Definitions containing hôpital, michel de l'
We've found 87 definitions:
|Erythroplasia of Queyrat|
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a squamous-cell carcinoma in situ of the glans penis. Like Bowen's disease, it is associated with human papillomavirus 16 and is a precursor for invasive squamous-cell carcinoma. It is named for French dermatologist Louis Queyrat, who was head of the dermatology service of l'Hôpital Ricord, a venereal hospital in Paris, now Hôpital Cochin.
|jacques etienne montgolfier|
Montgolfier, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier
French inventor who (with his brother Josef Michel Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1745-1799)
— Princeton's WordNet
Montgolfier, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier
French inventor who (with his brother Josef Michel Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1745-1799)
— Princeton's WordNet
of or pertaining to the philosophy of Michel Foucault
An institutionalized way of thinking, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic (after Michel Foucault).
derived from the given name Michel (Michael), or from the word muchel meaning big.
. See Hôpital, Michel de l'.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
In ecology, a herbaceous border found at the edge of a woodland patch. It is usually found below and farther out from the woodland than the woody shrub mantel and the tree canopy. (See R.T.T.Forman and Michel Godron. Landscape Ecology. 1986. pp. 108-109.)
Panopticism is a social theory originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his book, Discipline and Punish.
|On The Other Hand|
On The Other Hand
On the Other Hand is the fifth album from Michel Camilo. It was released in 1990 under the Epic Records label.
a celebrated astrologer, the assumed name of Michel de Notredame, born at St. Remi, Provence; was a medical man by profession, but gave himself to divination, uttered in rhymes in a series of published predictions called "Centuries" (1503-1566).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
The Réseau AGIR was a World War II espionage group founded by French wartime resister Michel Hollard that provided human intelligence on V-1 flying bomb facilities. Hollard smuggled information to the British military attaché in Bern, Switzerland, from Occupied France making ninety-eight trips from 1941 through February 1944 when he was betrayed and arrested. After a September 7, 1943, Ultra intercept identified that an agent tasked with gathering V-weapon intelligence had been captured, Réseau AGIR member Olivier Giran was captured and executed in 1943. On 5 February 1944, Michel Hollard and 4 other AGIR agents were arrested during a cafe meeting on the Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis
|St. Michel, Mont|
St. Michel, Mont
a remarkable islet in St. Michel Bay, SW. corner of Normandy, 18 m. W. of Avranches; is formed of a single cone of granite, 242 ft. high, crowned by a historic Benedictine monastery; on the lower slopes is built a little fortified town; a causeway 1 m. long joins it to the mainland.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Tenue de soirée|
Tenue de soirée
Tenue de soirée is a 1986 French comedy-drama film directed by Bertrand Blier. It was entered into the 1986 Cannes Film Festival where Michel Blanc won the award for Best Actor.
Michel Foucault generally uses the term "dispositif," to refer to the various institutional, physical, and administrative mechanisms and knowledge structures which enhance and maintain the exercise of power within the social body.
Genêts is a commune in the Manche department in northwestern France. It was the port of the oppidum Ingena, the main settlement of the Abrincatui. The Manoir de Brion, an ancient Benedictine priory of the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel is located nearby. The tidal island of Tombelaine, 3.5 km offshore, is in the commune.
Vaillante is a fictional French company of which most of the activity is related to automobile. Vaillante is featured in the French comic book series Michel Vaillant.
For Michel Foucault, discontinuity and continuity reflect the flow of history and the fact that some "things are no longer perceived, described, expressed, characterised, classified, and known in the same way" from one era to the next..
Foucault's Pendulum is a novel by Italian writer and philosopher Umberto Eco. It was first published in 1988; the translation into English by William Weaver appeared a year later. Foucault's Pendulum is divided into ten segments represented by the ten Sefiroth. The novel is full of esoteric references to the Kabbalah, alchemy and conspiracy theory, so many that critic and novelist Anthony Burgess suggested that it needed an index. The title of the book refers to an actual pendulum designed by the French physicist Léon Foucault to demonstrate the rotation of the earth, which has symbolic significance within the novel. Although some believe it refers to the philosopher Michel Foucault noting Eco's friendship with the French philosopher, the author "specifically rejects any intentional reference to Michel Foucault" — and this is regarded as one of his subtle literary jokes.
Lilies is a 1996 Canadian film directed by John Greyson. It is an adaptation by Michel Marc Bouchard and Linda Gaboriau of Bouchard's own play Les feluettes. It depicts a play being performed in a prison by the inmates.
Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. The concept has been elaborated further from an "Anglo-Neo Foucauldian" perspective in the social sciences, especially by authors such as Peter Miller, Nikolas Rose, and Mitchell Dean. Governmentality can be understood as: ⁕the way governments try to produce the citizen best suited to fulfill those governments' policies ⁕the organized practices through which subjects are governed Governmentality may also be understood as: ⁕the "art of government" ⁕the "how" of governing ⁕"governmental rationality" ⁕"a 'guideline' for the analysis that Michel Foucault offers by way of historical reconstructions embracing a period starting from Ancient Greece right through to modern neo-liberalism" ⁕"the techniques and strategies by which a society is rendered governable"
Équinoxe was the second major-label album release by French musician Jean Michel Jarre, released on Disques Dreyfus in late 1978. The album reflects a day in the life of a human being, from morning to night. Parts 1 to 4 and tracks 5 to 8 segué smoothly from one to the next. Jarre had developed his sound, employing more dynamic and rhythmic elements, particularly a greater use of sequencing on basslines. Much of this was achieved using custom equipment developed by his collaborator Michel Geiss. Also, it includes sounds of wind, storm and rain, which are usual in France at equinox dates. The release was followed by a concert on the Place de la Concorde, Paris on July 14, 1979. The concert attracted 1 million people, becoming Jarre's first entry in the Guinness Book of Records for the largest crowd for an outdoor concert. Two singles were released from the album, "Équinoxe Part 5" first, and then "Équinoxe Part 4". Part of "Équinoxe Part 8" has been played live with different arrangements, including a version for an acoustic street organ, under the title of "Band in the Rain". The album reached #11 in the UK charts and #126 in the US charts.
Redbeard is a series of Belgian comic books, originally published in French, created by writer Jean-Michel Charlier and artist Victor Hubinon. After their deaths the series was continued by other artists, including Jijé, Christian Gaty, Patrice Pellerin, Jean Ollivier, Christian Perrissin and Marc Bourgne.
Charles Cotton was an English poet and writer, best known for translating the work of Michel de Montaigne from the French, for his contributions to The Compleat Angler, and for the highly influential The Compleat Gamester which has been attributed to him.
Revolutions is the sixth overall studio album by Jean Michel Jarre, first released in 1988. The album spans several genres, including symphonic industrial, Arabian inspired, light guitar pop and ethnic electro jazz. The album reached number #2 in the UK charts, Jarre's best chart position since Oxygène. The Destination Docklands concert in London coincided with the release of the album.
Argentan is a commune and the seat of two cantons and of an arrondissement in the Orne department in northwestern France. Argentan is located 180 km NE of Rennes, 131 km ENE of the Mont Saint-Michel, 188 km SE of Cherbourg, 58 km SSE of Caen, 133 km SW of Rouen and 100 km N of Le Mans.
Marmelade is a town and former duchy in the Artibonite Department of Haïti. It is the chief town of the Marmelade Arrondissement, which also includes the commune of Saint Michel de l'Attalaye. Marmelade is the home town of Président René Préval. During the years following his first tenure, Préval initiated rural development projects in Marmelade, including a manufacture of bamboo furniture.
Groxis was a tech company based in San Francisco, California that developed and marketed the web-based federated content access and visual search engine called Grokker. Groxis was founded by Jean-Michel Decombe, Paul Hawken, and R.J. Pittman in 2001, and ceased operations in March 2009. Jean-Michel Decombe was Chief Technology Officer until 2006. Ron Mexico served as interim Chief Technology Officer during a brief absence in November 2005. He conceived the vision and invented the concepts underlying Groxis' flagship product, Grokker, for which he obtained several patents, including 6,879,332, 6,888,554, 7,036,093, and 7,290,223. Paul Hawken was Executive Chairman until 2003. He raised the initial round of capital from angel investors. He assembled a team of advisors including Paul Saffo and John Seely Brown. R.J. Pittman was Chief Executive Officer until 2006. He raised capital from top-tier venture capitalists. He was responsible for all pathfinder customer wins and key partnerships. He also set overall product direction, leading the company and moving Grokker.com into the top 5000 most visited web sites on the Internet. Groxis partners and customers included Sun Microsystems, Stanford University, Fast Search & Transfer, EBSCO Information Services, the Internet Public Library, and Amgen, as well as Yahoo!, Google, and Amazon.
Alain Robbe-Grillet was a French writer and filmmaker. He was, along with Nathalie Sarraute, Michel Butor and Claude Simon, one of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman trend. Alain Robbe-Grillet was elected a member of the Académie française on March 25, 2004, succeeding Maurice Rheims at seat No. 32. He was married to Catherine Robbe-Grillet.
Pianism is a jazz album by Michel Petrucciani. The album was recorded at RCA Studio "C", and was produced by Mike Berniker, engineer Mike Moran. The Blue Note catalogue number is CDP 7 46295 2. This was Petrucciani's first album recorded under contract for Blue Note, the previous recordings having originally been released by Concord and others.
Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France.
Mignon is an opéra comique in three acts by Ambroise Thomas. The original French libretto was by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, based on Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. The Italian version was translated by Giuseppe Zaffira. The opera is mentioned in James Joyce's "The Dead" and Willa Cather's The Professor's House. Thomas's goddaughter Mignon Nevada was named after the main character.
Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, primarily muscle. This is achieved by increasing the formation of adenosine triphosphate. Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named after the Greek word for meat, κρέας. In solution, creatine is in equilibrium with creatinine.
“Guten Tag” is a 2002 song by German band Wir sind Helden. It was first released on an EP of the same title in 2002 and one year later as the first single of their debut album Die Reklamation. It was composed by Jean-Michel Tourette, Judith Holofernes and Pola Roy while the lyrics were written by Holofernes. The title is German for good day.
Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen, 1st Prince de la Moskowa, popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of France created by Napoleon. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men and nicknamed le Brave des Braves by Napoleon.
Parc is a station on the Blue Line of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system, operated by the Société de transport de Montréal. It is located in the Park Extension district of the Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension borough of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The station was built inside the extreme western part of the Canadian Pacific's former Park Avenue Station, and connects with Agence métropolitaine de transport Parc Station.
|World Meteorological Organization|
World Meteorological Organization
The World Meteorological Organization is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization, which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology, operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The current Secretary-General is Michel Jarraud. The current president is David Grimes.
Amour is a musical fantasy with an English book by Jeremy Sams, music by Michel Legrand, and lyrics by Didier Van Cauwelaert, who wrote the original French libretto. The musical is adapted from the 1943 short story Le Passe-Muraille by Marcel Aymé and set in Paris shortly after World War II. It centers on a shy, unassuming clerk who develops the ability to walk through walls, and who challenges himself to stick to his moral center and change others' lives, and his own, as a result.
Stegocephalia is an older name for the large fossil amphibians, comprising all pre-Jurassic and some later extinct large groups having more or less salamander-like build. The term was coined in 1868 by American palaentologist Edward Drinker Cope and comes from Greek στεγοκεφαλια - "roofed head", and refer to the copious amounts of dermal armour some of the larger primitive forms evidently had. In recent times, Canadian paleontologist Michel Laurin has used as a phylogenetic expression to encompass all vertebrates with toes rather than fins, i.e. tetrapods.
Loco is a 1984 computer game developed by Antony Crowther and released by Alligata for the Commodore 64. In 1986 it was converted for the ZX Spectrum and Atari 8-bit family. The ZX Spectrum version was developed by Richard Stevenson, David Wright and Nigel Speight. The music for the game is a C64 remake of Jean Michel Jarre's Equinoxe 5 by Ben Daglish. Comparing screen shots and game descriptions, Loco appears to be a clone of the arcade game Super Locomotive, produced by Sega in 1982.
Hyalophagia or hyalophagy is the eating of glass. Primarily a pathological disorder, it is also considered a form of pica. Hyalophagia is very dangerous as the sharp glass may wound the stomach, intestines, and throat as it passes through the system. Possible causes include vitamin or mineral deficiency, underlying physical or mental illness or stress. Eating glass is also a performance technique common to some sideshow performances. A few of the more prolific "glass eaters" have been Todd Robbins, Matt the Knife, Josh Routh, Michel Lotito, Jimmy Coffin, and Karis Benner.
|Museum of Modern Art, Antwerp|
Museum of Modern Art, Antwerp
The Museum of Modern Art in Antwerp is the contemporary art museum of the city of Antwerp, Belgium, and it is one of the most important art museums in Belgium. The museum holds a permanent collection of contemporary art from Belgian and international artists, an arthouse cinema and an extensive library of books on contemporary art. The architect responsible for the creation of the museum from an old grain storage space was Michel Grandsard who also designed the extension of the museum. The director of the museum since 1992 is Bart de Baere.
A tidal island is a piece of land that is connected to the mainland by a natural or man-made causeway that is exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide. Because of the mystique surrounding tidal islands many of them have been sites of religious worship, such as Mont Saint-Michel with its Benedictine Abbey. Tidal islands are also commonly the sites of fortresses because of their natural fortifications. The former Bennelong Island in Sydney, Australia was developed into Bennelong Point and is now the location of the Sydney Opera House.
Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically. By requiring the viewer to combine the colors optically instead of physically mixing pigments, divisionists believed they were achieving the maximum luminosity scientifically possible. Georges Seurat founded the style around 1884 as chromoluminarism, drawing from his understanding of the scientific theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Charles Blanc, among others. Divisionism developed along with another style, pointillism, which is defined specifically by the use of dots of paint and does not necessarily focus on the separation of colors.
Pilote was a French comics periodical published from 1959 to 1989. Showcasing most of the major French or Belgian comics talents of its day the magazine introduced major series such as Astérix, Barbe-Rouge, Blueberry, Achille Talon, and Valérian et Laureline. Major comics writers like René Goscinny, Jean-Michel Charlier, Greg, Pierre Christin and Jacques Lob were featured in the magazine, as were artists such as Jijé, Morris, Albert Uderzo, Jean Giraud, Enki Bilal, Jean-Claude Mézières, Jacques Tardi, Philippe Druillet, Marcel Gotlib, Alexis, and Annie Goetzinger. Pilote also published several international talents such as Hugo Pratt, Frank Bellamy and Robert Crumb.
Chronologie is an album by French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, and was released on Disques Dreyfus in 1993. It is his eighth overall studio album. It is inspired by Stephen Hawking's book A Brief History of Time. "Chronologie Part 4" and "Chronologie Part 5" started out as a composition for the Swiss watch company Swatch. The album was a return to Jarre's usual formula, after Revolutions and Waiting for Cousteau. The sound of Chronologie was based on a new wave of electronic dance music that had been developing since the late 1980s. Like Jarre's previous album Waiting for Cousteau, Chronologie charted at Number 9 in the UK charts.
The Essays of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of variable length. Montaigne's stated design in writing, publishing and revising the Essays over the period from approximately 1570 to 1592 was to record for the 'private benefit of friends and kinsmen ... some traits of my character and of my humours.' The Essays were first published in 1580 and cover a wide range of topics. As Essai is French for "trial" or "attempt", so Montaigne attempted to explore his thoughts, his life and learning in written form. His essays are widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay: a focused treatment of issues, events and concerns past, present and future.
The Belgian synth-pop group Telex was formed in 1978 by Marc Moulin, Dan Lacksman, and Michel Moers, with the intention of "Making something really European, different from rock, without guitar — and the idea was electronic music." Mixing the aesthetics of disco, punk and experimental electronic music, they released a stripped-down synthesized cover version of "Twist à St. Tropez" by Les Chats Sauvages. They followed up with an ultra-slow cover of "Rock Around the Clock", a hilariously relaxed and dispassionate version of Plastic Bertrand's punk song "Ça Plane Pour Moi", and a perversely mechanical cover of "Dance to the Music", originally by Sly Stone. Like Kraftwerk, Telex built its music entirely from electronic instruments, and the sounds of the two groups have a certain similarity. However, unlike Kraftwerk's studied Teutonic irony, Telex favor a more joyously irreverent humor. The group's debut album, Looking for Saint Tropez, featured the worldwide hit single "Moskow Diskow," one of the first-ever electronic dance/pop songs. In 1980 Telex's manager asked the group to enter the Eurovision Song Contest. The group entered and were eventually sent to the finals, although it apparently hoped to come in last: "We had hoped to finish last, but Portugal decided otherwise. We got ten points from them and finished on the 19th spot." The group's song "Euro-Vision" was a cheerful bleepy song with deliberately banal lyrics about the contest itself. The Eurovision audience seemed unsure how to react to the performance, and after the band stopped playing, there was mostly stunned silence, with scattered polite applause; Michel Moers took a photograph of the bewildered audience. The band walked off amid sounds of muttering. A mark of the confusion caused by the performance was when vote-counting began, and Greece awarded Belgium three points, the announcer thought she had misheard and tried to award the points to the Netherlands.
Volapük was a French avant-garde band created in 1993 by the drummer Guigou Chenevier, along with Michel Mandel and Guillaume Saurel. In the 1970s Chenevier was a member of Etron Fou Leloublan, a band that was part of the Rock in Opposition movement. Takumi Fukushima became a later addition to the group, playing on Polyglöt which was released in 2000. Volapük announced their breakup in 2010. The band's style draws from a number of Eurasian ethnic musical traditions, from Spain to the Balkans to Mongolia. Unlike other avant-garde bands that rely on the use of nonmusical sounds, Volapük's music retains more of their folk music roots. Volapük is the name of an artificial language, which also draws its form from multiple language sources.
Neuraxis is a Canadian technical death metal band formed in Montreal in 1994 by Steven Henry, Yan Thiel, Michel Brisebois and Felipe Ángel Quinzanos. They have released six studio albums: Imagery, A Passage into Forlorn, Truth Beyond..., Trilateral Progression, The Thin Line Between, and Asylon. In 2007, the band participated in the Domination Tour alongside Rotting Christ, Incantation and Malevolent Creation. After touring, the band released a live album entitled Live Progression. Neuraxis participated in the Montreal Assault Tour with Despised Icon, Beneath the Massacre, Carnifex and Plasmarifle to promote their album The Thin Line Between. As of July 2009, there are no remaining founding members of Neuraxis still in the band. The band released their sixth studio album, Asylon, on February 15, 2011.
Orders is a 1974 Quebec historical drama film about the incarceration of innocent civilians during the 1970 October Crisis and the War Measures Act enacted by the Canadian government of Pierre Trudeau. It is the second film by director Michel Brault. It features entertainer and Senator Jean Lapointe. The film tells the story of five of those incarcerated civilians. It is scripted but is inspired by a number of interviews with actual prisoners made during the events and its style is heavily inspired by the Quebec school of Cinéma vérité. It is a docufiction. It won a Cannes Film Festival Award in 1975 and four Canadian Film Awards the same year. It was also selected as the Canadian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 48th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee.
Corbeau was a Quebec rock group, very popular at the end of the seventies. The group was formed in 1977 by the film-maker and lyricist Pierre Harel with Michel "Willie" Lamothe and Roger "Wézo" Belval. Donald Hince joined the group some time later, and Jean Millaire completed the make up of Corbeau after a short tenure with Offenbach. Harel was the lead-singer up until the arrival of Marjolaine "Marjo" Morin, whereupon they shared the role until the departure of Harel just before the launching of their first album in 1979. Corbeau broke up in 1984 after the departure of Marjo and Jean Millaire. In 2009 the original members re-united to record one track for Marjo's new album, Marjo et ses hommes. Corbeau re-recorded the track Demain.
Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- and stereos followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule. It is a sterol, and an essential structural component of animal cell membranes that is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition to its importance within cells, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals; in vertebrates it is formed predominantly in the liver. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes, although there are some exceptions such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth. François Poulletier de la Salle first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones in 1769. However, it was not until 1815 that chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul named the compound "cholesterine".
"Biopower" is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault. It relates to the practice of modern nation states and their regulation of their subjects through "an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations". Foucault first used the term in his lecture courses at the Collège de France, but the term first appeared in print in The Will To Knowledge, Foucault's first volume of The History of Sexuality. In Foucault's work, it has been used to refer to practices of public health, regulation of heredity, and risk regulation, among many other regulatory mechanisms often linked less directly with literal physical health. It is closely related to a term he uses much less frequently, but which subsequent thinkers have taken up independently, biopolitics.
Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, as well as the Middle East, Africa, India and significant parts of Asia and the Americas, it is one of the world's three leading satellite operators in terms of revenues. Eutelsat's satellites are used for broadcasting 4,500 television and 1100 radio stations to over 204 million cable and satellite homes. They also serve requirements for TV contribution services, corporate networks, mobile positioning and communications, Internet backbone connectivity and broadband access for terrestrial, maritime and in-flight applications. Eutelsat is headquartered in Paris. Eutelsat Communications Chief executive officer is Michel de Rosen. Its main craft have traditionally operated from four positions, each separated by three degrees of the Clarke belt - 7, 10, 13 and 16°E; although more positions are now operated.
Butyric acid, also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. Butyric acid is found in milk, especially goat, sheep and buffalo's milk, butter, Parmesan cheese, and as a product of anaerobic fermentation. It has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste. It can be detected by mammals with good scent detection abilities at 10 ppb, whereas humans can detect it in concentrations above 10 ppm. Butyric acid was first observed in 1814 by the French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul. By 1818, he had purified it sufficiently to characterize it. The name of butyric acid comes from the Latin word for butter, butyrum, the substance in which butyric acid was first found.
"Human Behaviour" is Icelandic singer and songwriter Björk's first solo single, taken from the album Debut. The song was released in June 1993. The song was produced by Björk's longtime collaborator Nellee Hooper. Human Behaviour is an alternative song with lyrics reflecting upon human nature and emotion from a non-human animal's point of view. The song and music video were inspired by British broadcaster and naturalist David Attenborough. Critics praised "Human Behaviour" and deemed it as a highlight of the album. The song was an underground smash, which peaked at number two on the dance charts and reached #36 in the UK Singles Chart. The music video was directed by Michel Gondry and is the first time the two collaborated. The video, as the song, is a story about the relation between humans and animals, from the animal point of view.
In differential topology, a mathematical discipline, an exotic sphere is a differentiable manifold M that is homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to the standard Euclidean n-sphere. That is, M is a sphere from the point of view of all its topological properties, but carrying a smooth structure that is not the familiar one. The first exotic spheres were constructed by John Milnor in dimension n = 7 as S³-bundles over S4. He showed that there are at least 7 differentiable structures on the 7-sphere. In any dimension Milnor showed that the diffeomorphism classes of oriented exotic spheres form the non-trivial elements of an abelian monoid under connected sum, which is a finite abelian group if the dimension is not 4. The classification of exotic spheres by Michel Kervaire and John Milnor showed that the oriented exotic 7-spheres are the non-trivial elements of a cyclic group of order 28 under the operation of connected sum.
Discourse denotes written and spoken communications such as: ⁕In semantics and discourse analysis: A generalization of the concept of conversation within all modalities and contexts. ⁕The totality of codified language used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera. ⁕In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements ”. An enouncement is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the signs to assign and communicate specific, repeatable relations to, between, and among objects, subjects, and statements. Hence, a discourse is composed of semiotic sequences between and among objects, subjects, and statements. The term discursive formation conceptually describes the regular communications that produce such discourses. As a philosopher, Foucault applied the discursive formation in the analyses of large bodies of knowledge, such as political economy and natural history.
Acousmatic sound is sound one hears without seeing an originating cause. The word acousmatic, from the French acousmatique, is derived from the Greek word akousmatikoi, a term used to refer to probationary pupils of the philosopher Pythagoras who, so that they might better concentrate on his teachings, were required to sit in absolute silence while listening to their teacher deliver his lecture from behind a veil or screen. The term acousmatique was first used by the French composer, and pioneer of musique concrète, Pierre Schaeffer. In acousmatic art one hears sound from behind a "veil" of loudspeakers, the source cause remaining unseen. The term has also been used by the French writer and composer Michel Chion in reference to the use of off-screen sound in film. More recently, in the article Space-form and the acousmatic image, composer and academic Prof. Denis Smalley has expanded on some of Schaeffers' acousmatic concepts.
Based in San Francisco, with a second location opening in Hong Kong in Fall 2008, Vinfolio’s guiding principle is “Fine wine, finer service,” demonstrating the company’s unparalleled level of personalized customer service and collector services. Vinfolio’s wine store is seamlessly integrated with collector services, all designed to make the wine buying, selling and collecting experience effortless and enjoyable. From an extensive selection of fine wine to VinCellar™, its online cellar management software, to collector services (including on-site inventorying and full-service storage), Vinfolio delivers “Fine wine, finer service”.Vinfolio was founded by Stephen J. Bachmann, who incorporated his expertise in technology and finance with his passion for wine. Having amassed a 7,000 bottle collection, Bachmann realized all too well the challenges of building and managing a wine collection. He launched Vinfolio in 2003 as an integrated solution for serious wine lovers and currently serves as the company’s CEO. As he explains it, “finally the administrative tasks associated with amassing and developing a wine collection can be accomplished with efficiency, expertise and convenience, allowing passionate oenophiles to get back to the fun of collecting and drinking wine.”In addition to its expert staff of oenophiles, Vinfolio has a notable group of advisors with deep expertise in all aspects of the wine industry. These include members of the board of directors and personal investors Jean-Michel Valette, M.W., Former Chairman of Robert Mondavi Winery, Colin Lind, Managing Partner of Blum Capital Partners, L.P and Bill Timken, founding partner of Hambrecht & Quist. In addition, Vinfolio’s board of advisors includes Rajat Parr, wine director for the MICHAEL MINA group; Martine Saunier, founder of Martine’s Wines; Vineyard 29 owner Chuck McMinn; and entrepreneur and collector William J. Shea.
The Mole is a reality television game show which was originally created in 1999 by Woestijnvis and broadcast on VRT in Belgium. It was conceived by Michiel Devlieger, Bart de Pauw, Tom Lenaerts and Michel Vanhove, and won the famous Rose d'Or in Montreux, Switzerland, in 2000. The format has been licensed in 40 countries from all around the world. Players in The Mole must work together to complete various physical and mental challenges to build up a significant cash prize for the winner. One of them, however, is "the Mole", a double agent hired by the producers to sabotage the efforts of the group. The Mole must be careful to avoid drawing too much suspicion to himself or herself. Using journals, players must track vast amounts of data about the person they suspect of being the Mole, such as seating positions, clothing colors, minor discussion topics, and so on. The quiz at the end of each episode tests players' knowledge of the Mole, and determines by lowest score who is eliminated from the game.
Amende honorable was originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender, barefoot and stripped to his shirt, and led into a church or auditory with a torch in his hand and a rope round his neck held by the public executioner, to beg pardon on his knees of his God, his king, and his country; now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. The amende honorable was sometimes incorporated into a larger ritual of capital punishment for parricides and regicides; this is described in the 1975 book Discipline and Punish by Michel Foucault, notably in reference to Robert-François Damiens who was condemned to make the amende honorable before the main door of the Church of Paris in 1757. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed.. "". Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. James and John Knapton, et al. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
AIDES is a French community-based non-profit organisation that was founded in 1984 by Daniel Defert following the death of his lifelong companion Michel Foucault. The name is a word play on aides and AIDS. Its aim is to bring people living with HIV/AIDS together with their loved ones and peers into an organized entity dedicated to fighting HIV/AIDS and to defend the rights of people and communities affected by this disease. As of 2007, AIDES is active in France in 100 cities with 400 staff members and more than 1000 registered and trained volunteers. It is the largest non-governmental organization in France working on HIV issues, by number of activists and budget. It is considered one of the main observers of the epidemic in France. Internationally, AIDES has developed strong partnerships with fellow community-based NGOs in Africa, in Europe and in Canada to strengthen the role of civil society by sharing best practices and to jointly advocate for global access to care and prevention. It also developed a partnership with the UN Programme on HIV/AIDS
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century. Meillet began his studies at the Sorbonne, where he was influenced by Michel Bréal, Ferdinand de Saussure, and the members of the Année Sociologique. In 1890 he was part of a research trip to the Caucasus, where he studied Armenian. After his return, since de Saussure had gone back to Geneva, he continued the series of lectures on comparative grammar that the Swiss linguist had formerly given. Meillet completed his doctorate, Research on the Use of the Genitive-Accusative in Old Slavonic, in 1897. In 1902 he took a chair in Armenian at the École des langues orientales. In 1905 he was elected to the Collège de France, where he taught on the history and structure of Indo-European languages. He worked closely with noted linguists Paul Pelliot and Robert Gauthiot. Today Meillet is remembered as the mentor of an entire generation of linguists and philologists who would become central to French linguistics in the twentieth century, such as Émile Benveniste, Georges Dumézil, and André Martinet.
Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns a central and basic significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place and local culture. As such it is in contrast to individualist theories of knowledges such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of traditions. Historicism therefore tends to be hermeneutical, because it places great importance on cautious, rigorous and contextualized interpretation of information, and/or relativist, because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations. The term has developed different and divergent, though loosely related, meanings. Elements of historicism appear in the writings of Italian philosopher G. B. Vico and French essayist Michel de Montaigne, and became fully developed with the dialectic of G. W. F. Hegel, influential in 19th-century Europe. The writings of Karl Marx, influenced by Hegel, also contain historicism. The term is also associated with the empirical social sciences and the work of Franz Boas. Historicism may be contrasted with reductionist theories, which suppose that all developments can be explained by fundamental principles, or theories that posit historical changes as result of random chance.
AERO is a 2004 album of electronic music by Jean Michel Jarre. It is composed of previously-released tracks re-recorded in 5.1 surround sound plus three new tracks and a bonus live track. All tracks are sewn together through surround-sound "Scenes". The album includes a CD and a DVD; the DVD-Video features Dolby Digital and DTS audio, whereas the CD is in stereo, mixed to give a more spacious impression than usual. On the release of AERO, Jarre commented that he had always envisioned his music in surround; with the advent of the DVD, he could finally release his music the way he wanted. He incorrectly claimed this to be the first recording specifically designed for 5.1 listening. Rings Around The World by the Super Furry Animals was released in 5.1 surround in 2001. Jarre chose the DVD-Video format instead of the higher-quality DVD-Audio or SACD because he claimed that DVD-Video was the most widespread format, with the generalization of home cinema setups. However, DVD-Audio discs are normally authored to provide surround sound compatible with DVD-Video players.
Anggun Cipta Sasmi is an Indonesian and French-naturalised singer-songwriter. Born in Jakarta, she began performing at the age of seven and recorded a children's album two years later. With the help of famed Indonesian producer Ian Antono, in 1986 Anggun released her first rock-influenced studio album, Dunia Aku Punya. She became further well known with the single "Mimpi", which was listed as one of the 150 Greatest Indonesian Songs of All Time by Rolling Stone. She followed it with a series of singles and three more studio albums, which established her as one of the most prominent Indonesian rock stars of the early 1990s. Anggun left Indonesia in 1994 to pursue an international career. After two years struggling in London and Paris, Anggun met French producer Erick Benzi and signed to Sony Music Entertainment. She released her first international album, Snow on the Sahara, in 33 countries worldwide; this album spawned her international signature hit "Snow on the Sahara", which reached number one in several countries. Since her international breakthrough, Anggun has released five studio albums in English and French, as well as a soundtrack album to the Danish film Open Hearts. She has collaborated with a host of international artists, including Julio Iglesias, Peter Gabriel and Pras Michel of the Fugees.
Chinwag is an Internet community based in Soho, London, United Kingdom consisting of new media and digital marketing professionals. Chinwag was founded in 1996 by Sam Michel, and hosts several of the U.K.'s oldest known electronic mailing lists, including uk-netmarketing. These email lists form the center of the community and include contributions from many notable Internet pioneers and commentators including Bill Thompson, Ivan Pope, and Brent Hoberman. A sister-site Chinwag Jobs was launched based on Chinwag's uknm-jobs e-mail list, an email-based announcement service for jobs within the Internet and digital media industries. Chinwag Jobs is a recruitment website, about which discussions have appeared in New Media Age. Chinwag also hosts monthly events under the brand Chinwag Live. These events are informal, panel-based sessions focusing on issues affecting the new media industry. Past speakers include Andrew Orlowski of The Register and Neville Hobson. Chinwag is also known for its periodic, large-scale networking evenings. The company also a series of trade missions for UK Trade & Investment, specifically design for companies operating in the digital sector. Digital Missions to date are:
Post-structuralism is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to international prominence in the 1960s and '70s. A major theme of poststructuralism is instability in the human sciences, due to the complexity of humans themselves and the impossibility of fully escaping structures in order to study them. Post-structuralism is a response to structuralism. Structuralism is an intellectual movement developed in Europe from the early to mid-20th century. It argued that human culture may be understood by means of a structure—modeled on language —that differs from concrete reality and from abstract ideas—a "third order" that mediates between the two. Post-structuralist authors all present different critiques of structuralism, but common themes include the rejection of the self-sufficiency of the structures that structuralism posits and an interrogation of the binary oppositions that constitute those structures. Writers whose work is often characterised as post-structuralist include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler, Jacques Lacan, Jean Baudrillard, and Julia Kristeva, although many theorists who have been called "post-structuralist" have rejected the label.
Adansonia is a genus of eight species of tree, six native to Madagascar, one native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and one to Australia. The mainland African species also occurs on Madagascar, but it is not a native of that island, and was introduced in ancient times to south Asia and during the colonial era to the Caribbean. A ninth species was identified in 2012, incorporating upland populations of southern and eastern Africa. A typical common name is baobab. Other common names include boab, boaboa, tabaldi, bottle tree, upside-down tree, and monkey bread tree. The generic name honours Michel Adanson, the French naturalist and explorer who described Adansonia digitata. Adansonias reach heights of 5 to 30 m and have trunk diameters of 7 to 11 m. Glencoe baobab – an African baobab specimen in Limpopo Province, South Africa, often considered the largest example alive – up to recent times had a circumference of 47 m. Its diameter is estimated at about 15.9 m. Recently the tree split up into two parts and it is possible that the stoutest tree now is Sunland baobab, also in South Africa. The diameter of this tree is 10.64 m, with an approximate circumference of 33.4 m.
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football in Europe and, partially, Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of fifty-four national associations members. UEFA represents the national football associations of Europe, runs nation and club competitions including the UEFA European Championship, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, and UEFA Super Cup, and controls the prize money, regulations and media rights to those competitions. UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel after consultation between the Italian, French, and Belgian associations. Initially, the European football union consisted of 25 members which number doubled by the early 1990s. Not all sovereign countries of Europe are members of UEFA, yet all non-members are micro states. Several Asian countries were also admitted to the European football association, particularly Israel and Kazakhstan, which had been members of the Asian football association. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, and later in Bern. Since 1995, UEFA headquarters transferred to Nyon, Switzerland. Henri Delaunay was the first General Secretary and Ebbe Schwartz the first president. The current president is Michel Platini.
Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinized as Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with much of the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events. Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power. Nevertheless, occasional commentators have successfully used a process of free interpretation and determined 'twisting' of his words to predict an apparently imminent event. In 1867, three years before it happened, for example, Le Pelletier did so to anticipate either the triumph or the defeat of Napoleon III in a war that, in the event, begged to be identified as the Franco-Prussian war, while admitting that he could not specify either which or when.
Kalanchoe, also written Kalanchöe or Kalanchoë, is a genus of about 125 species of tropical, succulent flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, mainly native to the Old World but with a few species now growing wild in the New World following introduction of the species. Most are shrubs or perennial herbaceous plants, but a few are annual or biennial. The largest, Kalanchoe beharensis from Madagascar, can reach 6 m tall, but most species are less than 1 m tall. Kalanchoes are characterized by opening their flowers by growing new cells on the inner surface of the petals to force them outwards, and on the outside of the petals to close them. The genus was first described by the botanist Michel Adanson in 1763. Reportedly, the name came "from the Chinese name for one of the species." This Chinese species is thought to have been either Kalanchoe ceratophylla or Kalanchoe spathulata. Kalanchoe ceratophylla is called 伽蓝菜 in China, not very close in pronunciation: qiélán cài or jia lan cai depending on the romanisation. The genus Bryophyllum was described by Salisbury in 1806 and the genus Kitchingia was created by Baker in 1881. Kitchingia is now regarded as a synonym for Kalanchoe, whereas some botanists treat Bryophyllum as a separate genus.
Cenovis is a product based on yeast extract similar to Marmite and Vegemite, rich in vitamin B1. In the form of a dark brown food paste, it is used to flavour soups, sausages, and salads. The most popular way to consume Cenovis, however, is to spread it on a slice of buttered bread, as stated on the product's packaging. Cenovis is popular in Switzerland,. It was developed in Rheinfelden in 1931, on the initiative of a master brewer called Alex Villinger, and was subsequently produced by the company Cenovis SA. In 1999, a trio of entrepreneurs from Geneva, Michel Yagchi, Didier Fischer and Frank Guemara purchased the brand and relaunched it applying modern marketing methods. On 29 February 2008, the three entrepreneurs transferred the brand, acquired in 1999, to the Gustav Gerig AG, an Aargau company, and the product thereby returned to its canton of origin. The company presents the following story behind Cenovis: "In 1931, a brewer recycled the yeast used for the fermentation of beer: vegetal substances very rich in vitamin B1. After several tests, the product was perfected and a group of Swiss brewers launched Cenovis; the product was an immediate success and the famous spread was so good that from 1955 it was included in the rations for Swiss soldiers... Healthy and strong soldiers!"
Monte Carlo officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name also refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues also includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, and Saint Michel. The permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, and Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the western end of the quarter is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth". It is also the location of the Hôtel de Paris, the Café de Paris, and the Salle Garnier. The eastern part of the quarter includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, and the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort. At its eastern border one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, and just 5 miles further east is the western border of Italy.
Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain in upstate New York in the United States. It was constructed by Canadien Michel Chartier de Lotbinière, Marquis de Lotbinière between 1754 and 1757 during the Seven Years' War, often referred to as the French and Indian War in the USA. It was of strategic importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France, and again played a role during the American Revolutionary War. The site controlled a river portage alongside the mouth of the rapids-infested La Chute River in the 3.5 miles between Lake Champlain and Lake George and was strategically placed in conflicts over trade routes between the British-controlled Hudson River Valley and the French-controlled Saint Lawrence River Valley. The terrain amplified the importance of the site. Both lakes were long and narrow, oriented north–south, as were the many ridge lines of the Appalachian Mountains extending as far south as Georgia, creating the near-impassable mountainous terrains to the east and west of the Great Appalachian Valley that the site commanded. The name "Ticonderoga" comes from the Iroquois word tekontaró:ken, meaning "it is at the junction of two waterways".
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe. A thin sliver of rock is cut from the sample with a diamond saw and ground optically flat. It is then mounted on a glass slide and then ground smooth using progressively finer abrasive grit until the sample is only 30 μm thick. The method involved using the Michel-Lévy interference colour chart. Typically quartz is used as the gauge to determine thickness as it is one of the most abundant minerals. When placed between two polarizing filters set at right angles to each other, the optical properties of the minerals in the thin section alter the colour and intensity of the light as seen by the viewer. As different minerals have different optical properties, most rock forming minerals can be easily identified. Plagioclase for example can be seen in the photo on the right as a clear mineral with multiple parallel twinning planes. The large blue-green minerals are clinopyroxene with some exsolution of orthopyroxene. Thin sections are prepared in order to investigate the optical properties of the minerals in the rock. This work is a part of petrology and helps to reveal the origin and evolution of the parent rock.
Armata Corsa was an underground separatist terrorist organization in Corsica, today disbanded. Armata Corsa was founded in 1999. Its suspected leaders, François Santoni and Jean-Michel Rossi, allegedly resigned from another organization National Liberation Front of Corsica the previous year to form their own group. The organization claims that it acts against links between nationalistic and criminal organizations in Corsica. It denounces mafia-style activities of groups like FLNC and regards itself as the only one serving a pure nationalist cause. Its stated goals include destruction of Corsican organized crime and the nationalist groups involved with it; transfer of Corsican terrorists currently incarcerated in French prisons to Corsica; and Corsican independence. The first acts of terrorism the group claimed responsibility for were five bomb attacks against Departmental Amenities Directorate buildings in Ajaccio, Calvi, Corte, Porto-Vecchio and Sartène. Two days later police also found an unexploded bomb in Bastia. Two months later there was an explosion in Bonifacio that destroyed a hotel owned by Italians. Corsica is the main area of AC activities although they have claimed responsibility of some explosions in mainland France as well. They target public infrastructure, banks, tourists, police and army buildings and targets they regards as symbols of French power over Corsica.
Lui is a French adult entertainment magazine created in November 1963 by Daniel Filipacchi, a fashion photographer turned publisher, Jacques Lanzmann, a jack of all trades turned novelist, and Frank Ténot, a press agent, pataphysician and jazz critic.. The objective was to bring some charm "à la française" to the market of men's magazines, following the success of Playboy in the USA, launched just a decade before. France, indeed, in the first half of 20th century had an outstanding reputation for erotic publications, feeding also foreign market and inspiring also ersatz French-flavoured magazines abroad, when, for example, US publishers used French-sounding titles like Chère and Dreamé or placed tricolour flags on the covers, attempting to attract the casual buyer. It was anyway a semi-clandestine circulating material, not allowed to be freely displayed or openly bought. In this sense Playboy changed the way 'soft-pornography', can be publicly circulated. This magazine was particularly successful from its origins to the early eighties, afterwards it began a long decline. It was published regularly till November 1987. After 1987 there was a further attempt to relaunch the title but the publication ceased again in 1994. Passed into the hands of the media group of Michel Birnbaum, after a transient stimulus, it became a pornographic magazine with episodic dissemination. It was published every three months.
Rendez-Vous is an album of instrumental electronic music composed and produced by Jean Michel Jarre, and released on Disques Dreyfus, licensed to Polydor, in 1986. It is his fifth overall studio album. It sold some three million copies worldwide and remains Jarre's longest-running chart album in both the U.S. and UK, with a 20 week run in the U.S. and an impressive 38 week run in the UK. The last track on the album was supposed to have the saxophone part played in outer space by astronaut Ron McNair, but on January 28, 1986 he and the entire Space Shuttle Challenger crew were killed. 73 seconds after lift-off the shuttle disintegrated. In memory, this piece was dedicated to him. On the album the saxophone part is played by saxophonist Pierre Gossez. The album reached #9 in the UK charts and #52 in the U.S. charts. In April 1986, Jarre performed the large-scale outdoor concert Rendez-vous Houston in Houston, Texas, celebrating the 150th anniversary of the founding of Texas, and the 25th anniversary of NASA. The show attracted a then-world record live audience of 1.3 million people. Originally, the track Last Rendez Vous was due to be played by saxophonist astronaut Ron McNair via a live link with the Challenger space shuttle. However, after the Challenger disaster, the concert became a part-tribute to the lost astronauts.
Abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a term in field fortification for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are usually interlaced or tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with wire entanglements and other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, and as recently as the American Civil War. Abatis is rarely seen nowadays, having been largely replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may be used as a replacement or supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. A classic use of an abatis was found at the Battle of the Chateauguay, 26 October 1813, when approximately 1,300 Canadian voltigeurs, under the command of Charles-Michel de Salaberry, defeated an American corps of approximately 4,000 men. Another striking example was its use by Alexander Macomb in the stunning victory at the Battle of Plattsburgh. An important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is that it can be destroyed by fire. Also, if laced together with rope instead of wire, the rope can be very quickly destroyed by such fires, after which the abatis can be quickly pulled apart by grappling hooks thrown from a safe distance.
Interpellation is a concept in Marxist social and political theory associated in particular with the work of the philosopher Louis Althusser. Althusser used the term interpellation to describe the process by which ideology, embodied in major social and political institutions, constitutes the nature of individual subjects' identities through the very process of institutions and discourses of 'hailing' them in social interactions. Althusser thus goes against the classical definition of the subject as cause and substance: emphasising instead how the situation always precedes the subject, which precisely as subject is "always-already interpellated". Individual subjects are presented principally as produced by social forces, rather than acting as powerful independent agents with self-produced identities. Althusser's argument here strongly draws from Jacques Lacan's concept of the mirror stage. Althusser's concept has been roundly confused over the last decades with concepts and thinking associated with Michel Foucault, in part because both thinkers manifest an antihumanist insistence on the secondary status of the subject as mere effect of social relations and not vice versa. Another source of this confusion, as elaborated in an article by Keith Sawyer is the shared use of the word but different concepts of discourse. Interpellation, Althusser's idea based on Lacan, specifically involves the moment and process of recognition of interaction with the ideology at hand. Foucault eschews the notion of ideology and his quasi-structuralist analytics are quite antithetical to Lacanian notions of the Real, the Symbolic, and the Imaginary.
The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans. The type species within the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca, lactuca being Latin for "lettuce". The genus also includes the species previously classified under the genus Enteromorpha, the former members of which are known under the common name green nori. Sea lettuce is eaten by a number of different sea animals, including manatees and the sea slugs known as sea hares. Many species of sea lettuce are a food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan. Sea lettuce as a food for humans is eaten raw in salads and cooked in soups. It is high in protein, soluble dietary fiber, and a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron. Individual blades of Ulva can grow to be more than 400mm in size, but this only occurs when the plants are growing in sheltered areas. In August 2009, unprecedented amounts of these algae washed up on the beaches of Brittany, France, causing a major public health scare as it decomposed. The rotting leaves produced large quantities of hydrogen sulphide, a toxic gas. In one incident near Saint-Michel-en-Grève, a horse rider lost consciousness and his horse died after breathing the seaweed fumes; in another, a lorry driver driving a load of decomposing sea lettuce passed out, crashed and died, with toxic fumes claimed to be the cause. Environmentalists blamed the phenomenon on excessive use of nitrates by pig and poultry farmers.
Spatialization can refer to the spatial forms that social activities and material things, phenomena or processes take on. This term related to geography, sociology, urban planning and cultural studies. Generally the term refers to an overall sense of social space typical of a time, place or culture. Cognitive maps are one aspect of spatialization, which also includes everyday practice, institutionalized representations and the imagination of possible spatial worlds. See also geographical space, Henri Lefebvre. The origins of the term are in Rob Shields 1985, Introduction to a Précis of Henri Lefebvre's La Production de l'espace. where social spatialization is proposed as an English translation of Henri Lefebvre's French term "l'espace". However, Shields embues the concept with a sense of being a general, socio-cultural attribute, as in the work of Michel Foucault who makes 1 mention of the term but does not theorize it rather than a spatial regime that is dialectically produced as part of a Marxist mode of production. Social spatializations are virtual but manifest materially, in discourse and as frames through which problems are understood. Following Foucault they are cultural formations relevant at many scales, from gestures and bodily comportment to geopolitical relationships between States. On one hand, spatializations are achieved, hegemonic regimes which place and space activities in sites and regions. But on the other hand, spatializations are continually in change as they depend on and reflect peoples' ongoing performative actualizations of these spatial orders or regimes. However they are contested and the focus of struggles over the meaning of places, or manners, or over the reputation of neighbourhoods.
In critical theory, structuralism is a theoretical paradigm emphasizing that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternately, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, Structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture". Structuralism originated in the early 1900s, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and the subsequent Prague, Moscow and Copenhagen schools of linguistics. In the late 1950s and early '60s, when structural linguistics was facing serious challenges from the likes of Noam Chomsky and thus fading in importance, an array of scholars in the humanities borrowed Saussure's concepts for use in their respective fields of study. French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss was arguably the first such scholar, sparking a widespread interest in Structuralism. The structuralist mode of reasoning has been applied in a diverse range of fields, including anthropology, sociology, psychology, literary criticism, economics and architecture. The most prominent thinkers associated with structuralism include Lévi-Strauss, linguist Roman Jakobson, and psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. As an intellectual movement, structuralism was initially presumed to be the heir apparent to existentialism. However, by the late 1960s, many of structuralism's basic tenets came under attack from a new wave of predominantly French intellectuals such as the philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, the philosopher and social commentator Jacques Derrida, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, and the literary critic Roland Barthes. Though elements of their work necessarily relate to structuralism and are informed by it, these theorists have generally been referred to as post-structuralists.