Definitions containing kĂ rner, karl theodor
We've found 250 definitions:
, feminine form of Karl.
a term used by Theodor W. Adorno to refer to 1960s Radicals
Of or pertaining to Theodor Seuss Geisel, "Dr. Seuss" (1904u20131991), American writer and cartoonist best known for his imaginative children's books.
Of or pertaining to the 19th century philosopher Karl Marx and his ideas.
the materialistic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
— Princeton's WordNet
Of or relating to the philosophy of philosopher Karl R. Popper.
Das Kapital, Capital
a book written by Karl Marx (1867) describing his economic theories
— Princeton's WordNet
Das Kapital, Capital
a book written by Karl Marx (1867) describing his economic theories
— Princeton's WordNet
A (no longer valid) theory developed by physicists Theodor Kaluza & Oskar Klein that attempted to combine gravity & electromagnetism by adding a fifth dimension to our 4-dimensional spacetime.
The socialist philosophy and political program developed by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
|mikhail aleksandrovich bakunin|
Bakunin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
Russian anarchist; ally and later opponent of Karl Marx (1814-1876)
— Princeton's WordNet
Any social or political philosophy or ideology derived from the thought of Karl Marx.
The socialist philosophy and political program founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; scientific socialism.
cell theory, cell doctrine
(biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
— Princeton's WordNet
cell theory, cell doctrine
(biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
— Princeton's WordNet
Karl Theodor Jaspers was a German psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers turned to philosophical inquiry and attempted to discover an innovative philosophical system. He was often viewed as a major exponent of existentialism in Germany, though he did not accept this label.
Engels, Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
— Princeton's WordNet
Engels, Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
— Princeton's WordNet
|georg wilhelm friedrich hegel|
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
— Princeton's WordNet
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher whose three stage process of dialectical reasoning was adopted by Karl Marx (1770-1831)
— Princeton's WordNet
a city in east central Germany; formerly called Karl-Marx-Stadt until 1990; noted for textile manufacturing
— Princeton's WordNet
a city in east central Germany; formerly called Karl-Marx-Stadt until 1990; noted for textile manufacturing
— Princeton's WordNet
Karl Ludwig Johannes Baedeker, known universally as Karl Baedeker, was a German publisher whose company Baedeker set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. Karl Baedeker was descended from a long line of printers, booksellers and publishers. He was the eldest of ten children of Gottschalk Diederich BĂ€deker, who had inherited the publishing house founded by his own father, Zacharias Gerhard BĂ€deker. The company also published the local newspaper, the Essendische Zeitung, and the family expected that Karl, too, would eventually join the firm. Karl changed the spelling of the family name from BĂ€deker with the umlaut to Baedeker around 1850.
A fragment, phrase or line of poetry or verse using this meter; e.g. u201CEvery Who down in Whoville liked Christmas a lot, but the Grinch, who lived just north of Whoville, did NOT!u201D (Dr Seuss aka Theodor Geisel).
any of a series of travel guidebooks published by the German firm founded by Karl Baedeker
— Princeton's WordNet
|Theodor Gottfried Liesching|
Theodor Gottfried Liesching
Theodor Gottfried Liesching was a German jurist and politician.
. Borrowed in the 17th century from the form of Carolina, feminine derivative of Carolus, the equivalent of Charles, which came from Karl.
According to the 19th century German philosopher Karl Marx, unemployment needed by the capitalists in order to maintain work discipline in jobs, keep wages down, and protect business profitability.
The socialist ideology of the followers of Karl Marx; a radical, revolutionary political philosophy that aims to capture state power, introduce a dictatorship of the proletariat, and then progress to communism.
of or relating to Karl Gauss or his mathematical theories of magnetics or electricity or astronomy or probability
— Princeton's WordNet
The theory that hegemony and ideology of discourse can no longer properly reflect the social order. Posthegemony also finds that history is not, as Karl Marx described it, a class struggle, but rather a "struggle to produce class".
Carlo Abarth, born Karl Albert Abarth, was an automobile designer. Abarth was born in Austria, but later was naturalized as an Italian citizen; and at this time his first name Karl was changed to its Italian equivalent of Carlo.
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism
— Princeton's WordNet
a Socialist, the friend of Karl Marx; an active propagandist of socialistic theories; author of several works on Socialism (1820-1895).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Verlag Karl Baedeker, founded by Karl Baedeker on July 1, 1827, is a German publisher and pioneer in the business of worldwide travel guides. The guides, often referred to simply as "Baedekers", contain, among other things, maps and introductions; information about routes and travel facilities; and descriptions of noteworthy buildings, sights, attractions and museums, written by specialists.
ePrep provides online, video instruction by expert teachers to help students of all abilities reach their education goals. Using a well established “test-grade-review” methodology and a proprietary online, video-based delivery platform, ePrep makes connecting with an expert affordable and possible-anytime and from virtually anywhere in the world. The company currently offers SAT and PSAT test prep courses which feature nearly 1,500 detailed video explanations.ePrep was established in the fall of 2005 by fellow Princeton University graduates, Karl Schellscheidt and Eric Barnes. For the past 16 years, Karl has been helping students from his community prepare for tests like the SAT, PSAT, ACT, SSAT, and LSAT. Karl’s class of 2007 was admitted to schools that include Brown, Bucknell, Colgate, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Georgetown, NYU, Princeton and UPENN. Don Betterton (former Director of Financial aid at Princeton for 30 years), Seamus Malin (former Admissions and Administrator at Harvard for 40 years), and Fred Hargadon (former Director of Admissions at Princeton, Stanford and Swathmore) serve on ePrep’s Advisory Board.
A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).
adj. [Invented by Theodor Holm Nelson, prob. a blend of “mingled” and “intertwined”.] Connected together in a complex way; specifically, composed of one another's components.
— The New Hacker's Dictionary
A place name or a personal name used by foreigners instead of the native-language version used by its inhabitants, such as Moscow in English for the city called Moskva in Russian, or such as Charles in English for historical people called Karl or Carl in their Germanic languages.
Immanent critique is the philosophical or sociological strategy that analyzes cultural forms by locating contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. Contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy, this method aims to contextualize not only the object of its investigation, but also the ideological basis of that object; both the object and the category to which it belongs are shown to be products of a historical process. Immanent critique has its roots in the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx; it is now strongly associated with critical theorists such as Theodor Adorno. Roy Bhaskar has advocated it as one of the key methodological elements of critical realism. Quoting Marx, Robert J. Antonio writes in the British Journal of Sociology, According to David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York,
Heinrich Theodor BĂ¶ll was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers. BĂ¶ll was awarded the Georg BĂŒchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.
Maryam is the 19th sura of the Qur'an and is a Makkan sura with 98 ayat. It is named after MaryÄm, or Mary, Mother of Isa, or Jesus, who appears in verses 16-34. Theodor NĂ¶ldeke's chronology identifies this sura as the 58th sura delivered, while the traditional Egyptian chronology places it as the 44th.
DORMA is a German company that produces door technology systems and allied products. It was first founded as the DĂ¶rken & Mankel KG in Ennepetal, Germany, in 1908. The family business is managed by owner Karl-Rudolf Mankel in third generation. As part of succession planning, previous sole DORMA proprietor Karl-Rudolf Mankel transferred the majority of his shareholding to his daughters Christine and Stephanie in March 2009. The DORMA Group had a workforce of approximately 6500 employees and closed fiscal year 2009/10 with a business volume of 856,4 Mill. EUR.
Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.
Eimeria is a genus of Apicomplexan parasites that includes various species responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. The genus is named for the German zoologist Theodor Eimer. The oocysts of Eimeria steidai were first seen by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in the bile of a rabbit in 1674.
Nosema is a genus of microsporidian parasites. The genus, circumscribed by Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von NĂ€geli in 1857, contains 81 species.
The Marxists is a 1962 book about Marxism by sociologist C. Wright Mills. David McLellan writes that it contains an acute account of the sociological ideas of Karl Marx.
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine.
Friedrich Engels was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organized Marx's notes on the "Theories of Surplus Value" and this was later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. He has also made important contributions to family economics.
All is an American punk rock band originally from Los Angeles, currently based in Fort Collins, Colorado, formed by Descendents members Bill Stevenson, Karl Alvarez, and Stephen Egerton.
a secret socialistic organisation, the outcome of the teaching of Karl Marx, which, though it has changed its name, has wide-spread ramifications throughout Europe, the object of which appears to be the emancipation of labour, and the assertion everywhere of the sovereign rights of the working-man, to the extinction of all merely national and class interests.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Calvinism is a major branch of Western Christianity that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke with the Roman Catholic church but differed with Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Lord's supper, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things. Calvinism is a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called "Calvinism" by Lutherans who opposed it, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word "Reformed" rather than "Calvinist." Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed are divided into Arminians and Calvinists, however it is now rare to call Arminians Reformed, as many see these two schools of thought as opposed, making the terms Calvinist and Reformed synonymous. Early influential Reformed theologians include Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodor Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, Karl Barth, and Cornelius Van Til were influential, while modern Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, R. C. Sproul, David F. Wells, and Michael Horton.
|Green Throttle Games|
Green Throttle Games
Green Throttle Games is a Santa Clara, CA based company that develops high-quality, innovative games and hardware for mobile devices. The company’s founders Charles Huang, Matt Crowley and Karl Townsend, visionaries from the video game and mobile industries teamed up to unlock the potential of mobile on the big screen, connecting people and platforms in a way that is simple and fun.
Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ăkonomie, by Karl Marx, is a critical analysis of political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production.
Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In those species which are inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, Escherichia species provide a portion of the microbially derived vitamin K for their host. A number of the species of Escherichia are pathogenic. The genus is named after Theodor Escherich, discoverer of E. coli
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them." In philosophy, the term critical theory describes the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. Frankfurt theorists drew on the critical methods of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Critical theory maintains that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation. Critical theory was established as a school of thought primarily by five Frankfurt School theoreticians: Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, and Erich Fromm. Modern critical theory has been influenced by the second generation Frankfurt School scholars JĂŒrgen Habermas, GyĂ¶rgy LukĂĄcs, and Antonio Gramsci. In Habermas's work, critical theory transcended its theoretic roots in German idealism, and progressed closer to American pragmatism. Concern for social "base and superstructure" is one of the remaining Marxist philosophic concepts in much of the contemporary critical theory.
Capnomor is a colorless and limpid oil with a peculiar odor, extracted by distillation from beechwood tar. It was discovered in the 1830s by the German chemist Baron Karl von Reichenbach.
Softs is a 1976 album by the British psychedelic, progressive rock and jazz/fusion band Soft Machine who were one of the central bands in the Canterbury scene. John Etheridge replaced Allan Holdsworth on guitar shortly after the release of the previous album, Bundles, and Alan Wakeman, cousin of keyboardist Rick Wakeman, took over saxophone duties from Karl Jenkins. Karl would play keyboards exclusively from this point onward. This change was necessitated by the departure of the group's last founding member, Mike Ratledge, who left in March 1976 before the sessions were completed, and can be heard on two tracks, but is not credited as a member of the group. Wakeman and bassist Roy Babbington left the group not long after the album was released, Wakeman having been a member for less than six months.
Joseph Arch was an English politician, born in Barford, Warwickshire who played a key role in what Karl Marx called the "Great awakening" of the agricultural workers in 1872.
Marks, also spelled Marx, named after Karl Marx, is a town in Saratov Oblast, Russia, located 60 kilometers northeast of Saratov. Population: 31,531; 32,849; 31,908.
Ciboria is a genus of fungi in the family Sclerotiniaceae. The widespread genus, which currently contains about 21 species, was circumscribed by the German botanist Karl Fuckel in 1870.
Bloody Mary is a fictional extraterrestrial vampire in the DC Comics universe. She first appeared in Hawk and Dove vol. 2 #21, and was created by Karl Kesel and Barbara Kesel.
Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, The Open Society and its Enemies Volume 2, and Conjectures and Refutations.
Karl Augustus Menninger was an American psychiatrist and a member of the Menninger family of psychiatrists who founded the Menninger Foundation and the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas.
Picamar is a colorless, hydrocarbon oil extracted from the creosote of beechwood tar with a peculiar odor and bitter taste. It consists of derivatives of pyrogallol. It was discovered by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach in the 1830s.
Giulio Natta was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate. He won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 with Karl Ziegler for work on high polymers. He was also a recipient of Lomonosov Gold Medal in 1969.
|Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany|
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951. Colloquially, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are also known as Federal Cross of Merit. Most of the German federal states have each their own order of merit as well, with the exception of the Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, which reject any orders.
Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception, most often clairvoyance. Perceptual psychologist Karl Zener designed the cards in the early 1930s for experiments conducted with his colleague, parapsychologist J. B. Rhine.
|Peter Carl FabergĂ©|
Peter Carl FabergĂ©
Peter Carl FabergĂ©, also known as "Karl Gustavovich FabergĂ©", was a Russian jeweller, best known for the famous FabergĂ© eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
Karl Artur Vilhelm Moberg was a Swedish author, playwright and historian, most commonly associated with his The Emigrants series of novels, about Swedish emigrants moving to the USA in the 19th century; filmed by Jan Troell in the 1970s.
Max Christian Friedrich Bruch, also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
Media Whore is a short subject made in 2002. It was directed by Karl T. Hirsch of Aglet Productions, in something of a parody of MTV, and written by Ali MacLean, who also plays the subject of the film, Astrid.
Time Limit is a 1957 legal drama film directed by Karl Malden, his only directing credit. In his autobiography, Malden stated that he "preferred being a good actor to being a fairly good director." Richard Widmark co-produced the film and stars.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist and writer generally regarded as one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902, and was also a prominent German politician, as a member of the Prussian and German parliaments. His works on Roman law and on the law of obligations had a significant impact on the German civil code.
Zoysia is a genus of creeping grasses native to southeast and east Asia and Australasia. These species, commonly called zoysia or zoysiagrass, are found in coastal areas or grasslands. The genus is named after the Austrian botanist Karl von Zois.
"For You" is a song by English band Electronic, comprising Bernard Sumner and Johnny Marr, with guesting co-writer Karl Bartos of Kraftwerk, released as the second single from their second album Raise the Pressure. "For You" reached #16 on the UK Singles Chart.
Today is an Australian breakfast television program, currently presented by Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson. It has been broadcast live by the Nine Network since 1982. The program airs after Nine Early Morning News and runs from 5.30am to 9am before Mornings.
Patton is a 1970 American biographical war film about U.S. General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. It was directed by Franklin J. Schaffner from a script by Francis Ford Coppola and Edmund H. North, who based their screenplay on the biography Patton: Ordeal and Triumph by Ladislas Farago and Omar Bradley's memoir A Soldier's Story. The film was shot in 65mm Dimension 150 by cinematographer Fred J. Koenekamp, and has a music score by Jerry Goldsmith. Patton won seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. The opening monologue, delivered by George C. Scott as General Patton with an enormous American flag behind him, remains an iconic and often quoted image in film. The film was a success and has become an American classic. In 2003, Patton was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Firmiana is a genus of flowering plant in the Sterculiaceae family. Genus name honors Karl Joseph von Firmian. The genus contains about 16 species, including the following: âFirmiana colorata âFirmiana danxiaensis âFirmiana hainanensis âFirmiana kwangsiensis âFirmiana major âFirmiana pulcherrima âFirmiana simplex â Chinese parasol tree, or wutong
|Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought|
Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought
Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought was a libertarian journal published between 1965 and 1968. Founded by Murray N. Rothbard, Karl Hess, George Resch, and Leonard P. Liggio, it was edited and largely written by Murray Rothbard.
An allyl group is a substituent with the structural formula H2C=CH-CH2R, where R is the rest of the molecule. It consists of a methylene bridge attached to a vinyl group. The name is derived from the Latin word for garlic, Allium sativum. In 1844, Theodor Wertheim isolated an allyl derivative from garlic oil and named it "Schwefelallyl". The term allyl applies to many compounds related to H2C=CH-CH2, which includes thousands of different chemical compounds, some of which are of practical or everyday importance.
Empathy is the capacity to recognize emotions that are being experienced by another sentient or fictional being. One may need to have a certain amount of empathy before being able to experience accurate sympathy or compassion. The English word was coined in 1909 by the psychologist Edward B. Titchener in an attempt to translate the German word "EinfĂŒhlungsvermĂ¶gen", a new phenomenon explored at the end of 19th century mainly by philosopher Theodor Lipps. It was later re-translated into the German language as "Empathie", and is still in use there.
Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, is a colorless, volatile, and explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, having chemical formula HN3. It was first isolated in 1890 by Theodor Curtius. The acid has few applications, but its conjugate base, the azide ion, is useful in specialized processes. Hydrazoic acid is soluble in water. Undiluted hydrazoic acid is dangerously explosive with a standard enthalpy of formation ÎfHo = +264 kJmol-1. When dilute, the gas and aqueous solutions can be safely handled.
The T.O.T.E. or TOTE, standing for "Test - Operate - Test - Exit", is an iterative problem solving strategy based on feedback loops. It was described by George A. Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram in their 1960 book, Plans and the Structure of Behavior which outlined their conception of cognitive psychology.
Zinkenite is a steel-gray metallic sulfosalt mineral composed of lead antimony sulfide Pb9Sb22S42. Zinkenite occurs as acicular needle-like crystals. It was first described in 1826 for an occurrence in the Harz Mountains, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany and named after its discoverer, German mineralogist and mining geologist, Johann Karl Ludwig Zinken.
KARL is a radio station broadcasting a country music format. Licensed to Tracy, Minnesota, the station serves the Marshall, Minnesota area. The station is currently owned by Linder Radio Group. It carries Dial Global "Hot Country" music format satellite network.
A conjecture is a proposition that is unproven. Karl Popper pioneered the use of the term "conjecture" in scientific philosophy. Conjecture is contrasted by hypothesis, which is a testable statement based on accepted grounds. In mathematics, a conjecture is an unproven proposition that appears correct.
|Rothschild, Meyer Amschel|
Rothschild, Meyer Amschel
the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
or more properly Linné, Karl von, great Swedish naturalist, specially in the department of botany, a branch to the study of which he was devoted from his earliest years; he was the founder of the system of the classification of plants which bears his name, and which is determined by the number and disposition of the reproductive organs, but which is now superseded by the natural system of Jussieu; he was professor at Upsala, and his works on his favourite subject were numerous, and extended far and wide his reputation as a naturalist (1707-1778).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Crypto-fascism is a pejorative term implying a secret support for, or admiration of, fascism. The term is used to imply that an individual or group keeps this support or admiration hidden to avoid political persecution or political suicide. The term is largely credited to Gore Vidal. In a television interview during the chaos of the 1968 Democratic National Convention, Vidal described William F. Buckley, Jr. as a "crypto-Nazi", later correcting himself as meaning to say "crypto-fascist". However, the term had appeared five years earlier in a German language book by the sociologist Theodor W. Adorno, Der getreue Korrepetitor.
Surplus value is a concept written about by Karl Marx. Although Marx did not himself invent the term, he developed the concept. It refers roughly to the new value created by workers that is in excess of their own labour-cost and which is therefore available to be appropriated by the capitalist, according to Marx; it allows then for profit and in so doing is the basis of capital accumulation. "Surplus-value and the rate of surplus-value are... the invisible essence to be investigated, whereas the rate of profit and hence the form of surplus-value as profit are visible surface phenomena" - Karl Marx, Capital Vol. 3, Pelican edition, p. 134 For Marx, the gigantic increase in wealth and population from the 19th century onwards was mainly due to the competitive striving to obtain maximum surplus-value from the employment of labor, resulting in an equally gigantic increase of productivity and capital resources. To the extent that increasingly the economic surplus is convertible into money and expressed in money, the amassment of wealth is possible on a larger and larger scale.
Lorenzenite is a rare sodium titanium silicate mineral with the formula Na2Ti2Si2O9 It is an orthorhombic mineral, variously found as colorless, grey, pinkish, or brown crystals. It was first identified in 1897 in rock samples from Narsarsuk, Greenland. In 1947 it was discovered to be the same as the mineral ramsayite, discovered in the 1920s in the Kola peninsula of Russia. It is also found in northern Canada. It occurs in nepheline syenites and pegmatites in association with aegirine, nepheline, microcline, arfvedsonite, elpidite, loparite, eudialyte, astrophyllite, mangan-neptunite, lavenite, rinkite, apatite, titanite and ilmenite. It was named in honour of Danish mineralogist Johannes Theodor Lorenzen.
GenArts is a provider of specialized visual effects software for the film, broadcast and video industries. Founded in 1996 in Cambridge, Mass. by digital artist and computer scientist Karl Sims, GenArts develops and markets tools for high-end visual effects creation at studio, broadcast and post-production facilities of all sizes around the world.GenArts’ solutions have been used extensively to create an array of effects for projects such as: Iron Man, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, The Hulk, Spider-Man 1, 2 and 3, The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Star Wars - Episode I, II and III, Sin City, The Matrix trilogy, X-Men 1, 2 and 3, Titanic, Lost and CSI.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos was an Austrian architect. He was influential in European Modern architecture, and in his essay Ornament and Crime he abandoned the aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession. In this and many other essays he contributed to the elaboration of a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture.
Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf KjellĂ©n, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.
Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to evolve in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external "driving force". The hypothesis is based on essentialism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. George Gaylord Simpson in an attack on orthogenesis called this mechanism "the mysterious inner force". Classic proponents of orthogenesis have rejected the theory of natural selection as the organising mechanism in evolution, and theories of speciation for a rectilinear model of guided evolution acting on discrete species with "essences". The term orthogenesis was popularized by Theodor Eimer, though many of the ideas are much older.
Electronic were an alternative dance supergroup formed by New Order singer and guitarist Bernard Sumner and ex-Smiths guitarist Johnny Marr. They co-wrote the majority of their output between 1989 and 1998, collaborating with Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe, of the Pet Shop Boys, on three tracks in their early years, and former Kraftwerk member Karl Bartos on nine songs in 1995.
The giant pangolin is a pangolin species. Members of the species inhabit Africa with a range stretching along the equator from West Africa to Uganda. The giant pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, or "scaly anteaters" â the large, scaled mammals belonging to the Manidae family. It subsists almost entirely on ants and termites. The species was first described by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1815.
Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sexâoriginally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men, and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types. It is believed to be an English adaptation of the German word Urning, which was first published by activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in a series of five booklets which were collected under the title Forschungen ĂŒber das RĂ€thsel der mannmĂ€nnlichen Liebe. Ulrich developed his terminology before the first public use of the term "homosexual", which appeared in 1869 in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny. The term "Uranian" was quickly adopted by English-language advocates of homosexual emancipation in the Victorian era, such as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds, who used it to describe a comradely love that would bring about true democracy, uniting the "estranged ranks of society" and breaking down class and gender barriers. Oscar Wilde wrote to Robert Ross in an undated letter: "To have altered my life would have been to have admitted that Uranian love is ignoble. I hold it to be noble - more noble than other forms."
Albanology is the science that studies Albanian language and culture. The father of Albanology is often considered to be the Austrian Norbert Jokl, while the Croat Milan Ć ufflay, the Hungarian Franz Nopcsa von FelsĆ-SzilvĂĄs and the German Karl Reinhold are also among its famous founders. Among modern important Albanologists are Robert Elsie, Shannon Woodcock who is also a historian of Roma communities across European cultures.
Doge is a Venetian word that descends from the Latin dux, meaning "leader", especially in a military context. The wife of a Doge is styled a Dogaressa. The title of Doge was used for the elected chief of state in a number of Italian "crowned republics". The two best known such republics were Venice and Genoa, which rivalled each other, and the other regional great powers, by building their historical city-states into maritime, commercial, and territorial mini-empires. Other Italian republics to have Doges were Amalfi and the small town of Senarica. In several writings of Theodor Herzl, founder of Zionism, he proposed that the future Jewish State take the title of "Doge" for its Head of State - but this was not taken up by the actual Israel.
Circulating capital includes intermediate goods and operating expenses, i.e., short-lived items that are used in production and used up in the process of creating other goods or services. This is roughly equal to intermediate consumption. Finer distinction include raw materials, intermediate goods, inventories, ancillary operating expenses and. It is contrasted with fixed capital. The term was used in more specialized ways by classical economists such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx. Where the distinction is used, circulating capital is a component of capital, also including fixed capital used in a single cycle of production. In contrast to fixed capital, it is used up in every cycle. In accounting, the circulating capital comes under the heading of current assets. Building on the work of Quesnay and Turgot, Adam Smith made the first explicit distinction between fixed and circulating capital. In his usage, circulating capital includes wages and labour maintenance, money, and inputs from land, mines, and fisheries associated with production. According to Karl Marx the turnover of capital influences "the processes of production and self-expansion", the two new forms of capital, circulating and fixed, "accrue to capital from the process of circulation and affect the form of its turnover". In the following chapter Marx defines fixed capital and circulating capital. In chapter 9 he claims: "We have here not alone quantitative but also qualitative difference."
Amyloid degeneration is a type of degeneration with the deposit of lardacein in the tissues. It indicates impairment of nutritive function and is seen in wasting diseases. âAlso sometimes called Abercrombie's disease, Abercrombie's syndrome, Virchow's syndrome, bacony disease, cellulose disease, hyaloid disease, lardaceous disease, and waxy disease. It's alternate names honour Scottish physician John Abercrombie and German physician Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow.
Ulfilas, or Gothic Wulfila: little wolf, bishop, missionary, and Bible translator, was a Goth or half-Goth and half-Greek from Cappadocia who had spent time inside the Roman Empire at the peak of the Arian controversy. Ulfilas was ordained a bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary. In 348, to escape religious persecution by a Gothic chief, probably Athanaric he obtained permission from Constantius II to migrate with his flock of converts to Moesia and settle near Nicopolis ad Istrum in modern northern Bulgaria. There, Ulfilas translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language. For this he devised the Gothic alphabet. Fragments of his translation have survived, notably the Codex Argenteus held since 1648 in the University Library of Uppsala in Sweden. A parchment page of this Bible was found in 1971 in the Speyer Cathedral. According to Karl Lund, Ulfilas created the Gothic alphabet based on the Getae's alphabet, with minor alterations. Karl Lund is quoting Bonaventura Vulcanius' book, De literis et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum, and Johannes Magnus, Gothus, Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, Roma, 1554, a book in which it has been published, for the first time, both the Getic alphabet, and the laws of the Getae legislator Zamolxis.
Short for "nose ollie", a nollie is an ollie executed at the front of the board while the rider is positioned in his/her natural stance. Professional skateboarders Karl Watson, Shuriken Shannon, Tuukka Korhonen, and Sean Malto have been recognized for their ability to perform the nollie trick. A nollie can be easily confused with a fakie ollie, whereby the rider uses his/her original foot position but is instead riding backwards.
|Time After Time|
Time After Time
Time After Time is a 1979 American science fiction film starring Malcolm McDowell, David Warner and Mary Steenburgen. It was the directing debut of screenwriter Nicholas Meyer, whose screenplay is based largely on the uncredited novel of the same name by Karl Alexander and a story by the latter and Steve Hayes. The film concerns British author H. G. Wells and his fictional use of a time machine to pursue Jack the Ripper into the 20th century.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel, and signed the unconditional surrender of Germany as a representative for German president Karl DĂ¶nitz. At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death and hanged as a war criminal, although he was later exonerated by a German court.
In computing and systems design a loosely coupled system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The notion was introduced into organizational studies by Karl Weick. Sub-areas include the coupling of classes, interfaces, data, and services. In electronics an inductively coupled circuit with a low coupling coefficient is often called loosely coupled.
|Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient|
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
In statistics, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y, giving a value between +1 and â1 inclusive. It is widely used in the sciences as a measure of the strength of linear dependence between two variables. It was developed by Karl Pearson from a related idea introduced by Francis Galton in the 1880s.
A centriole is a cylinder shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi. An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material, or PCM, makes up a compound structure called a centrosome. Most centrioles are made up of nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylindrical pattern. Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets. Edouard van Beneden and Theodor Boveri made the first observation and identification of centrioles in 1883 and 1888 respectively, while the pattern of centriole replication was first worked out independently by Etienne de Harven and Joseph G. Gall circa 1950
|Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse|
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel ĂŒber der Spree in Berlin and Die Krokodile in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas. The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910 "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories." Wirsen, one of the Nobel judges, said that "Germany has not had a greater literary genius since Goethe." Heyse is the fourth oldest laureate in literature, after Doris Lessing, Theodor Mommsen and Jaroslav Seifert.
Two Days is a 2003 drama film written and directed by Sean McGinly about a man who has a film crew documenting the last two days of his life before his planned suicide. During this time, friends, former girlfriends, and his parents try to convince him to stay alive; most of them think he is merely joking or making a plea for attention. The film also stars Karl Wiedergott, Mackenzie Astin, Marguerite Moreau, Lourdes Benedicto and Donal Logue.
Castroism is a left-wing ideology, lined with and created by Fidel Castro. Castroism is influenced by many ideologies but particularly the theories of Cuban revolutionary JosĂ© MartĂ, and after 1961, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and according to some, fellow 26th of July Movement partner Che Guevara. Castroism's main focus is the practice and theory behind revolution and revolutionary government in Cuba and promotes Cuban nationalism, Latin American solidarity, social justice and people's democracy.
Plaudit was an American Thoroughbred racehorse. A descendant of English Triple Crown champion, West Australian, Plaudit is best known for winning the 1898 Kentucky Derby. Conditioned by future U.S. Racing Hall of Fame trainer Edward D. Brown, racing at age two Plaudit won four of his twelve starts. After finishing fourth in the Futurity Stakes at Sheepshead Bay Race Track, he was bought by noted Kentucky horseman, John E. Madden and in a race for older horses in September, defeated the 1896 Kentucky Derby winner Ben Brush. As a three-year-old, Plaudit was ridden by future U.S. Racing Hall of Fame jockey, Willie Simms in the 24th edition of the Kentucky Derby. Plaudit came from behind with a powerful stretch drive to catch the betting favorite Lieber Karl and win by a nose. In 1898 Plaudit won four of his eight races and finished second in the other four, notably in the Latonia Derby. His wins included a second defeat of Lieber Karl in the Clark Handicap. Retired at the end of the racing season, Plaudit stood at stud at John Madden's Hamburg Place in Lexington, Kentucky. Plaudit was from Cinderella who was also the mare of Hastings, the 1896 Belmont Stakes winner and Leading sire in North America in 1902 and 1908. While Plaudit never matched Hastings' success as a sire, he produced a dozen graded stakes race winners including multiple stakes champion, King James.
Dialectical materialism is a strand of Marxism, synthesizing Hegel's dialectics, which proposes that every economic order grows to a state of maximum efficiency, while simultaneously developing internal contradictions and weaknesses that contribute to its systemic decay. Philosophically, dialectical materialism â that Man originates History through active consciousness â was originated by Moses Hess, and developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Moreover, Joseph Dietzgen developed the hypotheses of dialectical materialism independent of Marx, Engels, and Hess.
Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen FRS was a Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals. In the 1960s he collaborated with filmmaker Hugh Falkus on a series of wildlife films, including The Riddle of the Rook and Signals for Survival, which won the Italia prize in that year and the American blue ribbon in 1971.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber was a German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist whose ideas influenced social theory, social research, and the entire discipline of sociology. Weber is often cited, with Ămile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as among the three founding architects of sociology. Weber was a key proponent of methodological antipositivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions. Weber's main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalisation, secularisation, and "disenchantment" that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity, and which he saw as the result of a new way of thinking about the world. Perhaps Weber is best known for his thesis combining economic sociology and the sociology of religion, elaborated in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he proposed that ascetic Protestantism was one of the major "elective affinities" associated with the rise in the Western world of market-driven capitalism and the rational-legal nation-state. Against Marx's "historical materialism," Weber emphasised the importance of cultural influences embedded in religion as a means for understanding the genesis of capitalism. The Protestant Ethic formed the earliest part in Weber's broader investigations into world religion: he would go on to examine the religions of China, the religions of India and ancient Judaism, with particular regard to the apparent non-development of capitalism in the corresponding societies, as well as to their differing forms of social stratification.
Intertex Data AB was founded in 1982 by Karl-Erik StĂ„hl. The company design and manufactures various types of modems and ADSL modems with built-in firewall and router. The products have full support for SIP based multimedia real-time communication, and includes Session Border Controller, SIP Proxy, SIP Registrar and IP PBX functionality. The modems are also sold under the brand PowerBit and SurfinBird. In the fall of 2012, Intertex was merged with the group company Ingate Systems.
In numerical analysis, the DurandâKerner method established 1960â66 and named after E. Durand and Immo Kerner, also called the method of Weierstrass, established 1859â91 and named after Karl Weierstrass, is a root-finding algorithm for solving polynomial equations. In other words, the method can be used to solve numerically the equation where Æ is a given polynomial, which can be taken to be scaled so that the leading coefficient is 1.
A biocoenosis, coined by Karl MĂ¶bius in 1877, describes the interacting organisms living together in a habitat. This term is rarely used in English, as this concept has not been popularized in Anglophone countries. Instead, English-speaking scientists normally use the terms ecosystems or communities. Descriptors in an ecosystem are: âZoocoenosis for the faunal community, âPhytocoenosis for the floral community, âMicrobiocoenosis for the microbial community. The geographical extent of a biocenose is limited by the requirement of a more or less uniform species composition.
|Karl von Frisch|
Karl von Frisch
Karl Ritter von Frisch ForMemRS was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. His work centered on investigations of the sensory perceptions of the honey bee and he was one of the first to translate the meaning of the waggle dance. His theory was disputed by other scientists and greeted with skepticism at the time. Only recently was it definitively proved to be an accurate theoretical analysis.
In cell biology, the centrosome is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. It was discovered by Edouard Van Beneden in 1883 and was described and named in 1888 by Theodor Boveri. The centrosome is thought to have evolved only in the metazoan lineage of eukaryotic cells. Fungi and plants use other MTOC structures to organize their microtubules. Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient mitosis in animal cells, it is not essential. Centrosomes are composed of two orthogonally arranged centrioles surrounded by an amorphous mass of protein termed the pericentriolar material. The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including Îł-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein. In general, each centriole of the centrosome is based on a nine triplet microtubule assembled in a cartwheel structure, and contains centrin, cenexin and tektin.
Velocipede is a human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels. The most common type of velocipede today is the bicycle. The term was coined by Frenchman NicĂ©phore NiĂ©pce in 1818 to describe his version of the Laufmaschine, which was invented by the German Karl Drais in 1817. The term "velocipede" is today, however, mainly used as a collective term for the different forerunners of the monowheel, the unicycle, the bicycle, the dicycle, the tricycle and the quadracycle developed between 1817 and 1880.
Acesulfame potassium is a calorie-free sugar substitute, also known as Acesulfame K or Ace K, and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. In the European Union, it is known under the E number E950. It was discovered accidentally in 1967 by German chemist Karl Clauss at Hoechst AG. In chemical structure, acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4-one 2,2-dioxide. It is a white crystalline powder with molecular formula C4H4KNO4S and a molecular weight of 201.24 g/mol.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einsteinâs theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics.
i. e. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref (the Short); became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in 771; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day 800 crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and au courant with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle (742-814).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Parrish is a 1961 drama film made by Warner Bros.. It was written, produced and directed by Delmer Daves, based on the novel by Mildred Savage. The music score was by Max Steiner, the cinematography by Harry Stradling Sr., the art direction by Leo K. Kuter and the costume design by Howard Shoup. The film stars Troy Donahue, Claudette Colbert, Karl Malden and Dean Jagger, with Connie Stevens, Diane McBain, Sharon Hugueny, Sylvia Miles, Madeleine Sherwood and Hayden Rorke. The film marked Claudette Colbert's last role on the big screen.
In economics, the term sunspots usually refers to an extrinsic random variable, that is, a random variable that does not directly affect economic fundamentals. Sunspots can also refer to the related concept of extrinsic uncertainty, that is, economic uncertainty that does not come from variation in economic fundamentals. David Cass and Karl Shell coined the term sunspots as a suggestive and less technical way of saying "extrinsic random variable".
NeuroImage is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on neuroimaging, including functional neuroimaging and functional human brain mapping. When Karl J. Friston took over as editor-in-chief, the journal was divided into four sections: Anatomy and Physiology, Methods and Modelling, Systems Neuroscience, and Cognitive Neuroscience. Abstracts from the annual meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping have been published as supplements to the journal. Members of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping are eligible for reduced subscription rates.
Denner is a discount supermarket chain in Switzerland. It is Switzerland's third largest supermarket chain after Migros and Coop with 11.4% market share. It was started in 1881 and later developed by Karl Schweri just after the Second World War, it later made Switzerland's first discounter in 1967 in Zurich. In 1973, it broke the country's tobacco cartel. In 2004, the sales of its 580 outlets exceeded CHF 1.8 billion. In January 2007 it was announced that Migros has purchased a majority stake in Denner.
Irretrievable is one of realist Theodor Fontane's mature German novels. As with some other of Fontane's novels, its heroine is believed to be based roughly on a real person whose demise Fontane heard about, and it deals delicately with near taboo topics including adultery and suicide. The novel has been translated twice into English. The first by Douglas ParmĂ©e in 1963 as Beyond Recall, it was re-published in 2011 by New York Review of Books as Irretrievable. In 2010 a new English translation, No Way Back, was published by Angel Classics. There also is a German made-for-TV movie. As for translating this haunting novel into English, even deciding on a translation for the title presents many choices in English. The subtle word-plays and linguistic motifs which add to the power of its German text are challenging to render into English.
Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance, successful foragers can share, with other members of the colony, information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen, to water sources, or to new housing locations. A waggle dance with a very short waggle run used to be characterized as a distinct recruitment dance. Austrian ethologist and Nobel laureate Karl von Frisch was one of the first who translated the meaning of the waggle dance.
Rammelsbergite is a nickel arsenide mineral with formula NiAs2. It forms metallic silvery to tin white to reddish orthorhombic prismatic crystals, and is usually massive in form. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 7.1. It was first described in 1854 from its type locality in the Schneeberg District in Saxony, Germany. It was named after the German chemist and mineralogist, Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. It occurs as a hydrothermal mineral in medium temperature veins association with skutterudite, safflorite, lollingite, nickeline, native bismuth, native silver, algodonite, domeykite and uraninite.
Haidingerite is a calcium arsenate mineral with formula CaÂ·H2O. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system as short prismatic to equant crystals. It typically occurs as scaly, botryoidal or fibrous coatings. It is soft, Mohs hardness of 2 to 2.5, and has a specific gravity of 2.95. It has refractive indices of nÎ± = 1.590, nÎČ = 1.602 and nÎł = 1.638. It was originally discovered in 1827 in JĂĄchymov, Czech Republic. It was named to honor Austrian mineralogist Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger. It occurs as a dehydration product of pharmacolite in the Getchell Mine, Nevada.
Karl Gunnar Myrdal was a Swedish Nobel Laureate economist, sociologist, and politician. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for "their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena." He is best known in the United States for his study of race relations, which culminated in his book An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. The study was influential in the 1954 landmark U.S. Supreme Court Decision Brown v. Board of Education.
The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people, also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota, are a Siouan Native American/First Nations people originally from the Northern Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Today, they are center in present-day Saskatchewan they have also populated parts of Alberta, southwestern Manitoba, northern Montana and western North Dakota. They were well known throughout much of the late 18th and early 19th century. Images of Assiniboine people were painted by such 19th-century artists as Karl Bodmer and George Catlin.
Darby Smart is a do-it-yourself crafting startup working with top Pinterest designers of DIY accessories, fashion and home items to Kit, market and sell their projects to consumers, complete with all materials and instructions needed to complete the project.Darby Smart was co-founded by Nicole Shariat Farb, former Head of Emerging Private Companies in investment banking at Goldman Sachs and Karl Mendes, a Senior Software Engineer from Eventbrite. The goal is to take advantage of the growing trend of people looking for inspiration and DIY crafts on Pinterest, while also tapping into the $29 billion crafting industry. The startup offers pre-packaged Kits that have been compiled by popular designers on Pinterest. The Darby Smart team works closely with the project designers to test and identify the best possible materials for DIYers to create lasting products. Then, Darby Smart handles sourcing and purchasing the materials, to packaging the Kits and more. These Kits, which range from $25 to $45 each, include all the materials and instructions necessary to successfully complete the project at hand. Designers in turn receive a share of revenue from the kits sold.
The open society is a concept originally suggested in 1932 by the French philosopher Henri Bergson, and developed during World War Two by Austrian and British philosopher Karl Popper. Popper saw the open society as standing on a historical continuum reaching from the organic, tribal or closed society, through the open society marked by a critical attitude to tradition, up to the abstract or depersonalised society lacking all face-to-face transactions. For its advocates, government in the open society is purported to be responsive and tolerant, and political mechanisms are said to be transparent and flexible.
Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Papyrology includes both the translation and interpretation of ancient documents in a variety of languages and the care and preservation of rare papyrus originals. Papyrology as a systematic discipline dates from the 1890s, when large caches of well-preserved papyri were discovered by archaeologists in several locations in Egypt, such as Crocodilopolis and Oxyrhynchus. Leading centres of papyrology include Oxford University, Heidelberg University, Columbia University, the University of Michigan, the Ăsterreichische Nationalbibliothek, and the University of California, Berkeley. Founders of papyrology were the Viennese orientalist Joseph von Karabacek, Wilhelm Schubart, the Austrian antiquarian Theodor Graf who acquired more than 100,000 Greek, Arabic, Coptic and Persian papyri in Egypt, which were bought by the Austrian Archduke Rainer, G. F. Tsereteli who published papyri of Russian and Georgian collections, Frederic George Kenyon, Ulrich Wilcken, Bernard Pyne Grenfell, Arthur Surridge Hunt and other distinguished scientists.
ECCO Sko A/S is a Danish shoe manufacturer and retailer founded in 1963 by Karl Toosbuy in Bredebro, Denmark. Originally a footwear maker only, the company has since added leather production and accessories to its extensive range of mens, women's, and children's shoes. ECCO claims to be the only major shoe company in the world to own and manage every step of the production process â from tannery to consumer. ECCO opened its first retail store in Denmark in 1982, and has since expanded to have more than 4,000 branded sales locations throughout the world.
Wittgenstein is a 1993 film by the English director Derek Jarman. It is loosely based on the life story as well as the philosophical thinking of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The adult Wittgenstein is played by Karl Johnson. The original screenplay was by the literary critic Terry Eagleton. Jarman heavily rewrote the script during pre-production and shooting, radically altering the style and structure, although retaining much of Eagleton's dialogue. The story is not played out in a traditional setting, but rather against a black backdrop within which the actors and key props are placed, as if in a theatre setting.
Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA. In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2 kilobases in size. The human pathogen Hepatitis D Virus is similar to viroids. Viroid genomes are extremely small in size, ranging from 246 to 467 nucleotides, and consisting of fewer than 10,000 atoms. Viroids were discovered and named by Theodor Otto Diener, a plant pathologist at the Agricultural Research Service in Maryland, in 1971. Viroid RNA does not code for any protein. The replication mechanism involves RNA polymerase II, an enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA, which instead catalyzes "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA using the viroid's RNA as template. Some viroids are ribozymes, having catalytic properties which allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates. The first viroid to be identified was Potato spindle tuber viroid. Some 33 species have been identified.
Georg Meissner was a German anatomist and physiologist born in Hanover. He studied medicine at the University of GĂ¶ttingen, where he worked closely with Rudolf Wagner. In 1851 he accompanied Wagner and Theodor Billroth on an expedition to Trieste, where he performed scientific studies of torpedo fish. In 1852 he earned his doctorate at GĂ¶ttingen, and was later a university professor at Basel, Freiburg and GĂ¶ttingen. His name is associated with Meissner's corpuscles, which are mechanoreceptors that are responsible for sensitivity to light touch. They were first described in 1852, with Meissner and Wagner each feeling that he alone should be given priority as to discovery of the corpuscles. A controversy took place between the two men, causing a strained relationship that lasted for several years. His name is also associated with Meissner's plexus, being described as the plexus submucosus of the alimentary tract. He also conducted research of physiological-chemical problems, in particular studies on the nature and the breakdown of proteins in the digestive system.
Skag is a short-lived American drama series that aired on NBC and starred Karl Malden. Skag originated as a three-hour television movie that aired on January 6, 1980. Over a week later, it then premiered as a weekly series, Thursdays at 10/9c, which ran from January 17, 1980 until its cancellation on February 21, 1980. Skag focused on the life of a foreman at a Pittsburgh steel mill. Malden described his character, Pete Skagska, as a simple man trying to keep his family together. The series was created by Abby Mann, and executive produced by Mann and Lee Rich.
|Comunidades of Goa|
Comunidades of Goa
The Comunidades of Goa were a form of land association developed in Goa, India, where land-ownership was collectively held, but controlled by the Brahmin caste. Documented by the Portuguese as of 1526, it was the predominate form of landholding in Goa prior to 1961. In form it is similar to many other rural agricultural peoples' form of landholding, such as that of pre-Spanish Bolivia and the Puebloan peoples now in the Southwestern United States, identified by Karl Marx as the dualism of rural communities: the existence of collective land ownership together with private production on the land.
The Schwarzschild radius is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the mass of an object is compressed within that sphere, the escape speed from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light. An example of an object smaller than its Schwarzschild radius is a black hole. Once a stellar remnant collapses below this radius, light cannot escape and the object is no longer visible. It is a characteristic radius associated with every quantity of mass. The Schwarzschild radius was named after the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild who calculated this exact solution for the theory of general relativity in 1915.
Mercedes-Benz is a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG, and the brand is used for luxury automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-WĂŒrttemberg, Germany. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz but traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first automobile. Mercedes-Benz's slogan is "Das Beste oder nichts". Mercedes-Benz is part of the "German Big 3" luxury automakers, along with Audi and BMW, which are the three best selling luxury automakers in the world.
The Weimaraner is a dog that was originally bred for hunting in the early 19th century. Early Weimaraners were used by royalty for hunting large game such as boar, bear, and deer. As the popularity of large game hunting began to decline, Weimaraners were used for hunting smaller animals like fowl, rabbits, and foxes. Weimaraners are great water dogs as evidenced by their webbed toes. The Weimaraner is an all purpose gun dog. The name comes from the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Karl August, whose court, based in the city of Weimar, enjoyed hunting.
An earworm is a piece of music that sticks in one's mind so that one seems to hear it, even when it is not being played. Other phrases used to describe this include musical imagery repetition, involuntary musical imagery and "sonic ringworm". The phenomenon is common in normal life and so may be distinguished from brain damage that results in palinacousis. The word earworm is a calque from the German Ohrwurm. It is a type of song that typically has a high, upbeat melody and repetitive lyrics that verge between catchy and annoying. Earworms are also referred as "stuck song syndrome", "involuntary musical imagery", "brainworms", or "sticky music". Researchers who have studied and written about the phenomenon include Theodor Reik, Sean Bennett, Oliver Sacks, Daniel Levitin, James Kellaris, Philip Beaman, Vicky Williamson, and, in a more theoretical perspective, Peter Szendy. One reason that this occurs is that melodic music tends to have a rhythm that repeats. This cyclical nature may cause endless repetition, unless some way to achieve a climax that breaks the cycle is found.
Karl Landsteiner, ForMemRS, was an Austrian biologist and physician. He is noted for having first distinguished the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood, and having identified, with Alexander S. Wiener, the Rhesus factor, in 1937, thus enabling physicians to transfuse blood without endangering the patientâČs life. With Constantin Levaditi and Erwin Popper, he discovered the polio virus, in 1909. In 1930 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was awarded a Lasker Award in 1946 posthumously and is recognised as the father of transfusion medicine.
Pepsin is an enzyme whose zymogen is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides. It was discovered in 1836 by Theodor Schwann who also coined its name from the Greek word pepsis, meaning digestion. It was the first enzyme to be discovered, and, in 1929, it became one of the first enzymes to be crystallized, by John H. Northrop. Pepsin is a digestive protease, a member of the aspartate protease family. Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin. The three enzymes were among the first to be isolated in crystalline form. During the process of digestion, these enzymes, each of which is specialized in severing links between particular types of amino acids, collaborate to break down dietary proteins into their components, i.e., peptides and amino acids, which can be readily absorbed by the intestinal lining. Pepsin is most efficient in cleaving peptide bonds between hydrophobic and preferably aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine.
Amel is a Belgian municipality in the Walloon province of LiĂšge, and is part of the German-speaking Community of Belgium. On January 1, 2006 Amel had a total population of 5,282. The total area is 125.15 kmÂČ which gives a population density of 42 inhabitants per kmÂČ. There are seventeen villages in Amel: Schoppen, Stephanshof, Iveldingen, Eibertingen, Montenau, Born, Deidenberg, Medell, MĂ¶derscheid, Hepscheid, Heppenbach, Halenfeld, Mirfeld, Valender, Wereth, Meyerode and Herresbach. The name Amel is of Celtic origin and means water. The river AmblĂšve flows through the municipality. Amel is the birthplace of Karl-Heinz Lambertz, current leader of the community executive of the German-speaking community of Belgium.
A spendthrift is someone who spends money prodigiously and who is extravagant and recklessly wasteful, often to a point where the spending climbs well beyond his or her means. The word derives from an obsolete sense of the word "thrift" to mean prosperity rather than frugality, so that a "spendthrift" is one who has spent his prosperity. Historical figures who have been characterized as spendthrifts include German philosopher Karl Marx George IV of Great Britain, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and Marie Antoinette. The term is often used by the press as an adjective applied to governments who are thought to be wasting public money.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is therefore a macro level analysis of society. Karl Marx is the father of the social conflict theory, which is a component of the 4 paradigms of sociology. Certain conflict theories set out to highlight the ideological aspects inherent in traditional thought. Whilst many of these perspectives hold parallels, conflict theory does not refer to a unified school of thought, and should not be confused with, for instance, peace and conflict studies, or any other specific theory of social conflict.
|TurnKey Vacation Rentals|
TurnKey Vacation Rentals
At TurnKey Vacation Rentals (TurnKeyVR.com), we help vacation rental homeowners make more money, while taking over all the work of renting and managing their rental.Our tech-enabled process is simple. We market our rentals in the major portals (HomeAway, VRBO, AirBnB), manage check-in’s with a digital lock (no keys), provide 24/7 guest support and coordinate local cleaners and handymen via mobile apps to maintain the rental. We’re developing mobile technology based marketing and management systems for industry-lowest costs of operations and highest quality. We launched our service in Austin, TX in January 2013 and had our first guests for SXSW in March. We now have dozens of homes in our service and we’re gearing up to launch new markets outside of Austin by the end of 2013.Our team is led by Exec Chairman John Banczak (Hotwire, Pres BnB.com, HomeAway) and CEO T.J. Clark (Hotwire, IAC, CEO Limos.com). We are backed by travel industry luminaries such as Rich Barton (Co-Founder Expedia, Co-Founder Zillow), Barney Harford (CEO Orbitz), Karl Peterson (Co-Founder Hotwire, TPG) and Gregg Brockway (Co-Founder Hotwire, Co-Founder TripIt) who is on our Board.Please visit us at TurnKeyVR.com or call us at 888.512.0498.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 and named it after Ruthenia, the Latin word for Rus'. Ruthenium usually occurs as a minor component of platinum ores and its annual production is only about 20 tonnes. Most ruthenium is used for wear-resistant electrical contacts and the production of thick-film resistors. A minor application of ruthenium is its use in some platinum alloys.
The cell is the basic structural, functional and biological unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the "building block of life". It consists of a protoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular or multicellular. While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, Humans contain about 100 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are between 1 and 100 micrometres and therefore are visible only under the microscope. The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, that vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. Cells emerged on planet Earth at least 4.0â4.3 billion years ago.
Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". As an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of the The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in Britain in 1897, Marconi succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1924, he was ennobled as a Marchese.
TrueVision Systems is pioneering the use of 3D, high-definition digital imaging to transform stereomicroscopy in surgical and educational settings to provide better patient outcomes and surgical efficiencies. The company is achieving this through its patented vision system and smart medical software packages for all surgical disciplines.TrueVision Systems is comprised of veterans from medical imaging and device companies such as Karl Storz Imaging and Computer Motion (now Intuitive Surgical). Its senior technical staff consists of industry PhDs. The executive staff comprises of many years of experience and a successful track record of growing technology start-ups into thriving successful companies.The Company manufactures and sells the TrueVision 3DHD vision system for microsurgery as well as licenses its technology to medical and non-medical manufacturers for a variety of other stereoscopic visualization applications.Michael Weissman, PhD is the company’s founder and inventor of TrueVisionĂÂź 3DHD vision system. He is one of the world’s leading experts in digital stereoscopic imaging and is the co-inventor of the first 3D endoscope. He started TrueVision Systems due to the unmet need for better visualization to the large installed base of surgical microscopes. Dr. Weissman is dedicated to developing products capable of enhancing digital visualization leading to better surgical outcomes and enhance the teaching of microsurgery.
|Very Large Array|
Very Large Array
The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some fifty miles west of Socorro, New Mexico, USA. The VLA has made key observations of black holes and protoplanetary disks around young stars, discovered magnetic filaments and traced complex gas motions at the Milky Way's center, probed the Universe's cosmological parameters, and provided new knowledge about the physical mechanisms that produce radio emission. The VLA stands at an elevation of 6970 ft above sea level. It is a component of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. U.S. Route 60 passes through the complex, which is adjacent to the Boy Scout Double H High Adventure Base.
In medieval Scandinavia, housecarls were either non-servile manservants, or household troops in personal service of someone, equivalent to a bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings. This institution also existed in Anglo-Saxon England after its conquest by the kingdom of Denmark in the 11th century. In England, the royal housecarls had a number of roles, both military and administrative; they are well known for having fought under Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings. The original Old Norse term, hĂșskarl, literally means "house man"; see also the Anglo-Saxon term churl or ceorl, whose root is the same as the Old Norse karl, and which also means "a man, a non-servile peasant".
Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American writer, poet, and cartoonist. He was most widely known for his children's books written and illustrated as Dr. Seuss. He had used the pen name Dr. Theophrastus Seuss in college and later used Theo LeSieg and Rosetta Stone. Geisel published 46 children's books, often characterized by imaginative characters, rhyme, and frequent use of anapestic meter. His most-celebrated books include the bestselling Green Eggs and Ham, The Cat in the Hat, The Lorax, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins, Fox in Socks, The King's Stilts, Hop on Pop, Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose, Horton Hatches the Egg, Horton Hears a Who!, and How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. His works have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, four feature films, a Broadway musical and four television series. He won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Geisel also worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for Flit and Standard Oil, and as a political cartoonist for PM, a New York City newspaper. During World War II, he worked in an animation department of the United States Army, where he wrote Design for Death, a film that later won the 1947 Academy Award for Documentary Feature.
Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush is a 2007 book by Robert Draper. The book tells the story of the George W. Bush Administration from 2001 to 2007. Draper wanted to tell the story of the Bush White House with an inside perspective. To this end, and in preparation for writing the book, Draper had six one-on-one interviews with President Bush. He also personally interviewed Laura Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Condoleezza Rice, Karl Rove, and about 200 other individuals. Quote from Jon Stewart on The Daily Show regarding the book in an appearance by Robert Draper on September 12, 2007: Quote from Roger Ebert on Bush's plans after the presidency:
Acca sellowiana, a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, is native to the highlands of southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern Argentina,and Colombia. It is widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree in New Zealand, and can be found as a garden plant elsewhere such as in Australia, Azerbaijan, West part of Georgia, South part of Russia and South Africa. Common names include feijoa pineapple guava and guavasteen. It is an evergreen, perennial shrub or small tree, 1â7 metres in height, widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree. The German botanist Otto Karl Berg named feijoa after JoĂŁo da Silva FeijĂł, a Portuguese botanist born in the colony of Brazil.
Ogopogo or Naitaka is the name given to a cryptid lake monster reported to live in Okanagan Lake, in British Columbia, Canada. Ogopogo has been allegedly seen by First Nations people since the 19th century. The most common description of Ogopogo is a 40 to 50-foot-long sea serpent. British cryptozoologist Karl Shuker has categorized the Ogopogo as a 'many hump' variety of lake monster, and suggested it may be a kind of primitive serpentine whale such as Basilosaurus. However, because the physical evidence for the beast is limited to unclear photographs and film, it has also been suggested that the sightings are misidentifications of common animals, such as otters, and inanimate objects, such as floating logs.
|Mode of production|
Mode of production
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production is a specific combination of: âproductive forces: these include human labour power and available knowledge given the level of technology in the means of production. âsocial and technical relations of production: these include the property, power, and control relations governing society's productive assets, relations between people and the objects of their work, and the relations between social classes. Marx regarded productive ability and participation in social relations as two essential characteristics of human beings and that the particular modality of these relations in capitalist production are inherently in conflict with the increasing development of human productive capacities. A precursor to this concept was Adam Smith's concept of mode of subsistence, which delineated a progression of society types based on the way in which society's members provided for their basic needs.
Finagle's Law of Dynamic Negatives is usually rendered: One variant favored among hackers is a takeoff on the second law of thermodynamics: The term "Finagle's Law" was first used by John W. Campbell, Jr., the influential editor of Astounding Science Fiction. He used it frequently in his editorials for many years in the 1940s to 1960s but it never came into general usage the way Murphy's Law has. In the Star Trek episode "The Ultimate Computer", Dr. McCoy refers to an alcoholic drink known as the "Finagle's Folly," apparently a reference to "Finagle's Law." In Season 2, Episode 1, Captain Kirk tells Spock, "As one of Finagle's Laws puts it: 'Any home port the ship makes will be somebody else's, not mine.'" Eventually the term "Finagle's law" was popularized by science fiction author Larry Niven in several stories depicting a frontier culture of asteroid miners; this "Belter" culture professed a religion and/or running joke involving the worship of the dread god Finagle and his mad prophet Murphy. "Finagle's Law" can also be the related belief, "Inanimate objects are out to get us," also known as Resistentialism. Similar to Finagle's Law is the verbless phrase of the German novelist Friedrich Theodor Vischer: "die TĂŒcke des Objekts".
The Veo is a cryptid described in The Beasts That Hide from Man: Seeking the World's Last Undiscovered Animals by Karl Shuker as living on the island of Rintja and resembling other pangolins, or scaly ant-eaters. This creature is reported to be as big as a horse. No modern Pangolin approaches that size but on the nearby islands of Java and Borneo, large pangolins of up to 8 feet did once live. Sightings of the Cryptid have linked them to relic dinosaurs, particularly Stegosaurus or Ankylosaurus due to superficial similarities. The Veo is described as being a nocturnal, mountain-dwelling creature, subsisting on a diet of ants and termites. Cryptozoologists have suggested that the Veo may represent a relict population of the extinct Manis paleojavanicus.
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use". Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the fields of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine. The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
|Wilhelm von Opel|
Wilhelm von Opel
Wilhelm von Opel, known as Wilhelm Opel before being granted nobility in 1917, was one of the founding figures of the German automobile manufacturer Opel. He introduced the assembly line to the German automobily industry. His father, Adam Opel, founded the Opel firm as a manufacturer of sewing machines, then expanded into bicycle manufacturing. After Adam's death in 1895, control of the company passed to his five sons. In 1898, Wilhelm and his brother Fritz brought Opel into the automobile industry with the purchase of the small Lutzmann automobile factory of Dessau. Along with his brother Heinrich, Wilhelm was raised to grand-ducal nobility in 1917. Their brother Karl was raised to the same level in the next year.
The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. It forms isometric crystals, and is usually associated with rare tellurium and gold minerals, often with silver, mercury, and copper. The name comes from chemist W. Petz, who first analyzed the mineral from the type locality in SÄcÄrĂąmb, Transylvania, Romania in 1845. It was described by Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger in 1845 and dedicated to W. Petz who had carried out the first analyses. It occurs with other tellurides in vein gold deposits. It is commonly associated with native gold, hessite, sylvanite, krennerite, calaverite, altaite, montbrayite, melonite, frohbergite, tetradymite, rickardite, vulcanite and pyrite. Petzite forms together with uytenbogaardtite and fischesserite the uytenbogaardtite group.
Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development where changes in material conditions is the primary influence on how human society and the economy is organized. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, plus the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by thousands of Marxist thinkers. It now has many Marxist and non-Marxist variants.
Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare earth element. Holmium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve. Its oxide was first isolated from rare earth ores in 1878 and the element was named after the city of Stockholm. Elemental holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal. It is too reactive to be found uncombined in nature, but when isolated, is relatively stable in dry air at room temperature. However, it reacts with water and rusts readily, and will also burn in air when heated. Holmium is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite, and is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion exchange techniques. Its compounds in nature, and in nearly all of its laboratory chemistry, are trivalently oxidized, containing Ho ions. Trivalent holmium ions have fluorescent properties similar to many other rare earth ions, and holmium ions are thus used in the same way as some other rare earths in certain laser and glass colorant applications. Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because holmium strongly absorbs neutrons, it is also used in nuclear control rods.
In statistics, a contingency table is a type of table in a matrix format that displays the frequency distribution of the variables. The term contingency table was first used by Karl Pearson in "On the Theory of Contingency and Its Relation to Association and Normal Correlation", part of the Drapers' Company Research Memoirs Biometric Series I published in 1904. A crucial problem of multivariate statistics is finding dependence structure underlying the variables contained in high dimensional contingency tables. If some of the conditional independences are revealed, then even the storage of the data can be done in a smarter way. In order to do this one can use information theory concepts, which gain the information only from the distribution of probability, which can be expressed easily from the contingency table by the relative frequencies.
|The Communist Manifesto|
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto, originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party, is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the Communist League, it laid out the League's purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The book contains Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.
Verisimilitude is a philosophical or theoretical concept that distinguishes truth and falsity of assertions or hypotheses. The problem of verisimilitude is the problem of articulating what it takes for one false theory to be closer to the truth than another false theory. This problem was central to the philosophy of Karl Popper, largely because Popper was among the first to affirm that truth is the aim of scientific inquiry while acknowledging that most of the greatest scientific theories in the history of science are, strictly speaking, false. If this long string of purportedly false theories is to constitute progress with respect to the goal of truth then it must be at least possible for one false theory to be closer to the truth than others.
|Human hair color|
Human hair color
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Generally, if more eumelanin is present, the color of the hair is darker; if less eumelanin is present, the hair is lighter. Levels of melanin can vary over time causing a person's hair color to change, and it is possible to have hair follicles of more than one color. Particular hair colors are associated with ethnic groups. The shades of human hair color are assessed using the FischerâSaller scale. The FischerâSaller scale, named after Eugen Fischer and Karl Saller, is used in physical anthropology and medicine to determine the shades of hair color. The scale uses the following designations: A, B to E, F to L, M to O, P to T, U to Y and Roman numerals I to IV and V to VI. See also the MartinâSchultz scale for eye color.
Aloisia Wagner better known with the stage name of Violetta, was born without legs or arms with a condition known as tetra-amelia syndrome. She had a lengthy career in sideshow performance. She was born in Hemelingen, Germany. In April 1924 Violetta immigrated to New York City, United States from Bremen-Hemelingen, Germany, with her step brother, Karl Grobecker, and performed in sideshows as a singer, including Coney Island's Dreamland and the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. She moved herself by hopping from place to place on the bottom of her torso, and was able to manipulate objects with her mouth enough to comb her own hair, dress herself, thread a needle, and sew. Violetta was married and wore her wedding band on a gold chain around her neck.
John Charles Polanyi, PC CC FRSC OOnt FRS is a Canadian chemist who won the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his research in chemical kinetics. Polanyi was educated at Manchester University, and did postdoctoral research at the National Research Council in Canada and Princeton University in New Jersey. Polanyi's first academic appointment was at the University of Toronto, and he remains there as of 2011. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Polanyi has received numerous other awards, including 25 honorary degrees, the Wolf Prize in Chemistry and the Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering. Outside of his scientific pursuits, Polanyi is active in public policy discussion, especially concerning science and nuclear weapons. His father, Michael, was a noted chemist and philosopher. His uncle Karl was an economist.
The word homophile is an alternative to the words homosexual or gay. The homophile movement also refers to the gay rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. The term homophile is favoured by some because it emphasizes love rather than sex. Coined by the German astrologist, author and psychoanalyst Karl-GĂŒnther Heimsoth in his 1924 doctoral dissertation "Hetero- und Homophilie," the term was in common use in the 1950s and 1960s by homosexual organizations and publications; the groups of this period are now known collectively as the homophile movement. The term homophile began to disappear with the emergence of the Gay Liberation movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s, replaced by a new set of terminology such as gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender, although some of the homophile groups survived until the 1980s, 1990s and even the present day.
The Doberman Pinscher or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Doberman Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs or police dogs, this is less common today. In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention. Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Doberman Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed suitable for companionship and family life.Although many Dobermans have been outdoor dogs, they are best suited to live indoors.
Libel is a 1959 British drama film. It stars Olivia de Havilland, Dirk Bogarde, Paul Massie, Wilfrid Hyde-White and Robert Morley. The film's screenplay was written by Anatole de Grunwald and Karl Tunberg from a 1935 play of the same name by Edward Wooll, and it was directed by Anthony Asquith. The Broadway play, which had starred Colin Clive, was adapted for radio in 1941 using the original references to World War I. Ronald Colman played the leading role in the Jan. 13, 1941, CBS network Lux Radio Theater broadcast, with Otto Kruger and Frances Robinson. The role of an amnesiac World War I veteran had similarities to Colman's 1942 hit Random Harvest. A 1938 BBC television production, featured actor Wyndham Goldie, husband of eventual BBC television producer Grace Wyndham Goldie.
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman". His ideas, expressed largely through a succession of journals such as l'Industrie, La politique and L'Organisateur centered on a perception that growth in industrialization and scientific discovery would have profound changes on society. He believed, nonetheless, that society would restructure itself by abandoning traditional ideas of temporal and spiritual power, an evolution that would lead, inevitably, to a productive society based on, and benefiting from, a " ... union of men engaged in useful work", the basis of "true equality". These ideas influenced Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and many other thinkers and social theorists.
Frank Bretschneider is a German electronic musician. He works primarily with sine waves and white noise as his source material. He also releases material under the name Komet. Bretschneider was born and raised in Karl-Marx-Stadt in the German Democratic Republic. In 1984, inspired by science fiction radio plays and films, he began experimenting with tape machines, synthesizers, and modified guitars. In 1986 he formed the band AG. Geige, which was influenced by the Dada art movement, The Residents, and Soviet science fiction. AG. Geige disbanded in 1992. In 1995, Bretschneider and fellow AG. Geige band member Olaf Bender founded the Rastermusic record label. In 1999 this label merged with Carsten Nicolai's Noton label, to become Raster-Noton. Bretschneider has released material on record labels such as 12k, Raster-Noton, Mille Plateaux, FĂ€llt and Bip Hop.
Pathfinder is a 2007 American epic action film directed by Marcus Nispel, distributed by 20th Century Fox, and stars Karl Urban, Clancy Brown, Ralf MĂ¶ller, Moon Bloodgood, Russell Means, Jay Tavare, and Nathaniel Arcand. It is a loose remake of an Oscar-nominated 1987 Norwegian movie of the same name although the geographic setting and peoples involved are very different. Pathfinder takes place in "Vinland" and the story involves a fictional conflict between the Native Americans and Viking marauders from across the Atlantic Ocean, who have come to the Americas in search of colonization. Pathfinder received a widely negative critical reception upon release and was not successful at the box office, although the film did enjoy much better home video sales whereby the studio recouped its costs and developed a small cult following. It was also adapted into a graphic novel by Dark Horse Comics.
Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie, is a French term referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance is determined by reflecting that of a haute bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself, and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate. The term is politico-economic, and references historical materialism. It originally denoted a sub-stratum of the middle classes in the 18th and early-19th centuries. In the mid-19th century, the pre-eminient theorist of socio-politico-economy, Karl Marx, and other Marxist theorists used the term petite bourgeoisie to identify the socio-economic stratum of the bourgeoisie that comprised small-scale capitalists such as shop-keepers and workers who manage the production, distribution, and/or exchange of commodities and/or services owned by their bourgeois employers.
Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true. It serves as part of the primary basis of an ideology or belief system, and it cannot be changed or discarded without affecting the very system's paradigm, or the ideology itself. They can refer to acceptable opinions of philosophers or philosophical schools, public decrees, religion, or issued decisions of political authorities. The term derives from Greek ÎŽÏÎłÎŒÎ± "that which seems to one, opinion or belief" and that from ÎŽÎżÎșÎÏ, "to think, to suppose, to imagine". Dogma came to signify laws or ordinances adjudged and imposed upon others by the First Century. The plural is either dogmas or dogmata, from Greek ÎŽÏÎłÎŒÎ±ÏÎ±. The term "dogmatics" is used as a synonym for systematic theology, as in Karl Barth's defining textbook of neo-orthodoxy, the 14-volume Church Dogmatics.
Rudolf Karl Bultmann was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of New Testament at the University of Marburg. He was one of the major figures of early 20th century biblical studies and a prominent voice in liberal Christianity. Bultman is known for his belief that the historical analysis of the New Testament is both futile and unnecessary, given that the earliest Christian literature showed little interest in specific locations. Bultman argued that all that matters is the "thatness", not the "whatness" of Jesus, i.e. only that Jesus existed, preached and died by crucifixion matters, not what happened throughout his life. Bultman's approach relied on his concept of demythology, and interpreted the mythological elements in the New Testament existentially. Bultmann contended that only faith in the kerygma, or proclamation, of the New Testament was necessary for Christian faith, not any particular facts regarding the historical Jesus.
Schnorrer is a Yiddish term meaning "beggar" or "sponger". The word Schnorrer also occurs in German to describe a person who frequently asks for little things, like cigarettes or little sums of money, without offering a return, and has thus come to mean freeloader. The English usage of the word denotes a sly chiseler who will get money out of another any way he can, often through an air of entitlement. A schnorrer is distinguished from an ordinary beggar by dint of his boundless chutzpah. The term does not apply to begging or being homeless, but rather a habit of getting things rather than money by politely wanting to borrow them. The term, which is used in a pejorative or ironic sense, can also be used as a backhanded compliment to someone's perseverance, cleverness, or thrift. For instance, Azriel Hildesheimer, known for his travels around Europe to spread his rabbinical wisdom to the poor, and for his refusal to accept payment for his services, was sometimes referred to as the "international schnorrer" for his reliance on the local community to house and feed him wherever he went. Alternatively, Theodor Herzl described his early Eastern European immigrant supporters among the Ostjuden, as his "army of schnorrers". Israel Zangwill later described a schnorrer as a beggar who would chide a donor for not giving enough. The Schnorrer Club of Morrisania was a German-American social club in the Bronx, New York.
Communalism is a term with three distinct meanings according to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary. These include: "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation"; "the principles and practice of communal ownership". Many experiments in utopian socialism did implement internal rules of communalist property ownership in the context of federated communalism. It is at least theoretically possible for a federation of communes to include communes which do not practice communalist rules of property, which is to say, that the overall national government may be a federation of communes, but that private property rather than communalist property is the order within each such commune. Karl Marx, often viewed as the founder of communism, criticized other socialists of his era, and made particularly blistering criticisms of utopianism which was generally conceived along communalist principles, both federational communalism and local property communalism.
Vampyr is a 1932 French-German horror film directed by Danish director Carl Theodor Dreyer. The film was written by Dreyer and Christen Jul based on elements from J. Sheridan Le Fanu's collection of supernatural stories In a Glass Darkly. Vampyr was funded by Nicolas de Gunzburg who starred in the film under the name of Julian West among a mostly non-professional cast. Gunzburg plays the role of Allan Grey, a student of the occult who enters the village of Courtempierre, which is under the curse of a vampire. Vampyr was challenging for Dreyer to make as it was his first sound film and had to be recorded in three languages. To overcome this, very little dialogue was used in the film and much of the story is told with silent film-styled title cards. The film was shot entirely on location and to enhance the atmospheric content, Dreyer opted for a washed out, fuzzy appearing photographic technique. The audio editing was done in Berlin where the character's voices, sound effects, and score were added to the film. Vampyr had a delayed release in Germany and opened to a generally negative reception from audiences and critics. Dreyer edited the film after its German premiere and it opened to more mixed opinions at its French debut. The film was long considered as a low part in Dreyer's career, but modern critical reception to the film has become much more favorable with critics praising the film's disorienting visual effects and atmosphere.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is about 7500 nucleotides long. The viral particle is about 30 nanometres in diameter with icosahedral symmetry. Because of its short genome and its simple compositionâonly RNA and a non-enveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates itâpoliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. Poliovirus was first isolated in 1909 by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper. In 1981, the poliovirus genome was published by two different teams of researchers: by Vincent Racaniello and David Baltimore at MIT and by Naomi Kitamura and Eckard Wimmer at Stony Brook University. Poliovirus is one of the most well-characterized viruses, and has become a useful model system for understanding the biology of RNA viruses.
Mass movement refers to the political concept of a political party or movement which is supported by large segments of a population. Political movements that typically advocate the creation of a mass movement include the ideologies of communism and fascism. Both communists and fascists typically support the creation of mass movements as a means to overthrow a government and create their own government, the mass movement then being used afterwards to protect the government from being overthrown itself. The social scientific study of mass movements focuses on such elements as charisma, leadership, active minorities, cults and sects, followers, mass man and mass society, alienation, brainwashing and indoctrination, authoritarianism and totalitarianism. The field emerged out of crowd or mass psychology, which had gradually widened its scope from mobs to social movements and opinion currents, and then to mass and media society. One influential early text was the double essay on the herd instinct by British surgeon Wilfred Trotter. It also influenced the key concepts of the superego and identification in Massenpsychologie by Sigmund Freud, misleadingly translated as Group psychology. They are linked to ideas on sexual repression leading to rigid personalities, in the original Mass psychology of fascism by Freudo-Marxist Wilhelm Reich. This then rejoined ideas formulated by the Frankfurt School and Theodor Adorno, ultimately leading to a major American study about The authoritarian personality, as a basis for xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Another early theme was the relationship between masses and elites, both outside and within such movements.
Rosa Luxemburg was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was successively a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Communist Party of Germany. In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartakusbund which eventually became the Communist Party of Germany. During the German Revolution she founded the Die Rote Fahne, the central organ of the Spartacist movement. She considered the 1919 Spartacist uprising a blunder, but supported it after Liebknecht ordered it without her knowledge. When the revolt was crushed by the social democratic government and the Freikorps, Luxemburg, Liebknecht and some of their supporters were captured and murdered. Luxemburg was shot and her body thrown in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin.
The Rotunde in Vienna was a building erected for the Weltausstellung 1873 Wien. The building was a partially covered circular steel construction, 84 m in height and 108 m in diameter. For almost one century it was the largest cupola construction in the world, larger than the Pantheon in Rome; built in 118â125. It was designed by Austrian architect Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer and built by the German company Johann Caspar Harkort of Duisburg. The Scottish engineer for the roof was John Scott Russell who used 4,000 tons of steel with no ties. The central building of the World Fair was accepted enthusiastically by the public. It was used for shows and fairs later on. Alexander Girardi performed a concert in this hall. In 1898 a "Collektivausstellung Ă¶sterreichischer Automobilbauer" was shown during the "Kaiser Franz Joseph JubilĂ€umsausstellung". The first four cars ever built in Austria-Hungary were shown there, amongst them the car built by Siegfried Marcus in 1888/89.
Karl Hermann Amandus Schwarz was a German mathematician, known for his work in complex analysis. He was born in Hermsdorf, Silesia and died in Berlin. He was married to Marie Kummer, a daughter of the mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer and his wife Ottilie, nĂ©e Mendelssohn. They had six children. Schwarz originally studied chemistry in Berlin but Kummer and WeierstraĂ persuaded him to change to Mathematics. Between 1867 and 1869 he worked in Halle, then in ZĂŒrich. From 1875 he worked at GĂ¶ttingen University, dealing with the subjects of function theory, differential geometry and the calculus of variations. His works include Bestimmung einer speziellen MinimalflĂ€che, which was crowned by the Berlin Academy in 1867 and printed in 1871, and Gesammelte mathematische Abhandlungen. In 1892 he became a member of the Berlin Academy of Science and a professor at the University of Berlin, where his students included LipĂłt FejĂ©r, Paul Koebe and Ernst Zermelo. He died in Berlin.
Neo-Marxism is a loose term for various twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, usually by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions, such as: critical theory, psychoanalysis or Existentialism. Erik Olin Wright's theory of contradictory class locations, which incorporates Weberian sociology, critical criminology, and anarchism, is an example of the syncretism in neo-Marxist theory. As with many uses of the prefix neo-, many theorists and groups designated as neo-Marxist have attempted to supplement the perceived deficiencies of orthodox Marxism or dialectical materialism. Many prominent neo-Marxists, such as Herbert Marcuse and other members of the Frankfurt School, were sociologists and psychologists. Neo-Marxism comes under the broader framework of the New Left. In a sociological sense, neo-Marxism adds Max Weber's broader understanding of social inequality, such as status and power, to Marxist philosophy. Strains of neo-Marxism include: critical theory, analytical Marxism and French structural Marxism. The concept arose as a way to explain questions which were not explained in Karl Marx's works. There are many different "branches" of Neo-Marxism often not in agreement with each other and their theories.
Karl Johan Schuster, known professionally as Shellback, is a Swedish songwriter, record producer and musician. Shellback was listed as the #1 producer of 2012 on Billboard Magazine's year end chart, and he also topped the list of their "Top 10 Songwriters Airplay Chart" the same year. He regularly collaborates with songwriter Max Martin, and together they've written "So What", "Raise Your Glass" and "Fuckin' Perfect" by Pink, "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together", "I Knew You Were Trouble", and "22" by Taylor Swift, "Whataya Want from Me" by Adam Lambert, "3" and "I Wanna Go" by Britney Spears, and "DJ Got Us Fallin' in Love" and "Scream" by Usher, all of which have charted within the top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States. Shellback also co-wrote and produced "One More Night", "Payphone" and "Moves Like Jagger" by Maroon 5, the latter spent eight weeks at #1 on the World Chart.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The initial detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was made in the 1930s, when Karl Jansky observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which provided compelling evidence for the Big Bang, was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis. The use of interferometry allows radio astronomy to achieve high angular resolution, as the resolving power of an interferometer is set by the distance between its components, rather than the size of its components.
|Francis Peyton Rous|
Francis Peyton Rous
Peyton Rous ForMemRS born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1879 and received his B.A. and M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He was involved in the discovery of the role of viruses in the transmission of certain types of cancer. In 1966 he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work. As a pathologist he made his seminal observation, that a malignant tumor growing on a domestic chicken could be transferred to another fowl simply by exposing the healthy bird to a cell-free filtrate, in 1911. This finding, that cancer could be transmitted by a virus, was widely discredited by most of the field's experts at that time. Since he was a relative newcomer, it was several years before anyone even tried to replicate his prescient results. Although clearly some influential researchers were impressed enough to nominate him to the Nobel Committee as early as 1926. In his later life he wrote biographies of Simon Flexner, and Karl Landsteiner.
Bellatrix were an Icelandic rock group. The group was founded in 1992 in KeflavĂk as Kolrassa krĂłkrĂĂ°andi by four women, all aged sixteen: Eliza M GeirsdĂłttir, SigrĂșn EirĂksdĂłttir, Ester BĂbĂ ĂsgeirsdĂłttir and Birgitta VilbersdĂłttir. The band released the mini-album DrĂĄpa in 1992. In 1994, they released KynjasĂ¶gur with Anna MargrĂ©t Hraundal and Karl ĂgĂșst GuĂ°mundsson replacing Birgitta. Two years later, in 1996, they released KĂ¶ld eru kvennarĂĄĂ°. They also released Stranger Tales in 1995, which featured some English versions of Icelandic songs. This was also their first CD published under the name Bellatrix. This was followed by G in 1998 released on Global Warming Records. In 1999 they signed to Fierce Panda and released It's All True in 2000 under the name Bellatrix. Their single, "Jedi Wannabe", peaked at #65 in the UK Singles Chart in September 2000. They co-headlined a UK tour with Coldplay, but split up the following year.
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In particular the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I, were among the factors that shaped Modernism. Related terms are modern, modernist, contemporary, and postmodern. In art, Modernism explicitly rejects the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past, through the application of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody in new forms. Modernism also rejects the lingering certainty of Enlightenment thinking, as well as the idea of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator. In general, the term Modernism encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was paradigmatic of the movement's approach towards the obsolete. Another paradigmatic exhortation was articulated by philosopher and composer Theodor Adorno, who, in the 1940s, challenged conventional surface coherence, and appearance of harmony typical of the rationality of Enlightenment thinking. A salient characteristic of Modernism is self-consciousness. This self-consciousness often led to experiments with form and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used.
Hantaviruses are negative sense RNA viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. Humans may be infected with hantaviruses through urine, saliva or contact with rodent waste products. Some hantaviruses cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, but others have not been associated with known human disease. Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent human-to-human transmission has been reported with the Andes virus in South America. The name hantavirus is derived from the Hantan River area in South Korea, which provided the founding member of the group: Hantaan virus, isolated in the late 1970s by Ho-Wang Lee, Karl M. Johnson and his colleagues. Hantaan, Dobrava, Saaremaa, Seoul, and Puumala are several hantaviruses species that cause HFRS, also known as Korean hemorrhagic fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever and nephropathis epidemica.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH FRS FBA was an Austro-British philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century. He also wrote extensively on social and political philosophy. In 1992, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for "symbolising the open spirit of the 20th century" and for his "enormous influence on the formation of the modern intellectual climate". Popper is known for his attempt to repudiate the classical observationalist/inductivist form of the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. He is also known for his opposition to the classical justificationist account of knowledge which he replaced with critical rationalism, "the first non justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy". In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he came to believe made a flourishing "open society" possible.
A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself. Once the body has generated antibodies to a hapten-carrier adduct, the small-molecule hapten may also be able to bind to the antibody, but it will usually not initiate an immune response; usually only the hapten-carrier adduct can do this. Sometimes the small-molecule hapten can even block immune response to the hapten-carrier adduct by preventing the adduct from binding to the antibody, a process called hapten inhibition. The mechanisms of absence of immune response may vary and involve complex immunological mechanisms, but can include absent or insufficient co-stimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells. The concept of haptens emerged from the work of Karl Landsteiner who also pioneered the use of synthetic haptens to study immunochemical phenomena.
Semasiology is a discipline within linguistics concerned with the question "what does the word X mean?". It studies the meaning of words regardless of their phonetic expression. Semasiology departs from a word or lexical expression and asks for its meaning, its different senses, i.e. polysemy. The opposite approach is known as onomasiology. The term was first used by Christian Karl Reisig in 1825 in his Vorlesungen ĂŒber lateinische Sprachwissenschaft and was in use in English by 1847. Semantics replaced it in its original meaning, beginning in 1893. Currently, the discipline is most commonly understood as a branch of lexicology, the study of words, and as a branch of semantics, and more narrowly ascribed as a subfield of lexical semantics, though sometimes referred to as a synonym of semantics. The exact meaning of the term is somewhat obscure, because according to some authors semasiology merged with semantics in modern times, while at the same time the term is still in use when defining onomasiology.
Waiting Room was an Australian band with Alan Fletcher as lead vocalist. The band also consists of Chris Hawker, Tommy Rando and Jeff Consi. With an upbeat rocky feel to most songs the band have gained a large group of followers on their own merit as well as from Fletcher's own personal fanbase from his portrayal of Karl Kennedy in the Australian soap opera Neighbours. The band play at The Elephant and Wheelbarrow in St Kilda, Victoria, Australia. The band often tour the UK, where Fletcher is well-known because of his role in Neighbours. The band released their debut album "In the Waiting Room" in 2005. With Fletcher's link to Neighbours, a couple of their songs have been about Neighbours characters including Sleeping Alongside Susan which was a remix of Smokie's Living Next Door to Alice. This was in reference to his characters relationship with Izzy Hoyland. Fletcher toured the UK in September and October 2009 with band The X-Rays featuring Johnny Lucas, Chris Hanby and Martin Stewart. Waiting Room announced their split in December 2012, and their last EP, Swan Songs had been released by April 2013.
Flensburg is an independent town in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Flensburg is the centre of the region of Southern Schleswig. After Kiel and LĂŒbeck it is the third largest town in Schleswig-Holstein. It is the northernmost town in Germany. In May 1945 Flensburg was the seat of the last government of Nazi Germany, the so-called Flensburg government led by Grand Admiral Karl DĂ¶nitz, which was in power from 1 May until its dissolution on 23 May. The nearest larger towns are Kiel and Odense in Denmark. Flensburg's city centre lies about 7 km from the Danish border. In Germany, Flensburg is known for âthe nationwide database of traffic violators, also called VerkehrssĂŒnderkartei âits beer Flensburger Pilsener, also called "Flens" âthe centre of the Danish national minority in Germany âthe greeting Moin âthe large erotic mail-order companies Beate Uhse and Orion âits handball team SG Flensburg-Handewitt âthe Naval Academy at MĂŒrwik with its sail training ship Gorch Fock
Manliness is a book by Harvey C. Mansfield first published by Yale University Press in 2006. Mansfield is a professor of government at Harvard University. In this book, he defines manliness as "confidence in a situation of risk" and suggests this quality is currently undervalued in Western society. He suggests the quality is more common in men than in women, but doesn't strictly exclude women, for example he names Margaret Thatcher. He also suggests the quality is "good and bad", not all good, but not all bad. His main point is that gender neutral ideology denies both the reality of sex-specific qualities, and the valuable components of these, to the detriment of society. Mansfield attributes the rise of gender neutral ideology firstly to Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre, and then to feminists who repackaged the ideas as part of a political program. He names Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan and Germaine Greer.
The telson is the last division of the body of a crustacean. It is not considered a true segment because it does not arise in the embryo from teloblast areas as do real segments. It never carries any appendages, but a forked "tail" called the caudal furca is often present. Together with the uropods, the telson forms the tail fan of lobsters, shrimp and other decapods. These are used as a paddle in the caridoid escape reaction, whereby an alarmed animal rapidly flexes its tail, causing it to dart backwards. Krill can reach speeds of over 60 cm per second by this means. The trigger time to optical stimulus is, in spite of the low temperatures, only 55 milliseconds. The same term telson is widely used for the caudal spine of Chelicerata. The chelicerate telson can be clearly seen in a number of fossil species and in extant animals. Some authorities, like Karl-Ernst Lauterbach, have urged that the usage of this word in this context be discouraged.
Secularization or secularisation is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance. The term secularization is also used in the context of the lifting of the monastic restrictions from a member of the clergy. Secularization has many levels of meaning, both as a theory and a historical process. Social theorists such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Ămile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity. Study of this process seeks to determine the manner in which, or extent to which religious creeds, practices and institutions are losing social significance. Some theorists argue that the secularization of modern civilization partly results from our inability to adapt broad ethical and spiritual needs of mankind to the increasingly fast advance of the physical sciences.
|Le Chatelier's principle|
Le Chatelier's principle
In chemistry, Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. The principle is named after Henry Louis Le Chatelier and sometimes Karl Ferdinand Braun who discovered it independently. It can be summarized as: This principle has a variety of names, depending upon the discipline using it. See, for example, homeostasis. It is common to take Le Chatelier's principle to be a more general observation, roughly stated: In chemistry, the principle is used to manipulate the outcomes of reversible reactions, often to increase the yield of reactions. In pharmacology, the binding of ligands to the receptor may shift the equilibrium according to Le Chatelier's principle, thereby explaining the diverse phenomena of receptor activation and desensitization. In economics, the principle has been generalized to help explain the price equilibrium of efficient economic systems. In simultaneous equilibrium systems, phenomena that are in apparent contradiction to Le Chatelier's principle can occur; these can be resolved by the theory of response reactions.
Unanimous was a United Kingdom-based game show broadcast on Channel 4 from 27 October 2006 to 15 December 2006. It was based on an American game show titled Unan1mous. Unanimous: The Fallout, was shown on E4 later at night after Unanimous. It was hosted by comedians Paddy McGuinness and Olivia Lee and featured regular guest Karl Daly, played by Tom Bennett. The 'Host' of the show was Alex Humes. Although fairly unknown, Humes starred in the reality TV programme Space Cadets, also for Channel 4, where he played one of the Russian pilots. The voice-over for the programme was provided by Phil Gallagher. The show was not live but was recorded many weeks before airing. Contestants were not informed of the rules or objectives of the game before it started - only that they were going to be playing in a game show with a substantial prize fund, and they would be filmed non-stop in an enclosed environment.
A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. It is always used in conjunction with a means to determine at what pressure blood flow is just starting, and at what pressure it is unimpeded. Manual sphygmomanometers are used in conjunction with a stethoscope. The word comes from the Greek ÏÏÏ ÎłÎŒÏÏ, plus the scientific term manometer. The device was invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881. Scipione Riva-Rocci introduced a more easily used version in 1896. In 1901, Harvey Cushing modernized the device and popularized it within the medical community. A sphygmomanometer consists of an inflatable cuff, a measuring unit, and a mechanism for inflation which may be a manually operated bulb and valve or a pump operated electrically. The usual unit of measurement of blood pressure is millimeters of mercury as measured directly by a manual sphygmomanometer.
Romania is a country located at the intersection of Central and Southeastern Europe, bordering on the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. At 238,400 square kilometres, Romania is the eighth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population of the European Union with 18,631,386 people. Its capital and biggest city is Bucharest, the 10th largest city in the EU. The United Principalities emerged when the territories of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza in 1859. In 1866 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was called to the throne as the Ruling Prince of the Romanian Principate and in 1881 he was finally crowned as King Carol I the first monarch of the Kingdom of Romania. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on 9 May 1877, and was internationally recognised the following year. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania.
David Ămile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology. Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labor in Society. In 1895, he published his Rules of the Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. In 1898, he established the journal L'AnnĂ©e Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide, a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, presented a theory of religion, comparing the social and cultural lives of aboriginal and modern societies.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift fĂŒr Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.
Economic anthropology is a scholarly field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope. It is practiced by anthropologists and has a complex relationship with the discipline of economics, of which it is highly critical. Its origins as a sub-field of anthropology begin with the Polish-British founder of anthropology, Bronislaw Malinowski, and his French compatriot, Marcel Mauss, on the nature of gift-giving exchange as an alternative to market exchange. Studies in Economic Anthropology for the most part are focused on exchange. The school of thought derived from Marx and known as Political Economy focuses on production, in contrast, and is covered in a separate article. The large body of work on the Anthropology of development is also dealt with in a separate article. Post-World War II, Economic Anthropology was highly influenced by the work of economic historian Karl Polanyi. Polanyi drew on anthropological studies to argue that true market exchange was limited to a restricted number of western, industrial societies. Applying formal economic theory to non-industrial societies was mistaken, he argued. In non-industrial societies, exchange was "embedded" in such non-market institutions as kinship, religion, and politics. He labelled this approach Substantivism. The Formalist vs Substantivist debate was highly influential and defined an era.
Isidore Auguste Marie FranĂ§ois Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Ămile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.
Follow Me is a United States Army memorial located at Fort Benning, Georgia. It was created in 1959 by two soldiers, Private First Class Manfred Bass, sculptor and designer, and Private First Class Karl H. Van Krog, his assistant. The model for the statue was Eugene Wyles, an officer candidate and ten-year Army veteran. It depicts a 1950s-era infantry soldier charging forward and gesturing for others to follow. Originally called The Infantryman, the statue was installed on Eubanks Field on May 3, 1960. In 1964, it was renamed Follow Me and moved in front of Infantry Hall. Some students and graduates of the U.S. Army Infantry School call the statue "Iron Mike", after Lieutenant General John W. "Iron Mike" O'Daniel, but most soldiers use the term Iron Mike to refer to the Airborne Trooper statue at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. In 2004, a new bronze version was cast and the original statue was moved to the front of the National Infantry Museum. "Follow Me!" is also the US Army Infantry motto.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a philosopher and mathematician and the founder of the 20th century philosophical school of phenomenology. He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic. Not limited to empiricism, but believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, he worked on a method of phenomenological reduction by which a subject may come to know directly an essence. Although born into a Jewish family, Husserl was baptized as a Lutheran in 1886. He studied mathematics under Karl Weierstrass and Leo KĂ¶nigsberger, and philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf. Husserl himself taught philosophy as a Privatdozent at Halle from 1887, then as professor, first at GĂ¶ttingen from 1901, then at Freiburg from 1916 until he retired in 1928. Thereafter he gave two notable lectures: at Paris in 1929, and at Prague in 1935. The notorious 1933 race laws of the Nazi regime took away his academic standing and privileges. Following an illness, he died at Freiburg in 1938.
Optogenetics is a neuromodulation technique employed in neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control the activity of individual neurons in living tissueâeven within freely-moving animalsâand to precisely measure the effects of those manipulations in real-time. The earliest approaches, now Waynflete Professor of Physiology at the University of Oxford, and Richard Kramer and Ehud Isacoff at the University of California, Berkeley conferred light sensitivity but were never reported to be useful by other laboratories due to the multiple components these approaches required. A distinct single-component approach involving microbial opsin genes introduced in 2005 turned out to be widely applied as described below. Optogenetics is known for the high spatial and temporal resolution that it provides in altering the activity of specific types of neurons within defined brain areas to control a subject's behavior. In 2010 Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University was awarded the inaugural HFSP Nakasone Award "for his pioneering work on the development of optogenetic methods for studying the function of neuronal networks underlying behavior."
Telltale were a group of six musicians who regularly appeared on the first series of the British TV series Rainbow in 1972. Telltale began with Tim Thomas and Hugh Portnow who were working with the Freehold Theatre Company. In 1970, Tim concentrated on forming a group of musicians and actors, and Hugh joined him a year later. Hugh Fraser, Chris Ashley and Fluff Joinson joined later, with the final member Ted Richards joining the group in the summer of 1972. The three members of Portnow, Fraser and Thomas also wrote the theme tune to Rainbow. The group recorded a total of 14 songs for the show, including "Shapes", and "Walk in the country". The band feature on a vinyl LP album released by MFP in 1973 called Rainbow, which occasionally surfaces on sites such as eBay. After series two of the show, Telltale were replaced with singing trio Charmian, Karl and Julian in 1974. And that trio were then replaced with Rod, Jane and Matthew, the precursors to Rod, Jane and Roger and the more familiar Rod, Jane and Freddy.
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Fredrick Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch. He is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, developing an approach that began with an earlier generation, including his teacher Oskar Heinroth. Before the outbreak of World War II he joined the National Socialist Party, many of whose views he shared. During the war he worked as a military psychologist doing studies of racial hygiene in occupied Poland. In 1944 he was sent to the Eastern Front where he was captured and spent 4 years as a Soviet prisoner of war. After the war he regretted his membership of the Nazi party, although he continued to espouse views in his writings that have been described as anti-democratic and having racist overtones. Lorenz studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially in greylag geese and jackdaws. Working with geese, he rediscovered the principle of imprinting in the behavior of nidifugous birds. In later life, his interest shifted to the study of humans in society.
A political party described as a Communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy. The name originates from the 1848 tract Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. According to Leninist theory, a Communist party is the vanguard party of the working class, whether ruling or non-ruling, but when such a party is in power in a specific country, the party is said to be the highest authority of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin's theories on the role of a Communist party were developed as the early 20th-century Russian social democracy divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, argued that a revolutionary party should be a small vanguard party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy; the Menshevik faction, however, argued that the party should be a broad-based mass movement. The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. With the creation of the Communist International, the Leninist concept of party building was copied by emerging Communist parties worldwide.
Aboutness is a term used in library and information science, linguistics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. In LIS, it is often considered synonymous with subject. In philosophy it has been often considered synonymous with intentionality, perhaps since John Searle. R. A. Fairthorne is credited with coining the exact term "aboutness," which became popular in LIS since the late 1970s, perhaps due to arguments put forward by William John Hutchins. Hutchins argued that "aboutness" was to be preferred to "subject" because it removed some epistemological problems. HjĂžrland argued, however, that the same epistemological problems also were present in Hutchins proposal, why "aboutness" and "subject" should be considered synonymous. While information scientists may well be concerned with the literary aboutness, philosophers of mind and psychologists with the psychological or intentional aboutness and language of thought, and semantic externalists with the external state of affairs. These seminal perspectives are respectively analogous to Ogden and Richards' literary, psychological, and external contexts, as well as Karl Popper's World 1, 2, and 3.
Spiritual naturalism and naturalistic spirituality are interchangeable terms for the same philosophical perspective, with the latter term more commonly used. Book searches for the two find no usage for Naturalistic Spirituality before 1956 whereas Spiritual Naturalism may have first been proposed by Joris-Karl Huysmans in 1895 in his book En Route - âHuysmans was the first to defect to 'Spiritual Naturalism' and eventually to a form of mysticism; he was followed by Maupassant:â and âIn 'En Route' Huysmans started upon the creation of what he called âSpiritual Naturalism,â that is, realism applied to the story of a soul. ...â. Coming into prominence as a writer during the 1870s, Huysmans quickly established himself among a rising group of writers, the so-called Naturalist school, of whom Ămile Zola was the acknowledged headâŠWith LĂ -bas, a novel which reflected the aesthetics of the spiritualist revival and the contemporary interest in the occult, Huysmans formulated for the first time an aesthetic theory which sought to synthesize the mundane and the transcendent: "spiritual Naturalism". This new approach carried him through the remaining volumes of his "spiritual autobiography"
|Plan of Attack|
Plan of Attack
Plan of Attack is a 2004 book by the well known US author and investigative reporter Bob Woodward. It was promoted as "a behind-the-scenes account of how and why President [George W.] Bush decided to go to war against Iraq" The book's chief contention, which provides the rationale for its title, is that President Bush planned from early in his presidency to remove Saddam Hussein from power by force, rather than making any serious effort to use diplomacy or other means. The book describes White House deliberations implying that if Saddam were removed from power without a military invasion, Iraq would need a foreign-implemented regime change. It focuses mainly on President Bush, Vice President of the United States Dick Cheney, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, U.S. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, General Tommy Franks, and CIA Director George Tenet, as well as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair. Other fixtures are White House advisers such as Karen Hughes and Karl Rove.
A Prusik is a friction hitch or knot used to put a loop of cord around a rope, applied in climbing, canyoneering, mountaineering, caving, rope rescue, and by arborists. The term Prusik is a name for both the loops of cord and the hitch, and the verb is "to prusik". More casually, the term is used for any friction hitch or device that can grab a rope. The word is often misspelled as Prussik, Prussick or Prussic, as it is a homophone with the term prussic acid. The Prusik hitch is named for its alleged inventor, Austrian mountaineer Karl Prusik. It was shown in a 1931 Austrian mountaineering manual for rope ascending. It was used on several mountaineering routes of the era to ascend the final summit peak, where a rope could be thrown over the top and anchored so that climbers could attain the summit by prusiking up the other side of the rope. A prusik made from cord does little or no damage to the rope it is attached to, although some mechanical prusiks can cause damage, especially if the device slips during prusiking.
Metrosexuality is a British television comedy-drama series, which aired on Channel 4 in 2001 as a short-run series of six episodes. It was later re-edited into a single feature for DVD release. It depicts the interactions of a racially and sexually diverse group of friends and family living in Notting Hill. The series was written and created by Rikki Beadle-Blair, who also stars as one of the show's central characters. The cast also includes Noel Clarke, Paul Keating, Mat Fraser, Karl Collins, Pui Fan Lee and Preeya Kalidas. The show features extravagant and colourful costumes and scenery, varied shooting styles and quick pacing. Much of the music was written and performed by Beadle Blair, who intended the series to feel like a musical. The show was hailed by critics for its diversity; it depicted a social setting relatively free of racism or homophobia. It was also noted for its inclusion of Fraser, a thalidomide survivor with phocomelic arms, in a role where his disability was simply part of the show's fabric rather than an inherent focus of his character's role.
The valorisation or valorization of capital is a theoretical concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. The German original term is "Verwertung" but this is difficult to translate, and often wrongly rendered as "realisation of capital", "creation of surplus-value" or "self-expansion of capital" or "increase in value". In German, the general meaning of "Verwertung" is the productive use of a resource, and more specifically the use or application of something so that it makes money, or generates value, with the connotation that the thing validates itself and proves its worth when it results in earnings, a yield. Thus, something is "valorised" if it has yielded its value. Similarly, Marx's specific concept refers both to the process whereby a capital value is conferred or bestowed on something, and to the increase in the value of a capital asset, within the sphere of production. In modern translations of Marx's economic writings, such as the Penguin edition of Capital and the English Marx-Engels Collected Works, the term valorisation is preferred because it is recognized that it denotes a highly specific economic concept, i.e., a term with a technical meaning.
In Greek mythology the Horae or Hours were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time. They were originally the personifications of nature in its different seasonal aspects, but in later times they were regarded as goddessess of order in general and natural justice. "They bring and bestow ripeness, they come and go in accordance with the firm law of the periodicities of nature and of life", Karl Kerenyi observed: "Hora means 'the correct moment'." Traditionally, they guarded the gates of Olympus, promoted the fertility of the earth, and rallied the stars and constellations. The course of the seasons was also symbolically described as the dance of the Horae, and they were accordingly given the attributes of spring flowers, fragrance and graceful freshness. For example, in Hesiod's Works and Days, the fair-haired Horai, together with the Charites and Peitho crown Pandoraâshe of "all gifts"â with garlands of flowers. Similarly Aphrodite, emerging from the sea and coming ashore at Cyprus, is dressed and adorned by the Horai, and, according to a surviving fragment of the epic Cypria, Aphrodite wore clothing made for her by the Charites and Horai, dyed with spring flowers, such as the Horai themselves wear.
Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns a central and basic significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place and local culture. As such it is in contrast to individualist theories of knowledges such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of traditions. Historicism therefore tends to be hermeneutical, because it places great importance on cautious, rigorous and contextualized interpretation of information, and/or relativist, because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations. The term has developed different and divergent, though loosely related, meanings. Elements of historicism appear in the writings of Italian philosopher G. B. Vico and French essayist Michel de Montaigne, and became fully developed with the dialectic of G. W. F. Hegel, influential in 19th-century Europe. The writings of Karl Marx, influenced by Hegel, also contain historicism. The term is also associated with the empirical social sciences and the work of Franz Boas. Historicism may be contrasted with reductionist theories, which suppose that all developments can be explained by fundamental principles, or theories that posit historical changes as result of random chance.
The gear shift is the part of the gearbox which has the shift forks and allows the contact from the driver to the synchronization. Most of the time they are so much like the gear counter plus the reverse gear. And they make it possible to choose the gear and to switch this in or out. The invention of the gear shift is attributed to Karl Benz. These are the parts for which it is possible to make an automation. Further these parts can be designed so compact so that it is also possible to build a very modular transmission with less weight. The benefit of the compact build of the shifting is not only the gain of modulation and less weight but also the time during the production and space in the whole drivetrain. Depending on the space around the whole drivetrain and type of car, for automatisation a hydraulic, pneumatic or electric actuator can be used. For personal cars, a hydraulic or electric actuator is most often used. Further, such a system also needs an electronic application.
In set theory and logic, a relation is a property that assigns truth values to -tuples of individuals. Typically, the property describes a possible connection between the components of a -tuple. For a given set of -tuples, a truth value is assigned to each -tuple according to whether the property does or does not hold. An example of a ternary relation is: " was introduced to by ", where is a 3-tuple of persons; for example, "Beatrice Wood was introduced to Henri-Pierre RochĂ© by Marcel Duchamp" is true, while "Karl Marx was introduced to Friedrich Engels by Queen Victoria" is false. The variable giving the number of "places" in the relation, 3 for the above example, is a non-negative integer, called the relation's arity, adicity, or dimension. A relation with places is variously called a -ary, a -adic, or a -dimensional relation. Relations with a finite number of places are called finite-place or finitary relations. It is possible to generalize the concept to include infinitary relations between infinitudes of individuals, for example infinite sequences; however, in this article only finitary relations are discussed, which will from now on simply be called relations.
The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Ătienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific, engineering, and technological education and research. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, the institute used a polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction. MIT's early emphasis on applied technology at the undergraduate and graduate levels led to close cooperation with industry. Curricular reforms under Karl Compton and Vannevar Bush in the 1930s re-emphasized basic scientific research. MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the northern bank of the Charles River basin. In the past 60 years, MIT's educational disciplines have expanded beyond the physical sciences and engineering into fields such as biology, economics, linguistics, and management.
A tremble dance is a dance performed by forager honey bees of the species Apis mellifera to recruit more receiver honey bees to collect nectar from the workers. The tremble dance was first described by Karl von Frisch in the 1920s, but no light was shed on its function until 1993 when Wolfgang Kirschner discovered that, when performed, the dance stopped nearby workers from flying to gather more nectar. The tremble dance of the honeybee is similar to the waggle dance, but is used by a forager when the foraging bee perceives a long delay in unloading its nectar or a shortage of receiver bees, sometimes due to low numbers of receiver bees. It may also spread the scent released during the forager's waggle dance. Like the waggle dance, the tremble dance is likely one of two "primary regulation mechanisms" for regulating bee colony behavior at the group level, and one of four or five observed mechanisms known to be used by honeybees to change the task allocation among worker bees. The consumption of ethanol by foraging bees has been shown to increase the occurrence of the tremble dance while decreasing the occurrence of the waggle dance.
La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of NeuchĂątel. It is located in the Jura mountains at an altitude of 1000 m, a few kilometres south of the French border. After Geneva and Lausanne, it is the third largest city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of the country, with a population of of 37,843. The city was founded in 1656. Its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watch making industry. It is the most important centre of the watch making industry in the area known as the Watch Valley. Completely destroyed by a fire in 1794 La Chaux-de-Fonds was rebuilt following a grid street plan, which was and is still original among Swiss cities. Karl Marx said about the very special urban design of the city that it was a "city-factory". The famous architect Le Corbusier, the writer Blaise Cendrars and the car maker Louis Chevrolet were born there. La Chaux-de-Fonds is a renowned centre of Art nouveau. In 2009, La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Locle, its sister city, have jointly been awarded UNESCO World Heritage status for their exceptional universal value.
|Reserve army of labour|
Reserve army of labour
Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. It refers to the unemployed and under-employed in capitalist society. It is synonymous with "industrial reserve army" or "relative surplus population", except that the unemployed can be defined as those actually looking for work and that the relative surplus population also includes people unable to work. The use of the word "army" refers to the workers being conscripted and regimented in the workplace in a hierarchy, under the command or authority of the owners of capital. Marx did not invent the term "reserve army of labour". It was already being used by Friedrich Engels in his 1845 book The Condition of the Working Class in England. What Marx did was to theorize the reserve army of labour as a necessary part of the capitalist organization of work. Prior to what Marx regarded as the start of the capitalist era in human history, structural unemployment on a mass scale rarely existed, other than that caused by natural disasters and wars. In ancient societies, all people who could work necessarily had to work, otherwise they would starve; a slave or a serf by definition could not become "unemployed". There was normally very little possibility of "earning a crust" without working at all, and the usual attitude toward beggars and idlers was harsh. Children began to work already at a very early age.
A pentachord in music theory may be either of two things. In pitch-class set theory, a pentachord is defined as any five pitch classes, regarded as an unordered collection. In other contexts, a pentachord may be any consecutive five-note section of a diatonic scale. A pentad is a five-note chord. Under the latter definition, a diatonic scale comprises five non-transpositionally equivalent pentachords rather than seven because the Ionian and Mixolydian pentachords and the Dorian and Aeolian pentachords are intervallically identical. The name "pentachord" was also given to a musical instrument, now in disuse, built to the specifications of Sir Edward Walpole. It was demonstrated by Karl Friedrich Abel at his first public concert in London, on 5 April 1759, when it was described as "newly invented". In the dedication to Walpole of his cello sonatas op. 3, the cellist/composer James Cervetto praised the pentachord, declaring: "I know not a more fit Instrument to Accompany the Voice". Performances on the instrument are documented as late as 1783, after which it seems to have fallen out of use. It appears to have been similar to a five-string violoncello.
Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea or an entity. The term's antonyms include agreement, consensus and consent, when one party agrees to a proposition made by another. In some political systems, dissent may be formally expressed by way of opposition politics, while politically repressive regimes may prohibit any form of dissent, leading to suppression of dissent and the encouragement of social or political activism. Individuals who do not conform or support the policies of certain states are as "dissidents". Several thinkers have argued that a healthy society needs not only to protect, but also to encourage dissent. In a well-known letter to Arnold Ruge in 1843, Karl Marx wrote: "if constructing the future and settling everything for all times are not our affair, it is all the more clear what we have to accomplish at present: I am referring to ruthless criticism of all that exists, ruthless both in the sense of not being afraid of the results it arrives at and in the sense of being just as little afraid of conflict with the powers that be".
|Swiss Army knife|
Swiss Army knife
The Swiss Army knife is a brand of pocket knife or multi-tool manufactured by Victorinox AG and Wenger SA. The term "Swiss Army knife" was coined by US soldiers after World War II due to the difficulty they had in pronouncing the German name. The Swiss Army knife generally has a blade, as well as various tools, such as screwdrivers and can openers and many others. These attachments are stowed inside the handle of the knife through a pivot point mechanism. The handle is usually red, and features a Victorinox or Wenger "cross" logo or, for military issue knives, the coat of arms of Switzerland. Originating in Ibach, Switzerland, the Swiss Army knife was first produced in 1891 after the company Karl Elsener, which later became Victorinox, won the contract to produce the Swiss Army's Modell 1890 knife from the previous German manufacturer. In 1893 the Swiss cutlery company Paul BoĂ©chat & Cie, which later became Wenger, received its first contract from the Swiss military to produce model 1890 knives; the two companies split the contract for provision of the knives from 1908 until Victorinox acquired Wenger in 2005.
A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle, driven by service personnel, equipped to transport crew and material necessary for the maintenance of railway infrastructure. The eponymous term is derived from German Baron Karl Christian Ludwig Drais von Sauerbronn, who invented his Laufmaschine in 1817, that was called Draisine or Draisienne by the press. It is the first reliable claim for a practically used bicycle, basically the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine commonly called a velocipede, nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse. Later, the name draisine came to be applied only to versions used on rails and was extended to similar vehicles, even when not human-powered. Because of their low weight and small size, they can be put on and taken off the rails at any place, allowing trains to pass. In the United States, motor-powered draisines are known as speeders while human-powered ones are referred as handcars. Vehicles that can be driven on both the highway and the rail line are called hy-rails, or more properly, road-rail vehicles.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary, philosopher, and theorist of collectivist anarchism. Many scholars argue he is the founder of anarchist theory in general. Bakunin grew up in Premukhino, a family estate near Moscow, where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French encyclopĂ©distes, leading to enthusiasm for the philosophy of Fichte. From Fichte, Bakunin went on to immerse himself in the works of Hegel, the most influential thinker among German intellectuals at the time. That led to his whole-hearted embrace of Hegelianism, bedazzled by Hegel's famous maxim; "Everything that exists is rational". In 1840 Bakunin traveled to St. Petersburg and Berlin, aiming at preparing himself for a professorship in philosophy or history at the University of Moscow. Bakunin moved from Berlin, in 1842, to Dresden. Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and Karl Marx. Bakunin's increasing radicalism - including staunch opposition to imperialism in east and central Europe by Russia and other powers - changed his life, putting paid to hopes of a professorial career. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russia's oppression of Poland.
The Nehru jacket is a hip-length tailored coat for men or women, with a mandarin collar, and with its front modeled on the South Asian achkan or sherwani, an apparel worn by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. However, unlike the achkan, which falls somewhere below the knees of the wearer, the Nehru jacket is not only shorter, but also, in all respects other than the collar, resembles the suit jacket. Nehru, notably, never wore the Nehru jacket himself. The apparel was created in India in the 1940s as Band Gale Ka Coat and has been popular on the Indian subcontinent since, especially as the top half of a suit worn on formal occasions. It began to be marketed as the Nehru jacket in the West in the mid-1960s; it was briefly popular there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, its popularity spurred by growing awareness of foreign cultures, by the minimalism of the Mod lifestyle, and, in particular, by the Monkees and the Beatles, who popularized the garment. Several villains in the James Bond series of films, including Dr. No, Ernst Blofeld and Karl Stromberg, appear wearing a Nehru jacket.