, it’s easier than ever to clean out the kids’ closets and get cash or credit toward the clothes they need next.Moxie Jean partners with charities such as the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago to hold “Clean Out Your Closet Fundraisers” where supporters can donate their credits to the patients served by the hospital. Moxie Jean, launched in July of this year and was founded by Chicago moms Sharon Schneider (CEO) and Sandra Pinter (COO).

— CrunchBase

Miss Julie

Miss Julie

Miss Julie is a naturalistic play written in 1888 by August Strindberg dealing with class, love, lust, the battle of the sexes, and the interaction among them. Set on Midsummer's Eve on the estate of a Count in Sweden, the young woman of the title, attempting to escape an existence cramped by social mores and have a little fun, dances at the servants' annual midsummer party, where she is drawn to a senior servant, a footman named Jean, who is particularly well-traveled, well-mannered and well-read. The action takes place in the kitchen of Miss Julie's father's manor; here Jean's fiancée, a servant named Kristin, cooks and sometimes sleeps while Jean and Miss Julie talk. The plot is primarily concerned with power in its various forms. Miss Julie has power over Jean because she is upper-class. Jean has power over Miss Julie because he is male and uninhibited by aristocratic values. The count, Miss Julie's father, has power over both of them since he is a nobleman, an employer, and a father. On this night, behavior between Miss Julie and Jean which was previously a flirtatious contest for power rapidly escalates to a love relationship—or is it just lust?—that is fully consummated. Over the course of the play, Miss Julie and Jean battle for control, which swings back and forth between them until Jean convinces her that the only way to escape her predicament is to commit suicide.

— Freebase

Jean-Claude

Jean-Claude

Jean-Claude is a fictional character in the Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series of novels by Laurell K. Hamilton. Within the novels, Jean-Claude's role is as one of the primary love interests of the series heroine, Anita Blake. Jean-Claude is a French-born vampire who is over 400–600 years old. He was a favorite of Belle Morte for his eyes, and, like many vampires of Belle Morte's line, Jean-Claude was selected for his almost perfect mortal beauty. He arrived in St. Louis and, indeed, the United States itself to escape Belle Morte's court with the help of Augustine. Jean-Claude became the Master Vampire of St. Louis after Anita Blake killed Nikolaos. Together with Richard Zeeman, Jean-Claude is a member of Anita's first triumvirate. Jean-Claude's daytime lair is the sub-basement of the Circus of the Damned. As owner of the "JC Corporation," he also owns and runs Guilty Pleasures, The Laughing Corpse, and Danse Macabre, as well as other clubs.

— Freebase

Blondel de Nesle

Blondel de Nesle

Blondel de Nesle - either Jean I of Nesle or his son Jean II of Nesle - was a French trouvère. The name 'Blondel de Nesle' is attached to twenty-four or twenty-five courtly songs. He was identified in 1942, by Holger Dyggve, as Jean II of Nesle, who was nicknamed 'Blondel' for his long blond hair. He married at the time of his father's death in 1202, and that same year, went on the Fourth Crusade; he later fought in the Albigensian Crusade. However, in 1994, Yvan Lepage suggested that the poet may have been Jean I, father of Jean II, who was Lord of Nesle from 1180 to 1202; this Jean took part in the Third Crusade, which may explain the subsequent legend linking him with Richard I of England. If the works are correctly identified and dated, he was a significant influence on his European contemporaries, who made much use of his melodies.. His works are fairly conventional, and several have been recorded in modern times.

— Freebase

Chien de Jean de Nivelle

Chien de Jean de Nivelle

Chien de Jean de Nivelle is an animal or a man who does not want to obey when called, as in the expression Here comes the dog of Jean de Nivelle, it flees when it is called. The origins of the expression are unknown. It is thought that this Jean de Nivelle refused to help his father, Jean de Montmorency, to support Louis XI in the war against the duke of Burgundy. Furious, his father disinherited him and Jean de Nivelle fled to Flanders, hoping to avoid further troubles.

— Freebase

Bosman ruling

Bosman ruling

Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman C-415/93 is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision concerning freedom of movement for workers, freedom of association, and direct effect of article 39 of the EC Treaty. The case was an important decision on the free movement of labour and had a profound effect on the transfers of football players within the European Union. The decision banned restrictions on foreign EU players within national leagues and allowed players in the EU to move to another club at the end of a contract without a transfer fee being paid. The ruling was made in a consolidation of three separate legal cases, all involving Belgian player Jean-Marc Bosman: ⁕Belgian Football Association v Jean-Marc Bosman ⁕R.F.C. de Liège v Jean-Marc Bosman and others ⁕UEFA v Jean-Marc Bosman

— Freebase

Blue Jean

Blue Jean

"Blue Jean" is a song from the album Tonight by David Bowie. One of only two tracks on the album to be written entirely by Bowie, it was released as a single ahead of the album. Loosely inspired by Eddie Cochran, the song was an uncomplicated composition, recalling earlier Bowie rockers such as "The Jean Genie," and is generally regarded as one of the better parts of a disappointing album. Following the huge commercial success of Bowie's previous album, Let's Dance, its singles and the Serious Moonlight Tour, "Blue Jean" was launched with massive promotion. Julien Temple was engaged to direct a 21-minute short film to promote the song, Blue Jean. The song performance segment from this was also used as a more conventional music video. "Blue Jean" was a hit in the UK and America, reaching No. 6 and No. 8, respectively. The song would remain in Bowie's live repertoire for the rest of his career, being performed on tours in 1987, 1990 and 2004.

— Freebase

La Bruyère

La Bruyère

La Bruyère is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Namur. It consists of the former municipalities of Emines, Rhisnes, Villers-lez-Heest, Warisoulx, Bovesse, Meux and Saint-Denis-Bovesse. The village of Rhisnes is the administrative centre of the municipality.

— Freebase

Horoscope

Horoscope

the planisphere invented by Jean Paduanus

— Webster Dictionary

Jane

Jane

a kind of twilled cotton cloth. See Jean

— Webster Dictionary

Labadist

Labadist

a follower of Jean de Labadie, a religious teacher of the 17th century, who left the Roman Catholic Church and taught a kind of mysticism, and the obligation of community of property among Christians

— Webster Dictionary

Pestalozzian

Pestalozzian

belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher

— Webster Dictionary

accommodation

accommodation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality

— Princeton's WordNet

arthur honegger

Honegger, Arthur Honegger

Swiss composer (born in France) who was the founding member of a group in Paris that included Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud and Francis Poulenc and Jean Cocteau (1892-1955)

— Princeton's WordNet

assimilation

assimilation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance

— Princeton's WordNet

emile

Emile

the boy whose upbringing was described by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

— Princeton's WordNet

honegger

Honegger, Arthur Honegger

Swiss composer (born in France) who was the founding member of a group in Paris that included Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud and Francis Poulenc and Jean Cocteau (1892-1955)

— Princeton's WordNet

piagetian

Piagetian

of or relating to or like or in the manner of Jean Piaget

— Princeton's WordNet

rousseauan

Rousseauan

of or pertaining to or characteristic of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

— Princeton's WordNet

existentialism

existentialism

A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).

— Wiktionary

jean

jean

Made of denim (as "jean jacket").

— Wiktionary

dungaree

dungaree

Heavy denim fabric, often blue; blue jean material.

— Wiktionary

Rousseau

Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Swiss philosopher

— Wiktionary

Jeanie

Jeanie

A diminutive of the female given name Jean.

— Wiktionary

Jeanette

Jeanette

, a Scottish diminutive of Jean, or an anglicized form of Jeannette.

— Wiktionary

Parisine

Parisine

A typeface developed for the Paris Metro by Jean-Franu00E7ois Porchez

— Wiktionary

Jeannie

Jeannie

A diminutive of the female given name Jean.

— Wiktionary

Sartrean

Sartrean

Of or pertaining to Jean-Paul Sartre or his works

— Wiktionary

Rameau

Rameau

of French origin. Widely known as the surname of the French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764).

— Wiktionary

Molieresque

Molieresque

Reminiscent of (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, 1622u20131673), French playwright and actor.

— Wiktionary

Kerouacian

Kerouacian

Of or pertaining to Jean-Louis "Jack" Kerouac (1922-1969), American beat novelist and poet.

— Wiktionary

Arc de Triomphe

Arc de Triomphe

A monument in Paris, designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, started in 1808 and inaugurated in 1836.

— Wiktionary

Godardian

Godardian

Of or pertaining to Jean-Luc Godard (born 1930) or his cinematic style.

— Wiktionary

Hans Arp

Hans Arp

Jean Arp / Hans Arp was a German-French, or Alsatian, sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. When Arp spoke in German he referred to himself as "Hans", and when he spoke in French he referred to himself as "Jean". Many people believe that he was born Hans and later changed his name to Jean, but this is not the case.

— Freebase

Girondist

Girondist

The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondists were a group of loosely-affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the States-general from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the revenge killing of radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by Girondist sympathizer, Charlotte Corday. Some prominent Girondists were Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in American Founding Father Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed with the guillotine and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution.

— Freebase

Jean Cocteau

Jean Cocteau

Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants terribles, and the films Blood of a Poet, Les Parents terribles, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus. His circle of associates, friends and lovers included Kenneth Anger, Pablo Picasso, Jean Hugo, Jean Marais, Henri Bernstein, Yul Brynner, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, Igor Stravinsky, María Félix, Édith Piaf and Raymond Radiguet.

— Freebase

Wampus

Wampus

Wampus is a French comic book character written by Franco Frescura and illustrated by Luciano Bernasconi for French publisher Editions Lug in 1969. Wampus is an alien monster with shapeshifting powers who has been sent by an evil cosmic intelligence, the Great Mind, to destroy Earth. He is discovered and pursued by French secret agent, Jean Sten. In the course of its original six issues, Wampus caused havoc in France, Germany, the USA, Japan, England and Spain. Wampus was originally published in six, digest-sized magazines. The series was then discontinued because of censorship problems. The final episode was eventually serialized in 1985 in Ombrax, another of Lug's magazines. The same concept was also reprised as L'Autre in the magazine Futura in 1973. Wampus returned in 2001, written by Jean-Marc Lofficier and still drawn by Bernasconi for a series of seven new episodes which completed the storyline begun in 1969, depicting the final confrontation between Jean Sten and his alien nemesis. The stories also featured a number of guest-stars from the Lug universe. Wampus is now part of Hexagon Comics which has published a collection of his adventures translated into English.

— Freebase

Pilote

Pilote

Pilote was a French comics periodical published from 1959 to 1989. Showcasing most of the major French or Belgian comics talents of its day the magazine introduced major series such as Astérix, Barbe-Rouge, Blueberry, Achille Talon, and Valérian et Laureline. Major comics writers like René Goscinny, Jean-Michel Charlier, Greg, Pierre Christin and Jacques Lob were featured in the magazine, as were artists such as Jijé, Morris, Albert Uderzo, Jean Giraud, Enki Bilal, Jean-Claude Mézières, Jacques Tardi, Philippe Druillet, Marcel Gotlib, Alexis, and Annie Goetzinger. Pilote also published several international talents such as Hugo Pratt, Frank Bellamy and Robert Crumb.

— Freebase

Billie Jean

Billie Jean

"Billie Jean" is a song by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It is the second single from the singer's sixth solo album, Thriller. It was written and composed by Jackson and produced by him and Quincy Jones. There are contradictory claims to what the song's lyrics refer to. One suggests that they are derived from a real-life experience, in which a female fan claimed that Jackson had fathered one of her twins. However, Jackson himself stated that "Billie Jean" was based on groupies he had encountered. The song is well known for its distinctive bassline by guitarist David Williams, and Jackson's vocal hiccups. The song was mixed 91 times by audio engineer Bruce Swedien before it was finalized. The song became a worldwide commercial and critical success; it was one of the best-selling singles of 1983 and is one of the best-selling singles worldwide. The song topped both the US and UK charts simultaneously. In other countries, it topped the charts of Switzerland and reached the top ten in Austria, Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden. "Billie Jean" was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1989.

— Freebase

Fourier Analysis

Fourier Analysis

Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island

An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Seychelles

Seychelles

A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Science

Science

Science creates, scales and acquires successful digital businesses by bringing together ideas, talent, resources and financing through a centralized platform. The company focuses on developing new businesses, providing emerging startups with operational strategy and capital, and transforming later-stage Internet ventures with new talent and innovations.Science is backed by a group of top institutional and independent investors, which include: Rustic Canyon, White Star Capital, The Social+Capital Partnership, Tomorrow Ventures, Siemer Ventures, Philippe Camus, Jean-Marie Messier, Jonathan Miller and Dennis Phelps.

— CrunchBase

Vinfolio

Vinfolio

Based in San Francisco, with a second location opening in Hong Kong in Fall 2008, Vinfolio’s guiding principle is “Fine wine, finer service,” demonstrating the company’s unparalleled level of personalized customer service and collector services. Vinfolio’s wine store is seamlessly integrated with collector services, all designed to make the wine buying, selling and collecting experience effortless and enjoyable. From an extensive selection of fine wine to VinCellar™, its online cellar management software, to collector services (including on-site inventorying and full-service storage), Vinfolio delivers “Fine wine, finer service”.Vinfolio was founded by Stephen J. Bachmann, who incorporated his expertise in technology and finance with his passion for wine. Having amassed a 7,000 bottle collection, Bachmann realized all too well the challenges of building and managing a wine collection. He launched Vinfolio in 2003 as an integrated solution for serious wine lovers and currently serves as the company’s CEO. As he explains it, “finally the administrative tasks associated with amassing and developing a wine collection can be accomplished with efficiency, expertise and convenience, allowing passionate oenophiles to get back to the fun of collecting and drinking wine.”In addition to its expert staff of oenophiles, Vinfolio has a notable group of advisors with deep expertise in all aspects of the wine industry. These include members of the board of directors and personal investors Jean-Michel Valette, M.W., Former Chairman of Robert Mondavi Winery, Colin Lind, Managing Partner of Blum Capital Partners, L.P and Bill Timken, founding partner of Hambrecht & Quist. In addition, Vinfolio’s board of advisors includes Rajat Parr, wine director for the MICHAEL MINA group; Martine Saunier, founder of Martine’s Wines; Vineyard 29 owner Chuck McMinn; and entrepreneur and collector William J. Shea.

— CrunchBase

Kookai

Kookai

Kookai is a French fashion label founded in 1983 by Jean-Lou Tepper, Jacques Nataf and Philippe de Hesdin. It has a simple philosophy: "to supply young women with affordable apparel for their wardrobes". It has stores in Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Its clothing line is generally characterised by French fashion trends. Galleries Lafayette carried a large line of Kookai, Claudie Pierlot, Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Lolita Bis by Lolita Lempicka, Plein Sud, P.J. Hohenscheid, and other European labels when it opened its first American store in Trump Tower, in September 1991.

— Freebase

No, No, No

No, No, No

"No, No, No" is an R&B song performed by American group Destiny's Child for their debut studio album Destiny's Child and the track was produced by Vincent Herbert, Rob Fusari and Wyclef Jean and received a positive reception from music critics. The original version and its remix featuring Wyclef Jean was released as the group's debut single in the fourth quarter of 1997 and reached No. 3 in the United States, where it was certified platinum. It was the first single for the group, worldwide. The remix is based around a sample of The Love Unlimited Orchestra's "Strange Games and Things."

— Freebase

Blood Feud

Blood Feud

"Blood Feud" is the twenty-second and final episode of The Simpsons' second season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on July 11, 1991. In the episode, Mr. Burns falls ill and desperately needs a blood transfusion. Homer discovers Bart has Burns' rare blood type and urges his son to donate some, promising that they will be handsomely rewarded. However, after receiving the blood, all Burns does is send the family a card. Enraged, Homer writes an insulting reply, but Marge convinces him at the last minute not to send it, although Bart mails it anyway. The episode was written by George Meyer and directed by David Silverman. Executive producer Sam Simon and writers Al Jean and Mike Reiss came up with the idea for the episode. A co-worker had recently needed a blood transfusion and the writers thought it would be funny if Mr. Burns had one. Although Meyer was credited with writing the episode, Jean and Reiss re-wrote and polished the script. The episode includes the debut of the Olmec head Xtapolapocetl, which would become a common background prop in the Simpson home. "Blood Feud" was part of the season two production run, but was completed behind schedule. It was originally broadcast on July 11, 1991 as part of "premiere week", the Fox Network's attempt to expand the normal 30 week prime time season and gain new viewers for the fall. In its original broadcast, the episode finished 24th in ratings for the week with a Nielsen rating of 10.8.

— Freebase

Funeral Rites

Funeral Rites

Funeral Rites is a 1948 novel by Jean Genet. It is a story of love and betrayal across political divides, written this time for the narrator's lover, Jean Decarnin, killed by the Germans in WWII. The first edition was limited to 1,500 copies; in 1953 the text was revised by Gallimard, excising some possibly offensive passages, which became the basis for the 1953 English translation by Frechtman.

— Freebase

Acadia

Acadia

Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southern-most settlements of Acadia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became Canadian provinces and American states. The population of Acadia included descendants of emigrants from France along with those from the Wabanaki Confederacy. The two communities inter-married, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis. The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613 but it was later rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British conquest of Acadia in 1710. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and later British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton were conceded by Britain to France and renamed Île Saint-Jean and Île Royale. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War, France and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. Finally, during the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.

— Freebase

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin. Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony. He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests. His debut, Hippolyte et Aricie, caused a great stir and was fiercely attacked for its revolutionary use of harmony by the supporters of Lully's style of music. Nevertheless, Rameau's pre-eminence in the field of French opera was soon acknowledged, and he was later attacked as an "establishment" composer by those who favoured Italian opera during the controversy known as the Querelle des Bouffons in the 1750s. Rameau's music had gone out of fashion by the end of the 18th century, and it was not until the 20th that serious efforts were made to revive it. Today, he enjoys renewed appreciation with performances and recordings of his music ever more frequent.

— Freebase

Démodé

Démodé

Démodé is Jean-Jacques Goldman first solo album sung in French, set in 1981. It was recorded at the Studios Pathé in Paris and the Studio Vénus in Longueville. The album has also been released under the names A l'envers and Jean-Jacques Goldman. It was certified platinum in France for sales of 300,000 copies.

— Freebase

Orange Blossom

Orange Blossom

Orange Blossom is a French band that plays a mix of electronic and world music. The band was formed in Nantes in 1993 with Pierre-Jean Chabot on violin and Jean-Christophe Waechter on percussions and vocals. In 1994, Éric joined the band and a first audio tape was recorded in September. In 1995 the band stabilized with the arrival of Carlos Robles Arenas on drums, djembé, and sampler, and the departure of Éric. Their first disc, Orange Blossom, came out in 1997 on the Prikosnovénie label, selling 15,000 copies. Before their second album came out, the group was influenced by ethnic and traditional music. They met and collaborated with several non-French artists, like Ivorian percussion group Yelemba D'Abidjan and Egyptian group Ganoub. They toured in Egypt, France, and Belgium. Vocalist Jay C. left the band in 2000 and created Prajña. In 2002, percussionist Mathias Vaguenez and vocalist Leïla Bounous joined the group. The album Everything Must Change came out in 2005 on the Bonsaï Music label. Carlos Robles Arenas is Mexican. Leïla Bounous is part Algerian, part Breton.

— Freebase

Siné

Siné

Maurice Sinet, known as Siné, is a French cartoonist. As a young man he studied drawing and graphic arts, while earning a living as a cabaret singer. His first published drawing appeared in France Dimanche in 1952. Siné received the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection Complainte sans Paroles. His series of drawings on cats was his breakthrough. He then started working for L'Express as a political cartoonist. Siné's anti-colonialism caused controversy during the Algerian war. He was sued a number of times, being defended by Jacques Vergès, then a lawyer for the Algerian Liberation Front. In 1962 Siné left L'Express and launched his own publication, Siné Massacre, noted for its anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, anti-clericalism and anarchism. On reviewing the book, Private Eye described Siné's cartoons as "grotesque", and criticising publisher Penguin Books for its managerial incompetence. In May 1968, together with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, he launched L'Enragé. Siné is a great lover of jazz, and has illustrated several books on jazz as well as record covers. He's a dignitary of the French Collège de 'Pataphysique. His article and cartoons in the magazine Charlie Hebdo relating to Jean Sarkozy's marriage to Jessica Sebaoun-Darty, the Jewish heiress, touched off a controversy, after journalist Claude Askolovitch described them as anti-Semitic. The magazine's editor, Phillipe Val, ordered Siné to write a letter of apology or face termination. The cartoonist said he would rather "cut his own balls off", and was promptly fired. Both sides subsequently filed lawsuits, and in December 2010, Siné won a 40,000-euro court judgment against his former publisher for wrongful termination.

— Freebase

Pure laine

Pure laine

The French term pure laine literally meaning pure wool refers to the people having exclusively original ancestry of the French-Canadians. Another similar term is de souche. While most French-Canadians are able to trace their ancestry back to the original settlers of New France, a number are descended from mixed marriages between the French and Irish settlers. When these shared the same Roman Catholic faith, their unions were approved by the once-powerful Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Another factor was the settlement of many English people in the region, many of whom were ultimately assimilated into the francophone culture. Recently, Quebec has also enjoyed the benefits of a policy of immigration from French-speaking countries, which has added to, and changed, French-Canadian culture. The use of pure laine is sometimes deprecated. Regardless, English-language commentators Brigitte Pellerin of the Ottawa Citizen and Jan Wong of The Globe and Mail have used the term. The mainstream French-language newspaper La Presse, however, still uses both the terms pure laine and de souche. Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society President Jean Dorion has declared "There is no obsession for racial purity in Quebec, definitely not. [...] The expression 'pure laine' is absolutely obsolete.".

— Freebase

Saratoga

Saratoga

Saratoga is a 1937 American romantic comedy film written by Anita Loos and directed by Jack Conway. The movie stars Clark Gable and Jean Harlow in their sixth and final film collaboration, and features Lionel Barrymore, Frank Morgan, Walter Pidgeon, Hattie McDaniel, and Margaret Hamilton. Jean Harlow died before filming was finished, and it was completed using stand-ins. Saratoga was MGM's biggest moneymaker of 1937.

— Freebase

Bombshell

Bombshell

The term bombshell is a forerunner to the term "sex symbol" and originally used to describe popular female sex icons. Modern slang refers to a bombshell as an extremely sexually attractive woman. The Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper attests the usage of the term in this general meaning since 1942, although earlier Jean Harlow was so nicknamed. Bombshells are a special kind of sex symbol. Bombshells are popular icons recognized for their hourglass figures, their large breasts, sex appeal, and originally their blondness. After Jean Harlow, other icons of popular culture who have widely been referred to as a "Bombshell" include Marilyn Monroe, Rita Hayworth, Diana Dors, Jayne Mansfield, Mamie Van Doren, Jane Russell, Ava Gardner, Brigitte Bardot, Kim Novak, Sophia Loren, Ann-Margret, Raquel Welch, Ursula Andress, and, in more recent popular culture, Katy Perry, Kaley Cuoco, Miranda Kerr, Sofia Vergara, Megan Fox, Kate Upton, Anna Nicole Smith, Pamela Anderson, Monica Bellucci, Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, Katie Price, Keeley Hazell, Pixie Lott, and Dita Von Teese. Diosa Costello was known as "the Original Latin Bombshell"

— Freebase

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 and directed it until his death in 1980. The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory." According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."

— Freebase

The Timewriter

The Timewriter

Jean F. Cochois aka The Timewriter is a house music producer. His trademark style can be characterised by its dense and atmospheric sound. UK Muzik magazine wrote: "This is real 21st century soul music, overflowing with magic". Under various pseudonyms he has been releasing 12" and artist albums on labels as Plastic City, Mole Listening Pearls, Elektrolux and American labels such as Wave Music, Driftwood, and Fiji. He amalgamates the deep soul of Motown with synthetic sound productions. While still at boarding school, he eagerly explored the field of composition and became familiar with diverse musical styles. He looked up to bands like Depeche Mode, Tears for Fears, Kraftwerk, Gary Numan, Thomas Dolby, Alan Parsons, Vangelis and Jean Michele Jarre. Motown artists like Bobby Womack, Marvin Gaye or The Four Tops are also among his heroes. Other important sources of inspiration are Roxy Music and Marillion. In some of his songs influence of Michael Stearns is noticeable but he never confirmed this. He has worked for artists such as Enigma, the ex-Kraftwerk member Wolfgang Flür, Mike Oldfield, Yello, Faithless and Boy George to name a few. As a highly sought after DJ, he travels the world and plays in places such as New York, London, Sweden, Spain and Russia. As resident DJ he played in Sven Väth's Cocoon Club and now holds a monthly residency in Budapest.

— Freebase

Jansenism

Jansenism

Jansenism was a Christian theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638. It was first popularized by Jansen's friend Jean du Vergier, Abbé de Saint-Cyran, and after Saint-Cyran's death in 1643 was led by Antoine Arnauld. Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement within the Catholic Church. The theological centre of the movement was the Parisian convent of Port-Royal, which was a haven for writers including Saint-Cyran, Arnauld, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal, and Jean Racine. Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustinism, Jesuits coined the term "Jansenism" to identify them as having Calvinist affinities. The papal bull Cum occasione, issued by Pope Innocent X in 1653, condemned five cardinal doctrines of Jansenism as heresy — especially the relationship between human free will and efficacious grace, wherein the teachings of Augustine, as presented by the Jansenists, contradicted the teachings of the Jesuit School. Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the pope's pronouncements while retaining their distinctives, and enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX. However, further controversy led to the bull Unigenitus, issued by Clement XI in 1713, which marked the end of Catholic toleration of Jansenist doctrine.

— Freebase

Pierrot

Pierrot

Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and Commedia dell'Arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a hypocorism of Pierre, via the suffix -ot. His character in postmodern popular culture—in poetry, fiction, the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin. Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat, usually with a close-fitting crown and wide round brim, more rarely with a conical shape like a dunce's cap. But most frequently, since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau, he wears neither collar nor hat, only a black skullcap. The defining characteristic of Pierrot is his naïveté: he is seen as a fool, always the butt of pranks, yet nonetheless trusting. It was a generally buffoonish Pierrot that held the European stage for the first two centuries of his history. And yet early signs of a respectful, even sympathetic attitude toward the character appeared in the plays of Jean-François Regnard and in the paintings of Antoine Watteau, an attitude that would deepen in the nineteenth century, after the Romantics claimed the figure as their own. For Jules Janin and Théophile Gautier, Pierrot was not a fool but an avatar of the post-Revolutionary People, struggling, sometimes tragically, to secure a place in the bourgeois world. And subsequent artistic/cultural movements found him equally amenable to their cause: the Decadents turned him, like themselves, into a disillusioned disciple of Schopenhauer, a foe of Woman and of callow idealism; the Symbolists saw him as a lonely fellow-sufferer, crucified upon the rood of soulful sensitivity, his only friend the distant moon; the Modernists converted him into a Whistlerian subject for canvases devoted to form and color and line. In short, Pierrot became an alter-ego of the artist, specifically of the famously alienated artist of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His physical insularity; his poignant lapses into mutism, the legacy of the great mime Deburau; his white face and costume, suggesting not only innocence but the pallor of the dead; his often frustrated pursuit of Columbine, coupled with his never-to-be vanquished unworldly naïveté—all conspired to lift him out of the circumscribed world of the Commedia dell'Arte and into the larger realm of myth. Much of that mythic quality still adheres to the "sad clown" of the postmodern era.

— Freebase

Kanak people

Kanak people

Kanak are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific. According to the 2009 census, they constitute 40.3% of the total population of New Caledonia. Though Melanesian settlement is recorded on Grande Terre's Presqu'île de Foué peninsula as far back as the Lapita culture, the origin of Kanak people is unclear. Ethnographic research has shown that Polynesian seafarers have intermarried with the Kanaks over the centuries. The Kanaks refer to the European inhabitants of New Caledonia as Caldoches. New Caledonia was annexed to France in 1853, and became an overseas territory of France in 1956. A political movement, restarted by the Kanaks in 1984, after an initial failed revolt in 1967, has strongly pursued total independence status from the French rule. The movement is supported by the United Nations resolution of December 1986. A 2014 referendum will decide whether or not the territory will achieve sovereign status. When the 1988 Matignon agreements were signed between the representatives of France and New Caledonia to decide on holding the referendum for independence, Jean-Marie Tjibaou, the Kanak leader of the independence movement, had mooted a proposal to set up an Agency for the Development of Kanak Culture. After Tjibaou's assassination in 1989, the French President François Mitterrand ordered that a cultural centre on the lines suggested by Tjibaou be set up in Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia; it was to be the last of Mitterrand's Grands Projets. The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre was formally established in May 1998.

— Freebase

Dromomania

Dromomania

Dromomania, also travelling fugue, is an uncontrollable psychological urge to wander. People with this condition spontaneously depart from their routine, travel long distances and take up different identities and occupations. Months may pass before they return to their former identities. The term comes from the Greek: dromos and mania. The most famous case was that of Jean-Albert Dadas, a Bordeaux gas-fitter. Dadas would suddenly set out on foot and reach cities as far away as Prague, Vienna or Moscow with no memory of his travels. A medical student, Philippe Tissie, wrote about Dadas in his doctoral dissertation in 1887. Jean-Martin Charcot presented a similar case he called automatisme ambulatoire - French for "ambulatory automatism" or "walking around without being in control of one's own actions." Only a handful of cases of such behaviour have been documented, nearly all in France in the late nineteenth century. On the other hand, dromomania in wider sense can be characteristic of other mental disorders, e.g. Borderline personality disorder. More generally, the term is sometimes used to describe people who have a strong emotional or even physical need to be constantly traveling and experiencing new places, often at the expense of their normal family, work, and social lives.

— Freebase

Facticity

Facticity

Facticity has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence. The term is first used by Fichte and has a variety of meanings. It can refer to facts and factuality, as in nineteenth-century positivism, but comes to mean that which resists explanation and interpretation in Dilthey and Neo-Kantianism. The Neo-Kantians contrasted facticity with ideality, as does Jürgen Habermas in Between Facts and Norms. It is a term that takes on a more specialized meaning in 20th century continental philosophy, especially in phenomenology and existentialism, including Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Recent philosophers such as Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy, and François Raffoul have taken up the notion of facticity in new ways. Facticity plays a key part in Quentin Meillassoux's philosophical project to challenge the thought-world relationship of correlationism. It is defined by him as “the absence of reason for any reality; in other words, the impossibility of providing an ultimate ground for the existence of any being.”

— Freebase

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau was a family of French architects and designers active in the 16th and early 17th century. ⁕Jacques I Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jean Baptiste Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau ⁕Jean Androuet du Cerceau

— Freebase

Billie Jean King

Billie Jean King

Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles, including 12 singles, 16 women's doubles, and 11 mixed doubles titles. King won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. King often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup. She was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, King was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King is an advocate for sexual equality. She won the Battle of the Sexes tennis match against Bobby Riggs in 1973 and was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association, World TeamTennis, and the Women's Sports Foundation. King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987. The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on King in 2010. In 1972, King was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975. King has also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and was given the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the year lifetime achievement award. King was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center.

— Freebase

Oedipus rex

Oedipus rex

Oedipus rex is an "Opera-oratorio after Sophocles" by Igor Stravinsky, scored for orchestra, speaker, soloists, and male chorus. The libretto, based on Sophocles's tragedy, was written by Jean Cocteau in French and then translated by Abbé Jean Daniélou into Latin. Oedipus rex was written towards the beginning of Stravinsky's neoclassical period. He had considered setting the work in Ancient Greek, but decided ultimately on Latin: in his words "a medium not dead but turned to stone."

— Freebase

Fourier series

Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series decomposes periodic functions or periodic signals into the sum of a set of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines. The study of Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis. The Fourier series is named in honour of Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, who made important contributions to the study of trigonometric series, after preliminary investigations by Leonhard Euler, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and Daniel Bernoulli. Fourier introduced the series for the purpose of solving the heat equation in a metal plate, publishing his initial results in his 1807 Mémoire sur la propagation de la chaleur dans les corps solides, and publishing his Théorie analytique de la chaleur in 1822. Early ideas of decomposing a periodic function into the sum of simple oscillating functions date back to the 3rd century BC, when ancient astronomers proposed an empiric model of planetary motions, based on deferents and epicycles. The heat equation is a partial differential equation. Prior to Fourier's work, no solution to the heat equation was known in the general case, although particular solutions were known if the heat source behaved in a simple way, in particular, if the heat source was a sine or cosine wave. These simple solutions are now sometimes called eigensolutions. Fourier's idea was to model a complicated heat source as a superposition of simple sine and cosine waves, and to write the solution as a superposition of the corresponding eigensolutions. This superposition or linear combination is called the Fourier series.

— Freebase

Profil

Profil

Profil was a band that represented France in Eurovision Song Contest 1980 with the entry Hè Hé M'sieurs dames. The band members were: Martine Havet, Martine Bauer, Francis Rignault, Jean-Claude Corbel and Jean-Pierre Izbinski.

— Freebase

Minoritaire

Minoritaire

Minoritaire was a 1982 album by Jean-Jacques Goldman, his second solo album sung in French. It was certified platinum in France in 1983, another in 1991 and another in 2001, for a total sales of 900,000 copies. It was recorded at the Studio Gang by Olivier do Espirito Santo and Jean-Pierre Janiaud. It was released by NEF and produced by Marc Lumbroso.

— Freebase

Jean Racine

Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine, was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France, and an important literary figure in the Western tradition. Racine was primarily a tragedian, producing such "examples of neoclassical perfection" as Phèdre, Andromaque, and Athalie, although he did write one comedy, Les Plaideurs, and a muted tragedy, Esther, for the young. Racine's plays displayed his mastery of the dodecasyllabic alexandrine; he is renowned for elegance, purity, speed, and fury, and for what Robert Lowell described as a "diamond-edge", and the "glory of its hard, electric rage". The linguistic effects of Racine's poetry are widely considered to be untranslatable, although many eminent poets have attempted to do so, including Lowell, Ted Hughes, and Derek Mahon into English, and Schiller into German. The latest attempt to translate Racine's plays into English earned a 2011 American Book Award for the poet Geoffrey Argent. Racine's dramaturgy is marked by his psychological insight, the prevailing passion of his characters, and the nakedness of both the plot and stage.

— Freebase

Mouchette

Mouchette

Mouchette is a 1967 French film directed by Robert Bresson, starring Nadine Nortier and Jean-Claude Guilbert. It is based on the novel by Georges Bernanos. It was entered into the 1967 Cannes Film Festival, winning the OCIC Award. Mouchette tells the story of a girl entering adolescence, the daughter of a bullying alcoholic father and ailing mother set in a rural French village. One stormy night Mouchette's world changes. It is a coming of age film which Bresson portrays in his own unique style. According to Bresson, "Mouchette offers evidence of misery and cruelty. She is found everywhere: wars, concentration camps, tortures, assassinations." The Criterion Collection DVD release includes a trailer for this film made by Jean-Luc Godard.

— Freebase

Redbeard

Redbeard

Redbeard is a series of Belgian comic books, originally published in French, created by writer Jean-Michel Charlier and artist Victor Hubinon. After their deaths the series was continued by other artists, including Jijé, Christian Gaty, Patrice Pellerin, Jean Ollivier, Christian Perrissin and Marc Bourgne.

— Freebase

Stratospheric

Stratospheric

Stratospheric is an instrumental guitar album, released by French guitarist Jean-Pierre Danel in 2000. Several songs from the album hit the web downloading charts, including three #1's. Stratospheric received the Award for the Best Album of the Year 2000 from the Instrumental Rock Guitar Hall Of Fame, and Jean-Pierre also received the Award for the Composer of the Year, for his track “Ballad For a Friend”. Re-released in 2011, it hits the downloading charts at #46 in France.

— Freebase

Georges Cuvier

Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century, and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the evolutionary theories of Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal. In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter he was known as Baron Cuvier. He died in Paris, during an epidemic of cholera.

— Freebase

Baroque music

Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era follows the Renaissance, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl, a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period. Later, the name came to apply also to the architecture of the same period. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, François Couperin, Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Pachelbel, and Henry Purcell. The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality. During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera, cantata, oratorio, concerto, and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.

— Freebase

Saint-Jean-de-Luz

Saint-Jean-de-Luz

Saint-Jean-de-Luz is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Saint-Jean-de-Luz is part of the Basque province of Labourd and of the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián.

— Freebase

Librettist

Librettist

A librettist is the author of a libretto (It.: small book), the text of a vocal work, particularly opera or oratorio. Among the notorious librettists have been Pietro Metastasio, Lorenzo Da Ponte, Eugene Scribe, Felice Romani, Francesco Maria Piave, Luigi Illica, Arrigo Boito, and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Some composers wrote libretti for themselves or for other composers, for example Richard Wagner, Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Frederick Delius, Michael Tippet, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Gian Carlo Menotti who wrote two libretti for Samuel Barber's operas; others adapted plays for their own use, most notably Claude Debussy, Richard Strauss and Alban Berg. There are also librettists among the famous writers: Bertolt Brecht, Jean Cocteau, Miguel de Cervantes, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Carlo Goldoni, Aleksandr Pushkin, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, and Stefan Zweig. And here are some people one would not expect as librettists: Frederick II of Prussia (the Great), Catherine II of Russia, Pope Clement IX, and Franco Zeffirelli.

— Freebase

Dessalines

Dessalines

Dessalines is a town in the Artibonite Department of Haiti. It is named after Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of independent Haiti. This Town is the First Black Capital in the World. In 1804 The First Black Free Country has born. And Marchand Dessalines, became the Capital of the new Country. Jean-Jacques Dessalines loved so much this town. Most of the fortifications are still in good condition.

— Freebase

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 to 1930. He was a cultural critic in the tradition of Matthew Arnold, and a consistent opponent of romanticism, as represented by the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Politically he can, without serious distortion, be called a follower of Aristotle and Edmund Burke. He was an advocate of classical humanism but also offered an ecumenical defense of religion. His humanism implied a broad knowledge of various moral and religious traditions. Babbitt’s humanism emphasized the need for self-discipline and control, and suppression of the impulses seeking liberation from all restraints. He warned that Jean Jacques Rousseau was the major corrupting influence on modern culture. He complained that Romanticism celebrated too much the individual instinct and uniqueness of personality by denying the universal aspects of human nature as depicted in classical pre-romantic literature. He also attacked naturalism, which was popular at the time because it depicted man as a reflex agent of natural forces, and stressed the dominance of the environment over human institutions.

— Freebase

Cono Christian School

Cono Christian School

Cono, founded in 1951 near Walker, Iowa, by Max and Jean Belz, is a K-12 day and boarding school serving students from around the United States and the world. Boarding students are generally in middle and high school. This Christian boarding school began, and still exists as, a ministry of Bible Presbyterian Church. Max Belz was the pastor of the church at the time of the school's founding. He, Jean, and their eight children lived on the 1-acre of donated property where the church building was built. Today Cono has 200 acres, 25 of which are developed with academic, athletic and student and staff residential facilities. Class sizes are small and average six to eight students for a full academic program.

— Freebase

Corbeau

Corbeau

Corbeau was a Quebec rock group, very popular at the end of the seventies. The group was formed in 1977 by the film-maker and lyricist Pierre Harel with Michel "Willie" Lamothe and Roger "Wézo" Belval. Donald Hince joined the group some time later, and Jean Millaire completed the make up of Corbeau after a short tenure with Offenbach. Harel was the lead-singer up until the arrival of Marjolaine "Marjo" Morin, whereupon they shared the role until the departure of Harel just before the launching of their first album in 1979. Corbeau broke up in 1984 after the departure of Marjo and Jean Millaire. In 2009 the original members re-united to record one track for Marjo's new album, Marjo et ses hommes. Corbeau re-recorded the track Demain.

— Freebase

Overdoor

Overdoor

An "overdoor" is a painting, bas-relief or decorative panel, generally in a horizontal format, that is set, typically within ornamental mouldings, over a door, or was originally intended for this purpose. The overdoor is usually architectural in form, but may take the form of a cartouche in Rococo settings, or it may be little more than a moulded shelf for the placement of ceramic vases, busts or curiosities. An overmantel serves a similar function above a fireplace mantel. From the end of the sixeenth century, at first in interiors such as the Palazzo Sampieri, Bologna, where Annibale Carracci provided overdoor paintings, they developed into a minor genre of their own, in which the trompe l'oeil representations of stone bas-reliefs, or vases of flowers, in which Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer specialized, were heightened by sotto in su perspective, in which the light was often painted to reproduce the light, diffused from below, that was entering the room from its windows. Overdoors of such flower pieces, allegorical subjects, and landscapes were favoured through the end of the eighteenth century. French, Dutch and Flemish animalier artists such as Jean-Baptiste Oudry and Jan Weenix were often commissioned to paint sets of overdoors with groups of live or dead game and dogs for country houses or hunting lodges.

— Freebase

Won

Won

'Won' is Pacewon's debut solo album. Pacewon is a founding member of the rap group The Outsidaz and was on their first and only two albums. The album is produced by Wyclef Jean, of the rap group The Fugees, which Pacewon has worked with. The other producers are Jerry Duplessis and Ski. The album includes 21 songs and features seven guest stars. The featured rappers are Young Zee of the Outsidaz, Wyclef Jean of The Fugees, Azz Izz, Kurupt, Melanie Blatt, Richie Thumbs, and Rah Digga also of the Outsidaz.

— Freebase

Groxis

Groxis

Groxis was a tech company based in San Francisco, California that developed and marketed the web-based federated content access and visual search engine called Grokker. Groxis was founded by Jean-Michel Decombe, Paul Hawken, and R.J. Pittman in 2001, and ceased operations in March 2009. Jean-Michel Decombe was Chief Technology Officer until 2006. Ron Mexico served as interim Chief Technology Officer during a brief absence in November 2005. He conceived the vision and invented the concepts underlying Groxis' flagship product, Grokker, for which he obtained several patents, including 6,879,332, 6,888,554, 7,036,093, and 7,290,223. Paul Hawken was Executive Chairman until 2003. He raised the initial round of capital from angel investors. He assembled a team of advisors including Paul Saffo and John Seely Brown. R.J. Pittman was Chief Executive Officer until 2006. He raised capital from top-tier venture capitalists. He was responsible for all pathfinder customer wins and key partnerships. He also set overall product direction, leading the company and moving Grokker.com into the top 5000 most visited web sites on the Internet. Groxis partners and customers included Sun Microsystems, Stanford University, Fast Search & Transfer, EBSCO Information Services, the Internet Public Library, and Amgen, as well as Yahoo!, Google, and Amazon.

— Freebase

Drain Pipe

Drain Pipe

Jean F. Cochois aka The Timewriter is a house music producer. His trademark style can be characterised by its dense and atmospheric sound. UK Muzik magazine wrote: "This is real 21st century soul music, overflowing with magic". Under various pseudonyms he has been releasing 12" and artist albums on labels as Plastic City, Mole Listening Pearls, Elektrolux and American labels such as Wave Music, Driftwood, and Fiji. He amalgamates the deep soul of Motown with synthetic sound productions. While still at boarding school, he eagerly explored the field of composition and became familiar with diverse musical styles. He looked up to bands like Depeche Mode, Tears for Fears, Kraftwerk, Gary Numan, Thomas Dolby, Alan Parsons, Vangelis and Jean Michele Jarre. Motown artists like Bobby Womack, Marvin Gaye or The Four Tops are also among his heroes. Other important sources of inspiration are Roxy Music and Marillion. In some of his songs influence of Michael Stearns is noticeable but he never confirmed this. He has worked for artists such as Enigma, the ex-Kraftwerk member Wolfgang Flür, Mike Oldfield, Yello, Faithless and Boy George to name a few. As a highly sought after DJ, he travels the world and plays in places such as New York, London, Sweden, Spain and Russia. As resident DJ he played in Sven Väth's Cocoon Club and now holds a monthly residency in Budapest.

— Freebase

Positif

Positif

Positif was a 1984 album by Jean-Jacques Goldman, his third solo album sung in French. It was recorded at Studio Gang by Olivier do Espirito Santo and Jean-Pierre Janiaud. It was released by JRG/BMG Music Publishing. It was certified diamond in France for sales of 1,000,000 copies.

— Freebase

Marthe

Marthe

Marthe, histoire d'une fille was the first novel by the French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans, published in 1876. The book is autobiographical in inspiration and tells the story of the love affair between a young journalist called Léo and the heroine of the title, a would-be actress who works in a factory for artificial pearls as well as in a licensed brothel. The love affair breaks up and Marthe goes to live with the alcoholic actor-manager Ginginet. After his death, she is reduced to living on the streets. Huysmans was worried about the response to the book's controversial subject matter, since the author Jean Richepin had recently been imprisoned for a month and fined for writing a book on the theme of prostitution. In spite of this, Marthe is not pornographic. Huysmans intended its squalid realism as an attack on the overidealised view of Bohemian life in Paris he found in such Romantic writers as Henri Murger, whose famous Scènes de la vie bohème had appeared in 1848. Huysmans' style in Marthe owes a great deal to his literary hero at the time, Edmond de Goncourt. To avoid prosecution, Huysmans travelled to Brussels to have Marthe issued by the Belgian publisher Jean Gay, who had considerable experience smuggling contraband books across the French border. The novel appeared for sale in Belgium on October 1, 1876. Huysmans decided against smuggling it into France but when he attempted to take 400 copies through French customs, all but a handful were impounded. Huysmans decided to send some of the few remaining copies to leading figures of the literary scene in Paris. Edmond de Goncourt offered qualified praise but Émile Zola was most enthusiastic. Zola, the head of the new Naturalist school of French fiction, soon became a friend and mentor to the young Huysmans, whose association with the Naturalist group would last until his most famous novel, A rebours, took Huysmans' writing in a completely different direction.

— Freebase

Jean-Roch

Jean-Roch

Jean-Roch Pédri known as just Jean-Roch is a singer-songwriter, and DJ / producer of electronic music and founder of "Vip Room". He is also founder of the record label John-Roch Records.

— Freebase

baud

baud

[simplified from its technical meaning] n. Bits per second. Hence kilobaud or Kbaud, thousands of bits per second. The technical meaning is level transitions per second; this coincides with bps only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop bits. Most hackers are aware of these nuances but blithely ignore them.Historical note: baud was originally a unit of telegraph signalling speed, set at one pulse per second. It was proposed at the November, 1926 conference of the Comité Consultatif International Des Communications Télégraphiques as an improvement on the then standard practice of referring to line speeds in terms of words per minute, and named for Jean Maurice Emile Baudot (1845-1903), a French engineer who did a lot of pioneering work in early teleprinters.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Alençon, Counts and Dukes of

Alençon, Counts and Dukes of

a title borne by several members of the house of Valois—e. g. Charles of Valois, who fell at Crécy (1346); Jean IV., who fell at Agincourt (1415).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bai`reuth

Bai`reuth

the capital of Upper Franconia, in Bavaria, with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions, and with a monument, simple but massive, as was fit, to the memory of Jean Paul, who died there.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bart

Bart

or Barth, Jean, a distinguished French seaman, born at Dunkirk, son of a fisherman, served under De Ruyter, entered the French service at 20, purchased a ship of two guns, was subsidised as a privateer, made numerous prizes; having had other ships placed under his command, was captured by the English, but escaped; defeated the Dutch admiral, De Vries; captured his squadron laden with corn, for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV.; he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent, unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Camisards

Camisards

Huguenots of the Cévennes, who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV., in which others joined, under Jean Cavalier their chief, after, and in consequence of, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685); so called because they wore a camiso (Fr. a chemise), a blouse over their armour; were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Clerc

Clerc

or Leclerc, Jean, a French theologian of the Arminian school, born at Geneva; a prolific author; wrote commentaries on all the books of the Old Testament, on lines since followed by the Rationalist school or Neologians of Germany (1657-1736).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Clootz, Anacharsis

Clootz, Anacharsis

Baron Jean Baptiste de Clootz, a French Revolutionary, born at Clèves; "world-citizen"; his faith that "a world federation is possible, under all manner of customs, provided they hold men"; his pronomen Anacharsis suggested by his resemblance to an ancient Scythian prince who had like him a cosmopolitan spirit; was one of the founders of the worship of Reason, and styled himself the "orator of the human race"; distinguished himself at the great Federation, celebrated on the Champ de Mars, by entering the hall on the great Federation Day, June 19, 1790, "with the human species at his heels"; was guillotined under protest in the name of the human race (1755-1794).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Collinson, Peter

Collinson, Peter

an English horticulturist, to whom we are indebted for the introduction into the country of many ornamental shrubs (1694-1768).

Collot d'Herbois, Jean Marie

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Coquerel, Athanase

Coquerel, Athanase

a Protestant pastor, son of preceding, born at Amsterdam; celebrated for his liberal and tolerant views, too much so for M. Guizot; edited Voltaire's letters on toleration; his chief work, "Jean Calas et sa Famille" (1820-1875).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Cotta

Cotta

German publisher, born at Stuttgart; established in Tübingen; published the works of Goethe, Schiller, Jean Paul, Herder, and others of note among their contemporaries (1764-1832).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Divine Doctor

Divine Doctor

Jean de Ruysbroek, the mystic (1294-1381).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Droz

Droz

the name of a Swiss family of mechanicians, one of them, Jean Pierre, an engraver of medals (1746-1833); also of a French moralist and historian, author of "History of Louis XVI." (1773-1850).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ecstatic Doctor

Ecstatic Doctor

Jean Ruysbroek, a schoolman given to mysticism (1294-1381).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Feuillans

Feuillans

a reformed brotherhood of Cistercian monks, founded in 1577 by Jean de la Barrière, abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Feuillans, in Languedoc. The movement thus organised was a protest against the laxity which had crept into the Church, and probably received some stimulus from the Reformation, which was then in progress. The Feuillans settled in a convent in the Rue St. Honoré, Paris, which in after years became the meeting-place of a revolutionary club, which took the name of Feuillans; founded in 1790 by Lafayette, La Rochefoucauld, &c., and which consisted of members of the respectable property classes, whose views were more moderate than those of the Jacobins. They could not hold out against the flood of revolutionary violence, and on March 28, 1791, a mob burst into their place of meeting and dispersed them.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Flodden, Battle of

Flodden, Battle of

fought on Flodden Hill, a low spur of the Cheviots, 6 m. S. of Coldstream, between James IV. of Scotland and the English under the Earl of Surrey on the 9th of September 1513, which resulted in the crushing defeat of the Scots, who lost their king and the flower of their nobility, an event celebrated in Jean Elliot's "Flowers of the Forest"; a spirited account is given in the sixth canto of Scott's "Marmion."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Förster, Ernst

Förster, Ernst

an art critic, brother of succeeding, author of a number of elaborate and important works bearing on the history of art in Germany and Italy; was the son-in-law of Jean Paul, whose works he edited, and to whose biography he made contributions of great value (1800-1885).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grandville

Grandville

the pseudonym of Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard, a French caricaturist, born at Nancy; his fame was first established by the "Metamorphoses du Jour," a series of satirical sketches representing men with animal faces characteristic of them; his subsequent work embraced political cartoons and illustrations for "Gulliver's Travels," "Don Quixote," "Robinson Crusoe," La Fontaine's "Fables," &c. (1803-1847).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grolier, Jean

Grolier, Jean

a famous bibliophile, whose library was dispersed in 1675; the bindings of the books being ornamented with geometric patterns, have given name to bindings in this style; they bore the inscription, "Io. Grolieri et Amicorum" (the property of Jean Grolier and his friends).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hardinge, Henry, Viscount

Hardinge, Henry, Viscount

a distinguished soldier and Governor-General of India, born at Wrotham, Kent; joined the army in 1798, and served through the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns, but wounded at Ligny he was unable to take part in the final struggle with Napoleon; he now turned his attention to politics; was Secretary of War under Wellington, and subsequently twice Chief Secretary for Ireland; in 1844 he was appointed Governor-General of India, and later distinguished himself under Gough in the first Sikh War; a viscountship and pension followed in 1845, and seven years later he succeeded Wellington as Commander-in-Chief of the British army (1785-1856).

Hardouin, Jean

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hof

Hof

a town of Bavaria, on the Saale, 40 m. NE. of Baireuth; has flourishing textile factories, breweries, and iron-works; is associated with the early struggles of Jean Paul Richter.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Levana

Levana

the title of a book by Jean Paul on the education of children; title from the name of a Roman goddess, the protectress of foundlings.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Orleans, Dukes of

Orleans, Dukes of

the name of four distinct branches of the royal family of France, the first commencing with Philippe, fifth son of Philippe of Valois, in 1344; the second with Louis, brother of Charles VI. (1371-1407); the third with Jean Baptiste Gascon, brother of Louis XIII., who took part in the plots against Richelieu, and was appointed lieutenant-general on the death of his brother (1608-1660); the fourth with Philippe I., brother of Louis XIV. (1640-1701); Philippe II., son of the preceding, governed France during the minority of Louis XV.; involved his finances by his connection with Louis, and did injury to the public morals by the depravity of his life (1674-1723); Louis-Philippe, his grandson, lieutenant-general and governor of Dauphiné (1725-1785); Louis-Philippe Joseph, son of preceding, surnamed Philippe-Egalité, played a conspicuous part in the Revolution, and perished on the scaffold (1747-1793); and Louis-Philippe, his son (q. v.); Prince Louis Robert, eldest son of Comte de Paris, claimant to the throne, b. 1869.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pentateuch

Pentateuch

the name given by Origen to the first five books of the Bible, which the Jews call the Law or Five-fifths of the Law, the composition of which has of late years been subjected to keen critical investigation, and the whole ascribed to documents of different dates and diverse authorship, to the rejection of the old traditional hypothesis that it was the work of Moses, first called in question by Spinoza, and shown to be untenable by Jean Astruc (q. v.).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece" (1763-1825).

Richthofen, Baron von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Alain Chartier

Alain Chartier

Alain Chartier was a French poet and political writer. He was born at Bayeux, into a family marked by considerable ability. His eldest brother Guillaume became bishop of Paris; and Thomas became notary to the king. Jean Chartier, a monk of St Denis, whose history of Charles VII is printed in vol. III. of Les Grands Chroniques de Saint-Denis, was not, as is sometimes stated, also a brother of the poet. Alain studied, as his elder brother had done, at the University of Paris. His earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt. This was followed by the Débat du reveille-matin, La Belle Dame sans mercy, and others. None of these poems show any very patriotic feeling, though Chartier's prose is evidence that he was not indifferent to the misfortunes of his country. He followed the fortunes of the dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, acting in the triple capacity of clerk, notary, and financial secretary. In 1422 he wrote the famous Quadrilogue invectif. The interlocutors in this dialogue are France herself and the three orders of the state. Chartier lays bare the abuses of the feudal army and the sufferings of the peasants. He rendered an immense service to his country by maintaining that the cause of France, though desperate to all appearance, was not yet lost if the contending factions could lay aside their differences in the face of the common enemy.

— Freebase

Bonsoir

Bonsoir

Bonsoir is a 1994 French film directed by Jean-Pierre Mocky.

— Freebase

Alberto Moravia

Alberto Moravia

Alberto Moravia, born Alberto Pincherle, was an Italian novelist and journalist. His novels explored matters of modern sexuality, social alienation, and existentialism. He is best known for his debut novel Gli indifferenti, and for the anti-fascist novel Il Conformista, the basis for the film The Conformist by Bernardo Bertolucci. Other novels of his translated to the cinema are Il Disprezzo filmed by Jean-Luc Godard as Le Mépris; La Noia, filmed with that title by Damiano Damiani in 1963 and released in the US as The Empty Canvas in 1964; and La Ciociara filmed by Vittorio de Sica as Two Women. Cedric Kahn's L'Ennui is another version of La Noia. He was an atheist. He once remarked that the most important facts of his life had been his illness, a tubercular infection of the bones that confined him to a bed for five years, and Fascism, because they both caused him to suffer and do things he otherwise would not have done. "It is what we are forced to do that forms our character, not what we do of our own free will." His writing was marked by its factual, cold, precise style, often depicting the malaise of the bourgeoisie, and was rooted in the tradition of nineteenth-century narrative, underpinned by high social and cultural awareness. In his world, where inherited social, religious and moral beliefs are no longer acceptable, he considered sex and money the only basic criteria for judging social and human reality.

— Freebase

Progressive Movement

Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement is a minor opposition political party in Cameroon. It was formed on 23 August 1991 and is led by Jean-Jacques Ekindi. Ekindi was the MP candidate in the October 1992 presidential election, officially receiving 0.79% of the vote and placing fifth. An MP meeting at the Bepanda Omnisport Stadium in Douala on 21 May 1994 was banned by the government, and when party members tried to hold the meeting anyway, a number of them were beaten by security forces. Again running as the party's presidential candidate in the 11 October 2004 presidential election, Ekindi announced his withdrawal from the election on 10 October in favor of John Fru Ndi, the candidate of the main opposition party, the Social Democratic Front. His name nevertheless remained on the ballot, and he placed 13th out of 16 candidates with 0.27% of the vote. In the 22 July 2007 parliamentary election, Ekindi was elected to the National Assembly as an MP candidate from Wouri Centre constituency in Littoral Province, where the MP received 22.43% of the vote and one of the three available seats. Ekindi was the only member of his party to win a seat in the 2007 election. Shortly before the election, on 18 July 2007, the MP formalized an alliance with the Cameroonian Democratic Union; as part of this agreement, the parties decided not to run candidates in the same constituencies. Also at the time of the election, the alliance between the MP and the SDF collapsed because, according to Ekindi, the SDF decided to run candidates in Wouri Centre and ignored the alliance.

— Freebase

Vaurien

Vaurien

The Vaurien is a dinghy designed by Jean-Jacques Herbulot in 1951, and presented in the Boat show in Paris in 1952. It was meant as a reasonable alternative for a boat with a crew of two, as much for its low cost, as for its simplicity to sail. The first units, sold in the mentioned Boat show, had a price equivalent to two bicycles of the time. It is a light, but robust, boat that soon found its place among beginners, especially in Europe and Africa.

— Freebase

Alençon lace

Alençon lace

Alençon lace or point d'Alençon is a needle lace that originated in Alençon, France. It is sometimes called the "Queen of lace." Lace making began in Alençon during the 16th century and the local industry was rapidly expanded during the reign of Louis XIV by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who established a Royal Workshop in the town to produce lace in the Venetian style in 1665. The purpose of establishing this workshop was to reduce the French court's dependence on expensive foreign imports. The local lacemakers soon modified the Venetian technique and Alençon emerged as a unique style around 1675. Though the demand for lace went into sharp decline following the French Revolution, it recovered some of its popularity during the Second French Empire before entering terminal decline at the end of the 19th century with changes in fashion and the development of cheaper, machine-made lace. Lace making survived on a small scale and the technique was preserved by Carmelite nuns in Alençon. In 1976 a National Lace Workshop was established in the town to ensure that this lace-making technique survives. There is a permanent exhibition of lace and a display showing how it is made in the Musée des Beaux Arts et de la Dentelle, located in the town centre and adjoining the Workshop. The workshops themselves are open to the public only on certain days of the year.

— Freebase

Double Impact

Double Impact

Double Impact is a 1991 American action film written and directed by Sheldon Lettich and also written, produced by and starring Jean-Claude Van Damme in a double role as Chad and Alex Wagner.

— Freebase

Agnès Sorel

Agnès Sorel

Agnès Sorel, known by the sobriquet Dame de beauté, was a favourite mistress of King Charles VII of France, by whom she bore three daughters. She is considered the first officially recognized royal mistress. She was the subject of several contemporary paintings and works of art, including Jean Fouquet's Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels.

— Freebase

Casus belli

Casus belli

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. Casus means "incident", "rupture" or indeed "case", while belli means bellic. It is usually distinguished from casus foederis, where casus belli refers to offenses or threats directly against a nation, and casus foederis refers to offenses or threats to a fellow allied nation with which the justifying nation is engaged in a mutual defense treaty, such as NATO. The term came into wide usage in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with the writings of Hugo Grotius, Cornelius van Bynkershoek, and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, among others, and the rise of the political doctrine of jus ad bellum or "just war theory". Informal usage varies beyond its technical definition to refer to any "just cause" a nation may claim for entering into a conflict. As such, it has been used both retroactively to describe situations in history before the term came into wide usage and in the present day when describing situations when war has not been formally declared. Formally, a government would lay out its reasons for going to war, as well as its intentions in prosecuting it and the steps that might be taken to avert it. In so doing, the government would attempt to demonstrate that it was going to war only as a last resort and that it in fact possessed "just cause" for doing so. In theory international law today allows only three situations as legal cause to go to war: out of self-defense, defense of an ally under a mutual defense pact, or sanctioned by the UN.

— Freebase

RAM

RAM

RAM is a mizik rasin band based in the city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The band derives its name from the initials of its founder, songwriter, and lead male vocalist, Richard A. Morse. The band's music has been described by Morse as "Vodou rock 'n' roots", and has been one of the prominent bands in the mizik rasin musical movement in Haiti. RAM began performing together in 1990, and recorded their first album in 1996. The band's music incorporates traditional Vodou lyrics and instruments, such as rara horns and petwo drums, into modern rock and roll. The band's songs include lyrics in Kréyòl, French, and English. RAM is famous for its regular Thursday night performances at the Hotel Oloffson in downtown Port-au-Prince, attended by hotel guests and a wide spectrum of the country's political and racial groups. During the years of the military junta of Raoul Cédras, one of the band's singles, "Fèy", was banned nationwide by the military authorities who perceived it to be a song of support for the exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The band continued to play weekly concerts in defiance of death threats from the regime until Morse only narrowly escaped a kidnapping from the hotel in 1994. The band began recording albums in 1996, after United States military intervention restored Aristide to power. In 1998, the band clashed with the newly elected mayor of Port-au-Prince, a supporter of Aristide, and survived an assassination attempt during their Carnival performance. Through its song lyrics, RAM continues to provoke the antagonism of both the supporters of Aristide and former military regimes.

— Freebase

Major Arcana

Major Arcana

The Major Arcana or trumps are a suit of twenty-two cards in the Tarot deck. They serve as a permanent trump and suits in games played with the Tarot deck, and are distinguished from the four standard suits collectively known as the Minor Arcana. The terms "Major" and "Minor Arcana" are used in the occult and divinatory applications of the deck, and originate with Jean-Baptiste Pitois, writing under the name Paul Christian. Dummett writes that originally the Major Arcana had simple allegorical or exoteric meaning, mostly originating in elite ideology in the Italian courts of the 15th century when it was invented. The occult significance only began to emerge in the 18th century when Antoine Court de Gébelin published Le Monde Primitif. The construction of the occult and divinatory significance of the Tarot, and the Major and Minor Arcana, continued on from there. For example, Antoine Court de Gébelin argued for the Egyptian, kabbalastic, and divine significance of the Tarot trumps: Etteilla created a method of divination using Tarot: Eliphas Lévi worked hard to break away from the Egyptian nature of the divinatory Tarot, bringing it back to the Tarot de Marsailles, creating a "tortuous" kabbalastic correspondence, and even suggested that the Major Arcana represent stages of life. The Marquis Stanislas de Guaita established the Major Arcana as an initiatory sequence to be used by initiates to establish their path of spiritual ascension and evolution. Finally Salie Nichols, a Jungian psychologist, wrote up the tarot as having deep psychological and archetypal significance, even going so far as to encode the entire process of Jungian individuation into the Tarot trumps. These various interpretations of the Major Arcana developed in stages, all of which continue to exert significant influence on our understanding of the Major Arcana even to this day.

— Freebase

Moonwalk

Moonwalk

The moonwalk is a dance technique that presents the illusion of the dancer being pulled backwards while attempting to walk forward. A popping move, it became popular around the world after Michael Jackson executed the dance move during a performance of "Billie Jean" on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever on March 25, 1983. This special was broadcast May 16th, 1983 It subsequently became his signature move, and is now one of the best-known dance techniques in the world.

— Freebase

Bastide

Bastide

A Bastide is a local name for a manor house in Provence, in the south of France, located in the countryside or in a village, and originally occupied by a wealthy farmer. It was larger and more elegant than the farmhouse called a mas and was square or rectangular, with a tile roof, walls of fine ashlar-stone sometimes covered with stucco or whitewashed, and often was built in a square around a courtyard. In the 19th and 20th century, many bastides were used as summer houses by wealthy citizens of Marseille. More recently, most bastides in Provence have been transformed into expensive country homes. One well-known bastide in Provence is the Bastide Neuve, located in the village of La Treille near Marseille, which was a summer house for the family of French writer and filmmaker Marcel Pagnol. César Soubeyan, the wealthy farmer in his novels Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, lived in a bastide.

— Freebase

Polyad

Polyad

In mathematics, polyad is a concept of category theory introduced by Jean Bénabou in generalising monads. A polyad in a bicategory D is a bicategory morphism Φ from a locally punctual bicategory C to D, Φ : C → D. Monads are polyads Φ : C → D where C has only one object.

— Freebase

Golgotha

Golgotha

Golgotha is a 1935 French film about the death of Jesus Christ. It was directed by Julien Duvivier, and stars Harry Baur as Herod and Jean Gabin as Pontius Pilate. Robert Le Vigan plays Christ. It opened in the U.S. in 1937. The film played throughout Europe too, but the British Board of Film Censors "would not allow British eyes to see it." Le Vigan's performance marks the first direct portrayal of Christ in a sound film. For the most part, Jesus is shown from a respectful distance as was also the case in Ben-Hur, Quo Vadis, or The Robe, but there are also a few closer shots and even close-ups. The National Board of Review named the film the sixth best foreign film of 1937. The score for the movie was composed by French composer Jacques Ibert.

— Freebase

Rousseau

Rousseau

Rousseau is a provincial electoral district in the Lanaudière and Laurentides regions of Quebec, Canada, that elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It includes Saint-Lin–Laurentides and various other municipalities. It was created for the 1981 election from parts of Prévost, Joliette-Montcalm and L'Assomption electoral districts. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, it gained Chertsey and Saint-Hippolyte from Bertrand, but lost L'Épiphanie, L'Épiphanie, and the part of the city of L'Assomption that it formerly had to L'Assomption electoral district. It was named after French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

— Freebase

Ada

Ada

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in language support for explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada is an international standard; the current version is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012. Ada was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull under contract to the United States Department of Defense from 1977 to 1983 to supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the DoD. Ada was named after Ada Lovelace, who is credited as being the first computer programmer.

— Freebase

Diamond Jim

Diamond Jim

Diamond Jim is a 1935 biographical film based on the published biography Diamond Jim Brady by Parker Morell. It follows the life of legendary entrepreneur James Buchanan Brady, including his romance with entertainer Lillian Russell, and stars Edward Arnold, Jean Arthur, Cesar Romero and Binnie Barnes. The screenplay by Preston Sturges never lets the lurid facts of Brady's life get in the way of the story. Edward Arnold went on to play Diamond Jim Brady again five years later, opposite Alice Faye in Lillian Russell.

— Freebase

Contempt

Contempt

Contempt is a 1963 film directed by Jean-Luc Godard, based on the Italian novel Il disprezzo [A Ghost at Noon]. 1954. OCLC 360548. by Alberto Moravia. It stars Brigitte Bardot.

— Freebase

Diane de Poitiers

Diane de Poitiers

Diane de Poitiers was a French noblewoman and a prominent courtier at the courts of kings Francis I and his son, Henry II of France. She became notorious as the latter's favourite. It was in this capacity that she wielded much influence and power at the French Court, which continued until Henry was mortally wounded in a tournament accident, during which his lance wore her favour rather than his wife's. The subject of paintings by François Clouet as well other anonymous painters, Diane was also immortalised in a statue by Jean Goujon.

— Freebase

ARB

ARB

ARB is a Japanese rock band formed in 1978. Its members are Ryo Ishibashi, Koya Naito, Ebi, and Keith. Jean-Jacques Burnel from The Stranglers was also a member for a short time.

— Freebase

Christian metal

Christian metal

Christian metal, also known as white metal, is a form of heavy metal music usually defined by its message using song lyrics as well as the dedication of the band members to Christianity. Christian metal is typically performed by professed Christians sometimes principally for Christians who listen to heavy metal music and often produced and distributed through various Christian networks. Christian metal bands exist in all the subgenres of heavy metal music, and the only common link among most Christian metal bands are the lyrics. The Christian themes are often melded with the subjects of the genre the band is rooted in, regularly providing a Christian take on the subject matter. It has been argued that the marginal yet transnational Christian metal subculture provides its core members an alternative religious expression and Christian identity, and that the music serves the purpose of offering a positive alternative or counterbalance to 'secular' metal music which is known for its generally dark and negative message. Christian metal emerged in the late 1970s as a means of evangelism to the wider heavy metal music scene, and was pioneered by American bands Resurrection Band, Petra and Sweden's Jerusalem. Los Angeles' Stryper achieved wide success in the 1980s. California's Tourniquet and Australia's Mortification led the movement in the 1990s. Rap metal group P.O.D. and the metalcore groups Underoath, Demon Hunter, As I Lay Dying, and Norma Jean brought some mainstream attention to the movement in the first decade of the 21st century, achieving ranks in the Billboard 200.

— Freebase

Death Warrant

Death Warrant

Death Warrant is a 1990 action movie starring Jean-Claude Van Damme. The film was written by David S. Goyer while a student at USC, and was Goyer's first screenplay to be sold and produced commercially.

— Freebase

Parris Island

Parris Island

Parris Island is a former census-designated place, currently a portion of Port Royal in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 4,841 at the 2000 census. As defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, Parris Island is included within the Beaufort Urban Cluster and the larger Hilton Head Island–Beaufort Micropolitan Statistical Area. The area was annexed by the town of Port Royal on October 11, 2002. It is perhaps best known for its U.S. Marine Corps training facility Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, where about 16,000 Marines pass through boot camp every year. Parris Island was first discovered by Europeans in 1562, when members of a French expedition led by Jean Ribaut temporarily settled on the island--the first semi-permanent European settlement in what are considered now as the United States. Four years later, a town named Santa Elena was founded here by Spanish Conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés after troops sent by the Spanish monarch slaughtered French colonists and their Amerindian allies in 1565. It was the capital of La Florida from 1566 to 1587, during which time Spanish explorers sailed from Santa Elena to explore the Tennessee valley and Chesapeake Bay.

— Freebase

Poise

Poise

The poise is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. The analogous unit in the International System of Units is the pascal second: The poise is often used with the metric prefix centi-. A centipoise is one one-hundredth of a poise, and one millipascal-second in SI units. Centipoise is properly abbreviated cP, but the alternative abbreviations cps, cp, and cPs are also commonly seen. Water has a viscosity of 0.00899 Poise at 25 °C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

— Freebase

Gondolier

Gondolier

"Gondolier" is a French language popular song. The music was written by Pete De Angelis, the words by Jean Broussolle. It was published in 1957. It was popularized by Dalida. The song was rendered into English as "With All My Heart," and became a hit for Jodie Sands in the United States and Petula Clark in the United Kingdom.

— Freebase

Access Point

Access Point

Access Point is a rocky point immediately southeast of Biscoe Point and 2 miles northwest of Cape Lancaster on the south side of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. First charted by the French Antarctic Expedition under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, 1903–05. Surveyed in 1955 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and so named because there is a landing place for boats on the northwest tip of the point which provides access to the inland parts of the island. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Access Point".

— Freebase

JOB

JOB

JOB rolling papers are a popular brand of cigarette paper produced by Republic Tobacco in Perpignan, France. In 1838, a French craftsman named Jean Bardou came up with the idea for a booklet of rolling papers made of thin, pure rice paper. The booklets were a success and Bardou's trademark, the initials "JB" separated by a diamond, became such a common sight that people began referring to them as JOB, thus the brand-name was born. By 1849 he filed for a patent for "Papier JOB". In the late 1890s, the company hired art nouveau artist Alphonse Mucha, as well as many other artists, to design advertising posters for the brand. Mucha drew a sinuous long-haired goddess holding a rolled cigarette. The image was inspired by Michelangelo's Sibyls from the Sistine Chapel. The poster image was so popular that it was sold as a lithograph. In 2008, the company commissioned Stuckist artist, Paul Harvey to create a campaign series of posters with a stylistic reference to Alphonse Mucha. Harvey made works featuring famous double acts to emphasise the sales message of "The Original Double", a reference to the twin-size packets of papers made by Job. Harvey's enthusiasm for the project came about because "Mucha is one of his heroes", said Mark Ross, the director of Glorious Creative agency managing the campaign. The work created some controversy: Gilbert and George gave their endorsement to the images, but The Mighty Boosh and The White Stripes were not pleased to be featured. Famous Doubles, a show of the original paintings used for the posters, was promoted at the Wanted Gallery in Notting Hill by Fraser Kee Scott, director of the A Gallery.

— Freebase

Mouton

Mouton

Mouton is an unincorporated community in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. The town is named after Jean Mouton and Marin Mouton, two local land owners who settled the area during the 1770s. It is located along West Pont Des Mouton Rd between LA Hwy 182 and I-49 .

— Freebase

House of Bonaparte

House of Bonaparte

The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I of France in 1804, a French military leader who rose to notability out of the French Revolution and transformed the French Republic into the First French Empire within five years of his coup d'état. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, founding the dynasty. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of France, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including their ancestral Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty was in a position of power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies such as Austria, United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia, as well as royalist restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed under its own weight. Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second French Empire, again a member of the Bonaparte dynasty would rule; Napoleon III of France the son of Louis Bonaparte. However after the Franco-Prussian War, the dynasty was again ousted from the imperial throne. Since that time there has been a series of pretenders, supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe Napoléon is ironically from a Bourbon mother.

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National Convention

National Convention

During the French Revolution, the National Convention comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly of France and sat from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. It held executive power in France during the first years of the French First Republic. Prominent members of the original Convention included Maximilien Robespierre of the Jacobin Club, Jean-Paul Marat, and Georges Danton of the Cordeliers. From 1793 to 1794, executive power was de facto exercised by the Convention's Committee of Public Safety. The Convention was succeeded by the Directory, commencing 2 November 1795. France, like the rest of Europe, has never again used an elected constitutional convention to draft its constitutions, instead relying on the executive or legislative branches to draft successive constitutions before usually submitting them to the electorate for approval in referendums.

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Air

Air

Air is a music duo from Versailles, France, consisting of Nicolas Godin and Jean-Benoît Dunckel. Air's debut EP, Premiers Symptômes, was followed by the critically acclaimed album Moon Safari, the re-release of Premiers Symptômes, The Virgin Suicides score, and subsequently albums 10 000 Hz Legend, Everybody Hertz, Talkie Walkie, Pocket Symphony, Love 2, and Le Voyage Dans La Lune.

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Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage is a French film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau, released 16 April 2003. The film was a critical success due in part to its tight interweaving of various genres, including spy, romance, World War II, and comedy. The film features the first reteaming of stars Isabelle Adjani and Gérard Depardieu since 1988's Camille Claudel.

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Chemical equation

Chemical equation

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side. The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin in 1615.

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Estelle

Estelle

Estelle is a census-designated place in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 15,880 at the 2000 census. It is part of the New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner Metropolitan Statistical Area. Estelle is south of Marrero, Louisiana; the urbanized areas of the communities meet, and some businesses in Estelle list their addresses as "Marrero". The Jean Lafitte National Park Barataria Preserve is adjacent to Estelle.

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JOSS

JOSS

JOSS was one of the very first interactive, time sharing programming languages. JOSS I, developed by J. Clifford Shaw at RAND was first implemented, in beta form, on the JOHNNIAC computer in May 1963. The full implementation was deployed in January 1964, supporting 5 terminals and the final version, supporting 10 terminals, was deployed in January 1965. JOSS was written in a symbolic assembly language called EasyFox. EasyFox was also developed by Cliff Shaw. JOSS was dubbed "The Helpful Assistant" and is renowned for its conversational user interface. Originally green/black typewriter ribbons were used in its terminals with green being used for user input and black for the computer's response. Any command that was not understood elicited the response "Eh?". JOSS II, was developed by Charles L. Baker, Joseph W. Smith, Irwin D. Greenwald, and G. Edward Bryan for the PDP-6 computer between 1964 and February 1966. Many variants of JOSS were developed and implemented on a variety of platforms. Some of these variants remained very similar to the original: TELCOMP, FOCAL, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN, AID; while others, such as MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.

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Social contract

Social contract

In political philosophy the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate, in exchange for protection of their remaining rights. The question of the relation between natural and legal rights, therefore, is often an aspect of social contract theory. The Social Contract, created by Jean Jacques Rousseau was a book about government reforms and how it should change to suit the people instead of the government. Although the antecedents of social contract theory are found in antiquity, in Greek and Stoic philosophy and Roman and Canon Law, as well as in the Biblical idea of the covenant, the heyday of the social contract was the mid-17th to early 19th centuries, when it emerged as the leading doctrine of political legitimacy. The starting point for most social contract theories is a heuristic examination of the human condition absent from any political order that Thomas Hobbes termed the “state of nature”. In this condition, individuals' actions are bound only by their personal power and conscience. From this shared starting point, social contract theorists seek to demonstrate, in different ways, why a rational individual would voluntarily consent to give up his or her natural freedom to obtain the benefits of political order.

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Nursing process

Nursing process

The nursing process is a modified scientific method. Nursing practise was first described as a four stage nursing process by Ida Jean Orlando in 1958. It should not be confused with nursing theories or Health informatics. The diagnosis phase was added later. The nursing process uses clinical judgement to strike a balance of epistomology between personal interpretation and research evidence in which critical thinking may play a part to categorize the clients issue and course of action. Nursing offers diverse patterns of knowing. Nursing knowledge has embraced pluralism since the 1970s. Some authors refer to a mind map or abductive reasoning as a potential alternative strategy for organizing care. Intuition plays a part for experienced nurses.

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Hot Pants

Hot Pants

Hot Pants is one of the numerous groups involving the French singer-songwriter of Spanish descent Manu Chao and his cousin, drummer Santi. As with all of Chao's music, the group had many influences, most notably The Clash, which contributed to their rockabilly sound. The group sang in English and Spanish. The group released a demo tape in 1984 entitled "Mala Vida," and in 1985 they released a 45 with the single "So many nites". They released a full length album entitled Loco Mosquito in 1986, which was re-released in 2000. The members of the group were: ⁕Manu Chao: guitar/vocals ⁕Pascal Borgne: guitar ⁕Jean-Marc: bass guitar ⁕Santi: drums

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Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy. A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were "the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator." Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

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Balls

Balls

Balls is the eighteenth album by Sparks released in 2000. "It's a Knockoff" was recorded for the movie Knock Off, starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, directed by the acclaimed Hong Kong based producer/director Tsui Hark. It is featured over the closing credits.

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Human rights

Human rights

Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal and egalitarian. These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in local, regional, national, and international law. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. The idea of human rights states, "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate. Many of the basic ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust, culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The ancient world did not possess the concept of universal human rights. The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominent during the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, and featured prominently in the political discourse of the American Revolution and the French Revolution.

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Villanelle

Villanelle

A villanelle is a nineteen-line poetic form consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain. There are two refrains and two repeating rhymes, with the first and third line of the first tercet repeated alternately until the last stanza, which includes both repeated lines. The villanelle is an example of a fixed verse form. The word derives from Latin, then Italian, and is related to the initial subject of the form being the pastoral. The form started as a simple ballad-like song with no fixed form; this fixed quality would only come much later, from the poem “J’ay perdu ma Tourterelle” by Jean Passerat. From this point, its evolution into the "fixed form" used in the present day is debated. Despite its French origins, the majority of villanelles have been written in English, a trend which began in the late nineteenth century. The villanelle has been noted as a form that frequently treats the subject of obsessions, and one which appeals to outsiders; its defining feature of repetition prevents it from having a conventional tone.

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Bayonne

Bayonne

Bayonne is a city and commune in southwestern France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. It belongs to both vernacular cultural regions of Basque Country and Gascony. Together with nearby Anglet, Biarritz, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, and several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 178,965 inhabitants at the 1999 census, 40,078 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper. The communes of Bayonne, Biarritz, and Anglet have joined into an intercommunal entity called the Agglomération Côte Basque-Adour.

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Wave equation

Wave equation

The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves – as they occur in physics – such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid dynamics. Historically, the problem of a vibrating string such as that of a musical instrument was studied by Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli, and Joseph-Louis Lagrange.

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Prix de Rome

Prix de Rome

The Prix de Rome was a scholarship for arts students. It was created, initially for painters and sculptors, in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a very difficult elimination contest. The prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the award winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture. Six painters, four sculptors, and two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666. Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories: painting and sculpture. Architecture was added in 1720. In 1803, music was added, and after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well. The primary winner took the "First Grand Prize" and the "Second Prizes" were awarded to the runners-up. In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, and they had to be renovated in order to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. In this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance.

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Kean

Kean

Kean is a musical with a book by Peter Stone and music and lyrics by Robert Wright and George Forrest. Using material by Jean-Paul Sartre and Alexandre Dumas, père as its source, it centers on the adventures of Edmund Kean, considered the greatest Shakespearean actor of the early 19th century, focusing primarily mainly on his wild behavior offstage. Trouble ensues as Kean desperately tries to juggle the two women in his life - the Danish Ambassador's wife, Elena, and a young aspiring actress, Anna. After one preview, the Broadway production, directed and choreographed by Jack Cole, opened on November 2, 1961 at the Broadway Theatre, where it ran for 92 performances. The cast included Roderick Cook, Alfred Drake, Larry Fuller, Christopher Hewett, Joan Weldon, and Lee Venora. Drake was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical, and the show was nominated for Best Conductor and Musical Director. An original cast recording was released by Columbia Records. This album is one of the most valuable original cast albums because of its scarcity.

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Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage

A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed," or any site that is seen to have special spiritual powers. Such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim. As a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by Wallace Clift and Jean Dalby Clift. The Holy Land acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. According to a Stockholm University study in 2011, these pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy Land.

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Robinia

Robinia

Robinia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, native to North America and northern Mexico. Commonly known as "locusts", they are deciduous trees and shrubs growing 4–25 metres tall. The leaves are pinnate with 7–21 oval leaflets. The flowers are white or pink, in usually pendulous racemes. Many species have thorny shoots, and several have sticky hairs on the shoots. The genus is named after the royal French gardeners Jean Robin and his son Vespasian Robin, who introduced the plant to Europe in 1601. The number of species is disputed between different authorities, with as few as four recognised by some authors, while others recognise up to ten species. There are also several natural hybrids. Some species of Robinia are used as food by larvae of Lepidoptera, including the moths Chrysaster ostensackenella, Brown-tail, Buff-tip, The Engrailed, Giant Leopard Moth and Locust Underwing.

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Maltese cross

Maltese cross

The Maltese cross, also known as the Amalfi cross is the cross symbol associated with the Knights Hospitaller and by extension with the island of Malta. The cross is eight-pointed and has the form of four "V"-shaped elements joined together at their tips, so that each arm has two points. Its design is based on crosses used since the First Crusade. It is also the modern symbol of Amalfi, a small Italian republic of the 11th century. In the mid 16th century, when the Knights were at Malta, the familiar design now known as the "Maltese Cross" became associated with the island. The first evidence for Maltese Cross on Malta appears on the 2 Tarì and 4 Tarì Copper coins of the Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Vallette. The 2 and 4 Tarì Copper coins are dated 1567. This provides a date for the introduction of the Maltese Cross. The Maltese cross was depicted on the two mils coin in the old Maltese currency and is now shown on the back of the one and two Euro coins, introduced in January 2008.

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Conversion disorder

Conversion disorder

A conversion disorder causes patients to suffer from neurological symptoms, such as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits without a definable organic cause. It is thought that symptoms arise in response to stressful situations affecting a patient's mental health and Conversion disorder is considered a psychiatric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. Formerly known as "hysteria", the disorder has arguably been known for millennia, though it came to greatest prominence at the end of the 19th century, when the neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Sigmund Freud and psychiatrist Pierre Janet focused their studies on the subject. Before Freud's studies on hysteria, people who suffered from physical disabilities that were not caused by any physical impairments, known as hysterical patients, were believed to be malingering, suffering from weak nerves, or just suffering from meaningless disturbances. The term "conversion" has its origins in Freud's doctrine that anxiety is "converted" into physical symptoms. Though previously thought to have vanished from the west in the 20th century, some research has suggested it is as common as ever.

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Flo

Flo

Flo is an American sitcom which aired on CBS from 1980 to 1981. The series is a spin-off for Polly Holliday who portrayed the sassy and street-smart waitress Florence Jean "Flo" Castleberry on the sitcom Alice. Flo was cancelled at the end of its second season.

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Cinéma vérité

Cinéma vérité

Cinéma vérité is a term, referring to a style of documentary filmmaking, invented by Jean Rouch, inspired by Dziga Vertov's theory about Kino-Pravda and influenced by Robert Flaherty’s films. It combines improvisation with the use of the camera to unveil truth or highlight subjects hidden behind crude reality. It is sometimes called observational cinema, if understood as pure direct cinema: mainly without a narrator's voice-over. There are subtle, yet important, differences among terms expressing similar concepts. Direct Cinema is largely concerned with the recording of events in which the subject and audience become unaware of the camera presence: operating within what Bill Nichols, an American historian and theoretician of documentary film, calls the "observational mode", a fly on the wall. Many therefore see a paradox in drawing attention away from the presence of the camera and simultaneously interfering in the reality it registers when attempting to discover a cinematic truth. Cinéma vérité can involve stylized set-ups and the interaction between the filmmaker and the subject, even to the point of provocation. Some argue that the obvious presence of the filmmaker and camera was seen by most cinéma vérité filmmakers as the best way to reveal the truth in cinema. The camera is always acknowledged, for it performs the raw act of filming real objects, people, and events in a confrontational way. The filmmaker's intention was to represent the truth in what he or she was seeing as objectively as possible, freeing people from any deceptions in how those aspects of life were formerly presented to them. From this perspective, the filmmaker should be the catalyst of a situation. Few agree on the meanings of these terms, even the filmmakers whose films are being described.

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Toxicology

Toxicology

Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect. Ibn Wahshiya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century. Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale. In 1850, Jean Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning him with nicotine. Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim is also considered "the father" of toxicology. He is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle Dinge sind Gift und nichts ist ohne Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist." which translates as, "All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison." This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum".

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Djambi

Djambi

Djambi is a board game and a chess variant for four players, invented by Jean Anesto in 1975.

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Georges Gilles de la Tourette

Georges Gilles de la Tourette

Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette was a French physician who could be classified today as a neurologist who is the eponym of Tourette syndrome, a neurological condition. He was born in "the small town of Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers, in the district of Châtellerault near the city of Loudun, France", and died in Lausanne, Switzerland. During 1873 Tourette began medical studies at Poitiers. He later relocated to Paris where he became a student, amanuensis and house physician of his mentor, the influential contemporary neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, director of the Salpêtrière Hospital. Charcot also helped him to advance in his academic career. Tourette studied and lectured in psychotherapy, hysteria and medical and legal ramifications of mesmerism. Tourette described the symptoms of Tourette syndrome in nine patients in 1884, using the name "maladie des tics". Charcot renamed the syndrome "Gilles de la Tourette's illness" in his honor. In 1893 a former female patient shot Tourette in the head, claiming he had hypnotized her against her will. Both Tourette and many modern hypnologists state that this is impossible. His mentor, Charcot, had died recently, and his young son had also died recently. After these events Tourette began to experience mood swings between depression and hypomania. Nevertheless, he organized public lectures in which he spoke about literacy, mesmerism and theatre.

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Blue rinse

Blue rinse

A blue rinse is a dilute hair dye used to reduce the yellowed appearance of greying hair on older women. The ability to see blue decreases with age due to the development of cataracts, so an older woman perceives her uncoloured hair to have a yellow-tinge, and the blue rinse brings the colour back to a perceived normal colour in their eyes. In a manner similar to laundry bluing, the blue rinse can make yellow-white hair appear blue-white, but an inexpertly applied blue rinse will leave a distinctly unnatural tinge behind. The "blue rinse" may also stem from a popular trend in the 1930s, popularizsed by film star Jean Harlow, for young women to dye their hair with peroxide and then follow with a rinse of methylene blue to take out the yellow, creating the desired platinum white effect. The phrase entered popular culture as a term for elderly women, the blue rinse brigade. An alternative term is "blue hair." It has declined in popularity with the increasing popularity of home dyeing, the reduced prevalence of smoking, the increased ubiquity of cataract surgery, and with society's more relaxed attitude to ageing.

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Giselle

Giselle

Giselle is a ballet in two acts with a libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Théophile Gautier, music by Adolphe Adam, and choreography by Jean Coralli and Jules Perrot. The librettist took his inspiration from a poem by Heinrich Heine. The ballet tells the story of a lovely peasant girl named Giselle who has a passion for dancing, and when she finds out the man she loves is engaged to someone else she dies of a broken heart. Giselle was first presented by the Ballet du Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris, France, on 28 June 1841. The choreography in modern productions generally derives from the revivals of Marius Petipa for the Imperial Russian Ballet.

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Sibelius

Sibelius

Sibelius is a 2003 Finnish film biography of Jean Sibelius directed and written by Timo Koivusalo. It is the first full-length feature film about the famous composer.

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Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe is one of France's six national theatres. It is located at 2 rue Corneille in the 6th arrondissement of Paris on the left bank of the Seine, next to the Luxembourg Garden. It was originally built between 1779 and 1782, in the garden of the former Hôtel de Condé, to a Neoclassical design by Charles De Wailly and Marie-Joseph Peyre, originally in order to house the Comédie Française, which, however, preferred to stay at the Théâtre-Français in the Palais Royal. The new theatre was inaugurated by Marie-Antoinette on April 9, 1782. It was there that The Marriage of Figaro play was premiered two years later. An 1808 reconstruction of the theater designed by Jean Chalgrin was officially named the Théâtre de l'Impératrice, but everyone still called it the Odéon. It burned in 1818. The third and present structure, designed by Pierre Thomas Baraguay, was opened in September 1819. In 1990, the theater was given the sobriquet 'Théâtre de l'Europe'. It is a member theater of the Union of the Theatres of Europe.

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Lire

Lire

Lire is a French literary magazine covering both French and foreign literature. It was founded in 1975 by Jean-Louis Servan-Schreiber and Bernard Pivot. Today "Lire" is owned by the company Express Roularta.

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Blackboard bold

Blackboard bold

Blackboard bold is a typeface style that is often used for certain symbols in mathematical texts, in which certain lines of the symbol are doubled. The symbols usually denote number sets. Blackboard bold symbols are also referred to as double struck, although they cannot actually be produced by double striking on a typewriter. The Chicago Manual of Style in 1993 advises: "blackboard bold should be confined to the classroom" whereas in 2003 it states that "open-faced symbols are reserved for familiar systems of numbers". In some texts these symbols are simply shown in bold type: blackboard bold in fact originated from the attempt to write bold letters on blackboards in a way that clearly differentiated them from non-bold letters, and then made its way back in print form as a separate style from ordinary bold, possibly starting with the original 1965 edition of Gunning and Rossi's textbook on complex analysis. Some mathematicians, therefore, do not recognize blackboard bold as a separate style from bold: Jean-Pierre Serre, for example, has publicly inveighed against the use of "blackboard bold" anywhere other than on a blackboard, and uses double-struck letters when writing bold on the blackboard, whereas his published works consistently use ordinary bold for the same symbols. Donald Knuth also advises against the use of blackboard bold in print.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître, which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content, while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue, Le Neveu de Rameau, upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based.

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Hyperreality

Hyperreality

Hyperreality is used in semiotics and postmodern philosophy to describe an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced post-modern societies. Hyperreality is a way of characterizing what our consciousness defines as "real" in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience. Hyperreality is seen as a condition in which what is real and what is fiction are seamlessly blended together so that there is no clear distinction between where one ends and the other begins. Hyperreality is a hypothetical communications infrastructure made possible by information technology. It allows the commingling of physical reality with virtual reality and human intelligence with artificial intelligence. Individuals may find themselves for different reasons, more in tune or involved with the hyperreal world and less with the physical real world. Some famous theorists of hyperreality include Jean Baudrillard author of Simulacra and Simulation, Albert Borgmann, Daniel J. Boorstin author of The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, Neil Postman author of Amusing Ourselves to Death, and Umberto Eco author of Travels in Hyperreality.

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Worm

Worm

The term worm refers to an obsolete taxon used by Carolus Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for all non-arthropod invertebrate animals, and stems from the Old English word wyrm. Currently it is used to describe many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no legs. Most animals called "worms" are invertebrates, but the term is also used for the amphibian caecilians and the slow worm Anguis, a legless burrowing lizard. Invertebrate animals commonly called "worms" include annelids, nematodes, platyhelminthes, marine polychaete worms, marine nemertean worms, marine Chaetognatha, priapulid worms, and insect larvae such as caterpillars, grubs, and maggots. Historical English-speaking cultures have used the terms worm, Wurm, or wyrm to describe carnivorous reptiles, and the related mythical beasts dragons. The term worm can also be used as an insult or pejorative term used towards people to describe a cowardly or weak individual or individual seen as pitiable. Worms vary in size from microscopic to over 1 metre in length for marine polychaete worms, 6.7 metres for the African giant earthworm, Microchaetus, and 55 metres for the marine nemertean worm, Lineus longissimus.

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Breathless

Breathless

Breathless is a 1960 French film directed by Jean-Luc Godard. It was his first feature-length work, and one of the earliest, most influential of the French New Wave. At the time, the film attracted much attention for its bold visual style and the innovative use of jump cuts. Breathless, together with François Truffaut's The 400 Blows and Alain Resnais's Hiroshima, Mon Amour, both released a year earlier, brought international acclaim to the French nouvelle vague. A fully restored version of the film was released in the U.S. for the 50th anniversary of the film in May 2010. When originally released in France, the film had 2,082,760 cinema goers.

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Jack Kerouac

Jack Kerouac

Jean-Louis "Jack" Kérouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. Kerouac became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements. In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac died from internal bleeding due to long term abuse of alcohol. Since his death Kerouac's literary prestige has grown and several previously unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, among them: On the Road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody, The Sea is My Brother, and Big Sur.

— Freebase

Mons

Mons

Mons is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. The Mons municipality includes the old communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Ghlin, Hyon, Nimy, Obourg, Baudour, Jemappes, Ciply, Harmignies, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Mesvin, Nouvelles, Saint-Denis, Saint-Symphorien, Spiennes, Villers-Saint-Ghislain, Casteau, Masnuy-Saint-Jean, and Ville-sur-Haine. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons was selected to be the European capital of culture in 2015.

— Freebase

Bouts-Rimés

Bouts-Rimés

Bouts-Rimés, literally "rhymed-ends", is the name given to a kind of poetic game defined by Addison, in the Spectator, as lists of words that rhyme to one another, drawn up by another hand, and given to a poet, who was to make a poem to the rhymes in the same order that they were placed upon the list. The more odd and perplexing the rhymes are, the more ingenuity is required to give a semblance of common sense to the production. For instance, the rhyme scheme breeze, elephant, squeeze, pant, scant, please, hope, pope is submitted, and the following stanza is the result: The invention of bouts-rimés is attributed to a minor French poet of the 17th century named Dulot, of whom little else is remembered. According to the Menagiana, about the year 1648, Dulot was complaining one day that he had been robbed of a number of valuable papers, and, in particular, of three hundred sonnets. Surprise being expressed at his having written so many, Dulot explained that they were all blank sonnets, that is to say, that he had put down the rhymes and nothing else. The idea struck everyone as amusing, and what Dulot had done seriously was taken up as a jest. Bouts-rimés became the fashion, and in 1654 Jean François Sarrazin composed a satire against them, entitled La Défaite des bouts-rimés, which enjoyed a great success. Nevertheless, they continued to be abundantly composed in France throughout the 17th century and a great part of the 18th century.

— Freebase

Niagara

Niagara

Niagara is a 1953 thriller-film noir, released by Twentieth Century-Fox, directed by Henry Hathaway, and starring Joseph Cotten, Jean Peters, Casey Adams, and Marilyn Monroe. Unlike other film noirs of the time, Niagara was filmed in Technicolor and was one of Fox's biggest box office hits of the year. Monroe was given first billing in Niagara which elevated her to star status. Her following two films of that year, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, with Jane Russell, and How to Marry a Millionaire, with Betty Grable and Lauren Bacall, were even bigger successes.

— Freebase

Sombre

Sombre

Sombre is a 1998 French film directed by Philippe Grandrieux, starring Marc Barbé and Elina Löwensohn. The film was nominated for the Golden Leopard and won the C.I.C.A.E. Award - Special Mention at the Locarno International Film Festival. It deals with Jean, a serial killer who follows the Tour de France cycling race in his car and murders women along his way. Then he meets Claire, a psychologically troubled and confused woman who falls in love with him.

— Freebase

Polyphème

Polyphème

Polyphème is an opera composed by Jean Cras with a libretto by Albert Samain. It was written by Cras during World War I and was premiered in Paris in 1922, giving Cras a burst of notoriety in the French press.

— Freebase

AERO

AERO

AERO is a 2004 album of electronic music by Jean Michel Jarre. It is composed of previously-released tracks re-recorded in 5.1 surround sound plus three new tracks and a bonus live track. All tracks are sewn together through surround-sound "Scenes". The album includes a CD and a DVD; the DVD-Video features Dolby Digital and DTS audio, whereas the CD is in stereo, mixed to give a more spacious impression than usual. On the release of AERO, Jarre commented that he had always envisioned his music in surround; with the advent of the DVD, he could finally release his music the way he wanted. He incorrectly claimed this to be the first recording specifically designed for 5.1 listening. Rings Around The World by the Super Furry Animals was released in 5.1 surround in 2001. Jarre chose the DVD-Video format instead of the higher-quality DVD-Audio or SACD because he claimed that DVD-Video was the most widespread format, with the generalization of home cinema setups. However, DVD-Audio discs are normally authored to provide surround sound compatible with DVD-Video players.

— Freebase

Bouvet Island

Bouvet Island

Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic volcanic island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at 54°25.8′S 3°22.8′E / 54.4300°S 3.3800°E. It lies at the southern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is the most remote island in the world. The island has an area of 49 square kilometres, of which 93 percent is covered by a glacier. The centre of the island is an ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano. Some skerries and one smaller island, Larsøya, lie along the coast. Nyrøysa, created by a rock slide in the late 1950s, is the only easy place to land and is the location of a weather station. The island was first spotted on January 1, 1739 by Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier. He recorded inaccurate coordinates and the island was not sighted again until 1808, when the British whaler captain James Lindsay named it Lindsay Island. The first claim of landing, although disputed, was by Benjamin Morrell. In 1825, the island was claimed for the British Crown by George Norris, who named it Liverpool Island. He also reported Thompson Island as nearby, although this was later shown to be a phantom island. The first Norvegia expedition landed on the island in 1927 and claimed it for Norway. After a dispute with the United Kingdom, it was declared a Norwegian dependency in 1930. It became a nature reserve in 1971.

— Freebase

Aplomb

Aplomb

In classical ballet, aplomb refers to the basic law of ballet – stability. The French ballet master Jean-Étienne Despréaux defined it in 1806 as a specific kind of dynamic balance fundamental to all positions and movements of ballet. A 1905 book Grammar of the Art of Dancing, Theoretical and Practical referring to Bernhard Klemm, wrote: "Aplomb is the absolute safety in rising and falling back which results from the perpendicular attitude of the upper body and the artistic placing of the feet. By means of aplomb the dancer acquires a precision and an elegance which insure the successful execution of every foot-movement, however artistic and difficult, and thereby creates a pleasing and a satisfactory impression upon the observer. Aplomb may be compared with the sureness of touch of the pianist." Aplomb is achieved with straight body with its weight equally distributed over the supporting foot. Aplomb is controlled by feeling and controlling the muscular sensations in the spine, i.e., by "holding the back". The base of aplomb are the five positions of the feet codified by Pierre Beauchamp in 1680. The correct set of the body influences all ballet steps, and the perfection of the aplomb requires years of training. Exercises at the barre begin the training of the stability and balance.

— Freebase

Circular dichroism

Circular dichroism

Circular dichroism refers to the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light. This phenomenon was discovered by Jean-Baptiste Biot, Augustin Fresnel, and Aimé Cotton in the first half of the 19th century. It is exhibited in the absorption bands of optically active chiral molecules. CD spectroscopy has a wide range of applications in many different fields. Most notably, UV CD is used to investigate the secondary structure of proteins. UV/Vis CD is used to investigate charge-transfer transitions. Near-infrared CD is used to investigate geometric and electronic structure by probing metal d→d transitions. Vibrational circular dichroism, which uses light from the infrared energy region, is used for structural studies of small organic molecules, and most recently proteins and DNA.

— Freebase

Montparnasse

Montparnasse

Montparnasse is an area of Paris, France, on the left bank of the river Seine, centred at the crossroads of the Boulevard du Montparnasse and the Rue de Rennes, between the Rue de Rennes and boulevard Raspail. Montparnasse was absorbed into the capital's 14th arrondissement in 1669. The area also gives its name to: ⁕Gare Montparnasse – trains to Brittany, TGV to Rennes, Tours, Bordeaux, Le Mans; rebuilt as a modern TGV station; ⁕The large Montparnasse – Bienvenüe métro station; ⁕Cimetière du Montparnasse – the Montparnasse Cemetery, where Charles Baudelaire, Constantin Brâncuşi, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Samuel Beckett, and Susan Sontag are buried ⁕Tour Montparnasse, a lone skyscraper. The Pasteur Institute is located in the area. Beneath the ground are tunnels of the Catacombs of Paris. The name Montparnasse stems from the nickname "Mount Parnassus" given to the hilly neighbourhood in the 17th century by students who came there to recite poetry. The hill was levelled to construct the Boulevard Montparnasse in the 18th century. During the French Revolution many dance halls and cabarets opened their doors.

— Freebase

Helene

Helene

Helene is a moon of Saturn. It was discovered by Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from ground-based observations at Pic du Midi Observatory, and was designated S/1980 S 6. In 1988 it was officially named after Helen of Troy, who was the granddaughter of Cronus in Greek mythology. The moon is also designated Saturn XII, a number which it received in 1982, under the designation Dione B, because it is co-orbital with Dione and located in its leading Lagrangian point. It is one of four known trojan moons.

— Freebase

Adele

Adele

Adele is a musical in three acts with music by Jean Briquet and Adolph Philipp, original French book and lyrics by Paul Hervé, and English adaptation by Adolf Philipp and Edward A. Paulton. The plot concerns a French girl who falls in love with the son of her father's business rival. The Broadway production opened on August 28, 1913, at the Longacre Theatre, transferring to the Harris Theatre and ran for a total of 196 performances. It was directed by Ben Teal. Natalie Alt played the title role. Georgia Caine was Mme. Myrianne de Neuville, Hal Forde was Baron Charles de Chantilly and Craufurd Kent was Robert Friebur. The West End London production opened at the Gaiety Theatre on May 30, 1914.

— Freebase

Naïs

Naïs

Naïs is an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau first performed on 22 April 1749 at the Opéra in Paris. It takes the form of a pastorale héroïque in three acts and a prologue. The librettist was Louis de Cahusac, in the fourth collaboration between him and Rameau. The work bears the subtitle Opéra pour La Paix, which refers to the fact that Rameau composed the opera on the occasion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, at the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession. Its original title was Le triomphe de la paix, but criticism of the terms of the treaty led to a change in the title. C. M. Girdlestone has listed instrumental music that Rameau borrowed from his own Les Fêtes de Polymnie and Les Paladins for Naïs, and in turn the music that Rameau took from Naïs for Hippolyte et Aricie. Graham Sadler has discussed various facets of Rameau's orchestration for Naïs.

— Freebase

Knock Off

Knock Off

Knock Off is a 1998 American action film directed by Tsui Hark, starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, Lela Rochon, Michael Fitzgerald Wong, Rob Schneider and Paul Sorvino.

— Freebase

Mademoiselle

Mademoiselle

Mademoiselle was a women's magazine first published in 1935 by Street and Smith and later acquired by Condé Nast Publications. Mademoiselle was known for publishing short stories by noted authors such as Truman Capote, Joyce Carol Oates, William Faulkner, Tennessee Williams, James Baldwin, Flannery O'Connor, Paul Bowles, Jane Bowles, Jane Smiley, Mary Gordon, Paul Theroux, Sue Miller, Barbara Kingsolver, Perri Klass, Mona Simpson, Alice Munro, Harold Brodkey, Pam Houston, Jean Stafford, and Susan Minot. Julia Cameron was a frequent columnist. The art director was Barbara Kruger. In 1952, Sylvia Plath's short story Sunday at the Mintons won first prize and $500, as well as publication in the magazine. Her experiences during the summer of 1953 as a guest editor at Mademoiselle provided the basis for her novel, The Bell Jar. The August 1961 "college issue" of "Mademoiselle" included a photo of UCLA senior class president Willette Murphy, who did not realize she was making history as the first African-American model to appear in a mainstream fashion magazine. In the Sixties Mademoiselle Magazine was geared “to the smart young woman”. They categorically stated in their editorials that despite their young, maidenly name they were not geared to young teenagers. The majority of their readers may have been in college, in a job, some may have been married. Mademoiselle was interested in reaching only mature college freshmen and up, who were being exposed to the greatest literature, facing the greatest moral problems coping with all the complexities of the atomic age.

— Freebase

Faust

Faust

Faust are a German krautrock band. Formed in 1971 in Wümme, the group was originally composed of Werner "Zappi" Diermaier, Hans Joachim Irmler, Arnulf Meifert, Jean-Hervé Péron, Rudolf Sosna and Gunther Wüsthoff, working with record producer Uwe Nettelbeck and engineer Kurt Graupner.

— Freebase

Alfred Kastler

Alfred Kastler

Alfred Kastler was a French physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate. Kastler was born in Guebwiller and later attended the Lycée Bartholdi in Colmar, Alsace, and École Normale Supérieure in Paris in 1921. After his studies, in 1926 he began teaching physics at the Lycée of Mulhouse, and then taught at the University of Bordeaux, where he was a university professor until 1941. Georges Bruhat asked him to come back to the École Normale Supérieure, where he finally obtained a chair in 1952. Collaborating with Jean Brossel, he researched quantum mechanics, the interaction between light and atoms, and spectroscopy. Kastler, working on combination of optical resonance and magnetic resonance, developed the technique of "optical pumping". Those works led to the completion of the theory of lasers and masers. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1966 "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms". He was president of the board of the Institut d'optique théorique et appliquée and served as the first chairman of the non-governmental organization Action Against Hunger. Kastler also wrote poetry. In 1979 he published Europe, ma patrie: Deutsche Lieder eines französischen Europäers.

— Freebase

Choiseul

Choiseul

Choiseul is an illustrious family from Champagne, France, descendents of the comtes of Langres. The family's head was Renaud III de Choiseul, comte de Langres and sire de Choiseul, who in 1182 married Alix de Dreux, daughter of Louis VI of France. It has formed into the Langres, Clémont, Aigremont, Beaugré, Allecourt, Frontières, Praslin, Plessis branches, among others. It also took the name Choiseul-Gouffier from the 18th century onwards. It has produced several marshals: ⁕Jean de Baudricourt, seigneur of Baudricourt and of Choiseul ⁕Charles de Choiseul, comte of the Plessis-Praslin, who served under Henri IV and Louis XIII ⁕César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, duc de Choiseul, who defied Turenne at Rethel, when he commanded the Spanish army ⁕Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French marshal and diplomat, generally known for the best part of his life as marshal du Plessis-Praslin ⁕Claude de Choiseul, comte de Choiseul-Francières, who distinguished himself in the battle of Seneffe against the Dutch Republic and made a marshal in 1693 Two bishops and an archbishop: ⁕Gilbert de Choiseul du Plessis Praslin, brother of marshal César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Bishop of Comminges from 1644 to 1670.

— Freebase

Abampere

Abampere

The abampere, also called the biot after Jean-Baptiste Biot, is the basic electromagnetic unit of electric current in the emu-cgs system of units. One abampere is equal to ten amperes in the SI system of units. An abampere of current in a circular path of one centimeter radius produces a magnetic field of 2 π oersteds at the center of the circle. The emu-cgs units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre gram second system of units; others include esu-cgs, Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In these other systems, the abampere is not one of the units; the "statcoulomb per second" or statampere is used instead. The other units in this system related to the abampere are: ⁕abcoulomb – the charge that passes in one second through any cross section of a conductor carrying a steady current of one abampere ⁕abhenry – the self-inductance of a circuit or the mutual inductance of two circuits in which the variation of current at the rate of one abampere per second results in an induced electromotive force of one abvolt ⁕abohm – the resistance of a conductor that, with a constant current of one abampere through it, maintains between its terminals a potential difference of one abvolt

— Freebase

Cap-Haïtien

Cap-Haïtien

Cap-Haïtien is a city of about 190,000 people on the north coast of Haiti and capital of the Department of Nord. Previously, named as Cap-Français, Cap-Henri, and le Cap, it was an important city during the colonial period, serving as the capital of the French Colony of Saint-Domingue from the city`s formal foundation in 1711 until 1770 when the capital was moved to Port-au-Prince. After the slave revolution, it was the first capital of the Kingdom of Northern Haiti under King Henri Christophe. Due to Cap-Haïtien's distance from Haïti's capital, Port-au-Prince, combined with the dire condition of Haïti's transportation infrastructure, the city has often become an incubator for revolutionary or anti-Government figures and movements. For instance, from February 5–29, 2004, the city was taken over by militants who opposed the rule of the Haïtian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. They eventually created enough political pressure to force him out of office and the country. Cap-Haïtien is near the historic Haïtian town of Milot, which lies 12 miles to the southwest along a gravel road. Milot was Haïti's first capital under the self-proclaimed King Henri Christophe, who ascended to power in 1807, three years after Haïti had gained independence from France. He renamed Cap-Francais as Cap-Henri. Milot is the site of his Sans-Souci Palace, wrecked by the 1842 earthquake. Five miles away is the Citadelle Laferrière, a massive stone fortress bristling with cannons, atop a nearby mountain. On clear days, its silhouette is visible from Cap-Haïtien.

— Freebase

Personality development

Personality development

An individual's personality is an aggregate conglomeration of the decisions they have made throughout their life and the memory of the experiences to which these decisions led. There are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality. According to process of socialization, "personality also colors our values, beliefs, and expectations ... Hereditary factors that contribute to personality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular social environment in which people live." There are several personality types as Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers illustrated in several personalities typology tests, which are based on Carl Jung's school of Analytical psychology. However, these tests only provide enlightenment based on the preliminary insight scored according to the answers judged by the parameters of the test. Other theories on personality development include Jean Piaget's stages of development, Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, and personality development in Sigmund Freud's theory being formed through the interaction of id, ego, and super-ego.

— Freebase

Imposs

Imposs

S. Rimsky Salgado known by his stage name Imposs is a Canadian rapper of Haitian origin based in Quebec. Before becoming a solo artist, he was part of Muzion, one of the well-known hip hop bands of Quebec. He has collaborated on many occasions with Wyclef Jean during Muzion days and as a solo artist. He is also well known for dubbing the phrase "Real City" for Montreal. He is signed to the K.Pone.Inc music label.

— Freebase

Emerson

Emerson

Emerson is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It has existed since 1879, when it was created by redistribution. It is located in the southeastern corner of the province. It is bordered to the north by Carman, Morris, Steinbach and La Verendrye, to the west by Pembina, to the east by the province of Ontario and to the south by the American state of North Dakota. The riding includes the communities/municipalities of Emerson, Altona, Dominion City, Rhineland, Gretna, Woodridge and St. Jean Baptiste. The riding's population in 1996 was 19,006. As of 1999, the average family income was $42,863, and the unemployment rate was 5.90%. Agriculture accounts for 24% of the riding's industry, followed by manufacturing at 16%. Over 27% of Emerson's residents have less than a Grade Nine education. Emerson is an ethnically diverse riding, with only 51% of its residents listing English as their mother tongue. 26% of the riding's residents list themselves as either German, French, Ukrainian, Polish or Mennonite, while a further 5% are aboriginal. The riding has generally been safe for the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba since 1969, although the New Democratic Party of Manitoba won it in 1973.

— Freebase

Britney Spears

Britney Spears

Britney Jean Spears is an American pop singer, dancer, actress, and occasional author. Born in McComb, Mississippi, and raised in Kentwood, Louisiana, she performed acting roles in stage productions and television shows as a child before signing with Jive Records in 1997. During her first decade in the music industry, she became a prominent figure in mainstream popular music and popular culture, followed by a much-publicized personal life. Spears's first and second studio albums ...Baby One More Time and Oops!... I Did It Again became international successes, with the former becoming the best-selling album by a teenage solo artist. Title tracks "...Baby One More Time" and "Oops!... I Did It Again" broke international sales records. In 2001, Spears released her third album Britney and played the starring role in the film Crossroads. She assumed creative control of her fourth album In the Zone, which yielded the worldwide success "Toxic". After the release of two compilation albums, Spears's personal struggles sent her career into hiatus. Her fifth album Blackout spawned hits "Gimme More" and "Piece of Me". Spears's erratic behavior and hospitalizations caused her to be placed under a conservatorship in 2008. Her sixth album Circus was released later that year, which included global chart-topping lead single "Womanizer". Its supporting tour The Circus Starring Britney Spears was the highest-grossing global concert tour in 2009. Later that October, "3" became Spears's third single to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Her seventh album Femme Fatale became her first to yield three top ten singles in the United States: "Hold It Against Me", "Till the World Ends" and "I Wanna Go". In 2012, Spears was featured on will.i.am's single "Scream & Shout", which topped charts in over 24 countries. She also served as a judge during the second season of the American version of The X Factor.

— Freebase

Regrets

Regrets

"Regrets" is a 1991 song recorded by French singer-songwriter Mylène Farmer as duet with musician Jean-Louis Murat. The song was released on 29 July 1989 and was the second single from her third studio album L'Autre.... The music video was shot in a cemetery in Budapest, as the song deals with a love relationship between two people separated by the death of one of them. This ballad became a top three hit in France and was also successful in Belgium.

— Freebase

Transpersonal

Transpersonal

The transpersonal is a phenomena or experience "in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos". The term is highly associated with the work of Abraham Maslow and his understanding of "peak experiences", and was first adapted by the human potential movement in the 1960s. Among the psychological sciences that have studied transpersonal phenomena are Transpersonal psychology, Humanistic psychology and Near-Death Studies. Among the forerunners to the development of transpersonal theory are the school of Psychosynthesis, and the Analytical school of C.G Jung. In integral theory, transpersonal refers to stages of human development through which a person's self-awareness extends beyond the personal. Integral theorists include Ken Wilber, Michael Murphy, Michael Washburn, Allan Combs, Jean Gebser, Don Beck, and Clare Graves. The work of all of these theorists is inspired, in varying degrees, by the writings of the Hindu philosopher Sri Aurobindo.

— Freebase

Minister of Finance

Minister of Finance

The Minister of Finance is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible each year for presenting the federal government's budget. It is one of the most important positions in the Cabinet, and the Finance Minister must deal with all the other departments and plays an important role in deciding the funding levels for each. Because of the prominence and responsibility on this cabinet position, it is not uncommon for former Finance Ministers to be elected Prime Minister. Paul Martin was the fifth Prime Minister who was previously a finance minister; the others were Sir Charles Tupper, R.B. Bennett, John Turner, and Jean Chrétien. The current Minister of Finance is Jim Flaherty.

— Freebase

Martina Navratilova

Martina Navratilova

Martina Navratilova is a retired Czech American tennis player and coach. Billie Jean King, former World No. 1 player, said in 2006 that Navratilova is "the greatest singles, doubles and mixed doubles player who's ever lived." Navratilova won 18 Grand Slam singles titles, 31 major women's doubles titles, and 10 major mixed doubles titles. She reached the Wimbledon singles final 12 times, including nine consecutive years from 1982 through 1990, and won the women's singles title at Wimbledon a record nine times. She and King each won 20 Wimbledon titles, an all-time record. Navratilova is one of just three women to have accomplished a career Grand Slam in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles a record she shares with Margaret Court and Doris Hart. She holds the open era record for most singles titles and doubles titles. She recorded the longest winning streak in the open era and three of the six longest winning streaks in the women's open era. Navratilova, Margaret Court and Maureen Connolly share the record for the most consecutive major singles titles. Navratilova reached 11 consecutive major singles finals, second all-time to Steffi Graf's 13. In women's doubles, Navratilova and Pam Shriver won 109 consecutive matches and won all four major titles in 1984, i.e. the Grand Slam. Also the pair set an all-time record of 79 titles together and tied Louise Brough Clapp's and Margaret Osborne duPont's record of 20 major women's doubles titles as a team. In addition she won the season ending WTA Tour Championships a record 8 times and made the finals a record 14 times and won the doubles title a record 11 times. Navratilova is the only person of either sex to have won eight different tournaments at least seven times. Navratilova is one of only five tennis players all-time to win a multiple slam set in two disciplines, matching Margaret Court, Roy Emerson, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams.

— Freebase

Bambino

Bambino

Bambino was Dalida's first major hit, released as a single in 1956, and on the album Son Nom Est Dalida in 1957. It is a cover of the Italian song Guaglione, written and sung by Aurelio Fierro. The song was high on the French singles charts for months, scoring 45 weeks in the Top 10. It also appeared in OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies, in 2006, sung in Arabic by Jean Dujardin.

— Freebase

iCal

iCal

Calendar, called iCal before the release of OS X Mountain Lion, is a personal calendar application made by Apple Inc. that runs on the OS X operating system. iCal was the first calendar application for OS X to offer support for multiple calendars and the ability to intermittently publish/subscribe to calendars on WebDAV servers. Originally released as a free download for Mac OS X v10.2 on September 10, 2002, it was bundled with the operating system as iCal 1.5 with the release of Mac OS X v10.3. Version 2 of iCal was released as part of Mac OS X v10.4, Version 3 as part of Mac OS X v10.5, Version 4 as part of Mac OS X v10.6, Version 5 as part of Mac OS X v10.7, and Version 6 as part of OS X v10.8. Apple licensed the iCal name from Brown Bear Software, who have used it for their iCal application since 1997. With the release of OS X v10.8 in July 2012, iCal is called Calendar, similar to the iOS version. iCal development is quite different from other Apple software because it was designed independently by a small French team working "secretly" in Paris, led by Jean-Marie Hullot, a friend of Steve Jobs. iCal's development has since been transferred to Apple US headquarters in Cupertino.

— Freebase

The More the Merrier

The More the Merrier

The More the Merrier is a 1943 American comedy film made by Columbia Pictures which makes fun of the housing shortage during World War II, especially in Washington, D.C.. The picture stars Jean Arthur, Joel McCrea and Charles Coburn. The movie was directed by George Stevens and written by Richard Flournoy, Lewis R. Foster, Garson Kanin, Frank Ross, and Robert Russell. Coburn won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, while Arthur was nominated for Best Actress in a Leading Role. Other nominations included Best Director, Best Picture, Best Writing, Original Story and Best Writing, Screenplay. This film was remade in 1966 as Walk, Don't Run, with Cary Grant, Samantha Eggar and Jim Hutton.

— Freebase

Holodeck

Holodeck

A holodeck, in the fictional Star Trek universe, is a simulated reality facility located on starships and starbases. The first use of a "holodeck" by that name in the Star Trek universe was in the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, "Encounter at Farpoint", although a conceptually similar "recreation room" appeared in an episode of Star Trek: the Animated Series. In the timeline of the fictional universe, the concept of a holodeck was first shown to humans in an encounter with the Xyrillan race in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Unexpected". During a scene from Star Trek: First Contact that took place 100 years before the events of Enterprise, Jean-Luc Picard was in Earth's past and had a human from that time period named Lily along with him on board the Enterprise. When they were running from the Borg on his starship they hid in the holodeck, therefore introducing the technology before the events of "Unexpected".

— Freebase

Skirt

Skirt

A skirt is a tube- or cone-shaped garment that hangs from the waist and covers all or part of the legs. In the western world, skirts are usually considered women's clothing. However, there are exceptions. The kilt is a traditional men's garment in Scotland and Ireland, and some fashion designers, such as Jean-Paul Gaultier, have shown men's skirts. At its simplest, a skirt can be a draped garment made out of a single piece of material, but most skirts are fitted to the body at the waist and fuller below, with the fullness introduced by means of dart, gores, pleats, or panels. Modern skirts are usually made of light to mid-weight fabrics, such as denim, jersey, worsted, or poplin. Skirts of thin or clingy fabrics are often worn with slips to make the material of the skirt drape better and for modesty. The hemline of skirts varies according to the personal taste of the wearer which can be influenced by such factors as social context, fashion, and cultural conceptions of modesty. Some medieval upper-class women wore skirts over three metres in diameter at the bottom. At the other extreme, the miniskirts of the 1960s were minimal garments that may have barely covered the underwear when seated.

— Freebase

Heteronomy

Heteronomy

Heteronomy refers to action that is influenced by a force outside the individual. Immanuel Kant, drawing on Jean-Jacques Rousseau, considered such an action nonmoral. It is the counter-opposite of autonomy. Philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis contrasted heteronomy from autonomy in noting that while all societies create their own institutions, autonomous societies are those in which their members are aware of this fact, and explicitly self-institute. In contrast, the members of heteronomous societies attribute their imaginaries to some extra-social authority.

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Brownian motion

Brownian motion

Brownian motion or pedesis is the presumably random moving of particles suspended in a fluid resulting from their bombardment by the fast-moving atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. The term "Brownian motion" can also refer to the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, which is often called a particle theory. In 1827, the botanist Robert Brown, looking through a microscope at particles found in pollen grains in water, noted that the particles moved through the water but was not able to determine the mechanisms that caused this motion. Atoms and molecules had long been theorized as the constituents of matter, and many decades later, Albert Einstein published a paper in 1905 that explained in precise detail how the motion that Brown had observed was a result of the pollen being moved by individual water molecules. This explanation of Brownian motion served as definitive confirmation that atoms and molecules actually exist, and was further verified experimentally by Jean Perrin in 1908. Perrin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1926 "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter". The direction of the force of atomic bombardment is constantly changing, and at different times the particle is hit more on one side than another, leading to the seemingly random nature of the motion. This transport phenomenon is named after Robert Brown.

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GAG line

GAG line

The GAG line, which as an acronym for Goal-A-Game, was a famous ice hockey line for the New York Rangers in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as these linemates averaged over 1 goal a game while playing together. It consisted of Jean Ratelle at center, Rod Gilbert on right wing and Vic Hadfield on the left side.

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As Luck Would Have It

As Luck Would Have It

As Luck Would Have It is a 2002 Swiss film. It was directed by Lorenzo Gabriele and stars Jean-Claude Brialy and Julien Bravo. It was based on an original script by Julie Gilbert.

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Kathleen

Kathleen

Kathleen Sergerie, known professionally as Kathleen, is a Québécoise pop singer from Quebec, Canada who records only under her first name. She released several albums and scored hits on the Canadian charts in the early 1990s with songs such as "Où aller" and "Ça va bien!" Her 1993 album Ça va bien! was written and produced by Jean-Pierre Isaac.

— Freebase

Chicoutimi

Chicoutimi

Chicoutimi is a provincial electoral district in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada that elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. The district is located within the city of Saguenay and consists of part of the borough of Chicoutimi; it corresponds exactly to the territory of the former city of Chicoutimi prior to its February 18, 2002, amalgamation into the newly formed city of Saguenay. It was created for the 1912 election from a part of Chicoutimi-Saguenay electoral district. In the change from the 2001 to the 2012 electoral map, its territory was unchanged.

— Freebase

Brise soleil

Brise soleil

Brise soleil, sometimes brise-soleil, in architecture refers to a variety of permanent sun-shading structures, ranging from the simple patterned concrete walls popularized by Le Corbusier to the elaborate wing-like mechanism devised by Santiago Calatrava for the Milwaukee Art Museum or the mechanical, pattern-creating devices of the Institut du Monde Arabe by Jean Nouvel. In the typical form, a horizontal projection extends from the sunside facade of a building. This is most commonly used to prevent facades with a large amount of glass from overheating during the summer. Often louvers are incorporated into the shade to prevent the high-angle summer sun falling on the facade, but also to allow the low-angle winter sun to provide some passive solar heating.

— Freebase

Divine right of kings

Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, or divine-right theory of kingship, is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm, including the Church. According to this doctrine, only God can judge an unjust king. The doctrine implies that any attempt to depose the king or to restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and may constitute a sacrilegious act. The remote origins of the theory are rooted in the medieval idea that God had bestowed earthly power on the king, just as God had given spiritual power and authority to the church, centering on the pope. The immediate author of the theory was Jean Bodin, who based it on the interpretation of Roman law. With the rise of nation-states and the Protestant Reformation, the theory of divine right justified the king's absolute authority in both political and spiritual matters. The theory came to the fore in England under the reign of James I of England. Louis XIV of France strongly promoted the theory as well.

— Freebase

Lead Belly

Lead Belly

Huddie William Ledbetter was an American folk and blues musician, and multi-instrumentalist, notable for his strong vocals, his virtuosity on the twelve-string guitar, and the songbook of folk standards he introduced. He is best known as Lead Belly. Though many releases list him as "Leadbelly," he spelled it "Lead Belly." This is also the usage on his tombstone, as well as of the Lead Belly Foundation. In 1994 the Lead Belly Foundation contacted an authority on the history of popular music, Colin Larkin, editor of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, to ask if the name "Leadbelly" could be altered to "Lead Belly" in the hope that other authors would follow suit and use the artist's correct appellation. Although Lead Belly most commonly played the twelve-string, he could also play the piano, mandolin, harmonica, violin, and accordion. In some of his recordings, such as in one of his versions of the folk ballad "John Hardy", he performs on the accordion instead of the guitar. In other recordings he just sings while clapping his hands or stomping his foot. The topics of Lead Belly's music covered a wide range of subjects, including gospel songs; blues songs about women, liquor, prison life, and racism; and folk songs about cowboys, prison, work, sailors, cattle herding, and dancing. He also wrote songs concerning the newsmakers of the day, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Jean Harlow, the Scottsboro Boys, and Howard Hughes.

— Freebase

Loco

Loco

Loco is a 1984 computer game developed by Antony Crowther and released by Alligata for the Commodore 64. In 1986 it was converted for the ZX Spectrum and Atari 8-bit family. The ZX Spectrum version was developed by Richard Stevenson, David Wright and Nigel Speight. The music for the game is a C64 remake of Jean Michel Jarre's Equinoxe 5 by Ben Daglish. Comparing screen shots and game descriptions, Loco appears to be a clone of the arcade game Super Locomotive, produced by Sega in 1982.

— Freebase

Monomania

Monomania

In 19th century psychiatry, monomania was a form of partial insanity conceived as single pathological preoccupation in an otherwise sound mind. Partial insanity, variations of which enjoyed a long pre-history in jurisprudence, was in contrast to the traditional notion of total insanity, exemplified in the diagnosis of mania, as a global condition effecting all aspects of understanding and which reflected the position that the mind or soul was an indivisible entity. Coined by the French psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol around 1810, monomania was a new disease-concept characterised by the presence of an expansive idée fixe in which the mind was diseased and deranged in some facets but otherwise normal in others. Esquirol and his circle delineated three broad categories of monomania coherent with the traditional tripartite classification of the mind into intellectual, emotional and volitional faculties. Emotional monomania is that in which the patient is obsessed with only one emotion or several related to it; intellectual monomania is that which is related to only one kind of delirious idea or ideas. Although, monomania was retained as one of seven recognized categories of mental illness in the 1880 US census, its importance as a psychiatric diagnostic category was in decline from the mid-19th century. It no longer appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

— Freebase

Dijon

Dijon

Dijon is a city in eastern France, and is the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region. Dijon began as a Roman settlement called Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. The province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power and one of the great European centres of art, learning and science. Population: 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area. Dijon's churches include Dijon Cathedral. The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian, Gothic and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green, yellow and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon holds an International and Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France. Dijon is also home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo. Dijon is famous for Dijon mustard which originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.

— Freebase

O Canada

O Canada

"O Canada" is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Théodore Robitaille for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavallée wrote the music as a setting of a French Canadian patriotic poem composed by poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The lyrics were originally in French and translated into English in 1906. Robert Stanley Weir wrote in 1908 another English version, which is the official and most popular version, one that is not a literal translation of the French. Weir's lyrics have been revised twice, taking their present form in 1980, but the French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming Canada's national anthem in 1980 when the Act of Parliament making it so received Royal Assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day celebrations.

— Freebase

Racking

Racking

Racking, often referred to as Soutirage or Soutirage traditionnel, also filtering or fining, is a method in wine production of moving wine from one barrel to another using gravity rather than a pump, which can be disruptive to a wine. The process is also known as Abstich in German and travaso in Italian. Alexis Lichine's Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits defines racking as "siphoning wine or beer off the lees or trub, into a new, clean barrel or other vessel." Racking allows clarification and aids in stabilization. Wine that is allowed to age on the lees often develops "off-tastes." A racking hose or tube is used and can be attached to a racking cane to make the task easier. The racking process is repeated several times during the aging of wine. Several notable winemakers including Jean-Claude Berrouet and Daniel Baron still use the process as they believe it produces a higher quality wine.

— Freebase

Thetford Mines

Thetford Mines

Thetford Mines is a town in south-central Quebec, Canada. It is the seat of Les Appalaches Regional County Municipality. Thetford Mines was founded in 1876 after the discovery of large asbestos deposits in the area, and the city became a hub for one of the world's largest asbestos-producing regions. In 2001 the city expanded to its current boundaries, merging with Black Lake, Robertsonville, Pontbriand and Thetford-Sud. The former Governor General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean, originally settled in Thetford Mines, after arriving in Canada from Haiti. Thetford Mines is the seat of the judicial district of Frontenac.

— Freebase

Truffle

Truffle

A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber. Some of the species are highly prized as a food. French gourmand Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles "the diamonds of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in Middle Eastern, French, Spanish, Italian and Greek cooking, as well as in international haute cuisine. Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi and are therefore usually found in close association with the roots of trees. Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi.

— Freebase

Parti Socialiste

Parti Socialiste

The Socialist Party is a Francophone social-democratic political party in Belgium. As of the 2010 elections, it is the second largest party in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives and the largest Francophone party. The party is led by Elio Di Rupo, Prime Minister of Belgium as of 6 December 2011. The party also supplies the Minister-Presidents of the Walloon region and French Community, the Brussels-Capital Region and the German-speaking Community of Belgium. In the German-speaking community, the party is known as the Sozialistische Partei. The PS is very commonly part of governing coalitions, and dominates most local authorities because of the extremely fragmented nature of Belgian political institutions, particularly in Francophone areas. In the years since 1999, the PS has simultaneously controlled five regional executive bodies: the Government of the French Community, the Walloon Government, the Government of the Brussels-Capital Region, as well as the COCOF, a local subsidiary in Brussels of the French Community Government, and the Government of the German-speaking Community. The party, or its members, have from time to time been brought into connection with criminal activities and political scandals, mostly concerning bribery and financial fraud. The Carolorégienne affair caused Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe to step down as Minister-President of the Walloon region.

— Freebase

Decipherment

Decipherment

Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. It is closely related to cryptanalysis — the difference being that the original document was deliberately written to be difficult to interpret. The term has also been used to describe the analysis of the genetic code information encoded in DNA - see the Human Genome Project article for more on this. Some people have also used the word metaphorically to mean something like 'understanding'. Examples of successful script decipherment: ⁕Cuneiform script ⁕Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Kharoshthi script ⁕Linear B ⁕Maya script ⁕Tangut script Famous documents that have been the subject of decipherments, successful or failed: ⁕the Behistun Inscription ⁕the Dresden Codex ⁕the Edicts of Ashoka ⁕the Phaistos Disc ⁕the Rohonc Codex ⁕the Rosetta Stone ⁕the Voynich Manuscript ⁕the Franks Casket Famous decipherers: ⁕Magnus Celsius, decipherer of the Staveless runes ⁕Jean-François Champollion, decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs ⁕Georg Friedrich Grotefend, decipherer of the Old Persian Cuneiform ⁕Edward Hincks, decipherer of the Babilonian Cuneiform script ⁕Bedřich Hrozný, decipherer of the Hittite cuneiform script and language

— Freebase

Globish

Globish

Globish is a subset of the English language formalized by Jean-Paul Nerriere. It uses a subset of standard English grammar, and a list of 1500 English words. Nerriere claims it is "not a language" in and of itself, but rather it is the common ground that non-native English speakers adopt in the context of international business.

— Freebase

Ottawan

Ottawan

Ottawan is a French Eurodisco duo, led by Jean Patrick.

— Freebase

Picard

Picard

Picard is a lunar impact crater that lies in Mare Crisium. To the west is the almost completely flooded crater Yerkes. Due east of Picard is the tiny Curtis. being slightly larger than Peirce to the north-northwest. The crater is named for 17th century French astronomer and geodesist Jean Picard. Picard is a crater from the Eratosthenian period, which lasted from 3.2 to 1.1 billion years ago. Inside Picard is a series of terraces that seismologists have attributed to a collapse of the crater floor. The lowest point on the crater floor is approximately 2000 metres below its rim. T It has a small hill at the center.

— Freebase

Amanita verna

Amanita verna

Amanita verna, commonly known as the fool's mushroom, Destroying angel or the mushroom fool, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Occurring in Europe in spring, A. verna associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees. The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn; the caps, stipes and gills are all white in colour. Initially described by the French botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard, the fool's mushroom's specific epithet verna is derived from its springtime fruiting habit.

— Freebase

Castres

Castres

Castres is a commune, and arrondissement capital in the Tarn department and Midi-Pyrénées region in southern France. It lies in the former French province of Languedoc. Castres is the fourth largest industrial centre of the predominantly rural Midi-Pyrénées région and the largest in that part of Languedoc lying between Toulouse and Montpellier. Castres is noted for being the birthplace of the famous socialist leader Jean Jaurès and home to the important Goya Museum of Spanish painting.

— Freebase

Neocolonialism

Neocolonialism

Neo-colonialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to control a country, in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control, i.e. imperialism and hegemony. The term neo-colonialism was coined by Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah, to describe the socio-economic and political control that can be exercised economically, linguistically, and culturally, whereby promotion of the culture of the neo-colonist country facilitates the cultural assimilation of the colonised people and thus opens the national economy to the multinational corporations of the neo-colonial country. ⁕ The European world empires and their colonies in the late 19th century, before the Spanish-American War, Boxer Rebellion, and the Second Boer War. ⁕ The European world empires and their colonies in the mid 20th century, after the Second World War. In post-colonial studies, the term neo-colonialism describes the domination-praxis of countries from the developed world in the respective internal affairs of the countries of the developing world; that, despite the decolonisation occurred in the aftermath of the Second World War, the colonial powers continue to apply existing and past international economic arrangements with their former colony countries, and so maintain colonial control. A neo-colonialism critique can include de facto colonialism, and an economic critique of the disproportionate involvement of modern capitalist business in the economy of a developing country, whereby multinational corporations continue to exploit the natural resources and the people of the former colony; that such economic control is inherently neo-colonial, and thus is akin to the imperial and hegemonic varieties of colonialism practiced by the empires of Great Britain, the United States, France, and other European countries, from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The ideology and praxis of neo-colonialism are discussed in the works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Noam Chomsky.

— Freebase

Metanarrative

Metanarrative

A metanarrative is a grand narrative common to all. The term refers, in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism, to a comprehensive explanation, a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a master idea. The term was brought into prominence by Jean-François Lyotard in 1979, with his claim that the postmodern was characterised precisely by a mistrust of the grand narratives which had formed an essential part of modernity.

— Freebase

Manliness

Manliness

Manliness is a book by Harvey C. Mansfield first published by Yale University Press in 2006. Mansfield is a professor of government at Harvard University. In this book, he defines manliness as "confidence in a situation of risk" and suggests this quality is currently undervalued in Western society. He suggests the quality is more common in men than in women, but doesn't strictly exclude women, for example he names Margaret Thatcher. He also suggests the quality is "good and bad", not all good, but not all bad. His main point is that gender neutral ideology denies both the reality of sex-specific qualities, and the valuable components of these, to the detriment of society. Mansfield attributes the rise of gender neutral ideology firstly to Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre, and then to feminists who repackaged the ideas as part of a political program. He names Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan and Germaine Greer.

— Freebase

Incognito

Incognito

Incognito is a British band, as well as one of the members of the United Kingdom's acid jazz movement. Their debut album, Jazz Funk, was released in 1981, with 14 more albums following, the last of which, Surreal, was released in 2012. The band's frontman, composer, record producer, guitarist and singer is Jean-Paul 'Bluey' Maunick. Other notable band members include or have included the singers Jocelyn Brown, Maysa Leak, Tony Momrelle, Imaani, Vanessa Haynes, Mo Brandis, Natalie Williams, Carleen Anderson, Pamela Anderson Kelli Sae and Joy Malcom.

— Freebase

Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine was the most famous French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France, and in French regional languages. According to Flaubert, he was the only French poet to understand and master the texture of the French language before Hugo. A set of postage stamps celebrating La Fontaine and the Fables was issued by France in 1995.

— Freebase

Triage

Triage

Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition. This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately. The term comes from the French verb trier, meaning to separate, sift or select. Triage may result in determining the order and priority of emergency treatment, the order and priority of emergency transport, or the transport destination for the patient. Triage may also be used for patients arriving at the emergency department, or telephoning medical advice systems, among others. This article deals with the concept of triage as it occurs in medical emergencies, including the prehospital setting, disasters, and emergency room treatment. The term Triage may have originated during the Napoleonic Wars from the work of Dominique Jean Larrey. The term was used further during World War I by French doctors treating the battlefield wounded at the aid stations behind the front. Those responsible for the removal of the wounded from a battlefield or their care afterwards would divide the victims into three categories: ⁕Those who are likely to live, regardless of what care they receive;

— Freebase

Carlos

Carlos

Carlos, born Yvan-Chrysostome Dolto, and sometimes called Jean-Christophe Doltovitch, was a French singer, entertainer and actor.

— Freebase

Jacquard loom

Jacquard loom

The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card and each row of punched holes corresponded to one row of the design. Several such paper cards, generally white in color, can be seen in the images below. Chains, like the much later paper tape, allowed sequences of any length to be constructed, not limited by the size of a card. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon, Jean Baptiste Falcon and Jacques Vaucanson A static display of a Jacquard loom is the centrepiece of the Musée des Tissus et des Arts Décoratifs in Lyon. Live displays of a Jacquard loom are available at a few private museums around Lyon.

— Freebase

Alexandre Yersin

Alexandre Yersin

Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin was a Swiss and French physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the bacillus responsible for the bubonic plague or pest, which was later renamed in his honour. Yersin was born in 1863 in Aubonne, Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, to a family originally from France. From 1883 to 1884, Yersin studied medicine at Lausanne, Switzerland; and then at Marburg, Germany and Paris. In 1886, he entered Louis Pasteur's research laboratory at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, by invitation of Emile Roux, and participated in the development of the anti-rabies serum. In 1888 he received his doctorate with a dissertation entitled Étude sur le Développement du Tubercule Expérimental and spent two months with Robert Koch in Germany. He joined the recently-created Pasteur Institute in 1889 as Roux's collaborator, and discovered with him the diphtheric toxin. In order to practice medicine in France, Yersin applied for and obtained French nationality in 1888. Soon afterwards, he left for French Indochina in Southeast Asia as a physician for the Messageries Maritimes company, on the Saigon-Manila line and then on the Saigon-Haiphong line. He participated in one of the Auguste Pavie missions. In 1894 Yersin was sent by request of the French government and the Pasteur Institute to Hong Kong, to investigate the Manchurian Pneumonic Plague epidemic, and there, in a small hut next to the institute, he made his greatest discovery, that of the pathogen which causes the disease. Dr. Kitasato Shibasaburō, also in Hong Kong, had also identified a bacterium several days earlier. There is controversy wether this was the same, pneumococci or a mix of the two. Because Kitasato's initial reports were vague and somewhat contradictory, some give Yersin sole credit for the discovery; however, a thorough analysis of the morphology of the organism discovered by Kitasato has determined that, while Yersin made his discovery on June 20th, "we are confident that Kitasato had examined the plague bacillus in Hong Kong in late June and early July 1894" and "should not be denied this credit". Yersin was also able to demonstrate for the first time that the same bacillus was present in the rodent as well as in the human disease, thus underlining the possible means of transmission. This important discovery was communicated to the French Academy of Sciences in the same year, by his colleague Emile Duclaux, in a classic paper titled La Peste Bubonique A Hong-Kong.

— Freebase

Object permanence

Object permanence

Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed. This is a fundamental concept studied in the field of developmental psychology, the subfield of psychology that addresses the development of infants' and children's social and mental capacities. There is not yet scientific consensus on when the understanding of object permanence emerges in human development. Some researchers contend that it is acquired within the first two years of life, while others believe that it is an innate or built-in understanding present at birth. Jean Piaget, the Swiss psychologist who first studied object permanence in young infants, argued that object permanence is one of an infant's most important accomplishments, as without this concept, objects would have no separate, permanent existence. In Piaget's theory of cognitive development infants develop this understanding by the end of the "sensorimotor stage," which lasts from birth to about two years of age. Piaget thought that an infant's perception and understanding of the world depended on their motor development, which was required for the infant to link visual, tactile and motor representations of objects. According to this view, it is through touching and handling objects that infants develop object permanence.

— Freebase

Becket

Becket

Becket or The Honor of God is a play written in French by Jean Anouilh. It is a depiction of the conflict between Thomas Becket and King Henry II of England leading to Becket's assassination in 1170. It contains many historical inaccuracies, which the author acknowledged.

— Freebase

Psychopedagogy

Psychopedagogy

Psychopedagogy is a combination of two main branches of study, Pedagogy and Psychology. Some of the most influential authors in this field are Jean Piaget, Ausubel, Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky. Important contributions have also been made by Mary Warnock in the field of special education and authors such as John D. Krumboltz in the academic and professional orientation. In Spain we can highlight the works of Rafael Bisquerra, Manuel Álvarez y Jesús Alonso Tapia amongst various others. The Psychopedagogy Degree provides students with the tools needed to take part in the different stages and all the areas of the teaching/learning process. These professionals can act on the people who take part in this teaching/learning process directly, or indirectly by designing the support material needed to make this process easier. This degree’s main objective is to enable students to elaborate and develop counselling activities and programmes to help the education community to both improve and renew educational processes and create the right conditions to carry them out. To achieve this, the Psychopedagogy Degree aims at developing academic, personal and labour skills to make educational psychologists’ tasks easier. These skills enable professionals to know, inform and take part in the educational process and to solve conflicts which may arise during its development.

— Freebase

Brigitte Bardot

Brigitte Bardot

Brigitte Anne-Marie Bardot is a French former actress, singer and fashion model, now an animal rights activist. She was one of the best known sex symbols of the 1950s and '60s. Starting in 1969, Bardot's features became the official face of Marianne to represent the liberty of France. Bardot was an aspiring ballet dancer in early life. She started her acting career in 1952 and, after appearing in 16 obscure films, became world-famous in 1957 with the release of the controversial film And God Created Woman. She later starred in Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Le Mépris. Bardot was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress for her role in Louis Malle's 1965 film Viva Maria!. Bardot caught the attention of French intellectuals. She was the subject of Simone de Beauvoir's 1959 essay, The Lolita Syndrome, which described Bardot as a "locomotive of women's history" and built upon existentialist themes to declare her the first and most liberated woman of post-war France. Bardot retired from the entertainment industry in 1973. During her career in show business, she starred in 47 films, performed in several musical shows, and recorded over 50 songs. She was awarded the Legion of Honour in 1985, but refused to receive it. After her retirement, Bardot established herself as an animal rights activist. During the 1990s, she generated controversy by criticizing immigration, Islamization and Islam in France, and has been fined five times for "inciting racial hatred".

— Freebase

Eurotrash

Eurotrash

Eurotrash was a 30-minute magazine-format programme in English, presented by Antoine de Caunes and Jean-Paul Gaultier and produced by Rapido Television. It was shown in the United Kingdom on Channel 4 from 1993 and was a late-night comical review of weird and wonderful topics from around the world. The show averaged around a 20 percent audience share, pulling in around 2-3 million viewers each week. Channel 4's Slot Average for Eurotrash's broadcast time is around 900,000 viewers, making the show an important hit for the channel. It ran for 16 series until 2007, making it one of the UK's longest running late-night entertainment shows. Channel 4 infrequently re-runs the series and repeats can be found on the Comedy Central Channel and Livingit, and on 3e in Ireland. Series 1 is also now available on 4oD. After more than 10 years of broadcast, the show built up a substantial following and Eurotrash has around 15 million fans, and various fan sites. All intellectual property rights to the series are now controlled by the production company, Rapido Television.

— Freebase

Maisie

Maisie

Maisie Ravier is a popular fictional character, the star of ten films and a radio show. She was played by Ann Sothern. After a string of films that failed to attract an audience, Sothern left RKO Radio Pictures and signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, making her first film for MGM in 1939. In a role originally intended for Jean Harlow, Sothern was cast in Maisie as brassy but kindhearted Brooklyn burlesque dancer Mary Anastasia O'Connor, who also goes by the stage name Maisie Ravier. After years of trying, Sothern had her first real success, and a string of "Maisie" comedy sequels followed, beginning with Congo Maisie and continuing until Undercover Maisie. Reviewing Swing Shift Maisie, Time praised Sothern and described her as "one of the smartest comediennes in the business".

— Freebase


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