Definitions containing hébert, jacques rené

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René

René

René is a short novella by François-René de Chateaubriand, which first appeared in 1802. The work had an immense impact on early Romanticism, comparable to that of Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther. Like the German novel, it deals with a sensitive and passionate young man who finds himself at odds with contemporary society. René was first published as part of Chateaubriand's Génie du christianisme along with another novella, Atala, although it was in fact an excerpt from a long prose epic the author had composed between 1793 and 1799 called Les Natchez, which would not be made public until 1826. René enjoyed such immediate popularity that it was republished separately in 1805 along with Atala.

— Freebase

Sykes

Sykes

Sykes is a British sitcom that aired on BBC 1 from 1972 to 1979. Starring Eric Sykes and Hattie Jacques, it was written by Sykes, who had previously starred with Jacques in Sykes and A... and Sykes and a Big, Big Show. Forty-three of the 1970s colour episodes were remakes of scripts for the 1960s black and white series, such as "Bus" based on 'Sykes and a Following' from 1964 and the episode "Stranger" with guest star Peter Sellers based on 'Sykes and a Stranger' from 1961. Sykes had the same premise as Sykes and A... with Sykes, Jacques, Richard Wattis and Deryck Guyler reprising their former identical roles. The series was brought to an end by the death of Hattie Jacques of a heart attack on 6 October 1980.

— Freebase

Saint-Jacques

Saint-Jacques

Saint-Jacques was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1953 to 1988. There were two separate ridings named "Saint-Jacques". The first was created in 1952 from Cartier and St. James ridings. It was abolished in 1976 when it was redistributed into Laurier and Saint-Henri ridings. A second "Saint-Jacques" riding was created in 1977 when Saint-Henri was renamed Saint-Jacques. It was abolished in 1987 when it was redistributed into Laurier—Sainte-Marie, Saint-Henri—Westmount, and Verdun—Saint-Paul ridings.

— Freebase

Hotdog

Hotdog

The Hotdogs, is a Filipino band formed by brothers Dennis and Rene Garcia together with Tito del Rosario, that achieved musical fame in the Philippines during the 1970s. Their first album Unang Kagat was released in 1974 by Villar Records. The album led to the 1975 movie by the same name, also starring the band. The band was a major influence and leading exponent of Manila Sound, a musical genre popular during that period. Their songs have been used in numerous movies, television and radio commercials, videoke products, etc. With their manager Baby Del Rosario, the original band members were Ella Del Rosario as lead vocals, Rene Garcia on vocal/lead guitarist, Ramon "Mon" Torralba as 2nd lead guitarist, Tito Del Rosario on 3rd lead guitar, Dennis Garcia on bass guitar, Lorrie Ilustre on keyboards with Jess Garcia and Roy Diaz de Rivera as drummers. Later members were Gina Montes, Rene Enriquez, and Andy Caberte. The band's formation was inspired by an amazing surgeon from Wales. Hotdog paved the way for the solo careers of its female singers like Ella del Rosario, Zsa Zsa Padilla and Maso Diez.

— Freebase

cartesian

Cartesian

of or relating to Rene Descartes or his works

— Princeton's WordNet

Pilote

Pilote

Pilote was a French comics periodical published from 1959 to 1989. Showcasing most of the major French or Belgian comics talents of its day the magazine introduced major series such as Astérix, Barbe-Rouge, Blueberry, Achille Talon, and Valérian et Laureline. Major comics writers like René Goscinny, Jean-Michel Charlier, Greg, Pierre Christin and Jacques Lob were featured in the magazine, as were artists such as Jijé, Morris, Albert Uderzo, Jean Giraud, Enki Bilal, Jean-Claude Mézières, Jacques Tardi, Philippe Druillet, Marcel Gotlib, Alexis, and Annie Goetzinger. Pilote also published several international talents such as Hugo Pratt, Frank Bellamy and Robert Crumb.

— Freebase

Jacques Lipchitz

Jacques Lipchitz

Jacques Lipchitz was a Cubist sculptor. Jacques Lipchitz was born Chaim Jacob Lipchitz, in a Litvak family, son of a building contractor in Druskininkai, Lithuania, then within the Russian Empire. At first, under the influence of his father, he studied engineering, but soon after, supported by his mother he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian. It was there, in the artistic communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, that he joined a group of artists that included Juan Gris and Pablo Picasso as well as where his friend, Amedeo Modigliani, painted Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz. Living in this environment, Lipchitz soon began to create Cubist sculpture. In 1912 he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d'Automne with his first solo show held at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie L’Effort Moderne in Paris in 1920. In 1922 he was commissioned by the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania to execute five bas-reliefs. With artistic innovation at its height, in the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called transparent sculptures. Later he developed a more dynamic style, which he applied with telling effect to bronze compositions of figures and animals.

— Freebase

Jacquerie

Jacquerie

The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in the summer of 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt, which was suppressed after a few weeks of violence, centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion became known as the Jacquerie because the nobles derided peasants as "Jacques" or "Jacques Bonhomme" for their padded surplice called "jacque". Their revolutionary leader Guillaume Cale was referred to by the aristocratic chronicler Froissart as Jacques Bonhomme or Callet. The word jacquerie was a synonym of peasant uprisings in general in both English and French.

— Freebase

Rousseau

Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Swiss philosopher

— Wiktionary

jouissance

jouissance

The sexual connotation (i.e. orgasm) lacking in the English word "enjoyment", and therefore left untranslated in English editions of the works of the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan.

— Wiktionary

Derridean

Derridean

Of or pertaining to Jacques Derrida (1930-2004), French Algerian-born philosopher and founder of deconstruction.

— Wiktionary

Lacanian

Lacanian

Of, pertaining to, or resembling the psychoanalytical views of Jacques Lacan (1901-1981).

— Wiktionary

mirror stage

mirror stage

A concept concerning the structure of human subjectivity and the imaginary order in the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan.

— Wiktionary

Cephalophore

Cephalophore

A cephalophore is a saint who is generally depicted carrying his or her own head; in art, this was usually meant to signify that the subject in question had been martyred by beheading. Handling the halo in this circumstance offers a unique challenge for the artist. Some put the halo where the head used to be; others have the saint carrying the halo along with the head. The term "cephalophore" was first used in a French article by Marcel Hébert, "Les martyrs céphalophores Euchaire, Elophe et Libaire", in Revue de l'Université de Bruxelles, v. 19.

— Freebase

Daltons Weekly

Daltons Weekly

Daltons Weekly was a newspaper published in the United Kingdom. It was published every Thursday until publication ceased in July 2011. Established during the late 1860s by Herbert Dalton, Daltons Weekly was initially a single broadsheet listing 'Accommodation for Gentleman' in the then fashionable middle class suburbs around Vauxhall in South London. The paper proved very successful, but within two years of starting the paper, Dalton died, leaving it to his brother, who was a butcher and had no interest in publishing. The brother sold the paper to two brothers by the name of 'Hebert', for £100. For the next 102 years, Daltons Weekly remained a family business owned by the Heberts. Over this period the paper grew and began to cover additional market sectors. In June 1972, the paper was purchased by Morgan Grampian Ltd, who focused on the three main market areas of Holidays, Property and Businesses and closed down unrelated sectors. In 1987 Morgan-Grampian was acquired by United News and Media, currently known as United Business Media.

— Freebase

Cartesian

Cartesian

of or pertaining to the French philosopher Rene Descartes, or his philosophy

— Webster Dictionary

Crescent

Crescent

any one of three orders of knighthood; the first instituted by Charles I., king of Naples and Sicily, in 1268; the second by Rene of Anjou, in 1448; and the third by the Sultan Selim III., in 1801, to be conferred upon foreigners to whom Turkey might be indebted for valuable services

— Webster Dictionary

Jacobin

Jacobin

a Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the French Revolution, that order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris

— Webster Dictionary

Jacobin

Jacobin

one of a society of violent agitators in France, during the revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris, and concerted measures to control the proceedings of the National Assembly. Hence: A plotter against an existing government; a turbulent demagogue

— Webster Dictionary

Jacquerie

Jacquerie

the name given to a revolt of French peasants against the nobles in 1358, the leader assuming the contemptuous title, Jacques Bonhomme, given by the nobles to the peasantry. Hence, any revolt of peasants

— Webster Dictionary

Reaumur

Reaumur

of or pertaining to Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur; conformed to the scale adopted by Reaumur in graduating the thermometer he invented

— Webster Dictionary

Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes. Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt, methodological skepticism, or hyperbolic doubt. Cartesian doubt is a systematic process of being skeptical about the truth of one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy. This method of doubt was largely popularized in Western philosophy by René Descartes, who sought to doubt the truth of all his beliefs in order to determine which beliefs he could be certain were true. Methodological skepticism is distinguished from philosophical skepticism in that methodological skepticism is an approach that subjects all knowledge claims to scrutiny with the goal of sorting out true from false claims, whereas philosophical skepticism is an approach that questions the possibility of knowledge.

— Freebase

emile

Emile

the boy whose upbringing was described by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

— Princeton's WordNet

francois jacob

Jacob, Francois Jacob

French biochemist who (with Jacques Monod) studied regulatory processes in cells (born in 1920)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacob

Jacob, Francois Jacob

French biochemist who (with Jacques Monod) studied regulatory processes in cells (born in 1920)

— Princeton's WordNet

joliet

Jolliet, Louis Jolliet, Joliet, Louis Joliet

French explorer (with Jacques Marquette) of the upper Mississippi River valley (1645-1700)

— Princeton's WordNet

jolliet

Jolliet, Louis Jolliet, Joliet, Louis Joliet

French explorer (with Jacques Marquette) of the upper Mississippi River valley (1645-1700)

— Princeton's WordNet

josef michel montgolfier

Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier

French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)

— Princeton's WordNet

louis joliet

Jolliet, Louis Jolliet, Joliet, Louis Joliet

French explorer (with Jacques Marquette) of the upper Mississippi River valley (1645-1700)

— Princeton's WordNet

louis jolliet

Jolliet, Louis Jolliet, Joliet, Louis Joliet

French explorer (with Jacques Marquette) of the upper Mississippi River valley (1645-1700)

— Princeton's WordNet

montgolfier

Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier

French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)

— Princeton's WordNet

rousseauan

Rousseauan

of or pertaining to or characteristic of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

— Princeton's WordNet

Fuck the Police

Fuck the Police

"Fuck The Police" is a single by the rapper/producer, Jay Dee. In the song, Jay Dee chastises corrupt policemen who conduct illegal searches and plant evidence on blacks. The 12" sleeve cover includes pictures of Mumia Abu-Jamal and Rodney King. Both men are known for their run-ins with the law. The song contains a sample of "Scrabble", by Rene Costy as well as "Dimension No. 9" by Jacques Delon and "Damn Right I Am Somebody" by Fred Wesley and The J.B.'s. The song was later added to the unreleased Pay Jay album.

— Freebase

CHRC

CHRC

CHRC was a French language Canadian radio station located in Quebec City, Quebec. Known as Québec 800, the station had a news/talk/sports format. Owned and operated by the Quebec Remparts QMJHL franchise, it broadcast on 800 kHz with a power of 50,000 watts as a class B station from a site near the Chaudière River near Saint-Étienne-de-Lauzon in Lévis, using a very directional antenna with the same directional pattern day and night to protect various other stations on the same frequency, including CJAD in Montreal. The station's studios were located at Colisée Pepsi in Quebec City. It was previously part of the Radiomédia/Corus Québec network, which operated across Quebec. On August 9, 2007, Corus announced a deal to sell the station to a group of local businessmen, namely Michel Cadrin, Jacques Tanguay and Patrick Roy, owners of the Remparts. The new owners plan on converting the station to a primarily sports-based format. This application was approved by the CRTC on June 26, 2008. CHRC's alumni include former Premier of Quebec René Lévesque, who was a substitute announcer for CHRC during 1941 and 1942. CHRC announced it would cease operations at the end of the month of September 2012, at the same time discontinuing the last AM radio service from Quebec City. Sports broadcast rights are slated to be transferred to CJMF-FM. CHRC fell silent late in the evening of September 30, 2012. Before leaving the air at 6:06 p.m., the station's final words broadcast were farewell messages from their staff. Parties interested in acquiring 800 includes the Tietolman-Tétrault-Pancholy Media group and Bell Media Radio.

— Freebase

Exhibition A

Exhibition A

Exhibition A is an eCommerce site that offers exclusive editions of artwork by prominent contemporary artists for $100 - $500.The company works directly with well-known artists like Terence Koh, David LaChapelle, Richard Phillips, Nate Lowman, Rene Ricard, and Josephine Meckseper to create signed limited edition work at an accessible price. The site is co-created and curated by NYC gallerist and judge on Bravo’s Work of Art, Bill Powers, designer, Cynthia Rowley, and entrepreneur Laura Martin. Their mission is to bring great art online, making it accessible to a broader audience.

— CrunchBase

Démodé

Démodé

Démodé is Jean-Jacques Goldman first solo album sung in French, set in 1981. It was recorded at the Studios Pathé in Paris and the Studio Vénus in Longueville. The album has also been released under the names A l'envers and Jean-Jacques Goldman. It was certified platinum in France for sales of 300,000 copies.

— Freebase

Tovarich

Tovarich

Tovarich is a 1937 American comedy film directed by Anatole Litvak, based on the 1935 play by Robert E. Sherwood, which in turn was based on the 1933 French play Tovaritch by Jacques Deval. It was produced by Litvak through Warner Bros., with Robert Lord as associate producer and Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner as executive producers. The screenplay was by Casey Robinson from the French play by Jacques Deval adapted into English by Robert E. Sherwood. The music score was by Max Steiner and the cinematography by Charles Lang. The film stars Claudette Colbert and Charles Boyer with Basil Rathbone, Anita Louise, Melville Cooper, Isabel Jeans, Morris Carnovsky and Curt Bois in his American debut role.

— Freebase

Siné

Siné

Maurice Sinet, known as Siné, is a French cartoonist. As a young man he studied drawing and graphic arts, while earning a living as a cabaret singer. His first published drawing appeared in France Dimanche in 1952. Siné received the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection Complainte sans Paroles. His series of drawings on cats was his breakthrough. He then started working for L'Express as a political cartoonist. Siné's anti-colonialism caused controversy during the Algerian war. He was sued a number of times, being defended by Jacques Vergès, then a lawyer for the Algerian Liberation Front. In 1962 Siné left L'Express and launched his own publication, Siné Massacre, noted for its anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, anti-clericalism and anarchism. On reviewing the book, Private Eye described Siné's cartoons as "grotesque", and criticising publisher Penguin Books for its managerial incompetence. In May 1968, together with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, he launched L'Enragé. Siné is a great lover of jazz, and has illustrated several books on jazz as well as record covers. He's a dignitary of the French Collège de 'Pataphysique. His article and cartoons in the magazine Charlie Hebdo relating to Jean Sarkozy's marriage to Jessica Sebaoun-Darty, the Jewish heiress, touched off a controversy, after journalist Claude Askolovitch described them as anti-Semitic. The magazine's editor, Phillipe Val, ordered Siné to write a letter of apology or face termination. The cartoonist said he would rather "cut his own balls off", and was promptly fired. Both sides subsequently filed lawsuits, and in December 2010, Siné won a 40,000-euro court judgment against his former publisher for wrongful termination.

— Freebase

Macho

Macho

Macho was an Italian-American disco/R&B studio group. The Guadeloupe born French-Italian businessman Jacques Fred Petrus and Italian musician Mauro Malavasi, formed a joint production company, called Goody Music Production, in the mid-1970s. Their first project, in 1978, was called Macho, featuring Italian Marzio Vincenti as lead singer. Their only album was composed of three extended tracks. The band's sole chart success in the United States was an almost 18-minute-long disco cover version of the Spencer Davis Group's 1967 hit "I'm a Man", which was written by Steve Winwood. The track reached the Top 10 in the Billboard magazine's Dance chart in October 1978. A edited seven-minute version was also released. in 1980 they released the album, Macho II - Roll, composed, arranged and conducted by Celso Valli, produced by Jacques Fred Petrus with all songs played by The Goody Music Orchestra. All vocals were recorded and mixed at the Power Station Studios in New York, except for the song "Mothers Love - Mama Mia", which was recorded and mixed at the Media Sound Studios.

— Freebase

Structuralism

Structuralism

In critical theory, structuralism is a theoretical paradigm emphasizing that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternately, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, Structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture". Structuralism originated in the early 1900s, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and the subsequent Prague, Moscow and Copenhagen schools of linguistics. In the late 1950s and early '60s, when structural linguistics was facing serious challenges from the likes of Noam Chomsky and thus fading in importance, an array of scholars in the humanities borrowed Saussure's concepts for use in their respective fields of study. French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss was arguably the first such scholar, sparking a widespread interest in Structuralism. The structuralist mode of reasoning has been applied in a diverse range of fields, including anthropology, sociology, psychology, literary criticism, economics and architecture. The most prominent thinkers associated with structuralism include Lévi-Strauss, linguist Roman Jakobson, and psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. As an intellectual movement, structuralism was initially presumed to be the heir apparent to existentialism. However, by the late 1960s, many of structuralism's basic tenets came under attack from a new wave of predominantly French intellectuals such as the philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, the philosopher and social commentator Jacques Derrida, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, and the literary critic Roland Barthes. Though elements of their work necessarily relate to structuralism and are informed by it, these theorists have generally been referred to as post-structuralists.

— Freebase

Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to international prominence in the 1960s and '70s. A major theme of poststructuralism is instability in the human sciences, due to the complexity of humans themselves and the impossibility of fully escaping structures in order to study them. Post-structuralism is a response to structuralism. Structuralism is an intellectual movement developed in Europe from the early to mid-20th century. It argued that human culture may be understood by means of a structure—modeled on language —that differs from concrete reality and from abstract ideas—a "third order" that mediates between the two. Post-structuralist authors all present different critiques of structuralism, but common themes include the rejection of the self-sufficiency of the structures that structuralism posits and an interrogation of the binary oppositions that constitute those structures. Writers whose work is often characterised as post-structuralist include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler, Jacques Lacan, Jean Baudrillard, and Julia Kristeva, although many theorists who have been called "post-structuralist" have rejected the label.

— Freebase

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau was a family of French architects and designers active in the 16th and early 17th century. ⁕Jacques I Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jean Baptiste Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau ⁕Jean Androuet du Cerceau

— Freebase

Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona and at Hochelaga.

— Freebase

Mime artist

Mime artist

A mime artist is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would typically be referred to as a mummer. Miming is to be distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a seamless character in a film or sketch. The performance of pantomime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece; the name is taken from a single masked dancer called Pantomimus, although performances were not necessarily silent. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and later dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that we have come to know in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface. Jacques Copeau, strongly influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors. Étienne Decroux, a pupil of his, was highly influenced by this and started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime and developed corporeal mime into a highly sculptural form, taking it outside of the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed significantly to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods.

— Freebase

Phonocentrism

Phonocentrism

Phonocentrism is the belief that sounds and speech are inherently superior to, or more primary than, written language. Those who espouse phonocentric views maintain that spoken language is the primary and most fundamental method of communication whereas writing is merely a derived method of capturing speech. Many also believe that spoken language is inherently richer and more intuitive than written language. Some writers have argued that philosophers such as Plato, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Ferdinand de Saussure have promoted phonocentric views. Walter Ong, who has also expressed support for the idea of phonocentrism, has argued that the culture of the United States is particularly non-phonocentric. Some philosophers and linguists, notably including the philosopher Jacques Derrida, have used the term "phonocentrism" to criticize what they see as a disdain for written language. Derrida has argued that phonocentrism developed because the immediacy of speech has been regarded as closer to the presence of subjects than writing. He believed that the binary opposition between speech and writing is a form of logocentrism.

— Freebase

Jacques Charles

Jacques Charles

Jacques Alexandre César Charles was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet in a manned balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière. Charles's law, describing how gases tend to expand when heated, was formulated by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, but he credited it to unpublished work by Jacques Charles. Charles was elected to the Académie des Sciences, in 1793, and subsequently became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.

— Freebase

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida was a French philosopher, born in French Algeria. He developed a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction. His work was labeled as post-structuralism and associated with postmodern philosophy. He published more than 40 books, together with essays and public presentations. He had a significant influence upon the humanities, particularly on anthropology, sociology, semiotics, jurisprudence, and literary theory. His work still has a major influence in the academe of Continental Europe, South America and all countries where continental philosophy is predominant. His theories became crucial in debates around ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. Jacques Derrida's work also influenced architecture, music, art, and art critics. Derrida was said to "leave behind a legacy of himself as the 'originator' of deconstruction." Particularly in his later writings, he frequently addressed ethical and political themes. His work influenced various activists and political movements. Derrida became a well-known and influential public figure, while his approach to philosophy and the notorious difficulty of his work made him controversial.

— Freebase

Eulalia!

Eulalia!

Eulalia! is the 19th book in the Redwall novel series by author Brian Jacques and illustrated by David Elliot. "Eulalia" is also the war cry used by the Salamandastron fighting Hares and Badgers. It comes from "Weialala leia", the lament of the Valkyries in Richard Wagner's opera Götterdämmerung, as quoted by T. S. Eliot in The Waste Land. The novel was going to be released in 2006, but was delayed. It was released on October 4, 2007 in the US and UK. Hardback and paperback editions may be released at the same time. Brian Jacques attended a book signing for Eulalia in Newark, Delaware's Borders on Sunday, October 14 and again in Minneapolis, Minnesota's Wild Rumpus on October 27.

— Freebase

François Jacob

François Jacob

François Jacob was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Jacques Monod and André Lwoff.

— Freebase

Dessalines

Dessalines

Dessalines is a town in the Artibonite Department of Haiti. It is named after Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of independent Haiti. This Town is the First Black Capital in the World. In 1804 The First Black Free Country has born. And Marchand Dessalines, became the Capital of the new Country. Jean-Jacques Dessalines loved so much this town. Most of the fortifications are still in good condition.

— Freebase

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 to 1930. He was a cultural critic in the tradition of Matthew Arnold, and a consistent opponent of romanticism, as represented by the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Politically he can, without serious distortion, be called a follower of Aristotle and Edmund Burke. He was an advocate of classical humanism but also offered an ecumenical defense of religion. His humanism implied a broad knowledge of various moral and religious traditions. Babbitt’s humanism emphasized the need for self-discipline and control, and suppression of the impulses seeking liberation from all restraints. He warned that Jean Jacques Rousseau was the major corrupting influence on modern culture. He complained that Romanticism celebrated too much the individual instinct and uniqueness of personality by denying the universal aspects of human nature as depicted in classical pre-romantic literature. He also attacked naturalism, which was popular at the time because it depicted man as a reflex agent of natural forces, and stressed the dominance of the environment over human institutions.

— Freebase

Bouffon

Bouffon

Bouffon is a modern French theater term that was re-coined in the early 1960s by Jacques Lecoq at his L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq in Paris to describe a specific style of performance work that has a main focus in the art of mockery. The word gave rise to the English word buffoon.

— Freebase

Coello

Coello

the name of two Spanish painters in the 16th and 17th centuries, whose works are in the Escurial.

Coeur, Jacques

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Golden Legend

Golden Legend

a collection of lives of saints and other tales, such as that of the "Seven Sleepers" and "St. George and the Dragon," made in the 13th century by Jacques de Voragine, a Dominican monk, to the glory especially of his brotherhood.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jack

Jack

a familiar form of John, the most widely spread of Christian names, and said to be derived from the French Jacques or, as others maintain, from Jankin, a distinctive form of Johan or John; Johnkin gives us Jock and Jockey; from its extreme commonness it has acquired that slightly contemptuous signification observable in such compounds as "every man Jack," "Jack-of-all-trades," "Jack-an-apes," and the name as applied to the knaves in playing-cards, and to the small white ball used as a mark in the game of bowls is an example of its transferred sense.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rubens, Peter Paul

Rubens, Peter Paul

the greatest of the Flemish painters, born at Siegen, in Westphalia; came with his widowed mother in 1587 to Antwerp, where he sedulously cultivated the painter's art, and early revealed his masterly gift of colouring; went to Italy, and for a number of years was in the service of the Duke of Mantua, who encouraged him in his art, and employed him on a diplomatic mission to Philip III. of Spain; executed at Madrid some of his finest portraits; returned to Antwerp in 1609; completed in 1614 his masterpiece, "The Descent from the Cross," in Antwerp Cathedral; with the aid of assistants he painted the series of 21 pictures, now in the Louvre, illustrating the principal events in the life of Maria de' Medici during 1628-1629; diplomatic missions engaged him at the Spanish and English Courts, where his superabundant energy enabled him to execute many paintings for Charles I.—e. g. "War and Peace," in the National Gallery—and Philip IV.; was knighted by both; in all that pertains to chiaroscuro, colouring, and general technical skill Rubens is unsurpassed, and in expressing particularly the "tumult and energy of human action," but he falls below the great Italian artists in the presentation of the deeper and sublimer human emotions; was a scholarly, refined man, an excellent linguist, and a successful diplomatist; was twice married; died at Antwerp, and was buried in the Church of St. Jacques; his tercentenary was celebrated in 1877 (1577-1640).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Alain-René Lesage

Alain-René Lesage

Alain-René Lesage was a French novelist and playwright. Lesage is best known for his comic novel The Devil upon Two Sticks, his comedy Turcaret, and his picaresque novel Gil Blas.

— Freebase

Modesta

Modesta

Modesta is a 1956 short film, set in Puerto Rico, in which a peasant woman rebels against her husband's authoritarianism. She and the other women of her community organize the Liberated Women League to fight for their rights. It stars Antonia Hidalgo and Juan Ortiz Jiménez. The movie was adapted by Benjamin Doniger, Luis A. Maisonet and René Marqués from a story by Domingo Silas Ortiz. It was directed by Doniger. In 1998, Modesta was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

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DB

DB

DB was a French automobile maker between 1938 and 1961, based in Champigny-sur-Marne near Paris. The firm was founded by Charles Deutsch and René Bonnet. Immediately before the war the partners concentrated on making light-weight racing cars, but a few years after the war, starting with the presentation of a Panhard based cabriolet at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, the company began to produce small road-going sports cars. By 1952 the company no longer had its own stand at the Paris motorshow, but one of their cars appeared as a star attraction on the large Panhard stand, reflecting the level of cooperation between the two businesses.

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Rainer Maria Rilke

Rainer Maria Rilke

René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke —better known as Rainer Maria Rilke—was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. Rilke is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", writing in both verse and highly lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as inherently "mystical". His writings include one novel, several collections of poetry, and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes haunting images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief, solitude, and profound anxiety. These deeply existential themes tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers. Rilke was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, travelled extensively throughout Europe and North Africa, including Russia, Spain, Germany, France, Italy, and in his later years settled in Switzerland—settings that were key to the genesis and inspiration for many of his poems. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were originally written in French and dedicated to the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Among English-language readers, his best-known works include the poetry collections Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus, the semi-autobiographical novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, and a collection of ten letters that was published after his death under the title Letters to a Young Poet. In the later 20th century, his work has found new audiences through its use by New Age theologians and self-help authors, and through frequently quoting in television programs, books and motion pictures. In the United States, Rilke is one of the more popular, best-selling poets—along with 13th-century Sufi mystic Rumi and 20th-century Lebanese-American poet Khalil Gibran.

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Imagism

Imagism

Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery and clear, sharp language. It has been described as the most influential movement in English poetry since the activity of the Pre-Raphaelites. As a poetic style it gave Modernism its start in the early 20th century, and is considered to be the first organized Modernist literary movement in the English language. Imagism is sometimes viewed as 'a succession of creative moments' rather than any continuous or sustained period of development. Rene Taupin remarked that 'It is more accurate to consider Imagism not as a doctrine, nor even as a poetic school, but as the association of a few poets who were for a certain time in agreement on a small number of important principles'. The Imagists rejected the sentiment and discursiveness typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry, in contrast to their contemporaries, the Georgian poets, who were generally content to work within that tradition. At the time Imagism emerged, Longfellow and Tennyson were considered the paragons of poetry, and the public valued the sometimes moralising tone of their writings. In contrast, Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation and economy of language, as well as a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms.

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Cartesian circle

Cartesian circle

The Cartesian circle is a potential mistake in reasoning attributed to René Descartes. Descartes argues – for example, in the third of his Meditations on First Philosophy – that whatever one clearly and distinctly perceives is true: "I now seem to be able to lay it down as a general rule that whatever I perceive very clearly and distinctly is true." He goes on in the same Meditation to argue for the existence of a benevolent God, in order to defeat his skeptical argument in the first Meditation from the possibility that God be a deceiver. He then says that without his knowledge of God's existence, none of his knowledge could be certain. The argument takes this form: 1 Descartes' proof of the reliability of clear and distinct perceptions takes as a premise God's existence as a non-deceiver. 2 Descartes' proofs of God's existence presuppose the reliability of clear and distinct perceptions.

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Auscultation

Auscultation

Auscultation is the term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. Auscultation is performed for the purposes of examining the circulatory system and respiratory system, as well as the gastrointestinal system. The term was introduced by René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec. The act of listening to body sounds for diagnostic purposes has its origin further back in history, possibly as early as Ancient Egypt. Laënnec's contributions were refining the procedure, linking sounds with specific pathological changes in the chest, and inventing a suitable instrument in the process. Originally, there was a distinction between immediate auscultation and mediate auscultation. Auscultation is a skill that requires substantial clinical experience, a fine stethoscope and good listening skills. Doctors listen to three main organs and organ systems during auscultation: the heart, the lungs, and the gastrointestinal system. When auscultating the heart, doctors listen for abnormal sounds including heart murmurs, gallops, and other extra sounds coinciding with heartbeats. Heart rate is also noted. When listening to lungs, breath sounds such as wheezes, crepitations and crackles are identified. The gastrointestinal system is auscultated to note the presence of bowel sounds.

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Catastrophe theory

Catastrophe theory

In mathematics, catastrophe theory is a branch of bifurcation theory in the study of dynamical systems; it is also a particular special case of more general singularity theory in geometry. Bifurcation theory studies and classifies phenomena characterized by sudden shifts in behavior arising from small changes in circumstances, analysing how the qualitative nature of equation solutions depends on the parameters that appear in the equation. This may lead to sudden and dramatic changes, for example the unpredictable timing and magnitude of a landslide. Catastrophe theory, which originated with the work of the French mathematician René Thom in the 1960s, and became very popular due to the efforts of Christopher Zeeman in the 1970s, considers the special case where the long-run stable equilibrium can be identified with the minimum of a smooth, well-defined potential function. Small changes in certain parameters of a nonlinear system can cause equilibria to appear or disappear, or to change from attracting to repelling and vice versa, leading to large and sudden changes of the behaviour of the system. However, examined in a larger parameter space, catastrophe theory reveals that such bifurcation points tend to occur as part of well-defined qualitative geometrical structures.

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Evil demon

Evil demon

The evil demon, sometimes referred to as the evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy. In his 1641 Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes hypothesized the existence of an evil demon, a personification who is "as clever and deceitful as he is powerful, who has directed his entire effort to misleading me." The evil demon presents a complete illusion of an external world, including other minds, to Descartes' senses, where in fact there is no such external world in existence. The evil genius also presents to Descartes' senses a complete illusion of his own body, including all bodily sensations, when in fact Descartes has no body. Most Cartesian scholars opine that the evil demon is also omnipotent, and thus capable of altering mathematics and the fundamentals of logic. The evil demon has a parallel with Berkeley's concept of a consensus reality supported by God. It is one of several methods of systematic doubt that Descartes employs in the Meditations.

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Margaret of Anjou

Margaret of Anjou

Margaret of Anjou was the wife of King Henry VI of England. As such, she was Queen consort of England from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. She also claimed to be Queen consort of France from 1445 to 1453. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine, into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René I of Naples and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. She was one of the principal figures in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses and at times personally led the Lancastrian faction. Due to her husband's frequent bouts of insanity, Margaret ruled the kingdom in his place. It was she who called for a Great Council in May 1455 that excluded the Yorkist faction headed by Richard, Duke of York, and thus provided the spark that ignited a civil conflict that lasted for over thirty years, decimated the old nobility of England, and caused the deaths of thousands of men, including her only son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Margaret was taken prisoner by the victorious Yorkists after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury. In 1475, she was ransomed by her cousin, King Louis XI of France. She went to live in France as a poor relation of the French king, and she died there at the age of 52.

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Matra

Matra

Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra was a French company covering a wide range of activities mainly related to automobile, bicycles, aeronautics and weaponry. In 1994, it became a subsidiary of the Lagardère Group and now operates under that name. Matra was owned by the Floirat family. The name Matra became famous in the 1960s when it went into car production by buying Automobiles René Bonnet. Matra Automobiles produced racing cars and sports cars, and was successful in racing.

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MASH

MASH

MASH is a 1970 American satirical black comedy film directed by Robert Altman and written by Ring Lardner, Jr., based on Richard Hooker's novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors. It is the only feature film in the M*A*S*H franchise. It became one of the biggest films of the early 1970s for 20th Century Fox. The film depicts a unit of medical personnel stationed at a Mobile Army Surgical Hospital during the Korean War; the subtext is about the Vietnam War. It stars Donald Sutherland, Tom Skerritt and Elliott Gould, with Sally Kellerman, Robert Duvall, Rene Auberjonois, Roger Bowen, and, in his film debut, football player Fred Williamson. The film inspired the popular and critically acclaimed television series M*A*S*H, which ran from 1972 to 1983.

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Nervous

Nervous

"Nervous" is a rockabilly/doo-wop song first recorded by Gene Summers and His Rebels in 1958 and later covered by Robert Gordon and Link Wray, among others. It was composed by Mary Tarver in 1957, published by Ted Music, BMI and issued on Jan/Jane Records. The "Nervous" recording session took place at Liberty Records Studios in Hollywood, California in June 1958 and featured Rene Hall and James McClung on guitar, Plas Johnson on saxophone, Earl Palmer on drums, and George "Red" Callendar on bass. The background vocal group was the Five Masks. The flipside of "Nervous" was "Gotta Lotta That".

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Aqua

Aqua

Aqua is a Danish dance-pop group, best known for their 1997 breakthrough single "Barbie Girl." The group formed in 1989 and achieved huge success across the globe in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The group managed to top the UK Singles Chart with their first three singles. The group released two albums: Aquarium in 1997 and Aquarius in 2000, before splitting up in July 2001. The group sold an estimated 33 million albums and singles, making them the most successful Danish-Norwegian band ever. In their prime, Aqua's singles managed to chart top ten in a number of countries where continental European pop acts would not normally succeed, including the United States, Australia, and Japan. The group also caused controversy with the double entendres in their "Barbie Girl" single, with the Barbie doll makers Mattel filing a lawsuit against the group. The lawsuit was finally dismissed by a judge in 2002, who ruled "The parties are advised to chill." The band's members are vocalists Lene Nystrøm and René Dif, keyboardist Søren Rasted, and guitarist Claus Norreen. During their split, Nystrøm, Dif and Rasted all achieved solo chart success, and Norreen continued in the music industry remixing other artists' material.

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Tin Cup

Tin Cup

Tin Cup is a 1996 romantic comedy film co-written and directed by Ron Shelton, and starring Kevin Costner and Rene Russo with Cheech Marin and Don Johnson in major supporting roles.

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Conatus

Conatus

In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself. This "thing" may be mind, matter or a combination of both. Over the millennia, many different definitions and treatments have been formulated. Seventeenth-century philosophers René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, and Thomas Hobbes made important contributions. The conatus may refer to the instinctive "will to live" of living organisms or to various metaphysical theories of motion and inertia. Often the concept is associated with God's will in a pantheist view of Nature. The concept may be broken up into separate definitions for the mind and body and split when discussing centrifugal force and inertia. The history of the term conatus is that of a series of subtle tweaks in meaning and clarifications of scope developed over the course of two and a half millennia. Successive philosophers to adopt the term put their own personal twist on the concept, each developing the term differently such that it now has no accepted definition. The earliest authors to discuss conatus wrote primarily in Latin, basing their usage on ancient Greek concepts. These thinkers therefore used "conatus" not only as a technical term but as a common word and in a general sense. In archaic texts, the more technical usage is difficult to discern from the more common one, and they are also hard to differentiate in translation. In English translations, the term is italicized when used in the technical sense or translated and followed by conatus in brackets. Today, conatus is rarely used in the technical sense, since modern physics uses concepts such as inertia and conservation of momentum that have superseded it. It has, however, been a notable influence on nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Louis Dumont.

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Cartesian product

Cartesian product

In mathematics, a Cartesian product is a mathematical operation which returns a set from multiple sets. That is, for sets A and B, the Cartesian product A × B is the set of all ordered pairs where a ∈ A and b ∈ B. The simplest case of a Cartesian product is the Cartesian square, which returns a set from two sets. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product rows × columns is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form. If the Cartesian product is columns × rows is taken, the cells of the table contain the ordered pairs of the form. A Cartesian product of n sets can be represented by an array of n dimensions, where each element is an n-tuple. An ordered pair is a 2-tuple. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept.

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Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules, leading to loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and fatty liver disease, but has many other possible causes. Some cases are idiopathic. Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis, and is associated with a poor quality of life, increased risk of infection, and a poor long-term outcome. Other potentially life-threatening complications are hepatic encephalopathy and bleeding from esophageal varices. Cirrhosis is generally irreversible, and treatment usually focuses on preventing progression and complications. In advanced stages of cirrhosis the only option is a liver transplant. The word "cirrhosis" derives from Greek κιρρός [kirrhós] meaning yellowish, tawny + Eng. med. suff. -osis meaning an increase. While the clinical entity was known before, it was René Laennec who gave it the name "cirrhosis" in his 1819 work in which he also describes the stethoscope.

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Legitimists

Legitimists

Legitimists are royalists in France who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession of the descendants of the elder branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848, whose king was a member of the junior Orléans line of the Bourbon dynasty. Following the movement of Ultra-royalists during the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, legitimists came to form one of the three main right-wing factions in France, which was principally characterized by its counterrevolutionary views. The other two right-wing factions are, according to historian René Rémond, the Orleanists and the Bonapartists. Legitimists hold that the king of France must be chosen according to the traditional rules of succession based in the Salic Law. With the direct line of Charles X having become extinct in 1883 with the death of his grandson Henry, Count of Chambord, present-day legitimists also reject headship of the royal dynasty by members of the Orléans branch, arguing that members of the Spanish branch of the Bourbons descending from Philip V of Spain possess a more senior claim.

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Weilite

Weilite

Weilite is a rare arsenate mineral. It is a translucent white triclinic mineral with a waxy luster. It was first described in 1963 for occurrences in Gabe Gottes Mine, Haut-Rhin, Alsace, France; Wittichen, Schenkenzell, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; and the Schneeberg District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany. It is named after French mineralogist René Weil of the University of Strasbourg. It occurs in the oxidized zone of arsenic-bearing hydrothermal veins. It occurs as an alteration product of pharmacolite and haidingerite.

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Incorrigibility

Incorrigibility

In philosophy, incorrigibility is a property of a philosophical proposition, which implies that it is necessarily true simply by virtue of being believed. A common example of such a proposition is René Descartes' "cogito ergo sum". Johnathan Harrison has argued that "incorrigible" may be the wrong term, since it seems to imply a sense that the beliefs cannot be changed, which isn't actually true. In Harrison's view, the incorrigibility of a proposition actually implies something about the nature of believing---for example, that one must exist in order to believe---rather than the nature of the proposition itself. For illustration, consider Descartes': I think, therefore I exist. Stated in incorrigible form, this could be: "That I believe that I exist implies that my belief is true." Harrison argues that a belief being true is really only incidental to the matter, that really what the cogito proves is that belief implies existence. One could equally well say, "That I believe God exists implies that I exist," or "That I believe I do not exist implies that my belief is false."---and these would have the same essential meaning as the cogito.

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LaSalle

LaSalle

The LaSalle was an automobile product of General Motors Corporation and sold as a companion marque of Cadillac from 1927 to 1940. The two were linked by similarly themed names, both being named for French explorers — Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac and René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, respectively.

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WINY

WINY

WINY is a heritage radio station that transmits in AM stereo on 1350 kHz and is owned by Osbrey Broadcasting Company. It operates during the daytime with 5,000 watts of power, and at 79 watts nighttime. Its studios and transmitter are located in Putnam, Connecticut. WINY first signed on the air on May 3, 1953 under the call letters WPCT. The station was financed by three French Canadian businessmen from Central Falls, Rhode Island: named Goyette, Albert Lanthier, and Rene Cote. The station was managed by Daniel Hyland with an original announcing staff of Dick Alarie, Ed Read, and Frank Carroll. The call letters were changed to WINY in September 1960 when the station was purchased by the Herbert C. Rice family and the Winny Broadcasting Company. The call letters were changed to represent the station's new mascot, "Winny, The Community Gal," who was a counterpart to the mascot at sister station WILI, "Willie, The Community Man." The family combined the operations of the two stations into Nutmeg Broadcasting Company, which would go on to own a total of five radio stations throughout Connecticut, including WTNY Southington, WLIS Old Saybrook and WILI-FM Willimantic. WINY changed hands in 1990 to the Gerardi Broadcasting Corporation, and once more in 2001 to the current owners, the Osbrey Broadcasting Company.

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Odo

Odo

Odo, played by René Auberjonois, is a major character on the science fiction television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. He is a member of a fictional shapeshifting race called Changelings and serves as the head of security for the space station Deep Space Nine on which the show is set. Odo wages a never ending war on Quark, his bar, and his variety of illegal activities.

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Sclerotium

Sclerotium

A sclerotium is a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves. One role of sclerotia is to survive environmental extremes. In some higher fungi such as ergot, sclerotia become detached and remain dormant until favorable growth conditions return. Sclerotia initially were mistaken for individual organisms and described as separate species until Louis René Tulasne proved in 1853 that sclerotia are only a stage in the life cycle of some fungi. Further investigation showed that this stage appears in many fungi belonging to many diverse groups. Sclerotia are important in the understanding of the life cycle and reproduction of fungi, as a food source, as medicine and in agricultural blight management. Examples of fungi that form sclerotia are ergot, Polyporus tuberaster, Psilocybe mexicana, Sclerotium delphinii and many species in Sclerotiniaceae. The plasmodium of slime molds can form sclerotia in adverse environmental conditions.

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Gil Blas

Gil Blas

Gil Blas is a picaresque novel by Alain-René Lesage published between 1715 and 1735. It is considered to be the last masterpiece of the picaresque genre.

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Skywalk

Skywalk

Skywalk was a fusion jazz band based out of Vancouver, British Columbia. The band was formed in 1979 by Graeme Coleman and Rene Worst, with Tom Keenlyside, Ihor Kukurudza, Jim McGillveray, and Lou Hoover. They opened for Oscar Peterson at the 1980 Montreaux/Detroit International Jazz Festival. This performance was recorded and released as their initial album Skywalk Live In Detroit, which received air play on Radio Canada International. This is the only recorded performance of the band with Hoover still playing drums. In 1980, Kukurudza had been replaced by Harris Van Berkel, and Hoover by Kat Hendrikse. Silent Witness was released in 1982 initially on their own label, Skywalk Records, and was picked up and released in the U.S. by Zebra Records in 1983, where it achieved #12 on Billboard's jazz/contemporary charts. Subsequent releases include The Bohemians in 1985, Paradiso in 1987, and Larger Than Life in 1992.

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Antoinette

Antoinette

Antoinette was a French manufacturer of light gasoline engines. Antoinette also became a builder of aeroplanes, most notably the record-breaking monoplanes flown by Hubert Latham and René Labouchère. Based in Puteaux, the Antoinette concern was in operation between 1903 and 1912. The company operated a flying school at Chalons for which it built one of the earliest flight simulators.

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Weltschmerz

Weltschmerz

Weltschmerz is a term coined by the German author Jean Paul Richter and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who understands that physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind. This kind of world view was widespread among several romantic authors such as Lord Byron, Giacomo Leopardi, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alfred de Musset, Nikolaus Lenau, Hermann Hesse, and Heinrich Heine. It is also used to denote the feeling of sadness when thinking about the evils of the world. The modern meaning of Weltschmerz in the German language is the psychological pain caused by sadness that can occur when realizing that someone's own weaknesses are caused by the inappropriateness and cruelty of the world and circumstances. Weltschmerz in this meaning can cause depression, resignation and escapism, and can become a mental problem. The modern meaning should also be compared with the concept of anomie, or a kind of alienation, that Émile Durkheim wrote about in his sociological treatise Suicide.

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Toys

Toys

Toys is a 1992 fantasy comedy film directed by Barry Levinson and starring Robin Williams, Michael Gambon, Joan Cusack, Robin Wright, LL Cool J, and Jamie Foxx in his feature film debut. The film failed at the box office at the time of its release, despite its impressive cast and lavish filmmaking. Levinson was criticized for a lack of plot focus. The magnitude of perceived directorial failure was such that Levinson was consequently nominated for a Razzie Award for Worst Director. The film did, however, receive Oscar nominations for art direction and costume design. It was also entered into the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival. René Magritte's art, particularly The Son of Man, is obvious in its influence on the set design, and in part the costume design, of the film. The poster for the film distributed to movie theaters features Robin Williams in a red bowler hat against a blue, cloud-lined background. Golconda is also featured during a sequence where Robin Williams and Joan Cusack's characters perform in a music video sequence rife with surreal imagery, much of it Magritte-inspired.

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Dragonnade

Dragonnade

"Dragonnades" was a French policy instituted by Louis XIV in 1681 to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or re-converting to Catholicism. This policy involved billeting ill-disciplined dragoons in Protestant households. With the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Louis XIV withdrew the privileges and toleration that Protestant Huguenots in France had been guaranteed under the edict for nearly 87 years, and ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closure of Huguenot schools. With the edict revoking religious toleration, Louis XIV combined legal persecution with the policy of terrorising recalcitrant Huguenots who refused to convert to Catholicism by billeting dragoons in their homes and instructing the soldiers to harass and intimidate the occupants to persuade them to either convert to the state religion or to emigrate. As mounted infantry, the 14 regiments of dragoons in the French Army of the period were sometimes used for what would now be called internal security duties and were an effective instrument for persecuting the Huguenots. The application of selective and coercive troop quartering had been initiated by the intendant René de Marillac in Poitou, in 1681. With the permission of Louvois, Marillac systematically lodged troops with Protestants, in the expectation that the existing law exempting newly-converted from this practice would spur conversions. Billetted troops got so far out of hand that, after a series of reprimands in letters, Louvois was forced to recall Marillac from Poitou.

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Automobiles Martini

Automobiles Martini

Automobiles Martini is a constructor of Formula racing cars from France, founded by Renato "Tico" Martini in 1965, when Martini and partner Bill Knight founded the Winfield Racing School at the Magny-Cours circuit. Martini's first car was the MW3, a Formula Three car built in 1968. Although better known for their successful efforts in Formula Three, Formula Renault and other lower formulae during the 1970s and 1980s, they are also known for having taken part in eight rounds of the 1978 Formula One season with the single MK23 chassis, giving René Arnoux his debut in Formula One. Future four time World Drivers' Champion Alain Prost also used a Renault powered Martini to win the 1978 and 1979 French Formula Three Championship while driving for famed French team Oreca. With Reynard, Ralt and Dallara crowding out the F3 market in the late 1980s, Martini reduced their customer program, keeping a stubborn presence in the French F3 championship during the 1990s, until Tico Martini finally sold the team to Guy Ligier in 2004.

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Claridad

Claridad

Claridad is a Spanish-language weekly newspaper based in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was first published in June, 1959. Claridad served as the official publication of the Pro-Independence Movement and later the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. The paper has been praised for its strong political and investigative reporting. It continues to be published weekly despite the fact that the PSP was disbanded in 1993. Many former PSP members continue to contribute to the paper. Its central supplement, "En Rojo" is one of the best cultural magazines in the island, featuring historical and literary articles, movie reviews, and linguistic contributions from Puerto Rico's best writers and intellectuals. Claridad's yearly "Festival Claridad" began as a fund-raising effort, but today has become one of the most important musical and cultural events attracting tens of thousands of participants and some of the most prominent exponents of various musical genres. Many famous Puerto Ricans have made regular contributions to Claridad, either as editors, writers or graphic artists, including: René Marqués, César Andreu Iglesias, Juan Mari Brás, Carlos Gallisá, Lorenzo Homar, Carlos Raquel Rivera, Francisco Manrique Cabrera, Elizam Escobar, Alfredo Lopez and others. Claridad's current feature writers include: Joserramón Meléndez, Raquel Z. Rivera, Gervasio Morales, Irving García, Elliott Castro, Luz Nereida Pérez, and Fiquito Yunqué, among others.

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Conservatism

Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions. A person who follows the philosophies of conservatism is referred to as a traditionalist or conservative. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context was by François-René de Chateaubriand in 1819, following the French Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus, conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an Anglo-Irish politician who served in the British House of Commons and opposed the French Revolution, is credited as one of the founders of conservatism in Great Britain. According to Quintin Hogg, a former chairman of the British Conservative Party, "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself."

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Bombardier Inc.

Bombardier Inc.

Bombardier Inc. is a Canadian multinational aerospace and transportation company, founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée on January 29, 1941, at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. Over the years it has been a large manufacturer of regional aircraft, business jets, mass transportation equipment, recreational equipment and a financial services provider. Bombardier is a Fortune Global 500 conglomerate company. Its headquarters are in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Bombardier Inc. Corporate Headquarters are at 800 René-Lévesque Boulevard West, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3B 1Y8.

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René Magritte

René Magritte

René François Ghislain Magritte was a Belgian surrealist artist. He became well known for a number of witty and thought-provoking images that fell under the umbrella of surrealism. His work challenges observers' preconditioned perceptions of reality.

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Réaumur scale

Réaumur scale

The Réaumur scale, also known as the "octogesimal division", is a temperature scale in which the freezing and boiling points of water are set to 0 and 80 degrees respectively. The scale is named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed something similar in 1730. Réaumur’s thermometer contained diluted alcohol and was constructed on the principle of taking the freezing point of water as 0°, and graduating the tube into degrees each of which was one-thousandth of the volume contained by the bulb and tube up to the zero mark. He suggested that the quality of alcohol employed be such that it began boiling at 80 °Ré — that is, when it had expanded in volume by 8%. He chose alcohol instead of mercury on the grounds that it expanded more visibly, but this posed problems: his original thermometers were very bulky, and the low boiling point of alcohol made them unsuitable for many applications. Instrument-makers generally chose different liquids, and then used 80 °Ré to signify the boiling point of water, causing much confusion. In 1772 Jean-André Deluc studied the several substances then used in thermometers in the light of new theories of heat and came to the conclusion that mercurial thermometers were the best for practical use; for example, if two equal amounts of water at x and y degrees were mixed, the temperature of the result was then the average of x and y degrees, and this relationship only held reliably when mercury was used. From the late 18th century mercury was used almost without exception. These thermometers, the stems of which are graduated into eighty equal parts between the freezing and boiling points of water, are not Réaumur's original thermometers in anything but name.

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Grandfather paradox

Grandfather paradox

The grandfather paradox is a proposed paradox of time travel first described by the science fiction writer René Barjavel in his 1943 book Le Voyageur Imprudent. The paradox is described as following: the time traveller went back in time to the time when his grandfather had not married yet. At that time, the time traveller kills his grandfather, and therefore, the time traveller is never born when he was meant to be. Despite the name, the grandfather paradox does not exclusively regard the impossibility of one's own birth. Rather, it regards any action that makes impossible the ability to travel back in time in the first place. The paradox's namesake example is merely the most commonly thought of when one considers the whole range of possible actions. Another example would be using scientific knowledge to invent a time machine, then going back in time and impeding a scientist's work that would eventually lead to the very information that you used to invent the time machine. An equivalent paradox is known as autoinfanticide, going back in time and killing oneself as a baby. The grandfather paradox has been used to argue that backwards time travel must be impossible. However, a number of hypotheses have been postulated to avoid the paradox, such as the idea that the past is unchangeable, so the grandfather must have already survived the attempted killing; or the time traveller creates - or joins - an alternate timeline or parallel universe in which the traveller was never born.

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The Adventures of Roderick Random

The Adventures of Roderick Random

The Adventures of Roderick Random is a picaresque novel by Tobias Smollett, first published in 1748. It is partially based on Smollett's experience as a naval-surgeon’s mate in the British Navy, especially during Battle of Cartagena de Indias in 1741. In the preface, Smollett acknowledges the connections of his novel to the two satirical picaresque works he translated into English: Cervantes’ Don Quixote and Alain-René Lesage’s Gil Blas

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Go Deep

Go Deep

"Go Deep" is a song by American recording artist Janet Jackson from her sixth studio album, The Velvet Rope. Written by Jackson, James Harris III, Terry Lewis, and René Elizondo, Jr., the song was released as the album's fourth single in June and July 1998 in the United Kingdom and the United States respectively.

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Vis viva

Vis viva

In the history of science, vis viva is an obsolete scientific theory that served as an elementary and limited early formulation of the principle of conservation of energy. It was the first [known] description of what we now call kinetic energy or of energy related to sensible motions. Proposed by Gottfried Leibniz over the period 1676–1689, the theory was controversial as it seemed to oppose the theory of conservation of momentum advocated by Sir Isaac Newton and René Descartes. The two theories are now understood to be complementary. The theory was eventually absorbed into the modern theory of energy though the term still survives in the context of celestial mechanics through the vis viva equation.

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Angers

Angers

Angers is a city in western France, about 300 km southwest of Paris, and the chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire department. Angers was before the French Revolution the capital of the province of Anjou, and inhabitants of both the city and the province are called Angevins. The commune of Angers proper, without the metropolitan area, is the third most populous in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes and the 18th in France. Angers is the historical capital of Anjou and was for centuries an important stronghold in northwestern France. It is the cradle of the Plantagenet dynasty and was during the reign of René of Anjou one of the intellectual centres of Europe. Angers developed at the confluence of three rivers, the Mayenne, the Sarthe, and the Loir, all coming from the north and flowing south to the Loire. Their confluence, just north of Angers, creates the Maine, a short but wide river that flows into the Loire several kilometers south. The Angers metropolitan area is a major economic centre in western France, particularly active in the industrial sector, horticulture, and business tourism. Angers proper covers 42.70 km² and has a population of 147,305 inhabitants, while c. 394,700 live in its metropolitan area. The Angers Loire Métropole intercommunality is made up of 33 communes covering 540 km² with 287,000 inhabitants.

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André Eglevsky

André Eglevsky

André Eglevsky was a Russian-born American ballet dancer and teacher. Eglevsky was born in Moscow, but was taken to live in France when he was eight, his mother having decided that his talent as a dancer demanded that he be properly trained. He studied ballet in Nice with Maria Nevelskaya, Lubov Egorova, Mathilde Kschessinska, Alexandre Volinine, Olga Preobrajenska, and Leon Woizikowski in Paris, Nicholas Legat in London, and the School of American Ballet in New York City. At the age of fourteen he joined Colonel W. de Basil's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, and after six months was dancing leading roles in such ballets as Swan Lake, Les Sylphides, and Les Présages. In 1935 he joined Igor Youskevitch as the company's Premier Danseur, and a year later joined René Blum's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. Eglevsky travelled to the United States in 1937, and was premier danseur in George Balanchine's American Ballet until 1938. He also danced at the Radio City Music Hall and in the Broadway musical Great Lady. After becoming an American citizen, in 1939 he rejoined the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, staying there until 1942. For the following four years he danced with the Ballet Theatre, as well as dancing as a guest star with Léonide Massine's Ballet Russe Highlights in 1944 and 1945. In the late 1930s he married the ballerina Leda Anchutina. His daughter, Marina Eglevsky, is also a ballerina.

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Cartesian diver

Cartesian diver

A Cartesian diver or Cartesian devil is a classic science experiment, named for René Descartes, which demonstrates the principle of buoyancy and the ideal gas law. Descartes is said to have invented the toy.

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René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur was a French scientist who contributed to many different fields, especially the study of insects. He introduced the Réaumur temperature scale.

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Hospitalism

Hospitalism

Hospitalism was a pediatric diagnosis used in the 1930s to describe infants who wasted away while in hospital. The symptoms could include retarded physical development, and disruption of perceptual-motor skills and language. It is now understood that this wasting disease was mostly caused by a lack of social contact between the infant and its caregivers. Infants in poorer hospitals were less subject to this disease since those hospitals could not afford incubators which meant that the hospital staff regularly held the infants. The term was used by the psychotherapist René Spitz in 1945, but its origins are older than this; it occurs in an editorial in Archives on Pediatrics as early as 1897. It appears under adjustment disorders at F43.2, in the World Health Organization's classification of diseases, ICD-10.

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René Descartes

René Descartes

René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution and has been described as an example of genius. Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the Early Modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the analysis of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

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Leucite

Leucite

Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K[AlSi2O6]. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic. Goniometric measurements made by Gerhard vom Rath in 1873 led him to refer the crystals to the tetragonal system. Optical investigations have since proved the crystals to be still more complex in character, and to consist of several orthorhombic or monoclinic individuals, which are optically biaxial and repeatedly twinned, giving rise to twin-lamellae and to striations on the faces. When the crystals are raised to a temperature of about 500 °C they become optically isotropic and the twin-lamellae and striations disappear, although they reappear when the crystals are cooled again. This pseudo-cubic character of leucite is very similar to that of the mineral boracite. The crystals are white or ash-grey in colour, hence the name suggested by A. G. Werner in 1701, from 'λευκος', ' white'. They are transparent and glassy when fresh, albeit with a noticeably subdued 'subvitreous' lustre due to the low refractive index, but readily alter to become waxy/greasy and then dull and opaque; they are brittle and break with a conchoidal fracture. The Mohs hardness is 5.5, and the specific gravity 2.47. Inclusions of other minerals, arranged in concentric zones, are frequently present in the crystals. On account of the color and form of the crystals the mineral was early known as white garnet. French authors in older literature may employ René Just Haüy's name amphigène, but 'leucite' is the only name for this mineral species that is recognised as official by the International Mineralogical Association.

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Cartesianism

Cartesianism

Cartesianism is the name given to the philosophical doctrine of René Descartes.

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Marmelade

Marmelade

Marmelade is a town and former duchy in the Artibonite Department of Haïti. It is the chief town of the Marmelade Arrondissement, which also includes the commune of Saint Michel de l'Attalaye. Marmelade is the home town of Président René Préval. During the years following his first tenure, Préval initiated rural development projects in Marmelade, including a manufacture of bamboo furniture.

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Statue of Liberty

Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886, was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politician Édouard René de Laboulaye, who commented in 1865 that any monument raised to American independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples. Due to the troubled political situation in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the Americans provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

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Medialuna

Medialuna

A medialuna is crescent-shaped corral used for rodeos, the official sport in Chile. They are generally 64–66 meters in diameter. Chilean rodeos are not quite the same sport famous in the American West; they involve two riders on horseback trying to herd a calf around a circular arena, attempting to pin him against several large cushions. The main medialuna in Chile is the Medialuna Monumental de Rancagua. Located in the city of Rancagua, it currently seats 12,000 spectators. It is the home of the annual National Championship of Chilean Rodeo. It hosted the 2006 Davis Cup matches of Chile against Slovakia and the 2009 Davis Cup against Austria. In Osorno, Chile, the medialuna is known as La Medialuna de Osorno. The Medialuna de Osorno was the first covered medialuna in Chile, and is considered one of the highest quality. Rodeos are organized by the Club Osorno René Soriano Bórquez. It boasts a 64-meter diameter arena, seating capacity of approximately 4,800, and an in-house cafeteria. In 2006, the medialuna was the qualifying arena for the Southern Region of the Campeonato Nacional de Rodeo, the nation-wide Rodeo competition. Rodeo is the second most popular sport in Chile after football it began in roughly the 16th century during the rule of Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza. At the time, the cattle in Chile were not well identified and it was not uncommon for the animals to get lost. To help prevent the loss, Governor Hurtado proclaimed that, in Santiago, every 24th and 25 July, the commemoration of Saint Jacob - patron saint of the city -, the cattle would be gathered in the Plaza de Armas de Santiago to be branded and selected. This is basically how Chilean rodeo began.

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Auguste Rodin

Auguste Rodin

François-Auguste-René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with the predominant figure sculpture tradition, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin was sensitive to the controversy surrounding his work, but refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the government and the artistic community. From the unexpected realism of his first major figure — inspired by his 1875 trip to Italy — to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he later sought, Rodin's reputation grew, such that he became the preeminent French sculptor of his time. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, and he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. He married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community.

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Hilaire Belloc

Hilaire Belloc

Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc was an Anglo-French writer and historian who became a naturalised British subject in 1902, but kept his French Citizenship. He was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. He was known as a writer, orator, poet, satirist, man of letters, and political activist. He is most notable for his Catholic faith, which had a strong impact on most of his works, and his writing collaboration with G. K. Chesterton. He was President of the Oxford Union and later MP for Salford from 1906 to 1910. He was a noted disputant, with a number of long-running feuds, but also widely regarded as a humane and sympathetic man. His most lasting legacy is probably his verse, which encompasses cautionary tales and religious poetry. Among his best-remembered poems are "Jim, who ran away from his nurse, and was eaten by a lion" and "Matilda, who told lies and was burnt to death".

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Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. First described in 1819 by René Laennec, the condition can result from physical trauma or other situations that lead to air escaping from the lungs, airways or bowel into the chest cavity.

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Antoine César Becquerel

Antoine César Becquerel

Antoine César Becquerel was a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena. He was born at Châtillon-sur-Loing. After passing through the École polytechnique he became engineer-officer in 1808, and saw active service with the imperial troops in Spain from 1810 to 1812, and again in France in 1814. He then resigned from the army and devoted the rest of his life to scientific investigation. In 1820, following the work of René Just Haüy, he found that pressure can induce electricity in every material, attributing the effect to surface interactions. In 1825 he invented a differential galvanometer for the accurate measurement of electrical resistance. In 1829 he invented a constant-current electrochemical cell, the forerunner of the Daniell cell. In 1839, working with his son A. E. Becquerel, he discovered the photoelectric effect on an electrode immersed in a conductive liquid. His earliest work was mineralogical in character, but he soon turned his attention to the study of electricity and especially of electrochemistry. In 1837 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and received its Copley Medal for his various memoirs on electricity, and particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by electrolysis. He was the first to prepare metallic elements from their ores by this method. It was hoped that this would lead to increased knowledge of the recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral kingdom.

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Burgrave

Burgrave

A burgrave is the ruler of a castle or fortified town. The English form is derived through the French from the German Burggraf and Dutch Burggraaf, a rank above Baron but below Graf, or burch-graeve. ⁕The title is originally equivalent to that of castellan or châtelain, meaning keeper of a castle and/or fortified town. ⁕In Germany, owing to the peculiar conditions of the Holy Roman Empire, though the office of burgrave had become a sinecure by the end of the 13th century, the title, as borne by feudal nobles having the status of Reichsfürst, obtained a quasi-princely significance. There were four hereditary burgraviates ranking as principalities within the Holy Roman Empire: ⁕The Burgraviate of Antwerp: this was a title that was inherited by the Counts of Nassau, lords of Breda, who later inherited the title of Prince of Orange. The most famous holder was William the Silent, who used his influence over the city to control its government and use it a base of the Dutch Revolt. His predecessors in his family were Engelbrect, Henry and Rene. Another form of the title was "viscount of Antwerp".

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Laumontite

Laumontite

Laumontite is a mineral, one of the zeolite group. Its molecular formula is Ca(AlSi2O6)2·4H2O, a hydrated calcium-aluminium silicate. Potassium or sodium may substitute for the calcium but only in very small amounts. It is monoclinic, space group C2/m. It forms prismatic crystals with a diamond-shaped cross-section and an angled termination. When pure, the color is colorless or white. Impurities may color it orange, brownish, gray, yellowish, pink, or reddish. It has perfect cleavage on [010] and [110] and its fracture is conchoidal. It is very brittle. The Mohs scale hardness is 3.5-4. It has a vitreous luster and a white streak. It is found in hydrothermal deposits left in calcareous rocks, often formed as a result of secondary mineralization. Host rock types include basalt, andesite, metamorphic rocks and granites. The identification of laumontite goes back to the early days of mineralogy. It was first named lomonite by R. Jameson in 1805, and laumonite by René Just Haüy in 1809. The current name was given by K.C. von Leonhard in 1821. It is named after Gillet de Laumont who collected samples from lead mines in Huelgoat, Brittany, making them the type locality.

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Weeping Willow

Weeping Willow

"Weeping Willow" is the tenth episode of the sixth season of Law & Order: Criminal Intent. It originally aired on NBC in the United States on November 8, 2006. In the episode, a teenage vlogger nicknamed WeepingWillow17, played by guest star Michelle Trachtenberg, is apparently kidnapped during the filming of one of her Internet videos. Detectives Mike Logan and Megan Wheeler investigate the so-called "cyber-kidnapping", which they and the public speculate may be an elaborate Internet hoax. The episode and character was written by René Balcer, Stephanie Sengupta and Warren Leight, and directed by Tom DiCillo. The story and the WeepingWillow17 character were inspired by the lonelygirl15 video blogs on YouTube, which were originally believed the works of a real-life 15-year-old blogger, but were eventually discovered to be a professionally filmed hoax. The episode received generally positive reviews and, according to Nielsen ratings, was seen by 9.8 million households the week it aired, the most viewership for a Law & Order: Criminal Intent episode in six weeks.

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Aramis

Aramis

René d'Herblay, alias Aramis is a fictional character in the novels The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne by Alexandre Dumas, père. He and the other two musketeers Athos and Porthos are friends of the novels' protagonist, d'Artagnan. The fictional Aramis is loosely based on the historical musketeer Henri d'Aramitz.

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Guy de Maupassant

Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant was a popular 19th-century French writer, considered one of the fathers of the modern short story and one of the form's finest exponents. A protégé of Flaubert, Maupassant's stories are characterized by their economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouements. Many of the stories are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s and several describe the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, caught in the conflict, emerge changed. He authored some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, and one volume of verse. The story "Boule de Suif" is often accounted his masterpiece. His most unsettling horror story, "Le Horla", was about madness and suicide.

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Euclase

Euclase

Euclase is a beryllium aluminium hydroxide silicate mineral. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system and is typically massive to fibrous as well as in slender prismatic crystals. It is related to beryl and other beryllium minerals. It is a product of the decomposition of beryl in pegmatites. Euclase crystals are noted for their blue color, ranging from very pale to dark blue. The mineral may also be colorless, white, or light green. Cleavage is perfect, parallel to the clinopinacoid, and this suggested to René Just Haüy the name euclase, from the Greek εὖ, easily, and κλάσις, fracture. The ready cleavage renders the stone fragile with a tendency to chip, and thus detracts from its use for personal ornament. When cut it resembles certain kinds of beryl and topaz, from which it may be distinguished by its specific gravity. Its hardness is rather less than that of topaz. It was first reported in 1792 from the Orenburg district in the southern Urals, Russia, where it is found with topaz and chrysoberyl in the gold-bearing gravels of the Sanarka. Its type locality is Ouro Prêto, Minas Gerais, Southeast Region, Brazil, where it occurs with topaz. It is met with as a rarity in the mica-schist of the Rauris in the Austrian Alps.

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Vantasselite

Vantasselite

Vantasselite is a rare aluminium phosphate mineral with formula: Al4(PO4)3(OH)3 •9H2O. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and has a white color, a hardness of 2 to 2.5, a white streak and a pearly luster. It occurs in a quartzite quarry north of Bihain, Belgium It was first described in 1987 and named after Belgian mineralogist René Van Tassel.

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Asterix

Asterix

Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix is a series of French comics written by René Goscinny and illustrated by Albert Uderzo. The series first appeared in the French comics magazine Pilote on 29 October 1959. As of 2012, 34 volumes have been released. The series follows the exploits of a village of indomitable Gauls as they resist Roman occupation. They do so by means of a magic potion, brewed by their druid, which gives the recipient superhuman strength. The protagonist, the titular character Asterix, along with his friend Obelix have various adventures. The "ix" suffix of both names echoes the names of real Gaulish chieftains such as Vercingetorix, Orgetorix, and Dumnorix. Many of the stories have them travel to foreign countries, though others are set in and around their village. For much of the history of the series, settings in Gaul and abroad alternated, with even-numbered volumes set abroad and odd-numbered volumes set in Gaul, mostly in the village. The Asterix series is one of the most popular Franco-Belgian comics in the world, with the series being translated into over 100 languages, and it is popular in most European countries.

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Anatase

Anatase

Anatase is one of the three mineral forms of titanium dioxide, the other two being brookite and rutile. It is always found as small, isolated and sharply developed crystals, and like rutile, a more commonly occurring modification of titanium dioxide, it crystallizes in the tetragonal system; but, although the degree of symmetry is the same for both, there is no relation between the interfacial angles of the two minerals, except in the prism-zone of 45° and 90°. The common pyramid of anatase, parallel to the faces of which there are perfect cleavages, has an angle over the polar edge of 82°9', the corresponding angle of rutile being 56°52½'. It was on account of this steeper pyramid of anatase that the mineral was named, by René Just Haüy in 1801, from the Greek anatasis, "extension", the vertical axis of the crystals being longer than in rutile. There are also important differences between the physical characters of anatase and rutile: the former is less hard and dense. Also, anatase is optically negative whereas rutile is positive, and its luster is even more strongly adamantine or metallic-adamantine than that of rutile.

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Epoché

Epoché

Epoché is an ancient Greek term which, in its philosophical usage, describes the theoretical moment where all judgments about the existence of the external world, and consequently all action in the world, is suspended. One's own consciousness is subject to immanent critique so that when such belief is recovered, it will have a firmer grounding in consciousness. This concept was developed by the Greek skeptics and plays an implicit role in skeptical thought, as in René Descartes' epistemic principle of methodic doubt. The term was popularized in philosophy by Edmund Husserl. Husserl elaborates the notion of 'phenomenological epoché' or 'bracketing' in Ideas I. Through the systematic procedure of 'phenomenological reduction', one is thought to be able to suspend judgment regarding the general or naive philosophical belief in the existence of the external world, and thus examine phenomena as they are originally given to consciousness.

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Superalloy

Superalloy

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and resistance to creep at high temperatures; good surface stability; and corrosion and oxidation resistance. Superalloys typically have a matrix with an austenitic face-centered cubic crystal structure. A superalloy's base alloying element is usually nickel, cobalt, or nickel-iron. Superalloy development has relied heavily on both chemical and process innovations and has been driven primarily by the aerospace and power industries. Typical applications are in the aerospace, industrial gas turbine and marine turbine industries, e.g. for turbine blades for hot sections of jet engines, and bi-metallic engine valves for use in diesel and automotive applications. Examples of superalloys are Hastelloy, Inconel, Waspaloy, Rene alloys, Haynes alloys, Incoloy, MP98T, TMS alloys, and CMSX single crystal alloys. Superalloys are commonly used in parts of gas turbine engines that are subject to high temperatures and require high strength, excellent high temperature creep resistance, fatigue life, phase stability, and oxidation and corrosion resistance.

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Trialism

Trialism

Trialism in philosophy was introduced by John Cottingham as an alternative interpretation of the mind-body dualism of Rene Descartes. Trialism keeps the two substances of mind and body, but introduces a third attribute, sensation, belonging to the union of mind and body. This allows animals, which do not have thought, to be regarded as having sensation and not as being mere automata. Christian trialism is the doctrine that humans have three separate essences, based on a literal interpretation of 1 Thessalonians 5:23 And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. This doctrine holds the soul to belong to the union of the body and the spirit, which makes it roughly compatible with philosophical trialism. However, the evangelist Kenneth Copeland came under fire by critics such as Hank Hanegraff for extending trialism to each Person in the Trinity, for a total of nine essences.

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Laënnec

Laënnec

Laënnec is a quarter of the 8th arrondissement of Lyon, in France. It is served by the eponymous station of the Line D of the Lyon Metro, which was opened on 11 December 1992 and had 132,316 passengers per month in 2006. Notable monuments of the quarter are the Grand Mosque of Lyon, located in the Boulevard Pinel, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Dentistry and the Maison des jeunes et de la culture. The quarter is named after French physician and medical writer René Laennec.

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Jamie Ross

Jamie Ross

Jamie Ross is a fictional character on the TV drama Law & Order, created by Rene Balcer and portrayed by Carey Lowell from 1996 to 1998. She also appears in the short-lived Law & Order spin-off Law & Order: Trial By Jury, by which time the character has become a judge. She appeared in 52 episodes

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Neosocialism

Neosocialism

Neosocialism was a political trend of socialism, represented in France during the 1930s and in Belgium, which included several revisionist tendencies in the French Section of the Workers' International. In the wake of the Great Depression, a group of right-wing members, led by Henri de Man in Belgium, founder of planisme, and in France Marcel Déat, Pierre Renaudel, René Belin, the "neo-Turks" of the Radical-Socialist Party, opposed themselves both to Marxism and to gradual reformism. Instead, influenced by Henri de Man's planisme, they promoted a "constructive revolution" headed by the state and technocrats, through economic planification. Such ideas also influenced the Non-Conformist Movement in the French right-wing. Marcel Déat published in 1930 Perspectives socialistes, a revisionist work closely influenced by Henri de Man's planisme. Along with over a hundred articles written in La Vie Socialiste, the review of the SFIO's right-wing, Perspective socialistes marked the shift of Déat from classical Socialism to Neo-Socialism. Déat replaced class struggle by collaboration of classes and national solidarity, advocated corporatism as a social organization model, replaced the notion of "Socialism" by "anti-Capitalism" and supported an authoritarian state which would plan the economy and from which parliamentarism would be repealed.

— Freebase

Intocable

Intocable

Intocable is a Tejano/Norteño musical group from Zapata, Texas that was started by friends Ricky Muñoz and René Martínez in the early 90's. Within a couple years as a band, Intocable had already risen to the top of the Tejano and Norteño fields with a musical signature that had fused Tejano's robust conjunto and Norteño folk rhythms with a pop balladry. Currently, Intocable could very well be the most influential group in Tejano, and their tough Tejano/Norteño fusion has become the blueprint for dozens of Tex-Mex groups. The group's strengths, which include romantic hooky melodies, and tight instrumentation and vocal harmony is consistently being imitated by a list of other Tejano and Norteño groups. This list includes groups such as Imán, Duelo, Costumbre, Solido, Estruendo, Intenso, and Zinzero among others. Career accomplishments include four consecutive sold-out nights at Mexico City's prestigious Auditorio Nacional and the group's 2003 headlining appearance at Reliant Stadium in Houston, which drew a record 70,104 fans. They also played two sold-out dates at the 10,000-capacity Monterrey Arena in Monterrey, Mexico. It was an unusual accomplishment, given that Norteño groups typically play large dance halls and rarely arenas, unless it's an all day festival event. Intocable has also won at least eight of Univision's Premio Lo Nuestro awards, and received their first Grammy win in February 2005 at the 47th Annual Grammys and second at the 53rd annual Grammys for their album Classic.

— Freebase

Louis Hennepin

Louis Hennepin

Father Louis Hennepin, O.F.M. baptized Antoine, was a Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollect order and an explorer of the interior of North America. Hennepin was born in Ath in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1659 Béthune, the town where he lived, was captured by the army of Louis XIV of France. At the request of Louis XIV the Récollets sent four missionaries to New France in May 1675, including Hennepin, accompanied by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. In 1678, Hennepin was ordered by his provincial superior to accompany La Salle on an expedition to explore the western part of New France. Hennepin was 39 when he departed in 1679 with La Salle from Quebec City to construct the 45-ton barque Le Griffon, sail through the Great Lakes, and explore the unknown West. Hennepin was with La Salle at the construction of Fort Crevecouer in January, 1680. In February, La Salle sent Hennepin and two others as an advance party to search for the Mississippi River. The party followed the Illinois River to its junction with the Mississippi. Shortly thereafter, Hennepin was captured by a Sioux war party and carried off for a time into what is now the state of Minnesota. In September, Hennepin and the others were given canoes and allowed to leave, eventually returning to Quebec. Hennepin returned to France and was never allowed by his order to return to North America.

— Freebase

DAMS

DAMS

Driot-Arnoux Motorsport is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsport. DAMS was founded in 1988 by Jean-Paul Driot and former Formula One driver René Arnoux. It is headquartered near Le Mans, only 2 km from the Bugatti Circuit.

— Freebase

Black Sun Empire

Black Sun Empire

Black Sun Empire is a trio of Dutch disc jockeys and drum & bass music producers. The group consists of Rene Verdult and brothers Milan and Micha Heyboer. Based out of Utrecht, Netherlands, they started making Drum & Bass in 1995 when they turned to the likes of artists such as Photek, LTJ Bukem, and Ed Rush. After having a few releases on smaller record labels, they managed to get the attention of bigger producers like DJ Trace, currently known for his DSCI4 record label. They have four labels of their own: Black Sun Empire Recordings, oBSEssions, Shadows of the Empire and most recently Blackout Recordings. The group's name comes from the Black Sun Crime Syndicate, which appeared in the Star Wars novel Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire. While the trio's music is usually defined as darkstep or neurofunk, Black Sun Empire have more recently incorporated dubstep into their productions. One of their tracks was featured in the E³ 2006 trailer of the game EVE Online titled "No Other Destiny". Black Sun Empire released their latest album From The Shadows in fall 2012.

— Freebase

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand was a French gunsmith who worked in Liege and Paris, France. He manufactured many revolvers for civilian and military use, including the Galand Revolver, the Tue Tue, and the tiny Le Novo. The Velo-dog, developed from the Tue Tue and the Novo, was designed by Charles-François' son René in 1904. The original Galand revolver was a double-action, open frame revolver patented in 1868. Military versions were produced in 9 mm while civilian versions were made in 12 mm. The gun is easily recognizable due to its long extraction lever, which stretches under the gun to form the trigger guard. Pulling the lever forward separates the barrel and cylinder from the rest of the gun. At the same time the extractor plate is blocked which catches any cartridges in the cylinder, thereby extracting them. The first model was manufactured both in Liege and in Birmingham, England by the British arms firm Braendlin and Sommerville, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Galand-Sommerville. Sommerville shared the patent for the case extracting system with Galand. The Galand-Perrin is an identical model which uses the Perrin cartridge.

— Freebase

Riva

Riva

Zki & Dobre, are a Dutch house music duo from Haarlem, Netherlands. They comprise Gaston Steenkist and René ter Horst. They have produced multiple dance hits under various group names since the early 1990s.

— Freebase

Hamlets

Hamlets

Hamlets is the name of an open source system for generating web-pages originally developed by René Pawlitzek at IBM. He defines a Hamlet as a servlet extension that reads XHTML template files containing presentation using SAX and dynamically adds content on the fly to those places in the template which are marked with special tags and IDs using a small set of callback functions. A template compiler can be used to accelerate Hamlets. Hamlets provide an easy-to-use, easy-to-understand, lightweight, small-footprint, servlet-based content creation framework that facilitates the development of Web-based applications. The Hamlets framework not only supports but also enforces the complete separation of content and presentation.

— Freebase

Basquiat

Basquiat

Basquiat is a 1996 biopic/drama film directed by fellow painter Julian Schnabel which is based on the life of American postmodernist/neo expressionist artist Jean-Michel Basquiat. Basquiat, born in Brooklyn, used his graffiti roots as a foundation to create collage-style paintings on canvas. Jeffrey Wright portrays Basquiat, and David Bowie plays Basquiat's friend and mentor Andy Warhol. Additional cast include Gary Oldman as a thinly-disguised Schnabel, Michael Wincott as the poet and art critic Rene Ricard; Dennis Hopper as Bruno Bischofberger; Parker Posey as gallery owner Mary Boone; Claire Forlani, Courtney Love, Tatum O'Neal and Benicio del Toro in supporting roles as "composite characters". The film was written by Schnabel and Michael Thomas Holman, who was also credited for story development, with story by Lech J. Majewski and John F. Bowe. Holman, a former member of theatrical rock group The Tubes, had first met Basquiat in 1979 and together that year they founded an experimental, industrial/electronica group called Gray.

— Freebase

Romantic hero

Romantic hero

The Romantic hero is a literary archetype referring to a character that rejects established norms and conventions, has been rejected by society, and has the self as the center of his or her own existence. The Romantic hero is often the protagonist in the literary work and there is a primary focus on the character's thoughts rather than his or her actions. Literary critic Northrop Frye noted that the Romantic hero is often "placed outside the structure of civilization and therefore represents the force of physical nature, amoral or ruthless, yet with a sense of power, and often leadership, that society has impoverished itself by rejecting". Other characteristics of the romantic hero include introspection, the triumph of the individual over the "restraints of theological and social conventions", wanderlust, melancholy, misanthropy, alienation, and isolation. However, another common trait of the Romantic hero is regret for his actions, and self-criticism, often leading to philanthropy, which stops the character from ending romantically. An example of this trait is Edmond Dantès in The Count of Monte Cristo. The Romantic hero first began appearing in literature during the Romantic period, in works by such authors as Byron, Keats, and Goethe, and is seen in part as a response to the French Revolution. As Napoleon, the "living model of a hero", became a disappointment to many, the typical notion of the hero as upholding social order began to be challenged. Classic literary examples of the romantic hero include Gwynplaine from Hugo's The Man who Laughs, Mr. Darcy from Pride and Prejudice, Byron's Don Juan, Chateaubriand's René[4], Tolstoy's Andrei Bolkonsky from War and Peace, Cooper's "Hawkeye" from The Leatherstocking Tales, and Raymond Chandler's Phillip Marlowe from his seven novels about the Los Angeles detective.

— Freebase

Chocolate Puma

Chocolate Puma

Zki & Dobre, are a Dutch house music duo from Haarlem, Netherlands. They comprise Gaston Steenkist and René ter Horst. They have produced multiple dance hits under various group names since the early 1990s.

— Freebase

Bersuit

Bersuit

Bersuit Vergarabat, formed formally in 1989, is an Argentine rock band. The previous name of the band was Henry y la Palangana. After two albums of underground transgressor rock, the band began to experiment with Latin American rhythms such as cumbia, chacarera, candombe and cuartetazo. The lyrics, though, remained acid and critical with regard to political and social problems. The current formation is Albertito Verenzuela, Daniel Suárez, Germán "Cóndor" Sbarbatti, Juan Carlos Subirá, Oscar Righi, René Isel "Pepe" Céspedes and Carlos Martín; previous members include Gustavo Cordera, Charly Bianco and Rubén Sadrinas. In honor of Buenos Aires' José Tiburcio Borda Psychiatric Hospital, the band often performs in clinical pajamas. Although there is no truth to the urban legend of Cordera spending some time in that institution, the band has demonstrated an affinity for everything related to madness and marginalization. In addition to finding success in the Buenos Aires' underground movement, and then nationwide, Bersuit Vergarabat has attracted fans from many countries in Latin America as well as Spain.

— Freebase

Ghost in the machine

Ghost in the machine

The "ghost in the machine" is British philosopher Gilbert Ryle's description of René Descartes' mind-body dualism. The phrase was introduced in Ryle's book The Concept of Mind to highlight the perceived absurdity of dualist systems like Descartes' where mental activity carries on in parallel to physical action, but where their means of interaction are unknown or, at best, speculative.

— Freebase

Celine Dion

Celine Dion

Céline Marie Claudette Dion, CC OQ ChLD is a Canadian singer. Born into a large family from Charlemagne, Quebec, Dion emerged as a teen star in the French-speaking world after her manager and future husband René Angélil mortgaged his home to finance her first record. In 1990, she released the English-language album Unison, establishing herself as a viable pop artist in North America and other English-speaking areas of the world. Dion first gained international recognition in the 1980s by winning both the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival and the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest where she represented Switzerland. Following a series of French albums in the early 1980s, she signed on to CBS Records Canada in 1986. During the 1990s, with the help of Angélil, she achieved worldwide fame after signing with Epic Records and releasing several English albums along with additional French albums, becoming one of the most successful artists in pop music history. However, in 1999 at the height of her success, Dion announced a hiatus from entertainment in order to start a family and spend time with her husband, who had been diagnosed with cancer.

— Freebase

Kookai

Kookai

Kookai is a French fashion label founded in 1983 by Jean-Lou Tepper, Jacques Nataf and Philippe de Hesdin. It has a simple philosophy: "to supply young women with affordable apparel for their wardrobes". It has stores in Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Its clothing line is generally characterised by French fashion trends. Galleries Lafayette carried a large line of Kookai, Claudie Pierlot, Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Lolita Bis by Lolita Lempicka, Plein Sud, P.J. Hohenscheid, and other European labels when it opened its first American store in Trump Tower, in September 1991.

— Freebase

Progressive Movement

Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement is a minor opposition political party in Cameroon. It was formed on 23 August 1991 and is led by Jean-Jacques Ekindi. Ekindi was the MP candidate in the October 1992 presidential election, officially receiving 0.79% of the vote and placing fifth. An MP meeting at the Bepanda Omnisport Stadium in Douala on 21 May 1994 was banned by the government, and when party members tried to hold the meeting anyway, a number of them were beaten by security forces. Again running as the party's presidential candidate in the 11 October 2004 presidential election, Ekindi announced his withdrawal from the election on 10 October in favor of John Fru Ndi, the candidate of the main opposition party, the Social Democratic Front. His name nevertheless remained on the ballot, and he placed 13th out of 16 candidates with 0.27% of the vote. In the 22 July 2007 parliamentary election, Ekindi was elected to the National Assembly as an MP candidate from Wouri Centre constituency in Littoral Province, where the MP received 22.43% of the vote and one of the three available seats. Ekindi was the only member of his party to win a seat in the 2007 election. Shortly before the election, on 18 July 2007, the MP formalized an alliance with the Cameroonian Democratic Union; as part of this agreement, the parties decided not to run candidates in the same constituencies. Also at the time of the election, the alliance between the MP and the SDF collapsed because, according to Ekindi, the SDF decided to run candidates in Wouri Centre and ignored the alliance.

— Freebase

Vaurien

Vaurien

The Vaurien is a dinghy designed by Jean-Jacques Herbulot in 1951, and presented in the Boat show in Paris in 1952. It was meant as a reasonable alternative for a boat with a crew of two, as much for its low cost, as for its simplicity to sail. The first units, sold in the mentioned Boat show, had a price equivalent to two bicycles of the time. It is a light, but robust, boat that soon found its place among beginners, especially in Europe and Africa.

— Freebase

A Shot in the Dark

A Shot in the Dark

A Shot in the Dark is a 1964 comedy film directed by Blake Edwards and is the second installment in The Pink Panther series. Peter Sellers is featured again as Inspector Jacques Clouseau of the French Sûreté. Clouseau's bungling personality is unchanged, but it was in this film that Sellers began to give him the idiosyncratically exaggerated French accent that was to become a hallmark of the character. The film also introduces Herbert Lom as his boss, Commissioner Dreyfus, and Burt Kwouk as his long-suffering servant, Cato, who would both become series regulars. Elke Sommer plays Maria Gambrelli. The film was not originally written to include Clouseau, but was an adaptation of a stage play by Harry Kurnitz adapted from the French play L'Idiote by Marcel Achard. As Blake Edwards and future The Exorcist creator William Peter Blatty began work on the script, they decided the story would be a good vehicle for the Clouseau character, and rewrote the script around the new premise. The film was released only a few months after the first Clouseau film, The Pink Panther.

— Freebase

Yahudi

Yahudi

Yahudi is a 1958 Bollywood film directed by Bimal Roy. It starred Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Sohrab Modi, Nazir Hussain, Nigar Sultana and others. Film's lyricist, Shailendra won the Filmfare Awards award for best lyricist in 6th Filmfare Awards, for the song, "Yeh Mera Diwanapan Hai" sung by Mukesh. The plot bears similarities to Jacques Fromental Halévy's opera La Juive.

— Freebase

Casus belli

Casus belli

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. Casus means "incident", "rupture" or indeed "case", while belli means bellic. It is usually distinguished from casus foederis, where casus belli refers to offenses or threats directly against a nation, and casus foederis refers to offenses or threats to a fellow allied nation with which the justifying nation is engaged in a mutual defense treaty, such as NATO. The term came into wide usage in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with the writings of Hugo Grotius, Cornelius van Bynkershoek, and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, among others, and the rise of the political doctrine of jus ad bellum or "just war theory". Informal usage varies beyond its technical definition to refer to any "just cause" a nation may claim for entering into a conflict. As such, it has been used both retroactively to describe situations in history before the term came into wide usage and in the present day when describing situations when war has not been formally declared. Formally, a government would lay out its reasons for going to war, as well as its intentions in prosecuting it and the steps that might be taken to avert it. In so doing, the government would attempt to demonstrate that it was going to war only as a last resort and that it in fact possessed "just cause" for doing so. In theory international law today allows only three situations as legal cause to go to war: out of self-defense, defense of an ally under a mutual defense pact, or sanctioned by the UN.

— Freebase

Golgotha

Golgotha

Golgotha is a 1935 French film about the death of Jesus Christ. It was directed by Julien Duvivier, and stars Harry Baur as Herod and Jean Gabin as Pontius Pilate. Robert Le Vigan plays Christ. It opened in the U.S. in 1937. The film played throughout Europe too, but the British Board of Film Censors "would not allow British eyes to see it." Le Vigan's performance marks the first direct portrayal of Christ in a sound film. For the most part, Jesus is shown from a respectful distance as was also the case in Ben-Hur, Quo Vadis, or The Robe, but there are also a few closer shots and even close-ups. The National Board of Review named the film the sixth best foreign film of 1937. The score for the movie was composed by French composer Jacques Ibert.

— Freebase

Rousseau

Rousseau

Rousseau is a provincial electoral district in the Lanaudière and Laurentides regions of Quebec, Canada, that elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It includes Saint-Lin–Laurentides and various other municipalities. It was created for the 1981 election from parts of Prévost, Joliette-Montcalm and L'Assomption electoral districts. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, it gained Chertsey and Saint-Hippolyte from Bertrand, but lost L'Épiphanie, L'Épiphanie, and the part of the city of L'Assomption that it formerly had to L'Assomption electoral district. It was named after French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

— Freebase

ARB

ARB

ARB is a Japanese rock band formed in 1978. Its members are Ryo Ishibashi, Koya Naito, Ebi, and Keith. Jean-Jacques Burnel from The Stranglers was also a member for a short time.

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Heat map

Heat map

A heat map is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors. Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. The term "Heatmap" was originally coined and trademarked by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991, to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information. Heat maps originated in 2D displays of the values in a data matrix. Larger values were represented by small dark gray or black squares and smaller values by lighter squares. Sneath displayed the results of a cluster analysis by permuting the rows and the columns of a matrix to place similar values near each other according to the clustering. Jacques Bertin used a similar representation to display data that conformed to a Guttman scale. The idea for joining cluster trees to the rows and columns of the data matrix originated with Robert Ling in 1973. Ling used overstruck printer characters to represent different shades of gray, one character-width per pixel. Leland Wilkinson developed the first computer program in 1994 to produce cluster heat maps with high-resolution color graphics. The Eisen et al. display shown in the figure is a replication of the earlier SYSTAT design.

— Freebase

Physiocracy

Physiocracy

Physiocracy is an economic theory developed by the Physiocrats, a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development." Their theories originated in France and were most popular during the second half of the 18th century. Physiocracy is perhaps the first well-developed theory of economics. The movement was particularly dominated by François Quesnay and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot. It immediately preceded the first modern school, classical economics, which began with the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. The most significant contribution of the Physiocrats was their emphasis on productive work as the source of national wealth. This is in contrast to earlier schools, in particular mercantilism, which often focused on the ruler's wealth, accumulation of gold, or the balance of trade. At the time the Physiocrats were formulating their ideas, economies were almost entirely agrarian. That is presumably why the theory considered only agricultural labor to be valuable. Physiocrats viewed the production of goods and services as consumption of the agricultural surplus, since the main source of power was from human or animal muscle and all energy was derived from the surplus from agricultural production.

— Freebase

Social contract

Social contract

In political philosophy the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate, in exchange for protection of their remaining rights. The question of the relation between natural and legal rights, therefore, is often an aspect of social contract theory. The Social Contract, created by Jean Jacques Rousseau was a book about government reforms and how it should change to suit the people instead of the government. Although the antecedents of social contract theory are found in antiquity, in Greek and Stoic philosophy and Roman and Canon Law, as well as in the Biblical idea of the covenant, the heyday of the social contract was the mid-17th to early 19th centuries, when it emerged as the leading doctrine of political legitimacy. The starting point for most social contract theories is a heuristic examination of the human condition absent from any political order that Thomas Hobbes termed the “state of nature”. In this condition, individuals' actions are bound only by their personal power and conscience. From this shared starting point, social contract theorists seek to demonstrate, in different ways, why a rational individual would voluntarily consent to give up his or her natural freedom to obtain the benefits of political order.

— Freebase

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy. A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were "the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator." Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

— Freebase

Human rights

Human rights

Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal and egalitarian. These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in local, regional, national, and international law. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. The idea of human rights states, "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate. Many of the basic ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust, culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The ancient world did not possess the concept of universal human rights. The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominent during the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, and featured prominently in the political discourse of the American Revolution and the French Revolution.

— Freebase

Aubaine

Aubaine

In old French customs, aubaine was the inheritance of goods from a foreigner who died in a country where he was not naturalized. The word is formed from aubain, a foreigner, which Gilles Ménage derived further from the Latin alibi natus; Jacques Cujas derived from advena; and du Cange from albanus, a Scot or Irishman, by the reason that these were anciently frequent travelers living abroad. In the Ancien Régime, aubaine was a right of the King of France, allowing him to claim the inheritance of all foreigners in his dominions; exclusive of all other lords, and even of any testament the deceased could make. An ambassador, though not naturalized, was not subject to the right of aubaine. The Swiss, Savoyards, Scots, and Portuguese were also exempted from aubaine, as they were considered naturalized.

— Freebase

Wisconsin River

Wisconsin River

The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. At approximately 430 miles long, it is the state's longest river. The river's name, first recorded in 1673 by Jacques Marquette as "Meskousing," is rooted in the Algonquian languages used by the area's American Indian tribes, but its original meaning is obscure. French explorers who followed in the wake of Marquette later modified the name to "Ouisconsin," and so it appears on Guillaume de L'Isle's map This was simplified to "Wisconsin" in the early 19th century before being applied to Wisconsin Territory and finally the state of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin River originates in the forests of the Lake District of northern Wisconsin, in Lac Vieux Desert near the border of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It flows south across the glacial plain of central Wisconsin, passing Wausau and Stevens Point. In southern Wisconsin it encounters the terminal moraine formed during the last ice age, where it forms the Dells of the Wisconsin River. North of Madison at Portage, the river turns to the west, flowing through Wisconsin's hilly Western Upland and joining the Mississippi approximately 3 miles south of Prairie du Chien.

— Freebase

Joan

Joan

Joan is a 1967 album by Joan Baez. Having exhausted the standard voice/guitar folksong format by 1967, Baez collaborated with composer Peter Schickele, on an album of orchestrated covers of mostly then-current pop and rock and roll songs. Works by Donovan, Paul Simon, Tim Hardin, the Beatles, and Richard Fariña were included, as well as selections by Jacques Brel and Edgar Allan Poe. The recording of "Children of Darkness" was a tribute to Baez's brother-in-law, novelist and musician Richard Fariña, who had been killed in a motorcycle accident a year earlier. "La Colombe" is a French anti-war anthem about French soldiers being sent to fight Algeria in the latter country's bid for independence. The 2003 Vanguard reissue contains two bonus tracks: "Oh, Had I a Golden Thread" and "Autumn Leaves".

— Freebase

Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a psychological and psychotherapeutic theory which has its roots in the ideas of the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Since then, psychoanalysis has expanded and been revised, reformed and developed in different directions. This was initially by Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung who went on to develop their own ideas independently from Freud. In the line with Freudian thought, psychoanalysis was revised and developed by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan. The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following: ⁕besides the inherited constitution of personality, a person's development is determined by events in early childhood; ⁕human behavior is largely influenced by irrational drives; ⁕irrational drives are unconscious; ⁕attempts to bring these drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms; ⁕conflicts between conscious and unconscious material can result in mental disturbances such as neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.; ⁕the liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved through bringing this material into the consciousness.

— Freebase

(B, N) pair

(B, N) pair

In mathematics, a (B, N) pair is a structure on groups of Lie type that allows one to give uniform proofs of many results, instead of giving a large number of case-by-case proofs. Roughly speaking, it shows that all such groups are similar to the general linear group over a field. They were invented by the mathematician Jacques Tits, and are also sometimes known as Tits systems.

— Freebase

Parachuting

Parachuting

Parachuting, or skydiving, is the action sport of exiting an aircraft and returning to Earth with the aid of gravity while using a parachute to slow down during the terminal part of the descent. It may or may not involve a certain amount of free-fall, a time during which the parachute has not been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity. The history of skydiving starts with Andre-Jacques Garnerin who made successful descents using a canvas canopy and small basket, tethered beneath a hot-air balloon. The first intentional freefall jump with a ripcord-operated deployment is credited to Leslie Irvin in 1919 ; however, the stunt jumper Georgina "Tiny" Broadwick claimed to have made earlier freefall jumps simply by cutting her static-line and manually pulling the remaining cord-end after falling away from the aircraft. The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, and later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1952. Parachuting is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters.

— Freebase

Charade

Charade

Charade is a 1963 American romantic comedy/mystery film directed by Stanley Donen, written by Peter Stone and Marc Behm, and starring Cary Grant and Audrey Hepburn. The movie also features Walter Matthau, James Coburn, George Kennedy, Dominique Minot, Ned Glass, and Jacques Marin. It spans three genres: suspense thriller, romance and comedy. Because Universal Pictures published the movie with an invalid copyright notice, the film entered the public domain in the United States immediately upon its release. The film is notable for its screenplay, especially the repartee between Grant and Hepburn, for having been filmed on location in Paris, for Henry Mancini's score and theme song, and for the animated titles by Maurice Binder. Charade has received generally positive reviews from critics, and was additionally noted to contain influences of genres such as whodunit, screwball and spy thriller; it has also been referred to as "the best Hitchcock movie that Hitchcock never made."

— Freebase

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître, which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content, while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue, Le Neveu de Rameau, upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based.

— Freebase

Temporality

Temporality

In philosophy, temporality is traditionally the linear progression of past, present, and future. However, some modern-century philosophers have interpreted temporality in ways other than this linear manner. Examples would be McTaggart's The Unreality of Time, Husserl's analysis of internal time consciousness, Martin Heidegger's Being and Time, George Herbert Mead's Philosophy of the Present, and Jacques Derrida's criticisms of Husserl's analysis, as well as Nietzsche's eternal return of the same, though this latter pertains more to historicity, to which temporality gives rise.

— Freebase

New France

New France

New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. The territory was then divided into five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Louisiana. The Treaty of Utrecht resulted in the relinquishing of French claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, and the establishment of the colony of Île Royale as the successor to Acadia. France ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War. Britain received the lands east of the Mississippi River, including Canada, Acadia, and parts of Louisiana, while Spain received the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France in 1800 under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, but French leader Napoleon Bonaparte sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland.

— Freebase

Monotonous

Monotonous

'Monotonous' is a popular song written by June Carroll and Arthur Siegel for Leonard Sillman's Broadway revue New Faces of 1952. The song was written based on the experiences of its singer Eartha Kitt. It was performed, on the insistence of Kitt on three chaise longues, crawling cat-like from one to the other, demonstrating her flexibility and her dance training from the Katherine Dunham Company. The song also includes references to many well-known people of the 1950s. People referenced in the song include: ⁕Montgomery Clift ⁕Jacques Fath. ⁕Johnnie Ray ⁕Harry S. Truman ⁕T. S. Eliot ⁕Farouk of Egypt ⁕Sherman Billingsley ⁕Chiang Kai-Shek ⁕Gayelord Hauser ⁕Dwight David Eisenhower, referred to as "Ike"

— Freebase

Jacques Tati

Jacques Tati

Jacques Tati was a French filmmaker. Throughout his long career he worked as a comic actor, writer, and director. In a poll conducted by Entertainment Weekly of the Greatest Movie Directors Tati was voted the 46th greatest of all time. With only six feature-length films to his credit as director, he directed fewer films than any other director on this list of 50.

— Freebase

Demand

Demand

In the theory of Jacques Lacan, demand represents the way instinctive desires are inevitably alienated through the effects of language on the human condition. The concept of demand was developed by Lacan in parallel to those of need and desire to account for the role of speech on human aspirations. Demand forms part of Lacan's battle against the approach to language acquisition favored by ego psychology, and makes use of Kojeve's theory of desire. Demand is not a Freudian concept.

— Freebase

Anticor

Anticor

An anticor, also known as anticoeur or avant-cœur, among farriers, is a dangerous swelling or inflammation in a horse's breast, of the size and shape of an apple, just opposite the heart. The term literally means anti heart or before heart. The swelling may appear as a hard tumor, slow to develop, or as an inflammation. A traditional remedy, in the first case, involves splitting the skin along the breadth of the tumor, allowing the matter contained to escape, and stopping the hemorrhage by using an amadou or a hot iron. This kind of operation is best done by a veterinarian. If the tumor is inflammatory, one resorts to an oil of pompillion, an ointment made of buds of black poplar, lard and sheets of poppy, belladonna, etc. If it has formed an abscess, one first applies a soft poultice. In pre-modern medicine, this was thought to be caused by a sanguine and bilious humour. The disease has also been erroneously attributed to the heart, whence it was called by Jacques de Solleysell a swelling of the pericardium, whereas it is really an inflammation in the gullet and throat. In humans, this is called Ludwig's angina, or squinancy.

— Freebase

Playtime

Playtime

Playtime is French director Jacques Tati's fourth major film, and generally considered to be his most daring film. It was shot in 1964 through 1967 and released in 1967. In Playtime, Tati again plays Monsieur Hulot, a character who had appeared in some of his earlier films, including Mon Oncle and Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot. As mentioned on the making of documentary that accompanies the Criterion Collections DVD of the film, by 1964 Tati had grown ambivalent towards playing Hulot as a recurring central role. Unable to dispense with the popular character altogether, Hulot appears intermittently in Playtime, alternating between central and supporting roles. Shot in 70 mm, Playtime is notable for its enormous set, which Tati had built specially for the film, as well as Tati's trademark use of subtle, yet complex visual comedy supported by creative sound effects; dialogue is frequently reduced to the level of background noise.

— Freebase

Autographic film

Autographic film

The autographic system for roll film was launched by Kodak in 1914, and allowed the photographer to add written information on the film at the time of exposure. The system was patented by Henry Jacques Gaisman, inventor and safety razor manufacturer. George Eastman purchased the rights for US$300,000. It consisted of a tissue-like carbon paper sandwiched between the film and the paper backing. Text was entered using a metal stylus, and would appear in the margin of the processed print. The system was never very popular, and was discontinued in 1932. Kodak's autographic films had "A" as the first part of the film size designation. Thus, standard 127 film would be labeled "127" and autographic 127 would be "A127". The autographic feature was marketed as having no extra charge. In 1915, Kodak also sold upgrade autographic backs for their existing cameras.

— Freebase

Daguerreotype

Daguerreotype

The daguerreotype was the first commercially successful photographic process, invented around 1837 by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. The physical daguerreotype itself is a direct positive made in the camera on a silvered copper plate. The raw material for plates was called Sheffield plate, plating by fusion or cold-rolled cladding and was a standard hardware item produced by heating and rolling silver foil in contact with a copper support. The surface of a daguerreotype is like a mirror, with the image made directly on the silvered surface; it is very fragile and can be rubbed off with a finger, and the finished plate has to be angled so as to reflect some dark surface in order to view the image properly. Depending on the angle viewed and the color of the surface reflected into it, the image can change from a positive to a negative. The cases provided to house daguerreotypes have a cover lined with velvet or plush to provide a dark surface that reflects into the plate for viewing. Alternatively there were cases designed as frames to hang on a wall, while the smallest sizes of daguerreotypes could be mounted into lockets as had been done with miniature paintings.

— Freebase

Postface

Postface

A postface is the opposite of a preface, a brief article or explanatory information placed at the end of a book. Postfaces are quite often used in books so that the non-pertinent information will appear at the end of the literary work, and not confuse the reader. There are at least two authentic examples of postfaces in published works. One can be found in the 1954 book Dali's Mustache: A Photographic Interview, by Salvador Dalí and Philippe Halsman. While the main body of the work is a collaboration, each author gets a few words to himself, Dali in the preface and Halsman in the postface. Another occurs in the philosopher Hegel's work The Origin of the Work of Art and is further cited in Jacques Derrida's reading of it in The Truth in Painting.

— Freebase

Chaleur Bay

Chaleur Bay

Chaleur Bay or Baie des Chaleurs - also known informally in English as Bay of Chaleur due to the influence of its French translation - is an arm of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence located between Quebec and New Brunswick. The name of the bay is attributed to explorer Jacques Cartier. It translates into English as "bay of warmth" or "bay of torrid weather".

— Freebase

Heteronomy

Heteronomy

Heteronomy refers to action that is influenced by a force outside the individual. Immanuel Kant, drawing on Jean-Jacques Rousseau, considered such an action nonmoral. It is the counter-opposite of autonomy. Philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis contrasted heteronomy from autonomy in noting that while all societies create their own institutions, autonomous societies are those in which their members are aware of this fact, and explicitly self-institute. In contrast, the members of heteronomous societies attribute their imaginaries to some extra-social authority.

— Freebase

Clairin

Clairin

Clairin is a strong spirit, similar to rum, made from cane sugar. Clairin is only produced in Haiti. Clairin is produced during the same process of distillation as rum, although it is not refined to separate the different alcohols produced by fermentation and exhaustion. In both Zora Neale Hurston's novel Tell My Horse and Jacques Roumain's Gouverneurs de la Rosée clairin features prominently in a vodou ritual, however, it is consumed outside of that context as well.

— Freebase

Gaze

Gaze

Gaze is a psychoanalytical term brought into popular usage by Jacques Lacan to describe the anxious state that comes with the awareness that one can be viewed. The psychological effect, Lacan argues, is that the subject loses a degree of autonomy upon realizing that he or she is a visible object. This concept is bound with his theory of the mirror stage, in which a child encountering a mirror realizes that he or she has an external appearance. Lacan suggests that this gaze effect can similarly be produced by any conceivable object such as a chair or a television screen. This is not to say that the object behaves optically as a mirror; instead it means that the awareness of any object can induce an awareness of also being an object.

— Freebase

Invariance

Invariance

Invariance is a French magazine edited by Jacques Camatte, published since 1968. It emerged from the Italian left-communist tradition associated with Amadeo Bordiga and it originally bore the subtitle "Invariance of the theory of the proletariat", indicating Bordiga's notion of the unchanging nature of communist theory. However it soon broke with many of the tenants of Bordigism and Marxism per se., arguing that in the aftermath of May '68 there was no longer any potential for the working class to escape the domination of capital through revolution. Instead it began to take the line that humanity itself had become "domesticated" by the rule of capital and the only solution was to "leave this world", a view which came to influence Fredy Perlman, John Zerzan and others in their development of Anarcho-primitivism. It was this radical shift in orientation which caused many of its critics to observe: "nothing varies more than Invariance ". Invariance is now in its fifth series and appears sporadically. Every cover features the same image of a tree, and on the back the phrase: "time is the invention of men incapable of love".

— Freebase

Jerkwater

Jerkwater

Jerkwater is an indie rock trio formed in 1998 in Brooklyn, New York. The band includes guitarist Chris Bowers, bassist Steve Christensen and drummer John Connell, with all members sharing vocal duties. On April 3, 2001, Love and Latitude, their debut full-length CD was released on Plus Records. Veteran producer and sound engineer Jacques Cohen handled engineering and production at The Space, his recording studio in Poughkeepsie, New York. As of 2005, Jerkwater was on hiatus as band members pursued other projects, including Kings County Queens and Junior and Sons.

— Freebase

Gender studies

Gender studies

Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. This field includes women's studies, men's studies, and LGBT studies. Sometimes, gender studies is offered together with study of sexuality. These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature, language, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema, media studies, human development, law, and medicine. It also analyzes race, ethnicity, location, nationality, and disability. Gender study has many different forms. One view exposed by the philosopher Simone de Beauvoir said: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one". This view proposes that in gender studies, the term "gender" should be used to refer to the social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities, not to the state of being male or female in its entirety. However, this view is not held by all gender theorists. Other areas of gender study closely examine the role that the biological states of being male or female have on social constructs of gender. Specifically, in what way gender roles are defined by biology and how they are defined by cultural trends. The field emerged from a number of different areas: the sociology of the 1950s and later; the theories of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan; and the work of feminists such as Judith Butler.

— Freebase

Hector

Hector

In Greek mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. As the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus, who lived under Mount Ida, and of Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father's throne. He was married to Andromache, with whom he had an infant son, Scamandrius. He acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, killing 31,000 Greek fighters in all. In the European Middle Ages, Hector figures as one of the Nine Worthies noted by Jacques de Longuyon, known not only for his courage but also for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son, husband and father, and without darker motives. When the Trojans are disputing whether the omens are favorable, he retorts: "One omen is best: defending the fatherland."

— Freebase

Thenardite

Thenardite

Thenardite is an anhydrous sodium sulfate mineral, Na2SO4 which occurs in arid evaporite environments. It also occurs in dry caves and old mine workings as an efflorescence and as a crusty deposit around fumaroles. It occurs in volcanic caves on Mt. Etna, Italy and was named after the French chemist, Louis Jacques Thénard. Thenardite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and often forms yellowish, reddish to grey white prismatic crystals although usually in massive crust deposits. Thenardite is fluorescent, white in shortwave and yellow-green in longwave UV radiation. In humid conditions, thenardite gradually absorbs water and converts to the mineral mirabilite, Na2SO4·10H2O.

— Freebase

Cosmolabe

Cosmolabe

The cosmolabe was an ancient astronomical instrument resembling the astrolabe, formerly used for measuring the angles between heavenly bodies. It is also called pantacosm. Jacques Besson also uses this name, or universal instrument, for his invention described in Le cosmolabe, which could be used for astrometry, cartography, navigation, and surveying.

— Freebase

Jacquard loom

Jacquard loom

The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card and each row of punched holes corresponded to one row of the design. Several such paper cards, generally white in color, can be seen in the images below. Chains, like the much later paper tape, allowed sequences of any length to be constructed, not limited by the size of a card. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon, Jean Baptiste Falcon and Jacques Vaucanson A static display of a Jacquard loom is the centrepiece of the Musée des Tissus et des Arts Décoratifs in Lyon. Live displays of a Jacquard loom are available at a few private museums around Lyon.

— Freebase

Jacobin

Jacobin

A Jacobin is someone who supports a centralized Republic, with power made at the federal level in contemporary usage. At its inception during the French Revolution, the term was popularly applied to all supporters of revolutionary opinions. Specifically, it was used to describe members of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary, far-left political movement that had been the most famous political club of the French Revolution. The club was so called from the Dominican convent where they originally met, in the Rue Saint-Jacques in Paris.

— Freebase

Blackfly

Blackfly

Blackfly is a Canadian sitcom which ran on the Global Television Network for two seasons in 2001 and 2002. Although shot single-camera like most Canadian comedies, this series was shot on film rather than videotape and contains a laugh track rather than making use of the usual live audience because most scenes take place outdoors. The show is set in 18th-century Canada back "in days when beaver fur was good as gold" and features a twisted "Blackadder meets F Troop"-style Canadian history in which Benny "Blackfly" Broughton, a Maritimes-born undersized but ambitious general jack-of-all-trades at the isolated Fort Simpson-Eaton on the colonial Canadian frontier, is joined by the prissy by-the-book upper class British officer Corporal Entwhistle whom he is usually able to talk into his latest doomed-to-failure get-rich-quick scheme. Other characters include Blackfly's boss at the Hudson's Bay Company-style trading post, the rowdy, penny-pinching Scottish storekeeper MacTavish, Misty Moon, a wryly wise native barkeep who loves watching the white man blow his money on whisky at her Leg Hold Trap Bar between visits by her boisterous if distinctly anglophobic French Canadian voyageur lover Dijon, tough but good-natured local tribal leader Chief Smack-Your-Face-In, masochistic and desperate-to-be-martyred Jesuit priest Brother Jacques, the deranged and drunken fort commander Colonel Boyle, and his buxom blond daughter Lady Hammond, the hot-blooded young princess of privilege who had no idea what she was getting into when she decided to join her father in Canada after becoming a widow.

— Freebase

Epacris

Epacris

Epacris is a genus of about 35-40 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, though formerly often treated in a separate family Epacridaceae. The genus is native to eastern and southeastern Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. The species are known as heaths or Australian heaths. Epacris Impressa ranges from 1-3m in height. Epracris is from the Epacridacae family and the common name is the Pink or Common Heath. The Common Heath is a very bright coloured species so it is pollenated through birds and insects. The Common Heath was collected from Tasmania in 1793 by the French botanist, Jacques-Julien Houton de Labillardiere during his voyage with Bruny D'Entrecasteaux on the unsuccessful search for the missing explorer, La Perouse. Following Bruny's death in July 1793.Victoria was the first Australian State to give official recognition to such an emblem. E. impressa is the state flower of Victoria. ⁕Epacris acuminata ⁕Epacris apsleyensis ⁕Epacris barbata ⁕Epacris breviflora ⁕Epacris exserta ⁕Epacris glabella ⁕Epacris gunnii ⁕Epacris heteronema ⁕Epacris impressa - Common or Pink Heath ⁕Epacris lanuginosa - Woolly Heath

— Freebase

Indeterminism

Indeterminism

Indeterminism is the concept that events are not caused, or not caused deterministically by prior events. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism. In science, Indeterminism has been promoted by the French biologist Jacques Monod's essay "Chance and necessity". It is also asserted by Werner Heisenberg, Sir Arthur Eddington, Max Born and Murray Gell-Mann. The physicist-chemist Ilya Prigogine argued for indeterminism in complex systems.

— Freebase

Pur et dur

Pur et dur

Pur et dur is a term used in Quebec politics to refer to hardliners of the Parti Québécois and the Quebec independence movement. It is most commonly used in the media, where it was popularized. It is also used to criticize some members of the Parti Québécois. Some within the party resent the use of the term by the media, but some have embraced it. It is similar to the term "SNP fundamentalist", used in Scotland politics for a faction of the Scottish National Party, another pro-independence party. Many of the first "purs et durs" came from the Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale who, through entryism, joined the Parti Québécois in the early days of the 1960s. They are associated with strong opinions about independence and language protection. Some also criticize the party for not being social democratic enough. These militants have famously made the leadership of the Parti Québécois a test and daunting task. The media has tied the resignation of every former PQ leader except Jacques Parizeau to the disapproval of the "pur et dur", especially in the case of Pierre-Marc Johnson. Parizeau, a former Premier of Quebec, has sometimes been portrayed as "pur et dur".

— Freebase

Compte rendu

Compte rendu

The Compte rendu was a document published in February 1781 by Jacques Necker, finance minister to the King, in which he presented the state of France's finances.

— Freebase

Barcarolle

Barcarolle

A barcarole is a folk song sung by Venetian gondoliers, or a piece of music composed in that style. In classical music, two of the most famous barcaroles are Jacques Offenbach's "Belle nuit, ô nuit d'amour", from his opera The Tales of Hoffmann; and Frédéric Chopin's Barcarole in F sharp major for solo piano.

— Freebase

All-rounder

All-rounder

An all-rounder is a cricketer who regularly performs well at both batting and bowling. Although all bowlers must bat and quite a few batsmen do bowl occasionally, most players are skilled in only one of the two disciplines and are considered specialists. Some wicket-keepers have the skills of a specialist batsman and have been referred to as all-rounders, but the term wicketkeeper-batsman is more commonly applied to them. Among the greatest all-rounders have been Imran Khan, George Hirst, Wilfred Rhodes, Chris Cairns, Shaun Pollock, Keith Miller, Garfield Sobers, Ian Botham, Jacques Kallis, Kapil Dev, Richard Hadlee, W. G. Grace, Mushtaq Mohammad, Lance Klusener, Walter Hammond and Andrew Flintoff

— Freebase

Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare

Psychological Warfare, or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations, have been known by many other names or terms, including Psy Ops, Political Warfare, “Hearts and Minds”, and Propaganda. Various techniques are used, by any set of groups, and aimed to influence a target audience's value systems, belief systems, emotions, motives, reasoning, or behavior. It is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, and are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. Target audiences can be governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Jacques Ellul discusses psychological warfare as a common peace policy practice between nations as a form of indirect aggression in place of military aggression. This type of propaganda drains the public opinion of an opposing regime by stripping away its power on public opinion. This form of aggression is hard to defend against because no international court of justice is capable of protecting against psychological aggression since it cannot be legally adjudicated. The only defense is using the same means of psychological warfare. It is the burden of every government to defend its state against propaganda aggression. "Here the propagandists is [sic] dealing with a foreign adversary whose morale he seeks to destroy by psychological means so that the opponent begins to doubt the validity of his beliefs and actions." The tactic has long been used by hate groups such as the KKK in order to perpetuate their grasp on power and view of the world.

— Freebase

Girondist

Girondist

The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondists were a group of loosely-affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the States-general from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the revenge killing of radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by Girondist sympathizer, Charlotte Corday. Some prominent Girondists were Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in American Founding Father Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed with the guillotine and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution.

— Freebase

The Adventures of Alix

The Adventures of Alix

Alix, or The Adventures of Alix, is a popular Franco-Belgian comics series drawn in the ligne claire style by one of its masters, Jacques Martin. The stories revolve around a young Gallo-Roman man named Alix in the late Roman Republic. Although the series is renowned for its historical accuracy and stunning set detail, the hero has been known to wander into anachronistic situations up to two centuries out of his era. The stories unfold throughout the reaches of the Roman world, including the city of Rome, Gaul, the German frontier, Mesopotamia, Africa and Asia Minor. One voyage goes as far as China.

— Freebase

Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. His work is characterized by clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color. Until the 20th century he remained a major inspiration for such classically oriented artists as Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Paul Cézanne. He worked in Rome for a circle of leading collectors there and elsewhere, except for a short period when Cardinal Richelieu ordered him back to France to serve as First Painter to the King. Most of his works are history paintings of religious or mythological subjects that very often have a large landscape element.

— Freebase

Conté

Conté

Conté, also known as Conté sticks or Conté crayons, are a drawing medium composed of compressed powdered graphite or charcoal mixed with a wax or clay base, square in cross-section. They were invented in 1795 by Nicolas-Jacques Conté, who created the combination of clay and graphite in response to the shortage of graphite caused by the Napoleonic Wars. Conté crayons had the advantage of being cost-effective to produce, and easy to manufacture in controlled grades of hardness. They are now manufactured using natural pigments, clay, and a binder. Conté crayons are most commonly found in black, white, and sanguine tones, as well as bistre, shades of grey, and other colors. Currently in the USA, sets of 12 assorted, portrait and landscape colors are available as well as a sketching set, plus sets of 18, 24 or 48 colors. In Europe, 22 more colors are available and the colors other than sanguine, bistre, grey, black and white are available open stock. Colors sets are especially useful for field studies and color studies. Some artists create entire paintings with them, using them more like pastels than like a drawing medium. They are also used often to sketch under pastel paintings or lay down initial layers before using dry pastels. The "colors" sets lean toward very bright spectrum hues that mix well, even the 12 assorted color set can be layered to produce any hues or values desired. Color Conté mixes better on paper than many hard pastel products.

— Freebase

Change of Mind

Change of Mind

Change of Mind is a science fiction/drama film starring Raymond St. Jacques, Susan Oliver, Janet MacLachlan, and Leslie Nielsen.

— Freebase

Interpellation

Interpellation

Interpellation is a concept in Marxist social and political theory associated in particular with the work of the philosopher Louis Althusser. Althusser used the term interpellation to describe the process by which ideology, embodied in major social and political institutions, constitutes the nature of individual subjects' identities through the very process of institutions and discourses of 'hailing' them in social interactions. Althusser thus goes against the classical definition of the subject as cause and substance: emphasising instead how the situation always precedes the subject, which precisely as subject is "always-already interpellated". Individual subjects are presented principally as produced by social forces, rather than acting as powerful independent agents with self-produced identities. Althusser's argument here strongly draws from Jacques Lacan's concept of the mirror stage. Althusser's concept has been roundly confused over the last decades with concepts and thinking associated with Michel Foucault, in part because both thinkers manifest an antihumanist insistence on the secondary status of the subject as mere effect of social relations and not vice versa. Another source of this confusion, as elaborated in an article by Keith Sawyer is the shared use of the word but different concepts of discourse. Interpellation, Althusser's idea based on Lacan, specifically involves the moment and process of recognition of interaction with the ideology at hand. Foucault eschews the notion of ideology and his quasi-structuralist analytics are quite antithetical to Lacanian notions of the Real, the Symbolic, and the Imaginary.

— Freebase

Lunette

Lunette

In architecture, a lunette is a half-moon shaped space, either filled with recessed masonry or void. A lunette is formed when a horizontal cornice transects a round-headed arch at the level of the imposts, where the arch springs. If a door is set within a round-headed arch, the space within the arch above the door, masonry or glass, is a lunette. If the door is a major access, and the lunette above is massive and deeply set, it may be called a tympanum. The term is usefully employed to describe the section of interior wall between the curves of a vault and its springing line. A system of intersecting vaults produces lunettes on the wall surfaces above a cornice. The lunettes in the structure of the Sistine Chapel inspired Michelangelo to come up with inventive compositions for the spaces. In neoclassical architecture of Robert Adam and his French contemporaries, like Ange-Jacques Gabriel, a favorite scheme set a series of windows within shallow blind arches. The lunettes above lent themselves to radiating motifs: a sunburst of bellflower husks, radiating fluting, a low vase of flowers, etc. A lunette may also be segmental, and the arch may be an arc taken from an oval. The spaces are still lunettes.

— Freebase

Headhunter

Headhunter

Headhunter is a video game developed by Amuze for the Dreamcast and PlayStation 2 video game consoles. The Dreamcast version of the game was only distributed in Europe, by BigBen Interactive. For the majority of the game, the gameplay is that of a third-person shooter as players control protagonist Jack Wade. Jack travels between the main levels of the game on his motorcycle, and these sections take the form of a racing game, with the motorbike's acceleration and braking controlled using the sensitive analogue trigger buttons of the Dreamcast control pad. Music for the game was composed by Richard Jacques and recorded at Abbey Road Studios. In 2004 its sequel, Headhunter Redemption, was released on Xbox and PlayStation 2.

— Freebase

Piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure. It is derived from the Greek piezo or piezein, which means to squeeze or press, and electric or electron, which stands for amber, an ancient source of electric charge. Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie. The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect. For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves.

— Freebase

Jacques

Jacques

Jacques were a British alternative rock band, formed as a side project by Anthony Reynolds and Matthew Scott, singer and guitarist with Jack. They released two albums and several EPs between 1997 and 2001.

— Freebase

Bournonite

Bournonite

Bournonite is a sulfosalt mineral species, a sulfantimonite of lead and copper with the formula PbCuSbS3. It was first mentioned by Philip Rashleigh in 1797 as an ore of antimony and was more completely described in 1804 by French crystallographer and mineralogist Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon, after whom it was named. The name given by Bournon himself was endellione, since used in the form endellionite, after the locality in Cornwall where the mineral was first found. The crystals are orthorhombic, and are generally tabular in habit owing to the predominance of the basal pinacoid; numerous smooth bright faces are often developed on the edges and corners of the crystals. Usually, however, the crystals are twinned, the twin-plane being a face of the prism; the angle between the faces of this prism being nearly a right angIe, the twinning gives rise to cruciform groups and when it is often repeated the group has the appearance of a cog-wheel, hence the name Rdelerz of the Kapnik miners. The repeated twinning gives rise to twin-lamellae, which may be detected on the fractured surfaces, even of the massive material. It is a mineral in medium temperature hydrothermal vein deposits. It commonly occurs with galena, tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, stibnite, zinkenite, siderite, quartz, rhodochrosite, dolomite and barite.

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Baculometry

Baculometry

Bacculometry is the art of measuring accessible or inaccessible distances, or lines, by the help of one or more staves or rods. Daniel Schwenter has explained this art in his Geometria Practica; and the rules of it are delivered by Wolfius, in his Elements. Jacques Ozanam also gives an illustration of the principles of baculometry.

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Face-to-face

Face-to-face

The face-to-face relation is a concept in the French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas' thought on human sociality. It means that, ethically, people are responsible to one-another in the face-to-face encounter. Specifically, Lévinas says that the human face "orders and ordains" us. It calls the subject into “giving and serving” the Other. Face-to-face is similar to Mikhail Bakhtin's ethical concept in art and answerability and Martin Heidegger's concept of the authentic guilt as opposed to an inauthentic other. Lévinas' phenomenological account of the "face-to-face" encounter serves as the basis for his ethics and the rest of his philosophy. For Lévinas, "Ethics is the first philosophy." Lévinas argues that the encounter of the Other through the face reveals a certain poverty which forbids a reduction to Sameness and, simultaneously, installs a responsibility for the Other in the Self. Lévinas' account of the face-to-face encounter bears many similarities to Martin Buber's "I and Thou" relation. Its influence is also particularly pronounced in Jacques Derrida's ethical writings.

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Louis Jolliet

Louis Jolliet

Louis Jolliet, also known as Louis Joliet, was a Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, were the first Europeans to explore and map much of the Mississippi River in 1673.

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Personal Magnetism

Personal Magnetism

Personal Magnetism is a 1913 American silent short film starring Sydney Ayres, Julius Frankenberg, Harry Van Meter, Jacques Jaccard, Louise Lovely, Jack Richardson and Vivian Rich.

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Sauria

Sauria

Sauria is a clade of reptiles that includes all living diapsids, as well as their common ancestor and all its extinct descendants. It was defined by Jacques Gauthier, Arnold G. Kluge and Timothy Rowe as the group containing the most recent common ancestor of archosaurs and lepidosaurs and all its descendants; a different definition was formulated by Michael deBraga and Olivier Rieppel who defined Sauria as the clade containing the most recent common ancestor of Choristodera, Archosauromorpha and Lepidosauromorpha and all their descendants. The ancestral saurian was probably a small lizard-like creature living in the Permian Period. This crown group is diagnosed by a number of details in skull and skeleton, and comprises the two important clades Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha. The name "Sauria" was coined by James Macartney; it was the Latinisation of the French name Sauriens, coined by Alexandre Brongniart for an order of reptiles in the classification proposed by the author, containing lizards and crocodilians, later discovered not to be each other's closest relatives. Later authors used the term "Sauria" in a more restricted sense, i.e. as a synonym of Lacertilia, a suborder of Squamata that includes all lizards but excludes snakes. This classification is rarely used today because Sauria so-defined is a paraphyletic group.

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Literary genre

Literary genre

A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone, content, or even length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young-adult, or children's. They also must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are epic, tragedy, comedy, novel, short story, and creative nonfiction. They can all be in the genres prose or poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire, allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a sub-genre, but as a mixture of genres. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. The concept of "genre" has been criticized by Jacques Derrida.

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Deconstruction

Deconstruction

Deconstruction is a form of semiotic analysis, derived mainly from French philosopher Jacques Derrida's 1967 work Of Grammatology. Its first task, starting with philosophical texts and afterwards in literary and juridical ones, is to overturn all the binary oppositions of metaphysics. Derrida's theories of Deconstruction first demonstrate that in a classical philosophical opposition readers are not confronted to the peaceful coexistence of a vis-à-vis, but rather with a violent hierarchy. One of the two terms governs the other, or one of the two terms is dominant. The deconstruction of the opposition, is to overturn the hierarchy at a given moment. To overlook this phase of overturning is to forget the conflictual and subordinating structure of opposition. The final task of deconstruction is not to surpass all oppositions; because it is assumed that they are structurally necessary to produce sense, they cannot be suspended once and for all. They need to be analyzed and criticized in all their manifestations; the function of both logical and axiological oppositions must be studied in all discourses to provide meaning and values. Deconstruction does not only expose how oppositions work and how meaning and values are produced in a nihilistic or cynic position, "thereby preventing any means of intervening in the field effectively". To be effective, and simply as its mode of practice, deconstruction creates new notions or concepts, not to synthesize the terms in opposition, but to mark their difference, undecidability, and eternal interplay.

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Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre, Viscount Cambronne, was a General of the French Empire. He fought during the wars of the Revolution and the Napoleonic Era. He was wounded at the Battle of Waterloo.

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Druids

Druids

Druids is a French film first released on 31 August 2001, directed by Jacques Dorfmann. It stars Christopher Lambert, Klaus Maria Brandauer, Inés Sastre, Bernard-Pierre Donnadieu, and Max von Sydow. The film tells the story of the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix, from his childhood through to his battle to save Gaul from Roman domination at the hands of Julius Caesar. The film culminates with the decisive Battle of Alesia. The novel The Druid King by Norman Spinrad, is a derivative work of an early version of Druids script.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. Linnaeus received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, "The Pliny of the North," and "The Second Adam".

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings—his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker—exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.

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Opéra bouffe

Opéra bouffe

Opéra bouffe is a genre of late 19th-century French operetta, closely associated with Jacques Offenbach, who produced many of them at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens that gave its name to the form. Opéras bouffes are known for elements of comedy, satire, parody and farce. The most famous examples are La belle Hélène, Barbe-bleue, La vie parisienne, La Périchole and La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein.

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Microcosmos

Microcosmos

Microcosmos is a 1996 documentary film by Claude Nuridsany and Marie Pérennou and produced by Jacques Perrin. This film is primarily a record of detailed insect interactions set to the music of Bruno Coulais. The film was screened out of competition at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival. Scenes from the film were used in the music video for the single "You Don't Love Me" from The Philosopher Kings' album Famous, Rich and Beautiful.

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Montgolfier brothers

Montgolfier brothers

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France.

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Bertrand

Bertrand

Bertrand is a provincial electoral district in the Lanaudière and Laurentides regions of Quebec, Canada that elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It is not to be confused with the former, entirely different Bertrand electoral district located in the Montérégie region, which existed from 1981 to 1994; they used the same name but otherwise have nothing in common. It was created for the 1994 election from parts of Labelle, Prévost and Rousseau. It includes the municipalities of Saint-Donat, Chertsey, Saint-Adele, Saint-Sauveur and Saint-Agathe-des-Monts. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, it lost Chertsey and Saint-Hippolyte to Rousseau electoral district and gained Prévost from Prévost electoral district, which became defunct. It is named after former Union Nationale and Quebec premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand who was in power from 1968 to 1970 after the death of Daniel Johnson.

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Doctor of Fine Arts

Doctor of Fine Arts

Doctor of Fine Arts is doctoral degree in fine arts, typically given as an honorary degree. The degree is typically conferred to honor the recipient who has made a contribution to society in the arts. Notable individuals who have been conferred the honor are Michelle Burton, Frank Stella, Richard Serra, Stephen Colbert, Carmen De Lavallade, Anna Deavere Smith, Jacques d'Amboise. Bill Pullman, Abelardo Morell, Twyla Tharp, Gordon Parks, and Jack Nicholson. At Yale University, the D.F.A. is conferred on students who hold a Master of Fine Arts degree in dramaturgy and dramatic criticism from the Yale School of Drama, and who have "completed M.F.A. qualifying comprehensive examinations, and have written a dissertation of distinction whose subject has been approved by the D.F.A. committee" of faculty.

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Jacques Loeb

Jacques Loeb

Jacques Loeb was a German-born American physiologist and biologist.

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Cancan

Cancan

The can-can is a high-energy and physically demanding music hall dance, traditionally performed by a chorus line of female dancers who wear costumes with long skirts, petticoats, and black stockings. The main features of the dance are the lifting and manipulation of the skirts, with high kicking and suggestive, provocative body movements. The Infernal Galop from Jacques Offenbach's Orpheus in the Underworld is the tune most associated with the can-can.

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Natural law

Natural law

Natural law, or the law of nature, is a system of law that is purportedly determined by nature, and thus universal. Classically, natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature—both social and personal—and deduce binding rules of moral behavior from it. Natural law is classically contrasted with the positive law of a given political community, society, or state, and thus serves as a standard by which to criticize said positive law. In legal theory, on the other hand, the interpretation of positive law requires some reference to natural law. On this understanding of natural law, natural law can be invoked to criticize judicial decisions about what the law says but not to criticize the best interpretation of the law itself. Some scholars use natural law synonymously with natural justice or natural right, while others distinguish between natural law and natural right. Although natural law is often conflated with common law, the two are distinct in that natural law is a view that certain rights or values are inherent in or universally cognizable by virtue of human reason or human nature, while common law is the legal tradition whereby certain rights or values are legally cognizable by virtue of judicial recognition or articulation. Natural law theories have, however, exercised a profound influence on the development of English common law, and have featured greatly in the philosophies of Thomas Aquinas, Francisco Suárez, Richard Hooker, Thomas Hobbes, Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf, John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, Jean Jacques Burlamaqui, and Emmerich de Vattel. Because of the intersection between natural law and natural rights, it has been cited as a component in the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States, as well as in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Declarationism states that the founding of the United States is based on Natural law.

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Aqua-lung

Aqua-lung

Aqua-Lung was the original English name of the first open-circuit, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus to reach worldwide popularity and commercial success. This class of equipment is now commonly referred to as a diving regulator or demand valve. The Aqua-Lung was invented in Paris during the winter of 1942–1943 by the engineer Émile Gagnan and the lieutenant de vaisseau Jacques Cousteau, both of France.

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Bernard Hinault

Bernard Hinault

Bernard Hinault is a former French cyclist known for five victories in the Tour de France. He is one of only five cyclists to have won all three Grand Tours, and the only cyclist to have won each more than once. He won the Tour de France in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982 and 1985. He came second in 1984 and 1986 and won 28 stages, of which 13 were individual time trials. The other three to have achieved at least five Tour de France victories are Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx and Miguel Indurain. Even among these elite riders, Hinault is the only one to have finished either first or second in each Tour de France he finished. Hinault was nicknamed Le Blaireau, initially for his looks, as he would often don a hairband, thus resembling a shaving brush. Later, the second meaning of this French word would become the dominant reason for his nickname, because the animal has the reputation of not letting go of his prey. Throughout his career, he's been known for his personality: independent, outspoken, quick to take offense and quick with a riposte. In an interview in the French magazine Vélo, however, Hinault said the nickname had nothing to do with the animal. He said it was a local cyclists' way of saying "mate" or "buddy" in his youth – "How's it going, badger?" – and that it came to refer to him personally.

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Fromental Halévy

Fromental Halévy

Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy, usually known as Fromental Halévy, was a French composer. He is known today largely for his opera La Juive.

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Phallogocentrism

Phallogocentrism

In critical theory and deconstruction, phallogocentrism or phallocentrism is a neologism coined by Jacques Derrida to refer to the privileging of the masculine in the construction of meaning. Derrida and others identified phonocentrism, or the prioritizing of speech over writing, as an integral part of phallogocentrism. Derrida explored this idea in his essay "Plato's Pharmacy".

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Minoritaire

Minoritaire

Minoritaire was a 1982 album by Jean-Jacques Goldman, his second solo album sung in French. It was certified platinum in France in 1983, another in 1991 and another in 2001, for a total sales of 900,000 copies. It was recorded at the Studio Gang by Olivier do Espirito Santo and Jean-Pierre Janiaud. It was released by NEF and produced by Marc Lumbroso.

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Waarom?

Waarom?

"Waarom?" was the Belgian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1963, performed in Dutch by Jacques Raymond. The song was performed fourteenth on the night. At the close of voting, it had received 4 points, placing 10th in a field of 16. The song is based around rhetorical questions, with Raymond wondering why the question "I love you - do you love me too?" is so powerful in the human experience. It was succeeded as Belgian representative at the 1964 Contest by Robert Cogoi performing "Près de ma rivière".

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Gitane

Gitane

Gitane is a French manufacturer of bicycles based in Machecoul, France; the name "Gitane" means gypsy woman. The brand was synonymous with French bicycle racing from the 1960s through the mid-1980s, sponsoring riders such as Jacques Anquetil, Lucien Van Impe, Bernard Hinault, Laurent Fignon, and Greg LeMond. It is owned by Grimaldi Industri AB.

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Jacques Marquette

Jacques Marquette

Father Jacques Marquette S.J., sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan. In 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River.

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Jacques Monod

Jacques Monod

Jacques Lucien Monod was a French biologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis". Monod is famous for his work on the E. coli lac operon, which encodes proteins necessary for the transport and breakdown of the sugar lactose. From their own work and the work of others, he and Jacob came up with a model for how the levels of some proteins in a cell are controlled. In their model, the manufacture of proteins, such as the ones encoded within the lac operon, is prevented when a repressor, encoded by a regulatory gene, binds to its operator, a specific site on the DNA next to the genes encoding the proteins. It is now known that repressor bound to the operator physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter, the site where transcription of the adjacent genes begins. Study of the control of expression of genes in the lac operon provided the first example of a transcriptional regulation system. He also suggested the existence of mRNA molecules that link the information encoded in DNA and proteins. Monod is widely regarded as one of the founders of molecular biology. Monod's interest in the lac operon originated from his doctoral dissertation, for which he studied the growth of bacteria in culture media containing two sugars.

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Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, and many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st. The Tales of Hoffman remains part of the standard opera repertory. Born in Cologne, the son of a synagogue cantor, Offenbach showed early musical talent. At the age of 14, he was accepted as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but found academic study unfulfilling and left after a year. From 1835 to 1855 he earned his living as a cellist, achieving international fame, and as a conductor. His ambition, however, was to compose comic pieces for the musical theatre. Finding the management of Paris's Opéra-Comique company uninterested in staging his works, in 1855 he leased a small theatre in the Champs-Élysées. There he presented a series of his own small-scale pieces, many of which became popular.

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Dugommier

Dugommier

Dugommier is a station of the Paris Métro on line 6 in the 12th arrondissement. The station opened on 1 March 1909 with the opening of the original section of line 6 from Place d'Italie to Nation. It is named after the Rue Dugommier, which was named after Jacques François Dugommier, a general and member of the Convention, which governed France, 1792–1795. It was the location of the Barrière de Charenton, a gate built for the collection of taxation as part of the Wall of the Farmers-General; the gate was built between 1784 and 1788 and demolished during the nineteenth century. Nearby are the Promenade Plantée—a 4.5 km long elevated garden along the abandoned railway which led to the former Gare de La Bastille railway station–and the town hall of the 12th arrondissement.

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Claudine

Claudine

The Claudine series consists of four early novels by the French author Colette, published 1900-1904. Written in diary form, they describe the growth to maturity of a young girl, Claudine. Aged fifteen at the beginning of the first book, Claudine à l'école, the series describes her education and experiences as she grows up. All the books are written in first-person with the first three having Claudine herself as the narrator. The last in the series, Claudine s'en va, introduces a new narrator, Annie. The novels were written in the late 19th century in collaboration with Colette’s first husband, the writer Henry Gauthier-Villars, better known by his nom-de-plume "Willy". There has been much speculation over the degree of involvement of both Colette and Willy in the writing of the Claudine novels, particularly as Willy was known for often using ghostwriters. Consequently although the novels were originally attributed to Willy only and published under his name alone, they were later published under both names. After the death of Willy, Colette went to court to challenge her former husband's involvement in any of the writing, and subsequently had his name removed from the books. This decision however was overturned after her death, as Willy’s son from a prior relationship, Jacques Gauthier-Villars, successfully sued to have his father’s name restored.

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Two Brothers

Two Brothers

Two Brothers is a 2004 adventure family film directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. It is about two tigers who are separated as cubs and then reunited years later.

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François Mitterrand

François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand was the 21st President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, serving from 1981 until 1995. He is the longest-serving President of France and, as leader of the Socialist Party, the first figure from the left elected President under the Fifth Republic. Reflecting family influences, Mitterrand started political life on the Catholic nationalist right. He served under the Vichy Regime in its earlier years. Subsequently, however, he joined the Resistance, moved to the left, and held ministerial office repeatedly under the Fourth Republic. He opposed de Gaulle's establishment of the Fifth Republic. Although at times a politically isolated figure, Mitterrand outmanoeuvred rivals to become the left's standard bearer in every presidential election from 1965 to 1988, except 1969. Elected President in the May 1981 presidential election, he was re-elected in 1988 and held office until 1995. Mitterrand invited the Communist Party into his first government, a controversial move at the time. In the event, the Communists were boxed in as junior partners and, rather than taking advantage, saw their support erode. They left the cabinet in 1984. Early in his first term, Mitterrand followed a radical economic program, including nationalization of key firms, but after two years, with the economy in crisis, he reversed course. His foreign and defense policies built on those of his Gaullist predecessors. His partnership with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl advanced European integration via the Maastricht Treaty, but he accepted German reunification only reluctantly. During his time in office he was a strong promoter of culture and implemented a range of costly "Grands Projets". He was twice forced by the loss of a parliamentary majority into "cohabitation governments" with conservative cabinets led, respectively, by Jacques Chirac, and Édouard Balladur. Less than 8 months after leaving office, Mitterrand died from the prostate cancer he had successfully concealed for most of his presidency.

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Milk & Sugar

Milk & Sugar

Milk & Sugar are German housemusic producers and record label owners Mike Milk and Steven Sugar. The two have collaborated since 1993 under a variety of names, including Axis, Hitch Hiker & Jacques Dumondt, and Mike Stone & Steve Heller, and have scored major club hits internationally, including a re-make of John Paul Young's "Love Is in the Air".

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Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy is a concept developed by French philosopher François Laruelle. Laruelle argues that all forms of philosophy are structured around a prior decision, and remain constitutively blind to this decision. The 'decision' that Laruelle is concerned with here is the dialectical splitting of the world in order to grasp the world philosophically. Examples from the history of philosophy include Immanuel Kant's distinction between the synthesis of manifold impressions and the faculties of the understanding; Martin Heidegger's split between the ontic and the ontological; and Jacques Derrida's notion of différance/presence. The reason Laruelle finds this decision interesting and problematic is because the decision itself cannot be grasped without introducing some further scission. Laruelle further argues that the decisional structure of philosophy can only be grasped non-philosophically. In this sense, non-philosophy is a science of philosophy. Non-philosophy is not metaphilosophy because, as Laruelle scholar Ray Brassier notes, "philosophy is already metaphilosophical through its constitutive reflexivity". Brassier also defines non-philosophy as the "theoretical practice of philosophy proceeding by way of transcendental axioms and producing theorems which are philosophically uninterpretable". The reason why the axioms and theorems of non-philosophy are philosophically uninterpretable is because, as explained, philosophy cannot grasp its decisional structure in the way that non-philosophy can.

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Doctor Slop

Doctor Slop

Dr Slop is a choleric physician and "man-midwife" in Laurence Sterne's novel The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. The doctor is summoned by Tristram Shandy's father to attend his son's imminent birth. Slop makes his first appearance in Chapter 34 of the novel, where he is described as: He is portrayed as an incompetent quack, arriving at Shandy Hall having forgotten his array of "vile instruments" and "obstetrical engines", which have to be urgently sent for. In performing a forceps delivery of the baby, Slop damages the infant Tristram's nose, much to his father's consternation, and is obliged to perform a rudimentary rhinoplasty using cotton thread and a piece of whalebone from a maid's corset. Sterne partially based the character of Slop on Dr John Burton, author of An Essay towards a Complete System of Midwifery, in which the engraved plates are the earliest published work of George Stubbs. Burton, a catholic and a Jacobite sympathiser, had fallen foul of Sterne's uncle, the Rev. Jacques Sterne DD, who had Burton arrested upon suspicion of sedition during the rebellion of 1745. Slop has been listed as one of the "Ten Best Bad Doctors" in literature.

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Binche

Binche

Binche is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On January 1, 2006, Binche had a total population of 32,409. The total area is 60.66 km² which gives a population density of 534 inhabitants per km². Since 1977, the municipality of Binche has gathered the town of Binche itself with seven old municipalities : Bray, Buvrinnes, Epinois, Leval-Trahegnies, Péronnes-lez-Binche, Ressaix and Waudrez. In 2003, the Carnival of Binche was proclaimed one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The motto of the city is "Plus Oultre", which was the motto of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who in 1545 gave the medieval castle of Binche to his sister, Queen Mary of Hungary, Governess of the Netherlands. She lavished attention on Binche, which she had rebuilt under the direction of an architect-sculptor Jacques du Broeucq, remembered today as the first master of Giambologna. The château, intended to rival Fontainebleau, was destroyed by the soldiers of Henry II of France in 1554.

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Viger

Viger

Viger was a provincial electoral district in Quebec, Canada. It was located within the island of Montreal. It was created for the 1981 election. Its final general election was in 1998; there was also a by-election in 2002. It disappeared in the 2003 election as its territory was carved up and divided among the new electoral district of Jeanne-Mance–Viger and the existing electoral districts of Anjou and Rosemont. It was named jointly for Denis-Benjamin Viger and Jacques Viger.

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Delphin Classics

Delphin Classics

The Delphin Classics was an edition of the Latin classics, intended to be comprehensive, which was originally created in the 17th century. The 25 volumes were created in the 1670s for Louis, le Grand Dauphin, heir of Louis XIV, and were written in Latin. Thirty-nine scholars contributed to the series, which was edited by Pierre Huet with assistance from several co-editors, including Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet and Ann Dacier. Each work was accompanied by a Latin commentary, ordo verborum, and verbal index. The editors added many notes and appendixes. The original volumes each have an engraving of Arion and the Dolphin, and the appropriate inscription in usum serenissimi Delphini. Later editions of Latin and Greek classics were edited in England by George Dyer, who produced 143 volumes. They are no longer current. There is a reference to them in Part I, Chapter 5 of Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure, where young Jude, trying to educate himself by reading while delivering bread from a horse and cart, "plunge[s] into the simpler passages from Caesar, Virgil, or Horace [. . .] The only copies he had been able to lay hands on were old Delphin editions, because they were superseded, and therefore cheap. But, bad for idle school-boys, it did so happen that they were passably good for him."

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Comic opera

Comic opera

Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. Forms of comic opera first developed in late 17th-century Italy. By the 1730s, a new operatic genre, opera buffa, emerged as an alternative to opera seria. It quickly made its way to France, where it became opéra bouffon, and eventually, in the following century, French operetta, with Jacques Offenbach as its most accomplished practitioner. The influence of the Italian and French forms spread to other parts of Europe. Many countries developed their own genres of comic opera, incorporating the Italian and French models along with their own musical traditions. Examples include Viennese operetta, German singspiel, Spanish zarzuela, Russian comic opera, English ballad opera, and Savoy Opera.

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Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke is a provincial electoral district in the Estrie region of Quebec, Canada. It comprises the Jacques-Cartier and Mont-Bellevue boroughs of the city of Sherbrooke. It was created for the 1867 election. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, its territory was unchanged.

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Charles's law

Charles's law

Charles's law is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated. A modern statement of Charles's law is: The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the absolute temperature scale if pressure and the amount of gas remain constant; that is, the volume of the gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature. this directly proportional relationship can be written as: or where: This law explains how a gas expands as the temperature increases; conversely, a decrease in temperature will lead to a decrease in volume. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as: The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases in proportion. The law was named after scientist Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law in his unpublished work from the 1780s.

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Mirror stage

Mirror stage

The mirror stage is a concept in the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan. The mirror stage is based on the belief that infants recognize themselves in a mirror or other symbolic contraption which induces apperception from the age of about six months. Later research showed that, although children are fascinated with images of themselves and others in mirrors from about that age, they do not begin to recognize that the images in the mirror are reflections of their own bodies until the age of about 15 to 18 months. Of course, the experience is particular to each person. Initially, Lacan proposed that the mirror stage was part of an infant's development from 6 to 18 months, as outlined in his first and only official contribution to larger psychoanalytic theory at the Fourteenth International Psychoanalytical Congress at Marienbad in 1936. By the early 1950s, Lacan's concept of the mirror stage had evolved: he no longer considered the mirror stage as a moment in the life of the infant, but as representing a permanent structure of subjectivity, or as the paradigm of "Imaginary order". This evolution in Lacan's thinking becomes clear in his later essay titled "The Subversion of the Subject and the Dialectic of Desire."

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Proanthocyanidin

Proanthocyanidin

Proanthocyanidins, refer to a larger class of polyphenols, called flavanols, in which occur PCOs or OPCs, the simplest flavanols. More complex polyphenols, having the same polymeric building block, form the group of tannins. Flavanols are distinguished at the core molecule by the hydroxyl group as opposed to the ketone near same position on the pyran ring in the generally yellow class of flavonoids. Colorless PCOs or OPCs are a strictly defined group of 3 flavanols naturally occurring as a mix of monomers, di-mers, and tri-mers of the catechin building block, which is a 4x-hydroxylation of the flavan-3-ol core. PCOs or OPCs were discovered in 1947 by Prof. Jacques Masquelier, who developed and patented techniques for the extraction of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from pine bark and grape seeds.

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Karl Barth

Karl Barth

Karl Barth was a Swiss Reformed theologian. Barth is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century. His influence expanded well beyond the academic realm to mainstream culture, leading him to be featured on the cover of Time on April 20, 1962. Beginning with his experience as a pastor, Barth rejected his training in the predominant liberal theology typical of 19th-century European Protestantism as well conservative Christian fundamentalism. Instead he embarked on a new theological path initially called dialectical theology, due to its stress on the paradoxical nature of divine truth. Other critics have referred to Barth as the father of neo-orthodoxy — a term emphatically rejected by Barth himself. The most accurate description of his work might be "a theology of the Word." Barth's work had a major impact on twentieth century theology and figures such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Thomas Torrance, Reinhold Niebuhr, Jacques Ellul, Jurgen Moltmann, Stanley Hauerwas, and the novelist John Updike. Both the most prolific and influential theologian of the twentieth century, his theological thought emphasized the sovereignty of God, particularly through his reinterpretation of the Calvinistic doctrine of election, the sinfulness of humanity, and the "infinite qualitative distinction between God and mankind". His most famous works are his The Epistle to the Romans, which marked a clear break from his earlier thinking; and his massive thirteen-volume work Church Dogmatics, one of the largest works of systematic theology ever written.

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Atla

Atla

The Atla was a French automobile manufactured from 1957 to 1959 at Garches. Support for the project came from Jean Schwab who was the local Renault dealer at Garches and who sold the cars. Important input also came from an engineer called Charles Cusson who was responsible for the tubular chassis. The car was otherwise the project of Jacques Durand The small car used a Renault 4CV 747 cc 21 hp engine or a Renault Dauphine 845 cc 30 hp cv engine and featured a fiberglass body with "gull-wing" doors. The car was initially priced competitively and about 20 were sold before the manufacturers revisited their costings and found themselves obliged to increase the price very considerably, at which point customer demand disappeared.

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Charlotte Corday

Charlotte Corday

Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont, known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat.

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