Definitions containing h( )-k( )-exchanging atpase

We've found 152 definitions:

Omeprazole

Omeprazole

A highly effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase (H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE) in the proton pump of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

adenosinetriphosphatase

adenosinetriphosphatase

ATPase

— Wiktionary

reptin

reptin

An ATPase that is a component of telomerase

— Wiktionary

pontin

pontin

An ATPase that is a component of telomerase

— Wiktionary

Hypoaldosteronism

Hypoaldosteronism

A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

pleasantries

pleasantries

"Exchanging pleasantries"

— Wiktionary

Mutuation

Mutuation

the act of borrowing or exchanging

— Webster Dictionary

Ouabain

Ouabain

A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

recombining

recombining

The exchanging of genetic material

— Wiktionary

exchange

exchange

An act of exchanging or trading.

— Wiktionary

synchromesh

synchromesh

Having the quality or smoothly exchanging interlocking forces.

— Wiktionary

communication

communication

The concept or state of exchanging information between entities.

— Wiktionary

communication

communication

the activity of expressing or exchanging information, feelings etc.

— Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary

Discussion

Discussion

the act of discussing or exchanging reasons; examination by argument; debate; disputation; agitation

— Webster Dictionary

Calponin

Calponin

Calponin is a calcium binding protein. Calponin tonically inhibits the ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle. Phosphorylation of calponin by a protein kinase, which is dependent upon calcium binding to calmodulin, releases the calponin's inhibition of the smooth muscle ATPase.

— Freebase

conjugate

conjugate

To reproduce sexually as do some bacteria and algae, by exchanging or transferring DNA.

— Wiktionary

demurrage

demurrage

a charge made for exchanging currency for bullion

— Wiktionary

transactive

transactive

Of or pertaining to exchanging or trading.

— Wiktionary

agio

agio, agiotage, premium, exchange premium

a fee charged for exchanging currencies

— Princeton's WordNet

agiotage

agio, agiotage, premium, exchange premium

a fee charged for exchanging currencies

— Princeton's WordNet

premium

agio, agiotage, premium, exchange premium

a fee charged for exchanging currencies

— Princeton's WordNet

exchange premium

agio, agiotage, premium, exchange premium

a fee charged for exchanging currencies

— Princeton's WordNet

ectotherm

ectotherm

a cold-blooded animal which regulates its body temperature by exchanging heat with its surroundings

— Wiktionary

shoot the breeze

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

natter

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

jaw

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

gossip

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

visit

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

confabulate

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

chatter

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

chat

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

chew the fat

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

chitchat

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

claver

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

chaffer

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

confab

chew the fat, shoot the breeze, chat, confabulate, confab, chitchat, chit-chat, chatter, chaffer, natter, gossip, jaw, claver, visit

talk socially without exchanging too much information

— Princeton's WordNet

clearing

clearing

A process of exchanging transaction information and authorisation through a central institution or system to complete and settle those transactions.

— Wiktionary

give-and-take

interchange, reciprocation, give-and-take

mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating or exchanging (especially information)

— Princeton's WordNet

interchange

interchange, reciprocation, give-and-take

mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating or exchanging (especially information)

— Princeton's WordNet

reciprocation

interchange, reciprocation, give-and-take

mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating or exchanging (especially information)

— Princeton's WordNet

give and take

interchange, reciprocation, give-and-take

mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating or exchanging (especially information)

— Princeton's WordNet

Cardiac Glycosides

Cardiac Glycosides

Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Trade

Trade

specifically: The act or business of exchanging commodities by barter, or by buying and selling for money; commerce; traffic; barter

— Webster Dictionary

logroll

logroll

work toward the passage of some legislation by exchanging political favors such as trading votes

— Princeton's WordNet

4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan

4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan

A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Barter

Barter

to traffic or trade, by exchanging one commodity for another, in distinction from a sale and purchase, in which money is paid for the commodities transferred; to truck

— Webster Dictionary

conversion

conversion

act of exchanging one type of money or security for another

— Princeton's WordNet

ordered pair

ordered pair

A set containing exactly two elements in a fixed order, so that, when the elements are different, exchanging them gives a different set. Notation: (a, b) or .

— Wiktionary

Katanin

Katanin

Katanin is a microtubule-severing AAA protein. It is named after the Japanese sword, katana. Katanin is a heterodimeric protein first discovered in sea urchins. It contains a 60 kDa ATPase subunit, which functions to sever microtubules. This subunit requires ATP and the presence of microtubules for activation. The second 80 kDA subunit regulates the activity of the ATPase and localizes the protein to the centrosomes. Electron microscopy shows that katanin forms 14–16 nm rings in its active oligomerized state on the walls of microtubules:

— Freebase

video dating

video dating

A form of virtual dating that allows users to communicate with each other by means of video, either (traditionally) by exchanging pre-recorded cassettes or (increasingly) by means of video interaction through the Internet.

— Wiktionary

logrolling

logrolling

act of exchanging favors for mutual gain; especially trading of influence or votes among legislators to gain passage of certain projects

— Princeton's WordNet

message broker

message broker

An intermediary program that translates a message from the formal messaging protocol of the sender to the formal messaging protocol of the receiver in a telecommunication network where programs communicate by exchanging formally-defined messages.

— Wiktionary

Spastin

Spastin

The human gene SPAST codes for the microtubule-severing protein of the same name, commonly known as spastin. This gene encodes a member of the AAA protein family. Members of this protein family share an ATPase domain and have roles in diverse cellular processes including membrane trafficking, intracellular motility, organelle biogenesis, protein folding, and proteolysis. The encoded ATPase may be involved in the assembly or function of nuclear protein complexes. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Other alternative splice variants have been described but their full length sequences have not been determined. Mutations associated with this gene cause the most frequent form of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia 4.

— Freebase

rate of exchange

rate of exchange, exchange rate

the charge for exchanging currency of one country for currency of another

— Princeton's WordNet

exchange rate

rate of exchange, exchange rate

the charge for exchanging currency of one country for currency of another

— Princeton's WordNet

reciprocal

reciprocal

Of a number, the number obtained by dividing 1 by the given number; the result of exchanging the numerator and the denominator of a fraction.

— Wiktionary

ATP-Dependent Endopeptidases

ATP-Dependent Endopeptidases

Endoproteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

MutS DNA Mismatch-Binding Protein

MutS DNA Mismatch-Binding Protein

A methyl-directed mismatch DNA REPAIR protein that has weak ATPASE activity. MutS was originally described in ESCHERICHIA COLI.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Timbuctoo

Timbuctoo

an important city of the Western Soudan, situated at the edge of the Sahara, 8 m. N. of the Upper Niger, at the centre of five caravan routes which lead to all parts of North Africa; carries on a large transit trade, exchanging European goods for native produce; was occupied by the French in 1894.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nigericin

Nigericin

A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Thapsigargin

Thapsigargin

A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

joint nuclear accident coordinating center

joint nuclear accident coordinating center

A combined Defense Special Weapons Agency and Department of Energy centralized agency for exchanging and maintaining information concerned with radiological assistance capabilities and coordinating that assistance in response to an accident or incident involving radioactive materials. Also called JNACC.

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Communications protocol

Communications protocol

A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. A protocol may have a formal description. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to provoke a particular response of the receiver. Thus, a protocol must define the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware, software, or both. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications as programming languages are to computations.

— Freebase

Exchange

Exchange

the process of setting accounts or debts between parties residing at a distance from each other, without the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts, called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one country and payable in another, in which case they are called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made payable in the same country, in which case they are called inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange

— Webster Dictionary

Aurovertins

Aurovertins

Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Cyclopiazonic acid

Cyclopiazonic acid

Cyclopiazonic acid is a toxic fungal secondary metabolite. Chemically, it is an indole tetramic acid. CPA was originally isolated from Penicillium cyclopium and subsequently from other P. cyclopium, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium camembertii, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor. Cyclopiazonic acid only appears to be toxic in high concentrations. Biologically, Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase in the intracellular Ca2+ storage sites.

— Freebase

ATP-Dependent Proteases

ATP-Dependent Proteases

Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch

Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch

Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Resampling

Resampling

In statistics, resampling is any of a variety of methods for doing one of the following: Estimating the precision of sample statistics by using subsets of available data or drawing randomly with replacement from a set of data points Exchanging labels on data points when performing significance tests Validating models by using random subsets Common resampling techniques include bootstrapping, jackknifing and permutation tests.

— Freebase

Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex

Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex

A enzyme complex involved in the remodeling of NUCLEOSOMES. The complex is comprised of at least seven subunits and includes both histone deacetylase and ATPase activities.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Semantides

Semantides

Semantides are macromolecules common to all cells, used in phylogeny because they change slowly over time. The term was coined by Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl. Examples of these molecules are: ⁕rRNA/rDNA ⁕RNase P RNA ⁕ATPase ⁕RecA protein ⁕Cytochrome C ⁕Heat shock protein genes The above semantides can yield different phylogenetic trees, but if the genetic relatedness is correct for 2 or more, that correlation could mean that the evolutionary tree is correct.

— Freebase

Commerce

Commerce

The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Novobiocin

Novobiocin

An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Intracellular

Intracellular

In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell". It is used in contrast to extracellular. The cell membrane is the barrier between the two, and chemical composition of intra- and extracellular milieu can be radically different. In most organisms, for example, a Na+/K+ ATPase maintains a high potassium level inside cells while keeping sodium low, leading to chemical excitability. This terms also means existing within the cells.

— Freebase

Proton Pumps

Proton Pumps

Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Thrashing

Thrashing

In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory subsystem is in a constant state of paging, rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk, to the exclusion of most application-level processing. This causes the performance of the computer to degrade or collapse. The situation may continue indefinitely until the underlying cause is addressed.

— Freebase

Secretagogue

Secretagogue

A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin, which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells. Pentagastrin, a synthetic gastrin, histamine, and acetylcholine are also gastric secretagogues. Sulfonylureas are insulin secretagogues, triggering insulin release by direct action on the KATP channel of the pancreatic beta cells. Blockage of this channel leads to depolarization and secretion of vesicles. Angiotensin II is a secretagogue for aldosterone from the adrenal gland.

— Freebase

Nithsdale, William Maxwell, Earl of

Nithsdale, William Maxwell, Earl of

a noted Catholic, who took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, was captured at Preston, found guilty of treason, and sentenced to death; the night before the day appointed for his execution (24th February 1786) he effected an escape from the Tower by exchanging clothes with his daring and devoted countess, who had been admitted to his room; he fled to Rome, where he lived in happiness with his wife until her death (1676-1744).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Internet security

Internet security

Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security on a more general level as it applies to other applications or operating systems on a whole. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption.

— Freebase

Redeemer

Redeemer

1. The state of being freed from the power of evil, believed by Christians to be made possible by Jesus Christ. 2. The act of exchanging a piece of paper worth a particular amount of money for money, goods, or services

— Editors Contribution

SOAP

SOAP

SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on XML Information Set for its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, for message negotiation and transmission.

— Freebase

beam

beam

[from Star Trek Classic's “Beam me up, Scotty!”] 1. To transfer softcopy of a file electronically; most often in combining forms such as beam me a copy or beam that over to his site. 2. Palm Pilot users very commonly use this term for the act of exchanging bits via the infrared links on their machines (this term seems to have originated with the ill-fated Newton Message Pad). Compare blast, snarf, BLT.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Lingua franca

Lingua franca

A lingua franca is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues. Lingua francas have arisen around the globe throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons but also for diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.

— Freebase

Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch

Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch

Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins

N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins

ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Peptide Elongation Factor 1

Peptide Elongation Factor 1

Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles

2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles

Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Esomeprazole

Esomeprazole

Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor which reduces acid secretion through inhibition of the H+ / K+ ATPase in gastric parietal cells. By inhibiting the functioning of this transporter, the drug prevents formation of gastric acid. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Esomeprazole is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole. Generic versions of Esomeprazole are available in several countries of Europe and in emerging markets like India, Peru, Ecuador, Caribbean Islands, Nigeria, Africa, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Myanmar under the brand name Raciper.

— Freebase

Gastrin

Gastrin

In humans, gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas. It binds to cholecystokinin B receptors to stimulate the release of histamines in enterochromaffin-like cells, and it induces the insertion of K+/H+ ATPase pumps into the apical membrane of parietal cells. Its release is stimulated by peptides in the lumen of the stomach.

— Freebase

DubMeNow

DubMeNow

DubMeNow (Dub) is a mobile software solution for exchanging business cards and instantaneously managing contact information. Dub provides smart phone and PDA users with a way to exchange business contact information using their existing devices. Additionally, Dub allows users to invite contacts to connect via social networking sites, ‘tag’ or note information about the contact and see when and where meetings took place.

— CrunchBase

Vanadates

Vanadates

Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Calcimycin

Calcimycin

An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

STCH

STCH

Heat shock 70 kDa protein 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA13 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the heat shock protein 70 family and is found associated with microsomes. Members of this protein family play a role in the processing of cytosolic and secretory proteins, as well as in the removal of denatured or incorrectly folded proteins. The encoded protein contains an ATPase domain and has been shown to associate with a ubiquitin-like protein.

— Freebase

Cognition Health Partners

Cognition Health Partners

Health Information Services with a focus on enabling providers to meet current and future documentation requirements while enhancing workflow efficiency. Exchanging clinical data between providers is key for advancing initiatives for improving the health care delivery model. Enabling providers to achieve better outcomes, driving down the cost of acute care, enabling healthcare communities to implement ACO’s and helping employers establish preventive health programs are all part of CHP’s solutions.

— CrunchBase

Membrane potential

Membrane potential

Membrane potential is the difference in electrical potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell. Typical values of membrane potential range from –40 mV to –80 mV. All animal cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane composed of a lipid bilayer with a variety of types of proteins embedded in it. The membrane potential arises primarily from the interaction between the membrane and the actions of two types of transmembrane proteins embedded in the plasma membrane. The membrane serves as both an insulator and a diffusion barrier to the movement of ions. Ion transporter/pump proteins actively push ions across the membrane to establish concentration gradients across the membrane, and ion channels allow ions to move across the membrane down those concentration gradients, a process known as facilitated diffusion. In the most fundamental example of this, the ion transporter Na+/K+-ATPase pumps sodium cations from the inside to the outside, and potassium cations from the outside to the inside of the cell. This establishes two concentration gradients: a gradient for sodium where its concentration is much higher outside than inside the cell, and a gradient for potassium where its concentration is much higher inside the cell than outside. Transmembrane potassium-selective leak channels allow potassium ions to diffuse across the membrane, down the concentration gradient that was established by the ATPase, creating a charge separation, and thus a voltage, across the membrane. In almost all cases, the ion that determines the so-called "resting" membrane potential of a cell is K+, although other ions do contribute in more minor ways. By convention, the sign of the membrane potential is the voltage inside relative to ground outside the cell. In the case of K+, its diffusion down its concentration gradient creates transmembrane voltage that is negative relative to the outside of the cell, and typically –60 to –80 millivolts in amplitude.

— Freebase

Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase

Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase

An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Bafilomycin

Bafilomycin

The bafilomycins are a family of toxic macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus. These compounds all appear in the same fermentation and have quite similar biological activity. Bafilomycins are specific inhibitors of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. The most used bafilomycin is bafilomycin A1. This is a useful tool as it can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis. Bafilomycin has antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, immunosuppressive activities.In addition, bafilomycin A1 has antimalarial activity It has been shown to decrease multi-drug resistance. Bafilomycin B1 has been mentioned as a potential antiosteoporotic agent in treating bone lytic diseases.

— Freebase

Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPase

Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPase

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate

Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate

5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

battlefield coordination detachment

battlefield coordination detachment

An Army liaison that provides selected operational functions between the Army forces and the air component commander. Battlefield coordination detachment located in the air operations center interface includes exchanging current intelligence and operational data, support requirements, coordinating the integration of Army forces requirements for airspace coordinating measures, fire support coordination measures, and theater airlift. Also called BCD. See also air and space operations center; liaison.

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Inspivia

Inspivia

Inspivia, Inc. is a young private startup multimedia company that strives to transform everyday ideas into premium products with a youthful, enthusiastic and inspirational undertone.Inspivia.com, built on open-source software, is a social rendezvous (meeting place) for openly sharing, trading, and inspiring creativity in real-time. It was officially launched on June 1st, 2009. It is a place for learning new facts and exchanging ideas with others, and the hope is that every time a person visits Inspivia they will learn a new and inspiring idea from someone else.

— CrunchBase

Advice Wallet

Advice Wallet

Advice Wallet is a mobile loyalty program to attract, keep and understand customers. It empowers any local business to create a customized acquisition and loyalty program online in minutes. The value of the service to businesses extends far beyond simple driving sales; it offers tools to build a lifetime relationship with customers and reach their social connections. Advice Wallet provides analytics for businesses to keep track of their campaigns.Customers are engaged with their friends in a game of earning points and exchanging them for valuable rewards wherever they go.

— CrunchBase

Anyon

Anyon

In physics, an anyon is a type of particle that occurs only in two-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than fermions and bosons; the operation of exchanging two identical particles may cause a global phase shift but cannot affect observables. Anyons are generally classified as abelian or non-abelian, as explained below. Abelian anyons have been detected and play a major role in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Non-abelian anyons have not been definitively detected although this is an active area of research.

— Freebase

Ryanodine

Ryanodine

A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins

Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins

SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Bioisostere

Bioisostere

In medicinal chemistry, bioisosteres are substituents or groups with similar physical or chemical properties which produce broadly similar biological properties to a chemical compound. In drug design, the purpose of exchanging one bioisostere for another is to enhance the desired biological or physical properties of a compound without making significant changes in chemical structure. The main use of this term and its techniques are related to pharmaceutical sciences. Bioisosterism is used to reduce toxicity or modify the activity of the lead compound, and may alter the metabolism of the lead.

— Freebase

Caldesmon

Caldesmon

Caldesmon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALD1 gene. Caldesmon is a calmodulin binding protein. Like calponin or troponin, caldesmon tonically inhibits the ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle. This gene encodes a calmodulin- and actin-binding protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of smooth muscle and nonmuscle contraction. The conserved domain of this protein possesses the binding activities to Ca++-calmodulin, actin, tropomyosin, myosin, and phospholipids. This protein is a potent inhibitor of the actin-tropomyosin activated myosin MgATPase, and serves as a mediating factor for Ca++-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.

— Freebase

Chopchurch

Chopchurch

A chop-church, or church-chopper, was a parson who made a practice of exchanging ecclesiastical benefices and other terrenal favors. The term is used in an ancient statute as a lawful trade, or occupation. An example, where the spelling is 'chopchyrche', occurs as the occupation of John Charles of Bishop's Milford, Wiltshire, as a defendant in a plea of debt, for 40/- brought by John Wyot, merchant of Salisbury. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed.. "". Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. James and John Knapton, et al.

— Freebase

Organoclay

Organoclay

Organoclay is an organically modified phyllosilicate, derived from a naturally occurring clay mineral. By exchanging the original interlayer cations for organocations an organophilic surface is generated, consisting of covalently linked organic moieties. The lamellar structure remains analogous to the parent phyllosilicate. Organoclay can be used to remove oil from water, as a component in paint formulations or as a viscosifier for oil-based drilling fluids. It can be used in polymer chemistry as a nucleating agent. It decreases cell-size but may have a decrease in closed cell content due to uneven dispersion.

— Freebase

Shodogg

Shodogg

Shodogg is a media technology company with a patented technology that allows any mobile device to connect and direct any digital content to any other web-enabled screen. This technology allows users to organize, manage and transmit digital content without boxes or wires, keeping information safe and secure with no uploading, downloading, storing or exchanging files.Shodogg technology is currently being deployed by development partners and business leaders in Healthcare, Hospitality, Media, and Government sectors. In January 2013, Shodogg launched Screen-Direct, a web-based sales presentation platform that gives sales teams a new level of control, flexibility and measurable results.

— CrunchBase

Eid Mubarak

Eid Mubarak

Eid Mubarak is a traditional Muslim greeting reserved for use on the festivals of Eid ul-Adha and Eid ul-Fitr. Eid means "Feast" and refers to the occasion itself, and Mubarak means "Blessed." Muslims wish each other Eid Mubarak after performing the Eid prayer. The celebration continues until the end of the day for Eid ul-Fitr and continues a further three days for Eid ul-Adha. However, in the social sense people usually celebrate Eid ul-Fitr at the same time as Eid ul-Adha, visiting family and exchanging greetings such as "Eid Mubarak". This exchange of greetings is a cultural tradition and not part of any religious obligation.

— Freebase

Pemphigus, Benign Familial

Pemphigus, Benign Familial

An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and BULLAE mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. Mutations in the ATP2C1 gene (encoding the secretory pathway Ca2++/Mn2++ ATPase 1 (SPCA1)) cause this disease. It is clinically and histologically similar to DARIER DISEASE - both have abnormal, unstable DESMOSOMES between KERATINOCYTES and defective CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is unrelated to PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS though it closely resembles that disease.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hepatolenticular Degeneration

Hepatolenticular Degeneration

A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Proton-Motive Force

Proton-Motive Force

Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Gaggle

Gaggle

A gaggle is a term of venery for a flock of geese that is not in flight; in flight, the group can be called a skein. In terms of geese, a gaggle is equal to at least five geese. In terms of salt, a gaggle is equal to eight fifty pound bags of salt. Usually one layer on a skid. In military slang, a gaggle is an unorganized group doing nothing. In aviation, it is a large, loosely organized tactical formation of aircraft. In certain regions of The Netherlands, a gaggle can also refer to a group of adolescent females. In the field of systems biology, The Gaggle is an open source software framework for exchanging data between independently developed software tools and databases to enable interactive exploration of data.

— Freebase

Babberly

Babberly

Local Goes Social with babberly!babberly is a free, local community-based app that helps users figure out where to go, what to do, why a particular venue is so popular, and ultimately how to get the most out of life through social connections and recommendations.As a location-based social app, babberly offers users several new and unique ways to boost the social aspect of sharing community happenings in real time. These include:

  • Photo sharing capabilities
  • Robust community chat
  • babberCRED*
  • Coming Soon: Video posting
*babberCRED = App users earn credits for exchanging tips and recommendations. The babberCRED virtual currency transforms into exclusive real-money vouchers redeemable at participating merchants. Every 2500 credits in babberCRED translates to a $25 voucher.

— CrunchBase

Ruthenium red

Ruthenium red

The inorganic dye ammoniated ruthenium oxychloride, also known as Ruthenium Red, is used in histology to stain aldehyde fixed mucopolysaccharides. Ruthenium Red has also been used as a pharmacological tool to study specific cellular mechanisms. Selectivity is a significant issue in such studies as RR is known to interact with a large number of proteins. These include mammalian ion channels, a plant ion channel, Ca2+-ATPase, mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, tubulin, myosin light-chain phosphatase, and Ca2+ binding proteins such as calmodulin. It should be further noted that Ruthenium Red displays nanomolar potency against several of its binding partners. For example, it is a potent inhibitor of intracellular calcium release by Ryanodine receptors. RR has been used on plant material since 1890 for staining pectins, mucilages, and gums. RR is a stereoselective stain for pectic acid, insofar as the staining site occurs between each monomer unit and the next adjacent neighbor.

— Freebase

Transesterification

Transesterification

In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base catalyst. The reaction can also be accomplished with the help of enzymes particularly lipases. Strong acids catalyse the reaction by donating a proton to the carbonyl group, thus making it a more potent electrophile, whereas bases catalyse the reaction by removing a proton from the alcohol, thus making it more nucleophilic. Esters with larger alkoxy groups can be made from methyl or ethyl esters in high purity by heating the mixture of ester, acid/base, and large alcohol and evaporating the small alcohol to drive equilibrium.

— Freebase

BookCrossing

BookCrossing

BookCrossing is defined as "the practice of leaving a book in a public place to be picked up and read by others, who then do likewise." The term is derived from bookcrossing.com, a free online book club which was founded to encourage the practice, aiming to "make the whole world a library." The 'crossing' or exchanging of books may take any of a number of forms, including wild-releasing books in public, direct swaps with other members of the websites, or "book rings" in which books travel in a set order to participants who want to read a certain book. The community aspect of BookCrossing.com has grown and expanded in ways that were not expected at the outset, in the form of blog or forum discussions, mailing lists and annual conventions throughout the world.

— Freebase

Facilitation

Facilitation

Facilitation in business, organizational development, and in consensus decision-making refers to the process of designing and running a successful meeting. Facilitation concerns itself with all the tasks needed to run a productive and impartial meeting. Facilitation serves the needs of any group who are meeting with a common purpose, whether it be making a decision, solving a problem, or simply exchanging ideas and information. It does not lead the group, nor does it try to distract or to entertain. A slightly different interpretation focuses more specifically on a group that is engaged in experiential learning. In particular this is associated with active learning and concepts of tutelary authority. This is covered in-depth in the research work of John Heron at the University of Surrey and the International Centre for Co-operative Inquiry.

— Freebase

Thapsigargin

Thapsigargin

Thapsigargin is non-competitive inhibitor of a class of enzymes known by the acronym SERCA, which stands for sarco / endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase. Structurally, thapsigargin is classified as a sesquiterpene lactone, and is extracted from a plant, Thapsia garganica. It is a tumor promoter in mammalian cells. The anti-malarial drug artemisinin is also a sesquiterpene lactone, leading to a proposal that this class of drugs works by inhibiting the SERCA of malaria parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum; this hypothesis awaits confirmation. Thapsigargin raises cytosolic calcium concentration by blocking the ability of the cell to pump calcium into the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticula which causes these stores to become depleted. Store-depletion can secondarily activate plasma membrane calcium channels, allowing an influx of calcium into the cytosol. Thapsigargin specifically inhibits the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes; the last step in the autophagic process. The inhibition of the autophagic process in turn induces stress on the endoplasmic reticulum which ultimately leads to cellular death. Thapsigargin is useful in experimentation examining the impacts of increasing cytosolic calcium concentrations.

— Freebase

Peering

Peering

In computer networking, peering is a voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the customers of each network. The pure definition of peering is settlement-free or "sender keeps all," meaning that neither party pays the other for the exchanged traffic; instead, each derives revenue from its own customers. Peering requires physical interconnection of the networks, an exchange of routing information through the Border Gateway Protocol routing protocol and is often accompanied by peering agreements of varying formality, from "handshake" to thick contracts. Marketing and commercial pressures have led to the word “peering” being also used routinely when there is some settlement involved, even though that does not correspond to the original technical meaning of the word. The phrase "settlement-free peering" is in turn used to unambiguously describe the pure cost-free peering situation.

— Freebase

Reabsorption

Reabsorption

In physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the flow of glomerular filtrate from the proximal tubule of the nephron into the peritubular capillaries, or from the urine into the blood. It is termed "reabsorption" because this is technically the second time that the nutrients in question are being absorbed into the blood, the first time being from the small intestine into the villi. This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ ATPase in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells. Thus, the glomerular filtrate becomes more concentrated, which is one of the steps in forming urine. In this way, many useful solutes, salts and water that have passed in the proximal convoluted tubule through the Bowman's capsule, return in the circulation. These solutes are reabsorbed isotonically, in that the osmotic potential of the fluid leaving the proximal convoluted tubule is the same as that of the initial glomerular filtrate. However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport through cotransport channels driven by the sodium gradient out of the nephron.

— Freebase

Bluetooth

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 18,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the standard is no longer maintained. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required to implement the technology and are licensed only for those qualifying devices.

— Freebase

Tout'd

Tout'd

Villij (formerly Tout’d) is an easy-to-use social media platform that provides a forum for exchanging recommendations with friends. Villij connects you on a person-to-person level and offers a simplified way to get recommendations from the people that know you and your tastes best. It is this layer of social accountability that makes Villij recommendations more valuable and actionable than other review sites.We are a social utility within which consumers acquire the information they need to make real purchasing decisions. We store, index, and make searchable all of the knowledge that we each have individually but aren't motivated enough to post somewhere. We are creating Digital Word of Mouth that will benefit everyone. Consumers will have more information to make better decisions and local businesses will benefit as word of the quality of their product or service will spread faster and further than it would otherwise.

— CrunchBase

Monetization

Monetization

Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender. It usually refers to the coining of currency or the printing of banknotes by central banks. Things such as gold, diamonds and emeralds generally do have intrinsic value based on their rarity or quality and thus provide a premium not associated with fiat currency unless that currency is "promissory": That is the currency promises to deliver a given amount of a recognized commodity of a universally agreed to rarity and value, providing the currency with the foundation of legitimacy or value. Though rarely the case with paper currency, even intrinsically relatively worthless items or commodities can be made into money, so long as they are difficult to make or acquire. Monetization may also refer to exchanging securities for currency, selling a possession, charging for something that used to be free or making money on goods or services that were previously unprofitable.

— Freebase

Email

Email

Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since ca. 1993, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to a mail server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. An Internet email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body.

— Freebase

Yelp

Yelp

Yelp, Inc. is a multinational corporation headquartered in San Francisco, California, that operates an "online urban guide" and business review site. Yelp was founded by Jeremy Stoppelman and Russel Simmons in 2004. The company's Yelp website began as an email service for exchanging local business recommendations, and later introduced social networking features, discounts, and mobile applications. Yelp has extended its services to Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore and parts of Europe. Google offered to buy the company in 2009, but they and Yelp failed to reach an agreement on the terms of a sale. Yelp received $130 million in venture finance as a privately held company, and began public trading of its stock on the New York Stock Exchange in 2012. The firm acquired Qype, its largest European rival, in 2012, and online reservation company SeatMe, in 2013. The company's rating system and tools for filtering reviews have been the subject of both controversy and litigation. A Harvard business administration professor co-wrote a study in November 2013 that said that fake reviews on the site rose to roughly 20% in 2013.

— Freebase

Coregulation

Coregulation

Coregulation is a term described by psychologist Alan Fogel, as a "continuous unfolding of individual action that is susceptible to being continuously modified by the continuously changing actions of the partner." An important aspect of this idea is that communication is a continuous and dynamic process, rather than the exchange of discrete information. Fogel set forth his ideas in his 1993 book, Developing Through Relationships. As a simple example of coregulation, a speaker may adjust their words or tone of voice based on their perceptions of a listener's facial expressions or body language - and this may occur on an ongoing basis. Fogel asserts that coregulation is creative because social partners create meaning dynamically together, rather than simply exchanging information about what was known to them prior to their interaction. In a recent paper, Fogel and a colleague, Andrea Garvey, propose a theoretical model of "Alive Communication" which is based on dynamic systems theory and includes three linked processes, coregulation, "ordinary variability," and innovation.

— Freebase

Magnum Semiconductor

Magnum Semiconductor

Magnum Semiconductor, Inc. provides chips, software, and platforms for consumer entertainment systems and the professional broadcast infrastructure. Its solutions help to create and deliver video in the broadcast infrastructure; help in sharing entertainment via optical disc, flash disk, and networking inside home; and are also used for digital video recording, playback, and management of audio/video content. The company™s chip and hardware, firmware, and software also help in storing, managing, viewing, and exchanging video and audio. Its chips and software are used in professional video encoders, broadcast transcoders, in-home set-top boxes, consumer DVD recorders, hard-disk based home media centers, digital camcorders, and various in-home and portable media-centered devices. The company was founded in 2005 and is headquartered in Milpitas, California. It has sales and engineering offices in Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan; and sales and support facilities in Tokyo, Japan, as well as development facilities in Beijing and Shenzhen, China; Seoul, Korea; and Taipei, Taiwan.

— CrunchBase

Security Assertion Markup Language

Security Assertion Markup Language

Security Assertion Markup Language is an XML-based open standard data format for exchanging authentication and authorization data between parties, in particular, between an identity provider and a service provider. SAML is a product of the OASIS Security Services Technical Committee. SAML dates from 2001; the most recent update of SAML is from 2005. The single most important problem that SAML addresses is the web browser single sign-on problem. Single sign-on solutions are abundant at the intranet level but extending these solutions beyond the intranet has been problematic and has led to the proliferation of non-interoperable proprietary technologies. The SAML specification defines three roles: the principal, the identity provider, and the service provider. In the use case addressed by SAML, the principal requests a service from the service provider. The service provider requests and obtains an identity assertion from the identity provider. On the basis of this assertion, the service provider can make an access control decision - in other words it can decide whether to perform some service for the connected principal.

— Freebase

Hemistich

Hemistich

A hemistich is a half-line of verse, followed and preceded by a caesura, that makes up a single overall prosodic or verse unit. In Classical poetry, the hemistich is generally confined to drama. In Greek tragedy, characters exchanging clipped dialogue to suggest rapidity and drama would speak in hemistichs. The Roman poet Virgil employed hemistichs in the Aeneid to indicate great duress in his characters, where they were incapable of forming complete lines due to emotional or physical pain. In neo-classicism, the hemistich was frowned upon, but Germanic poetry employed the hemistich as a basic component of verse. In Old English and Old Norse poetry, each line of alliterative verse was divided into an "a-verse" and "b-verse" hemistich with a strong caesura between. In Beowulf, there are only five basic types of hemistich, with some used only as initial hemistichs and some only as secondary hemistichs. Furthermore, Middle English poetry also employed the hemistich as a coherent unit of verse, with both the Pearl Poet and Layamon using a regularized set of principles for which metrical forms were allowed in which hemistich position.

— Freebase

Fianchetto

Fianchetto

In chess the fianchetto is a pattern of development wherein a bishop is developed to the second rank of the adjacent knight file, the knight pawn having been moved one or two squares forward. The fianchetto is a staple of many "hypermodern" openings, whose philosophy is to delay direct occupation of the center with the plan of undermining and destroying the opponent's central outpost. It also regularly occurs in Indian defences. The fianchetto is less common in open games but the king's bishop is sometimes fianchettoed by Black in the Spanish Game or by White in an uncommon variation of the Vienna Game. One of the major benefits of the fianchetto is that it often allows the fianchettoed bishop to become more active. Because the bishop is placed on a long diagonal, it controls a lot of squares and can become a powerful offensive weapon. However, a fianchettoed position also presents some opportunities for the opposing player: if the fianchettoed bishop can be exchanged, the squares the bishop was formerly protecting will become weak and can form the basis of an attack. Therefore, exchanging the fianchettoed bishop should not be done lightly, especially if the enemy bishop of the same colour is still on the board.

— Freebase

Molecular diffusion

Molecular diffusion

Molecular diffusion, often called simply diffusion, is the thermal motion of all particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size of the particles. Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration, but diffusion also occurs when there is no concentration gradient. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material. In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, the diffusion process will eventually result in complete mixing. Diffusive equilibrium is reached when the concentrations of the diffusing substance in the two compartments becomes equal. Consider two systems; S1 and S2 at the same temperature and capable of exchanging particles. If there is a change in the potential energy of a system; for example μ1>μ2 an energy flow will occur from S1 to S2, because nature always prefers low energy and maximum entropy. Though the different systems are at equilibrium, there is still water passing through the semipermeable membrane. So if food coloring is put in system A, eventually it would be of equal color to system B.

— Freebase

Business networking

Business networking

Business networking is a socioeconomic activity by which groups of like-minded businesspeople recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities. A business network is a type of social network whose reason for existing is business activity. There are several prominent business networking organizations that create models of networking activity that, when followed, allow the business person to build new business relationships and generate business opportunities at the same time. A professional network service is an implementation of information technology in support of business networking. Many businesspeople contend business networking is a more cost-effective method of generating new business than advertising or public relations efforts. This is because business networking is a low-cost activity that involves more personal commitment than company money. As an example, a business network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging business leads and referrals with fellow members. To complement this activity, members often meet outside this circle, on their own time, and build their own one-to-one relationship with the fellow member. Business networking can be conducted in a local business community, or on a larger scale via the Internet. Business networking websites have grown over recent years due to the Internet's ability to connect people from all over the world. Internet companies often set up business leads for sale to bigger corporations and companies looking for data sources.

— Freebase

Network News Transfer Protocol

Network News Transfer Protocol

The Network News Transfer Protocol is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications. Brian Kantor of the University of California, San Diego and Phil Lapsley of the University of California, Berkeley authored RFC 977, the specification for the Network News Transfer Protocol, in March 1986. Other contributors included Stan O. Barber from the Baylor College of Medicine and Erik Fair of Apple Computer. Usenet was originally designed based on the UUCP network, with most article transfers taking place over direct point-to-point telephone links between news servers, which were powerful time-sharing systems. Readers and posters logged into these computers reading the articles directly from the local disk. As local area networks and Internet participation proliferated, it became desirable to allow newsreaders to be run on personal computers connected to local networks. Because distributed file systems were not yet widely available, a new protocol was developed based on the client-server model. It resembled the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, but was tailored for exchanging newsgroup articles.

— Freebase

Newline

Newline

In computing a newline, also known as a line break or end-of-line marker, or simply break, is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text. The name comes from the fact that the next character after the newline will appear on a new line—that is, on the next line below the text immediately preceding the newline. The actual codes representing a newline vary across operating systems, which can be a problem when exchanging text files between systems with different newline representations. There is also some confusion whether newlines terminate or separate lines. If a newline is considered a separator, there will be no newline after the last line of a file. Some programs have problems processing the last line of a file if it is not newline terminated. Conversely, programs that expect newline to be used as a separator will interpret a final newline as starting a new line. In text intended primarily to be read by humans using software which implements the word wrap feature, a newline character typically only needs to be stored if a line break is required independent of whether the next word would fit on the same line, such as between paragraphs and in vertical lists.

— Freebase

Simmons–Smith reaction

Simmons–Smith reaction

The Simmons–Smith reaction is an organic cheletropic reaction in which a carbenoid reacts with an alkene to form a cyclopropane. It is named after Howard Ensign Simmons, Jr. and Ronald D. Smith. It uses a methylene free radical intermediate that is delivered to both carbons of the alkene simultaneously, therefore the configuration of the double bond is preserved in the product and the reaction is stereospecific. Thus, cyclohexene, diiodomethane, and a zinc-copper couple yield norcarane. The Simmons–Smith reaction is generally preferred over other methods of cyclopropanation, however it can be expensive due to the high cost of diiodomethane. Modifications involving cheaper alternatives have been developed, such as dibromomethane or diazomethane and zinc iodide. The reactivity of the system can also be increased by exchanging the zinc‑copper couple for diethylzinc, however as this reagent is pyrophoric it must be handled carefully. The Simmons–Smith reaction is generally subject to steric effects, and thus cyclopropanation usually takes place on the less hindered face. However, when a hydroxy substituent is present in the substrate in proximity to the double bond, the zinc coordinates with the hydroxy substituent, directing cyclopropanation cis to the hydroxyl group: An interactive 3D model of this reaction can be seen here.

— Freebase

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element and its monatomic form is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Most of the hydrogen on Earth is in molecules such as water and organic compounds because hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid–base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, it can take a negative charge, or as a positively charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium with a single proton and no neutrons. As the simplest atom known, the hydrogen atom has been of theoretical use. For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

— Freebase

Gene cassette

Gene cassette

A gene cassette is broadly a modular DNA sequence encoding one or more genes for a single biochemical function. In genetic engineering, a gene cassette refers to a manipulable fragment of DNA carrying, and capable of expressing, one or more genes of interest between one or more sets of restriction sites. It can be transferred from one DNA sequence to another by 'cutting' the fragment out using restriction enzymes and 'pasting' it back into the new context. Integrons are genetic structures in bacteria which express and are capable of acquiring and exchanging 'gene cassettes'. These cassettes typically carry a single gene without a promoter. The entire series of cassettes is transcribed from an adjacent promoter. The gene cassettes are speculated to be inserted and excised via a circular intermediate. This would involve recombination between short sequences found at their termini and known as 59 base elements - which may not be 59 bases long. The 59-be are a diverse family of sequences that function as recognition sites for the site-specific integrase. Gene cassettes often carry antibiotic resistance genes. An example would be the kanMX cassette which confers kanamycin resistance upon bacteria or fungi. How these cassettes are initially created is not clear.

— Freebase

Reuse

Reuse

To reuse is to use an item again after it has been used. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function. In contrast, recycling is the breaking down of the used item into raw materials which are used to make new items. By taking useful products and exchanging them, without reprocessing, reuse help save time, money, energy, and resources. In broader economic terms, reuse offers quality products to people and organizations with limited means, while generating jobs and business activity that contribute to the economy. Historically, financial motivation was one of the main drivers of reuse. In the developing world this driver can lead to very high levels of reuse, however rising wages and consequent consumer demand for the convenience of disposable products has made the reuse of low value items such as packaging uneconomic in richer countries, leading to the demise of many reuse programs. Current environmental awareness is gradually changing attitudes and regulations, such as the new packaging regulations, are gradually beginning to reverse the situation. One example of conventional reuse is the doorstep delivery of milk in refillable bottles; other examples include the retreading of tires and the use of returnable/reusable plastic boxes, shipping containers, instead of single-use corrugated fiberboard boxes.

— Freebase

E-mail

E-mail

Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since approximately 1993, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. An Internet email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually descriptive information is also added, such as a subject header field and a message submission date/time stamp.

— Freebase

Risk arbitrage

Risk arbitrage

Risk arbitrage, or merger arbitrage, is an investment or trading strategy often associated with hedge funds. Two principal types of merger are possible: a cash merger, and a stock merger. In a cash merger, an acquirer proposes to purchase the shares of the target for a certain price in cash. Until the acquisition is completed, the stock of the target typically trades below the purchase price. An arbitrageur buys the stock of the target and makes a gain if the acquirer ultimately buys the stock. In a stock for stock merger, the acquirer proposes to buy the target by exchanging its own stock for the stock of the target. An arbitrageur may then short sell the acquirer and buy the stock of the target. This process is called "setting a spread." After the merger is completed, the target's stock will be converted into stock of the acquirer based on the exchange ratio determined by the merger agreement. The arbitrageur delivers the converted stock into his short position to complete the arbitrage. If this strategy were risk-free, many investors would immediately adopt it, and any possible gain for any investor would disappear. However, risk arises from the possibility of deals failing to go through. Obstacles may include either party's inability to satisfy conditions of the merger, a failure to obtain the requisite shareholder approval, failure to receive antitrust and other regulatory clearances, or some other event which may change the target's or the acquirer's willingness to consummate the transaction. Such possibilities put the risk in the term risk arbitrage.

— Freebase

Virginia Reel

Virginia Reel

Virginia Reel is a solitaire card game which uses two decks of 52 playing cards mixed together. The object of the game is to place all the cards in the 24 foundations. First three cards, a 2, a 3, and a 4, are placed vertically. Then, beside each of the three cards is a row of seven cards. The first card in each row shows that it is the row for all other cards with the same rank. The first row is known as the "2s' row," the second row the "3s' row," and the third row the "4s' row." A fourth row of eight cards is dealt. This serves as the reserve with each card forming a pile. The foundations are built up by suit in intervals of three. The table below shows how. To play, a card can be moved to a foundation or to a rightful row from the other rows or from the reserve. But the player has to bear in mind that when a card is moved from anywhere in the tableau, the gap it leaves behind must be filled with a card appropriate for the row where the gap is located. For instance, when a card has left the 2s' row, the gap it left behind must be filled with a 2, either from the other rows or from the reserve. This is especially true at the beginning of the game, where some cards are on each other's rows like a 4 in the 3s' row and a 3 in the 4s' row. Exchanging cards to their rightful rows in this case is also possible.

— Freebase

Trading post

Trading post

A trading post was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route. Trading posts were also places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or simply the news from their home country in a time when not even newspapers existed. Trading posts in general were of great importance to the history of currency. Though barter has been used for millennia and continues to be used, almost from the start of trading post history, the need occurred to have something as a payment medium. Soon trade tokens and eventually coins were produced from precious metals like gold, silver and copper for the use of buying and selling goods instead of simply exchanging them. After the introduction of currency, the first banks occurred in Genoa and Venice almost immediately. European colonialism traces its roots to ancient Carthage. Originally a trading settlement of Phoenician colonists, Carthage grew into a vast economic and political power throughout the Mediterranean, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic prowess. Almost every city of importance of the world once started its history as a trading post: Venice, New York, Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, Naples, Rotterdam etc.

— Freebase

Bessarabia

Bessarabia

Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester River on the east and the Prut River on the west. Nowadays the bulk of the region is part of Moldova, while the northern and southern areas are part of Ukraine. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812, and ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas formerly under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name previously used for the southern plains of the Dniester-Prut interfluve. Moldavia continued its existence as an autonomous state until 1859, when it joined Wallachia to form the United Principalities. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule; nevertheless, Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878, when Romania, the successor of Moldavia, was pressured into exchanging those territories for Dobruja. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, an autonomous republic part of a federative Russian state. Bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 however resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the parliamentary assembly decided on independence and then on Union with the Kingdom of Romania. The legality of these acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union, which regarded the area as a territory occupied by Romania.

— Freebase

Firing Line

Firing Line

Firing Line was an American public affairs show founded and hosted by conservative William F. Buckley, Jr., founder and publisher of National Review magazine. Its 1,504 episodes over 33 years made Firing Line the longest-running public affairs show in television history with a single host. The erudite program, which featured many of the most prominent intellectuals and public figures in the United States, won an Emmy Award in 1969. Although the program's format varied over the years, it typically featured Buckley interviewing a guest and exchanging views, with the two seated together in front of a small studio audience. Standing or sitting further away in the studio, an "examiner", typically a political liberal, would ask questions, generally toward the end of the show. Guests were people notable in the fields of politics to religion, literature and academia, and their views could sharply contrast or be in strong agreement with Buckley's. Most guests were intellectuals or those in privileged positions of power, and they were interviewed about ideas and issues of the day. Reflecting Buckley's talents and preferences, the exchange of views was almost always polite, and the guests were given time to answer questions at length, slowing the pace of the program. "The show was devoted to a leisurely examination of issues and ideas at an extremely high level", according to Jeff Greenfield, who frequently appeared as an examiner. John Kenneth Galbraith said of the program, "Firing Line is one of the rare occasions when you have a chance to correct the errors of the man who's interrogating you."

— Freebase

Bulletin board system

Bulletin board system

A bulletin board system, or BBS, is a computer system running software that allows users to connect and log into the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, a user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users, either through email, public message boards, and sometimes via direct chatting. Many BBSes also offer on-line games, in which users can compete with each other, and BBSes with multiple phone lines often provide chat rooms, allowing users to interact with each other. Originally BBSes were accessed only over a phone line using a modem, but by the early 1990s some BBSes allowed access via a Telnet, packet switched network, or packet radio connection. Ward Christensen coined the term "bulletin board system" as a reference to the traditional cork-and-pin bulletin board often found in entrances of supermarkets, schools, libraries or other public areas where people can post messages, advertisements, or community news. By "computerizing" this method of communications, the name of the first BBS system was born: CBBS - Computerized Bulletin Board System. During their heyday from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, most BBSes were run as a hobby free of charge by the system operator, while other BBSes charged their users a subscription fee for access, or were operated by a business as a means of supporting their customers. Bulletin board systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Web, social network services and other aspects of the Internet.

— Freebase

Oxygenator

Oxygenator

An oxygenator is a medical device that is capable of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood of human patient during surgical procedures that may necessitate the interruption or cessation of blood flow in the body, a critical organ or great blood vessel. These organs can be the heart, lungs or liver, while the great vessels can be the aorta, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins or vena cava. An oxygenator is typically utilized by a perfusionist in cardiac surgery in conjunction with the heart-lung machine. However, oxygenators can also be utilized in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in neonatal intensive care units by nurses. For most cardiac operations such as coronary artery bypass grafting, the cardiopulmonary bypass is performed using a heart-lung machine. The heart-lung machine serves to replace the work of the heart during the open bypass surgery. The machine replaces both the heart's pumping action and the lungs' gas exchange function. Since the heart is stopped during the operation, this permits the surgeon to operate on a bloodless, stationary heart. One component of the heart-lung machine is the oxygenator. The oxygenator component serves as the lung, and is designed to expose the blood to oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. It is disposable and contains about 2–4 m² of a membrane permeable to gas but impermeable to blood, in the form of hollow fibers. Blood flows on the outside of the hollow fibers, while oxygen flows in the opposite direction on the inside of the fibers. As the blood passes through the oxygenator, the blood comes into intimate contact with the fine surfaces of the device itself. Gas containing oxygen and medical air is delivered to the interface between the blood and the device, permitting the blood cells to absorb oxygen molecules directly.

— Freebase

Rho factor

Rho factor

A ρ factor is a prokaryotic protein involved in the termination of transcription. Rho factor binds to the transcription terminator pause site, an exposed region of single stranded RNA after the open reading frame at GC-rich sequences that lack obvious secondary structure. Rho factor is an essential transcription protein in prokaryotes. In Escherichia coli, it is a ~275 kD hexamer of identical subunits. Each subunit has an RNA-binding domain and an ATP-hydrolysis domain. Rho is a member of the family of ATP-dependent hexameric helicases that function by wrapping nucleic acids around a single cleft extending around the entire hexamer. Rho functions as an ancillary factor for RNA polymerase. There are two types of transcriptional termination in prokaryotes, factor-dependent termination and Intrinsic termination. Rho-dependent terminators account for about half of the E. coli factor-dependent terminators. Other termination factors discovered in E. coli include Tau and nusA. Rho-dependent terminators were first discovered in bacteriophage genomes. A Rho factor acts on an RNA substrate. Rho's key function is its helicase activity, for which energy is provided by an RNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis. The initial binding site for Rho is an extended single-stranded region, rich in cytosine and poor in guanine, called the rho utilization site or rut, in the RNA being synthesised, upstream of the actual terminator sequence. Several rho binding sequences have been discovered. No consensus is found among these, but the different sequences each seem specific, as small mutations in the sequence disrupts its function. Rho binds to RNA and then uses its ATPase activity to provide the energy to translocate along the RNA until it reaches the RNA-DNA helical region, where it unwinds the hybrid duplex structure. RNA polymerase pauses at the termination sequence, which is because there is a specific site around 100nt away from the Rho binding site called the Rho-sensitive pause site. So, even though the RNA polymerase is about 40nt per second faster than Rho, it does not pose a problem for the Rho termination mechanism as the RNA polymerase allows Rho factor to catch up.

— Freebase

Floating point

Floating point

In computing, floating point describes a method of representing an approximation of a real number in a way that can support a wide range of values. The numbers are, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent. The base for the scaling is normally 2, 10 or 16. The typical number that can be represented exactly is of the form: The idea of floating-point representation over intrinsically integer fixed-point numbers, which consist purely of significand, is that expanding it with the exponent component achieves greater range. For instance, to represent large values, e.g. distances between galaxies, there is no need to keep all 39 decimal places down to femtometre-resolution. Assuming that the best resolution is in light years, only the 9 most significant decimal digits matter, whereas the remaining 30 digits carry pure noise, and thus can be safely dropped. This represents a savings of 100 bits of computer data storage. Instead of these 100 bits, much fewer are used to represent the scale, e.g. 8 bits or 2 decimal digits. Given that one number can encode both astronomic and subatomic distances with the same nine digits of accuracy, but because a 9-digit number is 100 times less accurate than the 11 digits reserved for scale, this is considered a trade-off exchanging range for precision. The example of using scaling to extend the dynamic range reveals another contrast with fixed-point numbers: Floating-point values are not uniformly spaced. Small values, close to zero, can be represented with much higher resolution than large ones because a greater scale must be selected for encoding significantly larger values. That is, floating-point numbers cannot represent point coordinates with atomic accuracy at galactic distances, only close to the origin.

— Freebase


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