Definitions containing häring, wilhelm
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Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German chemist
The Pop Shop were stores that sold voluminous memorabilia of artist Keith Haring's designs. Haring originally opened two Pop Shops; one at 292 Lafayette Street in SoHo and one in Tokyo. Every area of the store was devoted to Haring's work including floor-to-ceiling murals, which provided a clubhouse atmosphere. The Tokyo Pop Shop, shipped from Tokyo to Europe was recently restored and exhibited in Saint Tropez, France by art publisher George Mulder of Berlin. Keith Haring's Pop Shop served to fulfill the artist's desire to make his iconic and beloved imagery accessible to the widest possible range of people both during his lifetime and posthumously through the Keith Haring Foundation, Inc. Haring, who viewed the Pop Shop as an extension of his work, stated: "Here's the philosophy behind the Pop Shop: I wanted to continue the same sort of communication as with the subway drawings. I wanted to attract the same wide range of people and I wanted it to be a place where, yes, not only collectors could come, but also kids from the Bronx … this was still an art statement." Graffiti kids from the Bronx did hang out at the New York Pop Shop, along with Soho art types, Madonna, and others. Photographer Tseng Kwong Chi recorded many events related to the creation of the Tokyo Pop Shop.
the German Emperor, often specifically Wilhelm II
Wilhelmine Germany is the period running from the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Kaiser at Versailles in 1871 to the abdication of his grandson Wilhelm II in 1918. Although the father of Wilhelm II, Friedrich III, was not named Wilhelm, he was only Kaiser for three months, and hence almost the entire period 1871-1918 saw a Kaiser named Wilhelm.
Relating to or influenced by the Austrian psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) and his therapeutic methods.
of origin; the female form of Wilhelm (William).
Of or relating to the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
Of or pertaining to the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy
— Princeton's WordNet
of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy
— Princeton's WordNet
a place calculated for the rendezvous of troops, or for the distribution of them; also, a spot well adapted for offensive measures. Wilhelm (Mil. Dict.)
— Webster Dictionary
The German Empire from its consolidation in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.
in the theories of Wilhelm Reich, a supposed excess sexual energy distributed throughout the universe and available for collection, storage, and further use
Irvin Key "Kaiser" Wilhelm from Wooster, Ohio was a pitcher and manager in Major League Baseball. Wilhelm's debut came in 1903 for the Pittsburgh Pirates, and he played off and on until he retired in 1915 at the age of 38. In 1921, Wilhelm became the manager for the Philadelphia Phillies and, at age 44, pitched in four games during the season.
One of the dowels joining the ends of the fellies which form the circle of the wheel of a gun carriage. --Wilhelm.
|Wilhelm von Opel|
Wilhelm von Opel
Wilhelm von Opel, known as Wilhelm Opel before being granted nobility in 1917, was one of the founding figures of the German automobile manufacturer Opel. He introduced the assembly line to the German automobily industry. His father, Adam Opel, founded the Opel firm as a manufacturer of sewing machines, then expanded into bicycle manufacturing. After Adam's death in 1895, control of the company passed to his five sons. In 1898, Wilhelm and his brother Fritz brought Opel into the automobile industry with the purchase of the small Lutzmann automobile factory of Dessau. Along with his brother Heinrich, Wilhelm was raised to grand-ducal nobility in 1917. Their brother Karl was raised to the same level in the next year.
Wilhelm Filchner was a German explorer.
Character Analysis is an English translation of Charakteranalyse book written by Wilhelm Reich.
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius was a German orientalist and Biblical critic.
|Wilhelm Eduard Weber|
Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.
Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch was a German humorist, poet, illustrator and painter. He published comic illustrated cautionary tales from 1859, achieving his most notable works in the 1870s. Busch's illustrations used wood engraving, and later, zincography. Busch drew on contemporary parochial and city life, satirizing Catholicism, Philistinism, strict religious morality and bigotry. His comic text was colourful and entertaining, using onomatopoeia, neologisms and other figures of speech, and led to some work being banned by the authorities. Busch was influential in both poetry and illustration, and became a source for future generations of comic artists. The Katzenjammer Kids was inspired by Busch's Max and Moritz, one of a number of imitations produced in Germany and the United States. The Wilhelm Busch Prize and the Wilhelm Busch Museum help maintain his legacy. His 175th anniversary in 2007 was celebrated throughout Germany. Busch remains one of the most influential poets and artists in Western Europe.
Erkenntnis is a journal of philosophy that publishes papers in analytic philosophy. Its name is derived from the German word for knowledge recognition. The journal was founded by Hans Reichenbach and Rudolf Carnap in 1930, and circulated under its original title, Erkenntnis, in 1930-1938. Renamed The Journal of Unified Science and interrupted after the beginning of World War II in 1940. The journal was "refounded" by Wilhelm K. Essler, Carl G. Hempel and Wolfgang Stegmüller in 1975. The current editors are Hans Rott, Wilhelm K. Essler, Patrick Suppes and Wolgang Spohn.
Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author, the younger of the Brothers Grimm.
Nosema is a genus of microsporidian parasites. The genus, circumscribed by Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1857, contains 81 species.
|Georg Wilhelm Steller|
Georg Wilhelm Steller
Georg Wilhelm Steller was a German botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer, who worked in Russia and is considered a pioneer of Alaskan natural history.
a fairy-like attendant of the Countess of Derby, deaf and dumb, in Scott's "Peveril of the Peak," a character suggested by Goethe's Mignon in "Wilhelm Meister."
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Muckers, is the nickname given to the followers of the teaching of Johann Heinrich Schönherr and Johann Wilhelm Ebel.
The bulboid corpuscles are cutaneous receptors in the human body. The end-bulbs of Krause were named after German anatomist Wilhelm Krause.
an impassioned Italian child, a creation of Goethe's in his "Wilhelm Meister," of mysterious origin and history; represented as a compact of vague aspirations and longings under which, as never fulfilled, she at length pines away and dies.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons. Introduced in 1904, it is similar to the oboe but pitched an octave lower.
|Heinrich von Kleist|
Heinrich von Kleist
Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. The Kleist Prize, a prestigious prize for German literature, is named after him.
a manufacturing town of East Prussia, on the Memel or Niemen, 65 m. NE. of Königsberg; here was signed in 1807 a memorable treaty between Alexander I. of Russia and Napoleon, as the result of which Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia was deprived of the greater part of his dominions.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
A Dunker, also known as the Norwegian Hound, is a medium-sized breed of dog from Norway. It was bred by Wilhelm Dunker to be a scenthound by crossing a Russian Harlequin Hound with dependable Norwegian scent hounds.
Ruiner, released on August 16, 2005 through Nitro Records, is the second full-length album from the Massachusetts-based melodic hardcore band A Wilhelm Scream, since changing their name from Smackin' Isaiah in 2002. It received mostly very favourable reviews.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. He is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking, and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment. He was a fierce critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Emanuel Swedenborg, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, as well as Danish pastors Jacob Peter Mynster and Hans Lassen Martensen and Danish poet Johan Ludvig Heiberg. His theological work focuses on Christian ethics, on the institution of the Church, and on the differences between purely objective proofs of Christianity and the individual's subjective relationship to Jesus Christ, the God-Man, which came through faith. Much of his work deals with the art of Christian love. He was extremely critical of the practice of Christianity as a state religion, primarily that of the Church of Denmark. His psychological work explored the emotions and feelings of individuals when faced with life choices.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf, in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed petrol engine and the first four-wheel automobile. Daimler and his lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach were two inventors whose goal was to create small, high-speed engines to be mounted in any kind of locomotion device. In 1885 they designed a precursor of the modern petrol engine which they subsequently fitted to a two-wheeler, the first internal combustion motorcycle and, in the next year, to a stagecoach, and a boat. Daimler baptized it the Grandfather Clock engine because of its resemblance to an old pendulum clock. In 1890, they founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. They sold their first automobile in 1892. Daimler fell ill and took a break from the business. Upon his return he experienced difficulty with the other stockholders that led to his resignation in 1893. This was reversed in 1894. Maybach resigned at the same time, and also returned. In 1900 Daimler died and Wilhelm Maybach quit DMG in 1907. In 1924, the DMG management signed a long term co-operation agreement with Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and in 1926 the two companies merged to become Daimler-Benz AG, which is now part of Daimler AG.
|Field emission microscopy|
Field emission microscopy
Field emission microscopy is an analytical technique used in materials science to investigate molecular surface structures and their electronic properties. Invented by Erwin Wilhelm Müller in 1936, the FEM was one of the first surface analysis instruments that approached near-atomic resolution.
Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.
Tiemannite is a mineral, mercury selenide, formula HgSe. It occurs in hydrothermal veins associated with other selenides, or other mercury minerals such as cinnabar, and often with calcite. Discovered in 1855 in Germany, it is named after Johann Carl Wilhelm Tiemann.
In physics, the weber is the SI unit of magnetic flux. A flux density of one Wb/m² is one tesla. The weber is named for the German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber.
|Alexander von Humboldt|
Alexander von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.
Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister was a German biologist and botanist. He "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel." He was largely self-taught.
Greif is the name of a brigantine, owned by the town Greifswald in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The ship is used as a training ship for maritime youth education. In the GDR the ship was named from 1951 till 1990 after the first president Wilhelm Pieck. It has participated in Hanse Sail.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, and Svante Arrhenius are usually credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry.
Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. is a media publishing house based in Stuttgart, Germany, founded in 1822 by Johann Friedrich Franckh. In the nineteenth century the company published the fairy tales of Wilhelm Hauff as well as works by Wilhelm Waiblinger and Eduard Mörike. The "Friends of Nature Club" was set up in 1903 in response to booming public interest in science and technology, and by 1912 100,000 members were receiving its monthly magazine "Cosmos". The company moved into publishing books on popular science topics under the brands Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung and KOSMOS, including successful non-fiction guidebooks by Hanns Günther and Heinz Richter. Children's fiction and Kosmos-branded science experimentation kits were introduced in the 1920s. Kosmos's current output includes non-fiction, children's books, science kits and German-style board games. Many of their games are translated into English and published by Rio Grande Games, Mayfair Games, and Fantasy Flight Games. Their line of experiment kits and science kits is distributed in North America by Thames & Kosmos.
The sulfur mustards, or sulphur mustards, commonly known as mustard gas, are a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs. Pure sulfur mustards are colorless, viscous liquids at room temperature. When used in impure form, such as warfare agents, they are usually yellow-brown in color and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic, or horseradish, hence the name. Mustard gas was originally assigned the name LOST, after the scientists Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf, who developed a method for the large-scale production of mustard gas for the Imperial German Army in 1916. Mustard agents are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this Convention, with sulfur and nitrogen mustard grouped in Schedule 1, as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare. Mustard agents could be deployed on the battlefield by means of artillery shells, aerial bombs, rockets, or by spraying from warplanes.
physician, born in North Brabant; was distinguished as the first to attack the belief in witchcraft, and the barbarous treatment to which suspects were subjected; the attack was treated as profane, and provoked the hostility of the clergy, and it would have cost him his life if he had not been protected by Wilhelm IV., Duke of Jülich and Clèves, whose physician he was (1516-1566).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Steller's sea ape|
Steller's sea ape
Steller's sea ape is an unconfirmed marine animal described only from a single sighting by explorer Georg Wilhelm Steller, on August 10, 1741, in waters off the Shumagin Islands, Alaska. This is the only animal described by Steller that has not been corroborated by physical evidence, or other witnesses.
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction. It is famous for being the birthplace of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. In 1963, the town hosted the third Hessentag state festival.
Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm Geiger was a German physicist. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger-Marsden experiment which discovered the Atomic nucleus. Geiger was born at Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He was one of five children born to the Indologist Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, who was professor at the University of Erlangen. In 1902, Geiger started studying physics and mathematics in University of Erlangen and was awarded a doctorate in 1906. In 1907 he began work with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester and in 1909, along with Ernest Marsden, conducted the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment called the "gold foil experiment". Together they created the Geiger counter. In 1911 Geiger and John Mitchell Nuttall discovered the Geiger-Nuttall law and performed experiments that led to Rutherford's atomic model. In 1928 Geiger and his student Walther Müller created an improved version of the Geiger counter, the Geiger-Müller counter. Geiger also worked with James Chadwick. In 1912 he became leader of the Physical-Technical Reichsanstalt in Berlin, 1925 professor in Kiel, 1929 in Tübingen, and from 1936 in Berlin.
"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.
A law of the rate of travel of the elements and radicals in solutions under the effects of electrolysis. It states that each element under the effects of electrolysis has a rate of travel for a given liquid, which is independent of the element with which it was combined. The rates of travel are stated for different elements in centimeters per hour for a potential difference of one or more volts per centimeter of path.
— The Standard Electrical Dictionary
|Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel|
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel
Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the “kindergarten” and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts.
Coniferin is a glucoside of coniferyl alcohol. This white crystalline solid is a metabolite in conifers, serving as an intermediate in cell wall lignification, as well as having other biological roles. It can also be found in the water root extract of Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis. Vanillin was first synthesized from coniferin by chemists Ferdinand Tiemann and Wilhelm Haarmann.
Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel was a German field marshal. As head of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht and de facto war minister under Adolf Hitler, he was one of Germany's most senior military leaders during World War II. At the Allied court at Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death and hanged as a war criminal.
The pinacol rearrangement or pinacol–pinacolone rearrangement is a method for converting a 1,2-diol to a carbonyl compound in organic chemistry. This 1,2-rearrangement takes place under acidic conditions. The name of the reaction comes from the rearrangement of pinacol to pinacolone. This reaction was first described by Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig in 1860.
|Otto von Bismarck|
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."
Comradeship is a dramatic film with socialist overtones directed by German director Georg Wilhelm Pabst. The French-German co-production drama is noted for combining expressionism and realism. The picture tells of a mine disaster where German miners rescue French miners from an underground fire and explosion. The story takes place in the Lorraine/Saar region, along the border between France and Germany.
In metaphysics, impenetrability is the name given to that quality of matter whereby two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time. The philosopher John Toland argued that impenetrability and extension were sufficient to define matter, a contention strongly disputed by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnez. Locke considered impenetrability to be "more a consequence of solidity, than solidity itself."
The German Empire is the common name given to the state officially named Deutsches Reich, designating Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II. The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories. While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the Reich, the Prussian leadership became supplanted by German leaders and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Its three largest neighbours were rivals Imperial Russia to the east, France to the west and ally Austria-Hungary to the south. After 1850, Germany industrialized rapidly, with a foundation in coal, iron, chemicals and railways. From a population of 41 million people in 1871, it grew to 68 million in 1913. From a heavily rural nation in 1815, it was now predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological and scientific giant, receiving more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia and the United States combined.
Diver is a 7" vinyl EP A Wilhelm Scream released in early 2006. It was titled Diver because that is the title of first song on the vinyl. The song "Diver" was recorded during the Mute Print sessions, but the song didn't make it to the full length. Later the band decided to release the song on this 7" vinyl EP.
The giant pangolin is a pangolin species. Members of the species inhabit Africa with a range stretching along the equator from West Africa to Uganda. The giant pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, or "scaly anteaters" – the large, scaled mammals belonging to the Manidae family. It subsists almost entirely on ants and termites. The species was first described by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1815.
Mignon is an opéra comique in three acts by Ambroise Thomas. The original French libretto was by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, based on Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. The Italian version was translated by Giuseppe Zaffira. The opera is mentioned in James Joyce's "The Dead" and Willa Cather's The Professor's House. Thomas's goddaughter Mignon Nevada was named after the main character.
Scheele is a tiny, bowl-shaped lunar impact crater that lies on the Oceanus Procellarum, to the south of the small crater Wichmann. To the southwest is the flooded crater Letronne. Just to the west of Scheele are several low ridges projecting above the surface of the lunar mare. This crater was previously designated Letronne D before being named by the IAU after the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
"Diamond net" is a metaphor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel uses in his Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences for “the entire range of the universal determinations of thought…into which everything is brought and thereby first made intelligible.” In other words, the diamond net of which Hegel speaks is the logical categories according to which we understand our experience, making our empirical observations intelligible.
Meyerhofferite is a hydrated borate mineral, with the chemical formula Ca2B6O6(OH)10·2, CaB3O3(OH)5·H2O or Ca2(H3B3O7)2·4. It occurs principally as an alteration product of inyoite, another borate mineral. Natural meyerhofferite was discovered in 1914 in Death Valley, California It is named for German chemist Wilhelm Meyerhoffer, collaborator with J. H. van't Hoff on the composition and origin of saline minerals, who first synthesized the compound.
Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them. More commonly expressed, it is the generation of physical symptoms of a psychiatric condition such as anxiety. The term somatization was introduced by Wilhelm Stekel in 1924. Somatization is a worldwide phenomenon. A somatization spectrum can be identified, up to and including at one extreme somatization disorder.
Domeykite is a copper arsenide mineral, Cu3As. It crystallizes in the isometric system, although crystals are very rare. It typically forms as irregular masses or botryoidal forms. It is an opaque, white to gray metallic mineral with a Mohs hardness of 3 to 3.5 and a specific gravity of 7.2 to 8.1 It was first described in 1845 in the Algodones mines, Coquimbo, Chile. It was named after Polish mineralogist Ignacy Domeyko by Wilhelm Haidinger.
|Max Müller, Friedrich|
Max Müller, Friedrich
philologist, born at Dessau, son of a German poet, Wilhelm Müller; educated at Leipzig; studied at Paris, and came to England in 1846; was appointed Taylorian Professor at Oxford in 1854, and in 1868 professor of Comparative Philology there, a science to which he has made large contributions; besides editing the "Rig-Veda," he has published "Lectures on the Science of Language" and "Chips from a German Workshop," dealing therein not merely with the origin of languages, but that of the early religious and social systems of the East; b. 1823.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel, and signed the unconditional surrender of Germany as a representative for German president Karl Dönitz. At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death and hanged as a war criminal, although he was later exonerated by a German court.
The Frei test was developed in 1925 by Wilhelm Siegmund Frei, a German dermatologist, to identify lymphogranuloma inguinale. Antigen made from sterile pus aspirated from previously unruptured abscesses, produced a reaction in patients with lymphogranuloma inguinale when injected intradermally. Other sources of antigen have been explored, most deriving from various tissues of mice infected with Chlamydia. The test is no longer used but stands as a milestone in our understanding of immunology.
Braunite is a silicate mineral containing both di- and tri-valent manganese with the chemical formula: Mn2+Mn3+6[O8|SiO4]. Common impurities include iron, calcium, boron, barium, titanium, aluminium, and magnesium. Braunite forms grey/black tetragonal crystals and has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. It was named after the Wilhelm von Braun of Gotha, Thuringia, Germany. A calcium iron bearing variant, named braunite II, was discovered and described in 1967 from Kalahari, Cape Province, South Africa.
Radiobiology, as a field of clinical and basic medical sciences, originated from Leopold Freund's 1896 demonstration of the therapeutic treatment of a hairy mole using a new type of electromagnetic radiation called x-rays, which was discovered 1 year previously by the German physicist, Wilhelm Röntgen. At the same time, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the radioactive polonium and radium later used to treat cancer. In simplest terms, radiobiology is the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things.
The Pissa is a river in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia near Chernyakhovsk. The Pissa, Inster and Angerapp are tributaries to the Pregel river. These names, of Old Prussian origin, were used by Germans of East Prussia until 1945. According to an anecdote, the inhabitants of Gumbinnen were embarrassed by the name and asked King Friedrich Wilhelm IV for a name change. He is said to have replied "Approved. Recommend Urinoco."
The orgasmatron is a fictional electromechanical device that appears in the 1973 movie Sleeper, which also shows the effects of a related device, an orgasmic orb. Similar devices have appeared in other fictional works. The term has also been applied to a non-fictional device capable of triggering an orgasm-like sensation using electrodes implanted at the lower spine. Author Christopher Turner has suggested that the orgasmatron was a parody of Wilhelm Reich's orgone accumulator.
"Cloudbusting" is a song that was written, produced and performed by the British singer Kate Bush. It was the second single released from her no.1 1985 album Hounds of Love. "Cloudbusting" peaked at no.20 in the UK Singles Chart. The song is about the very close relationship between psychologist and philosopher Wilhelm Reich and his young son, Peter, told from the point of view of the mature Peter. It describes the boy's memories of his life with Reich on their family farm, called Orgonon where the two spent time "cloudbusting", a rain-making process which involved pointing at the sky a machine designed and built by Reich, called a cloudbuster. The lyric further describes Wilhelm Reich's abrupt arrest and imprisonment, the pain of loss the young Peter felt, and his helplessness at being unable to protect his father. The song was inspired by Peter Reich's 1973 memoir, "A Book of Dreams", which Bush read and found deeply moving. In a retrospective review of the single, Allmusic journalist Amy Hanson praised the song for its "magnificence" and "hypnotic mantric effects". Hanson wrote: "Safety and danger are threaded through the song, via both a thoughtful lyric and a compulsive cello-driven melody. Even more startling, but hardly surprising, is the ease with which Bush was able to capture the moment when a child first realizes that adults are fallible."
Dieffenbachia is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Araceae noted for their patterned leaves. Species in this genus are popular as houseplants because of their tolerance of shade. The common name, "dumb cane" refers to the poisoning effect of raphides. It is also known as the "Mother-in-law" plant. Dieffenbachia was named by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, the Director of the Botanical Gardens in Vienna, to honor his head gardener Joseph Dieffenbach.
Felix Josef von Mottl was an Austrian conductor and composer. He was regarded as one of the most brilliant conductors of his day. He composed three operas, of which Agnes Bernauer was the most successful, as well as a string quartet and numerous songs and other music. His orchestration of Richard Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder is still the most commonly performed version. He was also a teacher, counting among his pupils Ernest van Dyck and Wilhelm Petersen.
|Early New High German|
Early New High German
Early New High German is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650. Alternative periodisations take the period to begin later; e.g. at the invention of printing with moveable type in the 1450s. The term is the standard translation of the German Frühneuhochdeutsch, introduced by Scherer. The term Early Modern High German is also occasionally used for this period.
Viljandi is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 19,150. It is the capital of Viljandi County. The town was first mentioned in 1283, upon being granted its town charter by Wilhelm von Endorpe. The town became a member of the Hanseatic League at the beginning of the 14th century, and is one of five Estonian towns and cities in the league. The popular Estonian newspaper Sakala was founded in Viljandi in 1878.
Kegelite is a complex silicate mineral with formula Pb8Al4Si8O20(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8. It was first described in 1975 for an occurrence in the Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region, Namibia and named for Friedrich Wilhelm Kegel, Director of mining operations at Tsumeb. It occurs in a deeply oxidized polymetallic ore deposits in Tsumeb. Associated minerals include quartz, galena, mimetite, hematite, leadhillite, anglesite, fleischerite, melanotekite and alamosite. It has also been reported from the Zeehan district in Tasmania and from Tune, Sarpsberg, Østfold, Norway.
Caenogenesis is the introduction during embryonic development of characters or structure not present in the earlier evolutionary history of the strain or species, as opposed to palingenesis. Notable examples include the addition of the placenta in mammals. Caenogenesis constitutes a violation to Ernst Haeckel's biogenetic law and was explained by Haeckel as adaptation to the peculiar conditions of the organism's individual development. Other authorities, such as Wilhelm His, Sr., on the contrary saw embryonic differences as precursors to adult differences.
Kores is a leading international brand of school and office products best known for solid glue sticks, Kolores colored pencils and Scooter dry correction. The iconic Kores dactylo was also portrayed on the cover poster of the Pedro Almodóvar’s The Flower of my Secret. Kores was founded in 1887 by Wilhelm Koreska, the grandfather of Peter and Robert Koreska, the current owners of Kores Holding Zug, Switzerland. The worldwide HQ of Kores is based in Vienna, Austria and its main offices are in Mexico City, Caracas, Bogota, Prague, Paris and Shanghai. Kores has 2 key production facilities in Mexico City and Strmilov, Czech Republic.
A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas. Designed to handle high-volume dust loads, a dust collector system consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system. It is distinguished from air cleaners, which use disposable filters to remove dust. The father of the dust collector was Wilhelm Beth from Lübeck.
|Unification of Germany|
Unification of Germany
The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Unofficially, the de facto transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states occurred far earlier, via alliances formal and informal between noblemen— but also fitfully as self-interests of parties hampered the process over nearly a century of aristocratic experimentation from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the consequent rise of nationalism over the span of the Napoleonic Wars era. Unification exposed several glaring religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences between and among the inhabitants of the new nation, suggesting that 1871 only represents one moment in a continuum of the larger unification processes. The Holy Roman Emperor was oft-called "Emperor of all The Germanies", news accounts referred to 'The Germanies' and in the empire, its higher nobility were referred to as "Princes of Germany" or "Princes of the Germanies"—for the lands once East Francia had been ruled as pocket kingdoms, dynastic independent states ruled by its ruling classes since the times well before the rise of Charlemagne. Given the mountainous terrains of much of the territory, it is obvious that isolated peoples would develop cultural, educational, linguistic and religious based differences over such a lengthy time period. But Germany of the nineteenth century would enjoy transportation and communications improvements tying the peoples into a greater, tighter culture, as has the entire world under the influence of better communications and transportation infrastructures.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners then in use. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff. The Bunsen burners are still being used in labs, across the world.
Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling to depict early stages of monotheism, however Max Müller, a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism, focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God.
Scheele's Green, also called Schloss Green, is chemically a cupric hydrogen arsenite, CuHAsO3. It is chemically related to Paris Green. It is a yellowish-green pigment and in the past it was used in some paints, but has since fallen out of use because of its toxicity and the instability of its colour in the presence of sulphides and various chemical pollutants. Scheele's Green was invented in 1775 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. By the end of the 19th century, it virtually replaced the older green pigments based on copper carbonate.
Haidingerite is a calcium arsenate mineral with formula Ca·H2O. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system as short prismatic to equant crystals. It typically occurs as scaly, botryoidal or fibrous coatings. It is soft, Mohs hardness of 2 to 2.5, and has a specific gravity of 2.95. It has refractive indices of nα = 1.590, nβ = 1.602 and nγ = 1.638. It was originally discovered in 1827 in Jáchymov, Czech Republic. It was named to honor Austrian mineralogist Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger. It occurs as a dehydration product of pharmacolite in the Getchell Mine, Nevada.
A spirit duplicator was a printing method invented in 1923 by Wilhelm Ritzerfeld and commonly used for much of the rest of the 20th century. The term "spirit duplicator" refers to the alcohols which were a major component of the solvents used as "inks" in these machines. The device coexisted alongside the mimeograph. Spirit duplicators were used mainly by schools, churches, clubs, and other small organizations, such as in the production of fanzines, because of the limited number of copies one could make from an original, along with the low cost and correspondingly low quality of copying.
In baseball, a closing pitcher, more frequently referred to as a closer, is a relief pitcher who specializes in getting the final outs in a close game when their team is leading. The role is often assigned to a team's best reliever. Before the 1990s, pitchers in similar roles were referred to as a fireman, short reliever, and stopper. A small number of closers have won the Cy Young Award. Dennis Eckersley, Rollie Fingers, Goose Gossage, Bruce Sutter and Hoyt Wilhelm are closers who have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Hisingerite is an iron phyllosilicate mineral with formula Fe3+2Si2O5(OH)4·2H2O. A black or dark brown, lustrous secondary mineral, it is formed by the weathering or hydrothermal alteration of other iron silicate and sulfide minerals. It was first described in 1828 for an occurrence in Riddarhyttan, Vastmanland, Sweden. It was named after Wilhelm Hisinger, a Swedish chemist. There are also aluminian hisingerite variety in which one of the iron atoms is replaced by aluminium and chrome-alumina-hisingerite variety in which chromium substitutes for iron.
Tungstic acid refers to hydrated forms of tungsten trioxide, WO3. The simplest form, the monohydrate, is WO3·H2O, the dihydrate WO3·2H2O is also known. The solid state structure of WO3·H2O consists of layers of octahedrally coordinated WO5 units where 4 vertices are shared. the dihydrate has the same layer structure with the extra H2O molecule intercalated between the layers. The monohydrate is a yellow solid and insoluble in water. The classical name for this acid is 'acid of wolfram'. The acid was discovered for the first time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1781.
Voluntarism is a school of thought that regards the will as superior to the intellect and to emotion. This description has been applied to various points of view, from different cultural eras, in the areas of metaphysics, psychology, sociology, and theology. The term voluntarism was introduced by Ferdinand Tönnies into the philosophical literature and particularly used by Wilhelm Wundt and Friedrich Paulsen. The etymology of the word is from Latin. Will Durant, in the glossary to The Story of Philosophy, defines voluntarism as "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct."
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It was first developed by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohleforschung" in Mülhei an der Ruhr in 1925. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass. The Fischer–Tropsch process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons.
|Charles Hubbard Judd|
Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd was an American educational psychologist who played an influential role in the formation of the discipline. Part of the larger scientific movement of this period, Judd pushed for the use of scientific methods to the understanding of education and, thus, wanted to limit the use of theory in the field. Born in India, he obtained a PhD at the University of Leipzig under the tutelage of Wilhelm Wundt. Judd was director of the Department of Education at the University of Chicago from 1909 to 1938. His works include Genetic Psychology for Teachers, Psychology of Social Institutions and Psychology of High-School Subjects.
Augelite is an aluminium phosphate mineral with formula: Al2(OH)3. The shade varies from colorless to white, yellow or rose. Its crystal system is monoclinic. It was first described by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand for an occurrence in Västanå iron mine at Scania, Sweden in 1868 and derives its name from the Greek αύγή in reference to its pearly lustre. It occurs as a product of metamorphism of phosphate bearing peraluminous sediments and in high-temperature hydrothermal ore deposits. It occurs in association with attakolite, svanbergite, lazulite, hematite, trolleite, berlinite, rutile, pyrophyllite, baryte, arsenopyrite, stannite, pyrite, andorite, cassiterite and zinkenite.
Absolute music is music that is not explicitly "about" anything; in contrast to program music, it is non-representational. The idea of absolute music developed at the end of the 18th century in the writings of authors of early German Romanticism, such as Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck and E. T. A. Hoffmann but the term was not coined until 1846 where it was first used by Richard Wagner in a programme to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. A related idea from 19th-century composers, but often contested, considers absolute music as a form of divinity itself which could be evoked by music. The aesthetic ideas underlying the absolute music debate relate to Kant's aesthetic disinterestedness from his Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, and has led to numerous arguments among musicians, composers, music historians and critics.
Haidinger is a lunar impact crater that is located in the southwestern part of the Moon. Just to the southwest of the crater is the small lunar mare named Lacus Timoris. Haidinger lies northwest of the crater Wilhelm and east of the irregular formation Hainzel. The outer rim of this crater is nearly circular, with slight outward bulges along the western and northeastern parts of the rim. The satellite crater Haidinger B is attached to the exterior of the eastern rim, and Haidinger A lies close to the northeastern rim. There is a small crater-like divot along the southern inner wall. The interior floor has a low ridge in the northern half.
In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Olbers' paradox, named after the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers and also called the "dark night sky paradox", is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe. The darkness of the night sky is one of the pieces of evidence for a non-static universe such as the Big Bang model. If the universe is static and populated by an infinite number of stars, any sight line from Earth must end at the surface of a star, so the night sky should be completely bright. This contradicts the observed darkness of the night.
Duck Rock is an album released by British impresario Malcolm McLaren In 1983. The album mixes up styles from South Africa, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, and the US, including hip hop. The album proved to be highly influential in bringing hip hop to a wider audience in the UK. Two of the singles from the album became major chart hits on both sides of the Atlantic. Duck Rock was dedicated to Harry McClintock, better known as Haywire Mac. The album artwork was designed by Dondi White and Nick Egan, with the illustration by Keith Haring. Guest musicians featured on this album include Trevor Horn, Anne Dudley, J. J. Jeczalik, and Thomas Dolby. Side recordings that Horn, Dudley and Jeczalik made in between takes of Duck Rock would eventually become the first album of the Art of Noise. Clips of the World's Famous Supreme Team radio show appear between songs, which made the album one of the earliest recordings on which members of the Nation of Gods and Earths appear. Duck Rock ultimately became a critical favorite in many music critics' eyes, having garnered such accolades as BBC Two's Critical Music label and others. However, Robert Christgau criticized McLaren and Horn for failing to give credit to the South African musicians involved in the recording, such as Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens. The Mbaqanga group the Boyoyo Boys took legal action against Mclaren over the similarity of "Double Dutch" with its own hit "Puleng." After a lengthy legal battle in the UK, the matter was settled out of court, with payment made to the South African copyright holders, songwriter Petrus Maneli and publisher Gallo Music, but Horn and Mclaren retained their songwriting credits.
The Rose-ringed Parakeet, also known as the Ring-necked Parakeet, is a gregarious tropical Afro-Asian parakeet species that has an extremely large range. Since the trend of the population appears to be increasing, the species was evaluated as Least Concern by IUCN in 2012. Rose-ringed parakeets are popular as pets. Its scientific name commemorates the Austrian naturalist Wilhelm Heinrich Kramer. This non-migrating species is one of few parrot species that have successfully adapted to living in 'disturbed habitats', and in that way withstood the onslaught of urbanisation and deforestation. In the wild, this is a noisy species with an unmistakable squawking call.
Otto Hahn, OBE, ForMemRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was an opponent of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society from 1948 to 1960. Considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and revered citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The bush dog is a canid found in Central and South America. In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare in most areas except in Suriname; it was first identified by Peter Wilhelm Lund as fossils in Brazilian caves and believed to be extinct. The bush dogs is the only living species in the genus Speothos, and genetic evidence suggests that its closest living relative is the maned wolf of central South America. In Brazil it is called cachorro-vinagre or cachorro-do-mato. In Spanish-speaking countries it is called perro vinagre, zorro vinagre, perro de agua, or perro de monte.
A Schlenk flask, or Schlenk tube is a reaction vessel typically used in air sensitive chemistry, invented by Wilhelm Schlenk. It has a side arm fitted with a PTFE or ground glass stopcock which allows the vessel to be evacuated or filled with gases. These flasks are often connected to Schlenk lines which allow both operations to be done easily. Schlenk flasks and Schlenk tubes, like most laboratory glassware, are made of borosilicate glass such as Pyrex. Schlenk flasks are round bottomed, while Schlenk tubes are elongated. They may be purchased off-the-shelf from laboratory suppliers, or made from round bottom flasks or glass tubing by a skilled glassblower.
The Kiel Canal, known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal until 1948, is a 98-kilometre long canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau. An average of 250 nautical miles is saved by using the Kiel Canal instead of going around the Jutland Peninsula. This not only saves time but also avoids potentially dangerous storm-prone seas. According to the canal's website, it is the busiest artificial waterway in the world; over 43,000 vessels passed through in 2007, excluding small craft. Besides its two sea entrances, the Kiel Canal is linked, at Oldenbüttel, to the navigable River Eider by the short Gieselau Canal.
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic hereditary skin disorder associated with a high risk of carcinoma of the skin. It is characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses of the skin. The resulting uncontrolled HPV infections result in the growth of scaly macules and papules, particularly on the hands and feet. It is typically associated with HPV types 5 and 8, which are found in about 80 percent of the normal population as asymptomatic infections, although other types may also contribute. The condition usually has an onset of between the ages of 1–20, but can occasionally present in middle-age. It is named after the physicians who first documented it, Felix Lewandowsky and Wilhelm Lutz.
Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert, a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on Müller's poems, the earlier being Die schöne Müllerin. Both were originally written for tenor voice but are frequently transposed to suit other vocal ranges - the precedent being established by Schubert himself. These two works have posed interpretative demands on listeners and performers due to their scale and structural coherence. Although Ludwig van Beethoven's cycle An die ferne Geliebte had been published earlier, in 1816, Schubert's two cycles hold the foremost place in the history of the genre.
In the history of chemistry, fire air was postulated to be one of two fluids of common air. This theory was positioned in 1775 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. In Scheele’s Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire he states: “air is composed of two fluids, differing from each other, the one of which does not manifest in the least the property of attracting phlogiston, whilst the other, which composes between the third and forth part of the whole mass of the air, is peculiarly disposed to such attraction.” These two constituents of common air Scheele called Foul Air and Fire Air; afterwards these components came to be known as nitrogen and oxygen, respectively.
Hausmannite is a complex oxide of manganese containing both di- and tri-valent manganese. The formula can be represented as Mn2+Mn3+2O4. It belongs to the spinel group and forms tetragonal crystals. Hausmannite is a brown to black metallic mineral with Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 4.8. The type locality is Oehrenstock, Ilmenau, Thuringian Forest, Thuringia, Germany. Locations include Batesville, Arkansas, USA; Ilfeld, Germany; Langban, Sweden; and the Ural Mountains, Russia. The best samples have been found in South Africa and Namibia where it is associated with other manganese oxides, pyrolusite and psilomelane and the iron-manganese mineral bixbyite. Wilhelm Haidinger named it in honour of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, professor of mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany.
The Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung m. b. H., abbreviated BESSY, is a research establishment in the Adlershof district of Berlin. Founded on 5 March 1979, it currently operates one of Germany's 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities, BESSY II. Originally part of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community, BESSY now belongs to the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. Owing to the radiometry lab of the PTB, BESSY is the European calibration standard for electromagnetic radiation. BESSY supplies synchrotron light and provides support for science and industry. There are institutional long-time users, like the Max-Planck-Society, the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing and the national metrology institute of Germany. Furthermore, research groups from other institutes or universities can apply for utilization for certain projects.
The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. It forms isometric crystals, and is usually associated with rare tellurium and gold minerals, often with silver, mercury, and copper. The name comes from chemist W. Petz, who first analyzed the mineral from the type locality in Săcărâmb, Transylvania, Romania in 1845. It was described by Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger in 1845 and dedicated to W. Petz who had carried out the first analyses. It occurs with other tellurides in vein gold deposits. It is commonly associated with native gold, hessite, sylvanite, krennerite, calaverite, altaite, montbrayite, melonite, frohbergite, tetradymite, rickardite, vulcanite and pyrite. Petzite forms together with uytenbogaardtite and fischesserite the uytenbogaardtite group.
Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH was a European luxury car manufacturer. The company was founded in 1909 by Wilhelm Maybach and his son, originally a subsidiary of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH and was itself known as Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH until 1912. Today, the ultra-luxury car brand is owned by Daimler AG and based in Stuttgart. Tognum AG based in Friedrichshafen used to manufacture the commercial Maybach diesel engines under the MTU brand through its subsidiary MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH. Daimler announced in November 2011 that Maybach will cease to be a brand by 2013 and manufactured the last Maybach-vehicle in December 2012. This was due to poor sales having only sold 3,000 cars since their revival in 2002. The decision follows almost a decade of trying to make Maybach a profitable rival to Rolls Royce and Bentley. Maybach was replaced by a new and more luxurious S-Class from the Mercedes brand, which is also owned by Daimler.
Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. The book, Hesse's ninth novel, was written in German, in a simple, lyrical style. It was published in the U.S. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. Hesse dedicated Siddhartha to his wife Meiner Frau Ninon gewidmet and supposedly afterwards to Romain Rolland and Wilhelm Gundert. The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in the Sanskrit language, siddha + artha, which together means "he who has found meaning" or "he who has attained his goals". In fact, the Buddha's own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilvastu. In this book, the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama".
Roentgenium is a chemical element with the symbol Rg and atomic number 111. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element; the most stable known isotope, roentgenium-281, has a half-life of 26 seconds. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany. It is named after the physicist Wilhelm Röntgen. In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 11 elements, although no chemical experiments have been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to gold in group 11. Roentgenium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, copper, silver, and gold, although it may show some differences from them.
The mineral bastnäsite is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite- with a formula of CO3F, bastnäsite- with a formula of CO3F, and bastnäsite- with a formula of CO3F. Most bastnäsite is bastnäsite-, and cerium is by far the most common of the rare earths in this class of minerals. Bastnäsite and the phosphate mineral monazite are the two largest sources of cerium and other rare earth elements. Bastnäsite was first described by the Swedish chemist Wilhelm Hisinger in 1838. It is named for the Bastnäs mine near Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden. Bastnäsite also occurs as very high quality specimens at the Zagi Mountains, Pakistan. Bastnäsite occurs in alkali granite and syenite and in associated pegmatites. It also occurs in carbonatites and in associated fenites and other metasomatites.
Bessel is a small lunar crater that is located in the southern half of the Mare Serenitatis. Despite its small size, this is the largest crater to lie entirely within the mare. It lies to the north-northeast of the crater Menelaus. This crater is circular and bowl-shaped with a rim that has a higher albedo than the floor or the surrounding mare. The outer rim is not significantly worn, and there are no features of note on the interior, apart from some slumping of material from the inner walls to the floor. Bessel is not of sufficient size to have developed the terrace structures of larger craters. It was named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A large ray, most likely from Tycho, crosses the mare from north to south, passing Bessel's western side.
Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid is the highest summit of Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua province, Indonesia. Other summits are East Carstensz Peak, Sumantri and Ngga Pulu. Other names include Nemangkawi in the Amungkal language, Carstensz Toppen and Gunung Sukarno. At 4,884 metres above sea level, Puncak Jaya is the highest mountain in Indonesia, the highest on the island of New Guinea, the highest of Oceania, and the 5th highest mountain in political Southeast Asia. It is also the highest point between the Himalayas and the Andes, and the highest island peak in the world. Some sources claim Mount Wilhelm, 4,509 m, as the highest mountain peak in Oceania, on account of Indonesia being part of Asia. The massive, open Grasberg mine is within 4 kilometers from Puncak Jaya.
Seven-league boots is an element in European folklore. The boot allows the person wearing them to take strides of seven leagues per step, resulting in great speed. The boots are often presented by a magical character to the protagonist to aid in the completion of a significant task. Mention of the legendary boots are found in: ⁕Germany – Sweetheart Roland, Adelbert von Chamisso's Peter Schlemiel, Goethe's Faust, Wilhelm Hauff's "Der Kleine Muck" ⁕France – Charles Perrault's - Hop o' My Thumb ⁕Norway – Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe - Soria Moria Castle ⁕England – Jack the Giant Killer, John Masefield's The Midnight Folk, C.S. Lewis's The Pilgrim's Regress, The Light Fantastic, The Bartimaeus Trilogy, Jenny Nimmo's Midnight for Charlie Bone, Diana Wynne Jones' Howl's Moving Castle ⁕United States – Zane Grey's The Last of the Plainsmen, Ruth Chew's "What the Witch Left"
Ludwig's angina, otherwise known as angina ludovici, is a serious, potentially life-threatening cellulitis, or connective tissue infection, of the floor of the mouth, usually occurring in adults with concomitant dental infections and if left untreated, may obstruct the airways, necessitating tracheotomy. It is named after the German physician, Wilhelm Friedrich von Ludwig who first described this condition in 1836. Other names include "angina Maligna" and "Morbus Strangularis". Ludwig's angina should not be confused with angina pectoris, which is also otherwise commonly known as "angina". The word "angina" comes from the Greek word ankhon, meaning "strangling", so in this case, Ludwig's angina refers to the feeling of strangling, not the feeling of chest pain, though there may be chest pain in Ludwig's angina if the infection spreads into the retrosternal space. The life-threatening nature of this condition generally necessitates surgical management with involvement of critical care physicians such as those found in an intensive care unit.
Kaiser is the German title meaning "Emperor". Like the Russian Tsar it is directly derived from the Roman Emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. Although the British monarchs styled "Emperor of India" were also called "Kaisar-i-Hind" in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek Kaisar, not the German Kaiser. In English, the term the Kaiser is usually reserved for the Emperors of the German Empire, the emperors of the Austrian Empire and those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the First World War, the term the Kaiser — especially as applied to Wilhelm II of Germany — gained considerable pejorative connotations in English-speaking countries.
The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. The three powers were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, and, later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman. Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee, who participated alongside Churchill while awaiting the outcome of the 1945 general election, and then replaced Churchill as Prime Minister after the Labour Party's defeat of the Conservatives—gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May. The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of the war.
Immanent critique is the philosophical or sociological strategy that analyzes cultural forms by locating contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. Contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy, this method aims to contextualize not only the object of its investigation, but also the ideological basis of that object; both the object and the category to which it belongs are shown to be products of a historical process. Immanent critique has its roots in the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx; it is now strongly associated with critical theorists such as Theodor Adorno. Roy Bhaskar has advocated it as one of the key methodological elements of critical realism. Quoting Marx, Robert J. Antonio writes in the British Journal of Sociology, According to David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York,
German poet and dramatist, born at Marbach on the Neckar, son of an army-surgeon; bred first to law and then to medicine, but took chief interest in philosophy and literature, to the cultivation of which he by-and-by devoted his life; his first work, a play, "The Robbers," which on its publication in 1782 produced quite a ferment, and was followed in 1783 by two tragedies, "Fresco" and "Kabale und Liebe"; but it was with "Don Carlos" in 1787 his mature authorship began, and this was followed by the "History of the Netherlands" and "History of the Thirty Years' War," to be succeeded by "Wallenstein" (1799), "Maria Stuart" (1800), "The Maid of Orleans" (1801), "The Bride of Messina" (1803), and "Wilhelm Tell" (1804); he Wrote besides a number of ballads and lyrics; in 1794 his friendship with Goethe began, and it was a friendship which was grounded on their common love for art, and lasted with life; he was an earnest man and a serious writer, and much beloved by the great Goethe (1759-1805). See Carlyle's "Life of Schiller," and his essay on him in his "Miscellanies."
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Corn dollies or corn mothers are a form of straw work made as part of harvest customs of Europe before mechanization. Before Christianisation, in traditional pagan European culture it was believed that the spirit of the corn lived amongst the crop, and that the harvest made it effectively homeless. James Frazer devotes chapters in The Golden Bough to "Corn-Mother and Corn-Maiden in Northern Europe" and adduces European folkloric examples collected in great abundance by the folklorist Wilhelm Mannhardt. Among the customs attached to the last sheaf of the harvest were hollow shapes fashioned from the last sheaf of wheat or other cereal crops. The corn spirit would then spend the winter in this home until the "corn dolly" was ploughed into the first furrow of the new season. "Dolly" may be a corruption of "idol" or may have come directly from the Greek word eidolon; that which represents something else.
Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847. During the analysis of the mineral samarskite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples of the metals and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present, were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac Although it had been proven that ilmenium is only a mixture of niobium and tantalum, Hermann continued publishing articles on ilmenium for several years.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's key ideas include the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, the Will to Power, the "death of God", the Übermensch and eternal recurrence. One of the key tenets of his philosophy is the concept of "life-affirmation," which embraces the realities of the world we live now in over the idea of a world beyond. It further champions the creative powers of the individual to strive beyond social, cultural, and moral contexts. His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary, and his influence remains substantial, particularly in the continental philosophical schools of existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism. His ideas of individual overcoming and transcendence beyond structure and context have had a profound impact on late-twentieth and early-twenty-first century thinkers, who have used these concepts as points of departure in the development of their philosophies, as seen in the social and political thought of Roberto Mangabeira Unger.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque was a period in French and Belgian history that is conventionally dated as starting in 1871 and ending when World War I began in 1914. Occurring during the era of the Third French Republic, it was a period characterized by optimism, peace at home and in Europe, new technology and scientific discoveries. The peace and prosperity in Paris allowed the arts to flourish, and many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visual art gained recognition. The Belle Époque was named, in retrospect, when it began to be considered a "golden age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I. In the newly rich United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable epoch was dubbed the Gilded Age. In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era. In Germany, the Belle Époque coincided with the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II and in Russia with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II.
|Identity of indiscernibles|
Identity of indiscernibles
The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle which states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct things can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. A related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals, discussed below. A form of the principle is attributed to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It is one of his two great metaphysical principles, the other being the principle of sufficient reason. Both are famously used in his arguments with Newton and Clarke in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Because of its association with Leibniz, the principle is sometimes known as Leibniz's law.
|August von Wassermann|
August von Wassermann
August Paul von Wassermann was a German bacteriologist and hygienist. Born in Bamberg, with Jewish origins, he studied at several universities throughout Germany, receiving his medical doctorate in 1888 from the University of Strassburg. In 1890 began work under Robert Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In 1906 he became director of the division for experimental therapy and serum research at the institute, followed by a directorship of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft for the Advancement of Science in Berlin-Dahlem. Wassermann developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906, just one year after the causative organism, Spirochaeta pallida, had been identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann. The so-called "Wassermann test" allowed for early detection of the disease, and thus prevention of transmission. He attributed the development of the test to earlier findings of Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou and to a hypothesis introduced by Paul Ehrlich in his interpretation of antibody formation.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a valued source of fluorine and is a precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine and diverse materials such as PTFE. Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive acid, capable of dissolving many materials, especially oxides. Its ability to dissolve glass has been known since the 17th century, even before Carl Wilhelm Scheele prepared in large quantities in 1771. Because of its high reactivity toward glass and moderate reactivity toward many metals, hydrofluoric acid is usually stored in plastic containers. Hydrogen fluoride gas is an acute poison that may immediately and permanently damage lungs and the corneas of the eyes. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. By interfering with body calcium metabolism, the concentrated acid may also cause systemic toxicity and eventual cardiac arrest and fatality, after contact with as little as 160 cm² of skin.
|Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel|
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence. Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers and his detractors. His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism", "Spirit", negativity, sublation, the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.
Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Papyrology includes both the translation and interpretation of ancient documents in a variety of languages and the care and preservation of rare papyrus originals. Papyrology as a systematic discipline dates from the 1890s, when large caches of well-preserved papyri were discovered by archaeologists in several locations in Egypt, such as Crocodilopolis and Oxyrhynchus. Leading centres of papyrology include Oxford University, Heidelberg University, Columbia University, the University of Michigan, the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, and the University of California, Berkeley. Founders of papyrology were the Viennese orientalist Joseph von Karabacek, Wilhelm Schubart, the Austrian antiquarian Theodor Graf who acquired more than 100,000 Greek, Arabic, Coptic and Persian papyri in Egypt, which were bought by the Austrian Archduke Rainer, G. F. Tsereteli who published papyri of Russian and Georgian collections, Frederic George Kenyon, Ulrich Wilcken, Bernard Pyne Grenfell, Arthur Surridge Hunt and other distinguished scientists.
|New High German|
New High German
New High German is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language. It is a translation of the German Neuhochdeutsch. It includes all of the modern High German dialects since the Baroque period, but is often used as a synonym for Standard German. The German term was originally coined in 1848 by Jacob Grimm for the period from 1500 to the present day, following on from Middle High German. However, Wilhelm Scherer redefined it as the period from 1650, introducing a new term Frühneuhochdeutsch for the period 1350-1650, and this is the most widely adopted periodisation of German. In this sense, the beginning of New High German is marked by the "first German novel", Grimmelshausen's Simplicius Simplicissimus. The New High German period is characterised by the codification of German grammar and the development of a standard language in both writing and speech. Unlike earlier periods, there have been few major changes in phonology or morphology. Rather, the standard language has selected particular features and these choices have then exerted an influence on individual German dialects.
Albert Claude was a Belgian biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade. He studied engineering, and then medicine. During the winter of 1928-29 he worked in Berlin, first at the Institut für Krebsforschung, and then at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Dahlem. In the summer of 1929 he joined the Rockefeller Institute. While working at Rockefeller University in the 1930s and 1940s, he used the electron microscope to make images of cells which deepened the scientific understanding of cellular structure and function. He discovered the chloroplasts in the cell. In 1930, Claude discovered the process of cell fractionation, which was groundbreaking in his time. The process consists of grinding up cells to break the membrane and release the cell's contents. Claude then filtered out the cell membranes and placed the remaining cell contents in a centrifuge to separate them according to mass. He divided the centrifuged contents into fractions, each of a specific mass, and discovered that particular fractions were responsible for particular cell functions.
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star. The limit was first published by Wilhelm Anderson and E. C. Stoner, and was named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the Indian-American astrophysicist who improved upon the accuracy of the calculation in 1930, at the age of 19. This limit was initially ignored by the community of scientists because such a limit could only lead to the natural discovery of black holes, which were considered a scientific impossibility at the time. White dwarfs, unlike main sequence stars, resist gravitational collapse primarily through electron degeneracy pressure, rather than thermal pressure. The Chandrasekhar limit is the mass above which electron degeneracy pressure in the star's core is insufficient to balance the star's own gravitational self-attraction. Consequently, white dwarfs with masses greater than the limit undergo further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole. Those with masses under the limit remain stable as white dwarfs. The currently accepted value of the limit is about 1.44 .
A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered. Developed from the earlier Geissler tube, the Crookes tube consists of a partially evacuated glass container of various shapes, with two metal electrodes, the cathode and the anode, one at either end. When a high voltage is applied between the electrodes, cathode rays travel in straight lines from the cathode to the anode. It was used by Crookes, Johann Hittorf, Julius Plücker, Eugen Goldstein, Heinrich Hertz, Philipp Lenard and others to discover the properties of cathode rays, culminating in J.J. Thomson's 1897 identification of cathode rays as negatively charged particles, which were later named electrons. Crookes tubes are now used only for demonstrating cathode rays. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays using the Crookes tube in 1895. The term is also used for the first generation, cold cathode X-ray tubes, which evolved from the experimental Crookes tubes and were used until about 1920.
the largest island in the world (excluding the island continents of Australia and Greenland), lies N. of Australia, from which it is divided by Torres Strait (90 m. wide); is an irregular, mountainous, well-rivered territory, 10 times the size of Scotland, and is held by three European powers—the Dutch (200) in the western and least developed half; the German (100); in the NE., Kaiser Wilhelm's Land, administered by the German New Guinea Company, who export tobacco, areca, bamboo, ebony, &c.; and the British (135), in the SE., administered by the Commonwealth of Australia. Successful encouragement has been given to colonisation, and good exports of gold pearl-shells, copra, &c., are made. Much of the interior is still to explore, and is inhabited by Papuans, Negritoes, and other Melanesian tribes, many of which are still in the cannibal stage, although others are peaceful and industrious. A hot moist climate gives rise to much endemic fever, but encourages a wonderful profusion of tropical growth, giving place in the highlands to the hardier oak and pine, and still higher to a purely alpine flora; as in Australia, the animals are chiefly marsupials; the mountain ranges, which stretch in a more or less continuous line throughout the island, have peaks that touch an altitude of 20,000 ft. and send down many navigable streams. Port Moresby is the capital of the British portion.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof. The term was first coined in the mid-19th century by the pioneering German art historian Wilhelm Lübke. In contrast to a traditional basilica, which lets in light through a clerestory in the upper part of the nave, a hall church is lit through windowed side walls typically spanning the full height of the interior. This form of church construction has a long history but reached its height in the late Gothic period, especially in German Sondergotik, and most notably in the area of Westphalia. The design also found favour in the Angevin lands of western France and a notable example in Bristol Cathedral, England. Elsewhere, one also finds the hall-church design adapted to smaller-scale projects such as chapels or retrochoirs Some Gothic Revival churches imitate the hall church model, particularly those following German architectural precedents. One example of a neo-Gothic hall church is St. Francis de Sales Church in Saint Louis, Missouri, designed by Viktor Klutho and completed in 1908.
The Nzema are an Akan people numbering about 328,700 people of whom 262,000 live in southwestern Ghana and 66,700 live in the southeast of Côte d'Ivoire.In Ghana the Nzema area is divided into two electoral districts of Nzema East District and Nzema West which is also referred to as Jomoro District of Ghana. Their language is also known as Nzima or Appolo. The Nzema are mostly farmers. According to their traditional calendar, days are ordered in cycles of seven, and these in turn follow each other in a three-week cycle. A religious kundum festival is held annually all over the Ahanta-Nzema area, starting in the easternmost part of Ahanta and advancing southwestward. Among other things, this festival is the main occasion on which the satirical avudewene songs are performed by young men. Lineage among the Nzema is matrilineal. The Area was part of the Empire of Denkyira and later Ashanti. The pan-Africanist Kwame Nkrumah was an Nzema. The European trained philosopher of the eighteenth century, Anton Wilhelm Amo, was of the Nzema people.
The Eötvös experiment was a famous physics experiment that measured the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass, demonstrating that the two were one and the same, something that had long been suspected but never demonstrated with the same accuracy. The earliest experiments were done by Isaac Newton and improved upon by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A much more accurate experiment using a torsion balance was carried out by Loránd Eötvös starting around 1885, with further improvements in a lengthy run between 1906 and 1909. Eötvös's team followed this with a series of similar but more accurate experiments, as well as experiments with different types of materials and in different locations around the Earth, all of which demonstrated the same equivalence in mass. In turn, these experiments led to the modern understanding of the equivalence principle encoded in general relativity, which states that the gravitational and inertial masses are the same. It is sufficient for the inertial mass to be proportional to the gravitational mass. Any multiplicative constant will be absorbed in the definition of the unit of force.
Günter Wilhelm Grass is a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. He is widely regarded as Germany's most famous living writer. Grass was born in the Free City of Danzig. In 1945, he came to West Germany as a homeless refugee, though in his fiction he frequently returns to the Danzig of his childhood. Grass is best known for his first novel, The Tin Drum, a key text in European magic realism, and the first part of his Danzig Trilogy, which also includes Cat and Mouse and Dog Years. His works are frequently considered to have a left-wing political dimension and Grass has been an active supporter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Tin Drum was adapted into a film, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The Swedish Academy, upon awarding him the Nobel Prize in Literature, noted him as a writer "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history".
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama, and which was announced in a series of essays between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. His compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, and the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, places, ideas or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the development of classical music. His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music.
Molybdenum is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known into prehistory, but the element was discovered in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth, but rather in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, which is a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element is in making many types of steel alloys, including high strength alloys and superalloys. Most molybdenum compounds have low solubility in water, but the molybdate ion MoO42− is soluble and forms when molybdenum-containing minerals are in contact with oxygen and water. Industrially, molybdenum compounds are used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications, as pigments and catalysts.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since about 2000 the Ministry of the Environment of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily, for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres. The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas. The etymology most frequently repeated, because of its semantic appropriateness, is that it derives from the Celtic Penn, "mountain, summit": A-penn-inus, which could have been assigned during the Celtic domination of north Italy in the 4th century BC or before. The name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally comfortable. Wilhelm Deecke said: "...its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak."
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline diprotic aldaric acid. It occurs naturally in many plants, particularly grapes, bananas, and tamarinds, is commonly combined with baking soda to function as a leavening agent in recipes, and is one of the main acids found in wine. It is added to other foods to give a sour taste, and is used as an antioxidant. Salts of tartaric acid are known as tartrates. It is a dihydroxyl derivative of succinic acid. Tartaric acid was first isolated from potassium tartrate, known to the ancients as tartar, circa 800 AD, by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan. The modern process was developed in 1769 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Tartaric acid played an important role in the discovery of chemical chirality. This property of tartaric acid was first observed in 1832 by Jean Baptiste Biot, who observed its ability to rotate polarized light. Louis Pasteur continued this research in 1847 by investigating the shapes of ammonium sodium tartrate crystals, which he found to be chiral. By manually sorting the differently shaped crystals under magnification, Pasteur was the first to produce a pure sample of levotartaric acid.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges on the chess ideologies presented by central European masters, such as on Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the centre. It also challenged in particular the dogmatic rules set down by Siegbert Tarrasch. The Hypermoderns challenged the guidelines of the previous generation and demonstrated with concrete games and victories that these challenges could be done successfully. Aron Nimzowitsch for example showed how games could be won through indirect control of the center, challenging Tarrasch's dogmatic view that the center must be occupied by pawns. Nimzowitsch advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting the opponent to occupy the center with pawns, which can then become targets of attack. However, this was only part of the Hypermodern framework, which Nimzowitsch encapsulated in the seminal chess book My System, which was to greatly influence many future chess players. It introduced and formalized concepts of the pawn chain, overprotection, undermining, prophylaxis, restraint, rook on the seventh rank, knight outposts, the dynamics of the isolated queen's pawn, and other areas of chess.
The roentgen is a legacy unit of measurement for the kerma of X-rays and gamma rays up to 3 MeV. The unit is still used in the United States Navy nuclear propulsion program. It is named after the German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen, the man who discovered X-rays. Originating in 1908, this unit has been redefined and renamed over the years. It was last defined by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1998 as 2.58×10^−4 C/kg, with a recommendation that the definition be given in every document where the roentgen is used. One roentgen of air kerma deposits 0.00877 gray of absorbed dose in dry air, or 0.0096 gray in soft tissue. One roentgen of X-rays may deposit anywhere from 0.01 to more than 0.04 gray in bone depending on the beam energy. This tissue-dependent conversion from kerma to absorbed dose is called the F-factor in radiotherapy contexts. The conversion depends on the ionizing energy of a reference medium, which is ambiguous in the latest NIST definition. Even where the reference medium is fully defined, the ionizing energy of the calibration and target mediums are often not precisely known.
Pelopium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist Heinrich Rose in 1845. The name derived from the Greek king and later god Pelops. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac This confusion arose from the minimal observed differences between tantalum and niobium. Both tantalum and niobium react with chlorine and traces of oxygen, including atmospheric concentrations, with niobium forming two compounds: the white volatile niobium pentachloride and the non-volatile niobium oxychloride. The claimed new elements pelopium, ilmenium and dianium were in fact identical to niobium or mixtures of niobium and tantalum.
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.
Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.
Lorenz Oken was a German naturalist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach, Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent, and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany. In it he extended to physical science the philosophical principles which Immanuel Kant had applied to epistemology and morality. Oken had been preceded in this by Gottlieb Fichte, who, acknowledging that Kant had discovered the materials for a universal science, declared that all that was needed was a systematic coordination of these materials. Fichte undertook this task in his "Doctrine of Science", whose aim was to construct all knowledge by a priori means. This attempt, which was merely sketched out by Fichte, was further elaborated by the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Oken built on Schelling's work, producing a synthesis of what he held Schelling to have achieved.
The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was created in the 18th century, disappeared during World War II, and was recreated in 2003. Before it was lost, the Amber Room was sometimes dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" due to its singular beauty. Construction of the Amber Room began in 1701 to 1711 in Prussia. The room was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas Schlüter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram in the service of the Prussian king worked on it until 1707, then work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig. The amber cabinet remained in Berlin City Palace until 1716 when it was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia it was expanded and after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was finished in 1755 and restored in 1830. The Amber Room was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany and brought to Königsberg. Knowledge of its whereabouts was lost in the chaos at the end of the war.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior. Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, it is called polymorph. The genotype of an organism is the inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and developmental conditions. Likewise, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype. This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces. The distinction is similar to that proposed by August Weismann, who distinguished between germ plasm and somatic cells. The Genotype-Phenotype concept should not be confused with Francis Crick's central dogma of molecular biology, which is a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein, and not the reverse.
Epsilon Aurigae is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation of Auriga. It is traditionally known as Almaaz, Haldus, or Al Anz. Epsilon Aurigae is an unusual eclipsing binary system comprising an F0 supergiant and a companion which is generally accepted to be a huge dark disk orbiting an unknown object, possibly a binary system of two small B-type stars. About every 27 years, Epsilon Aurigae's brightness drops from an apparent visual magnitude of +2.92 to +3.83. This dimming lasts 640–730 days. In addition to this eclipse, the system also has a low amplitude pulsation with a non-consistent period of around 66 days. The distance to the system is still a subject of debate, but modern estimates place it approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Epsilon Aurigae was first suspected to be a variable star when German astronomer Johann Fritsch observed it in 1821. Later observations by Eduard Heis and Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander reinforced Fritsch's initial suspicions and attracted attention to the star. Hans Ludendorff, however, was the first to study it in great detail. His work revealed that the system was an eclipsing binary variable, a star that dims when its partner obscures its light.
X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. The wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray in the English language includes the variants x-ray and X ray. X-rays with photon energies above 5-10 keV are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energy are called soft X-rays. Due to their penetrating ability hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of objects, e.g. in medical radiography and airport security. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air and the attenuation length of 600 eV X-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer.−11
A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example Bison bison. The first part of the name is the name of the genus and the second part is referred to as the specific epithet in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants and the specific name in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Tautonymy is permissible in zoological nomenclature. In past editions of the zoological Code the term tautonym was used, but it has now been replaced by the more inclusive "tautonymous names"; these include trinomial names such as Gorilla gorilla gorilla. In the current rules for botanical nomenclature, tautonyms are explicitly prohibited. One example of a botanical tautonym is 'Larix larix'. The earliest name for the European larch is Pinus larix L. but Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten did not agree with the placement of the species in Pinus and decided to move it to Larix in 1880. His proposed name created a tautonym. Under rules first established in 1906, which are applied retroactively, 'Larix larix' does not and cannot exist. In such a case either the next earliest validly published name must be found, in this case Larix decidua Mill., or a new epithet must be published.
The Pratincoles or Greywaders are a group of birds which together with the coursers and Egyptian Plover make up the family Glareolidae. They have short legs, very long pointed wings and long forked tails. Their most unusual feature for birds classed as waders is that they typically hunt their insect prey on the wing like swallows, although they can also feed on the ground. Their short bills are an adaptation to aerial feeding. Their flight is fast and graceful like a swallow or a tern, with many twists and turns to pursue their prey. They are most active at dawn and dusk, resting in the warmest part of the day. Like the coursers, the pratincoles are found in warmer parts of the Old World, from southern Europe and Africa east through Asia to Australia. Species breeding in temperate regions are long distance migrants. Their two to four eggs are laid on the ground in a bare scrape. The Australian Pratincole, the only species not in the genus Glareola, is more terrestrial than the other pratincoles, and may be intermediate between this group and the coursers. The name "Pratincole" comes from the term pratincola coined by German naturalist Wilhelm Heinrich Kramer from the Latin words prātum meadow and incola resident.
Sinningia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae. It is named after Wilhelm Sinning, a gardener of the Botanische Gärten der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn. There are about 65 species of tuberous herbaceous perennials, all occurring in Central and South America, with the greatest concentration of species occurring in southern Brazil. The best-known species, Sinningia speciosa, was originally introduced to cultivation as Gloxinia speciosa and is still commonly known to gardeners and in the horticultural trade as "gloxinia". The true genus Gloxinia is distinguished by having scaly rhizomes rather than tubers. Sinningia species often grow on rocks or cliffs and most are pollinated by hummingbirds or bees but Sinningia brasiliensis is bat-pollinated, and Sinningia tubiflora, with large, powerfully fragrant tubular white flowers, is apparently pollinated by sphinx moths. Most of the species have large, brightly colored flowers. Because of this, numerous species and numerous hybrids and cultivars are grown as houseplants. Some species with particularly large tubers are cultivated by cactus and succulent enthusiasts as caudiciforms. One such example is Sinningia leucotricha, often listed under the older name Rechsteineria leucotricha and dubbed "Brazilian edelweiss" for its covering of silvery, silky hairs. Other species with large tubers are Sinningia iarae, Sinningia lineata, and Sinningia macropoda.
In organic chemistry, aromaticity is a chemical property describing the way in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibits a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. The earliest use of the term was in an article by August Wilhelm Hofmann in 1855. There is no general relationship between aromaticity as a chemical property and the olfactory properties of such compounds. Aromaticity can also be considered a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and of resonance. This is usually considered to be because electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms that are alternately single- and double-bonded to one another. These bonds may be seen as a hybrid of a single bond and a double bond, each bond in the ring identical to every other. This commonly seen model of aromatic rings, namely the idea that benzene was formed from a six-membered carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds, was developed by Kekulé. The model for benzene consists of two resonance forms, which corresponds to the double and single bonds superimposing to give rise to six one-and-a-half bonds. Benzene is a more stable molecule than would be expected without accounting for charge delocalization.
Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925. Ebert was elected leader of the SPD on the death of August Bebel, and the SPD later became deeply divided because Ebert led it to support war loans for World War I. A moderate social democrat, Ebert was in favour of the Burgfrieden, in which domestic political squabbles were put aside and all forces in society were expected to support the war effort. He tried to isolate those in the party opposed to the war but could not prevent a split. Ebert was a pivotal figure in the German revolution and civil war of 1918/19. Although a supporter of the monarchy, he was chancellor of Germany when it became a republic. His policies at this time were primarily aimed at restoring peace and order and at containing the more extreme elements of the revolutionary left. For this he allied himself with conservative and nationalistic political forces, in particular with the leadership of the military under General Wilhelm Groener and the right wing Freikorps. With their help, Ebert's government crushed a number of leftist uprisings that were pursuing goals that were also nominally those of the SPD. This has made him a controversial historical figure.
Geisteswissenschaften is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, social sciences, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities. Most of its subject matter would come under the much larger humanities faculty in the typical English-speaking university, but it does not contain the arts. The concept of Geist dates back to eighteenth- and nineteenth-century German idealism, in particular to Hegel's concept of a "Volksgeist", the alleged common "spirit", or rather, mind, of a people. To understand the term Geisteswissenschaften, one should bear in mind that the continental faculty of philosophy inherited the medieval faculty of arts. Besides philosophy itself it encompassed the natural sciences with mathematics as well as the philological and historical disciplines and later on psychology and the social sciences. The term Geisteswissenschaften first was used as translation of John Stuart Mill’s term “moral sciences”. The historian, philosopher and sociologist Wilhelm Dilthey popularised the term, arguing that psychology and the emerging field of sociology – like the philological and historical disciplines – should be considered as Geisteswissenschaft rather than as Naturwissenschaft, and that their methodology should reflect this classification. His arguments were very influential in the theories of the prominent German sociologist Max Weber, though Weber preferred the term Kulturwissenschaft, which has been promoted by his neokantian colleagues.
Book burning is the practice of destroying, often ceremoniously, books or other written material. In modern times, other forms of media, such as phonograph records, video tapes, and CDs have also been ceremoniously burned or shredded. Book burning is usually carried out in public, and is generally motivated by moral, religious, or political objections to the material. Book burning can be emblematic of a harsh and oppressive regime which is seeking to censor or silence an aspect of a nation's culture. In some cases the works destroyed are irreplaceable and their burning constitutes a severe loss to cultural heritage. Examples include obliteration of the Library of Baghdad, the burning of books and burying of scholars under China's Qin Dynasty, the destruction of Aztec codices by Itzcoatl, and the Nazi book burnings. Book burning can be an act of contempt for the book's contents or author, and the act is intended to draw wider public attention to this opinion. Examples include the burning of Wilhelm Reich's books by the FDA, the 2010 Qur'an-burning controversy, and the burning of Beatles records after a remark from John Lennon concerning Jesus Christ. Art destruction is related to book burning, both because it might have similar cultural, religious or political connotations and because in various historical cases books and artworks were destroyed at the same time.
In classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the death drive is the drive towards death, self-destruction and the return to the inorganic: "the hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state". It was originally proposed by Sigmund Freud in 1920 in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, where in his first published reference to the term he wrote of the "opposition between the ego or death instincts and the sexual or life instincts". The death drive opposes the drive for life, the tendency toward survival, propagation, sex, and other creative, life-producing drives. The death drive is sometimes referred to as "Thanatos" in post-Freudian thought, complementing "Eros", although this term was not used in Freud's own work, being rather introduced by one of Freud's followers, Wilhelm Stekel. The Standard Edition of Freud's works in English confuses two terms that are different in German, Instinkt and Trieb, often translating both as instinct. "This incorrect equating of instinct and Trieb has created serious misunderstandings". Freud actually refers to the "death instinct" as a drive, a force that is not essential to the life of an organism and tends to denature it or make it behave in ways that are sometimes counter-intuitive. The term is almost universally known in scholarly literature on Freud as the "death drive", and Lacanian psychoanalysts often shorten it to simply "drive".
Dianium was the proposed name for a new element found by the mineralogist and poet Wolfgang Franz von Kobell in 1860. The name derived from the Roman goddess Diana. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite and niobite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. Following the rediscovery of niobium in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, Friedrich Wöhler, Heinrich Rose, R. Hermann and Kobell analysed the minerals tantalite and columbite to better understand the chemistry of niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum hindered preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. Rose discovered pelopium in 1846, while Hermann announced the discovery of ilmenium in 1847. In 1860 Kobell published the results on the tantalite from a quarry near Kimito a village in Finland and columbite from Bodenmais a village in Germany. He concluded that the element he found was different from tantalum, niobium, pelopium and ilmenium. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
The Brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore. They are among the most well-known storytellers of German folk tales, popularizing stories such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", and "Snow White". Their first collection of folk tales, Children's and Household Tales, was published in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years first in the German town of Hanau Their father's death in 1796, caused great poverty for the family and affected the brothers for many years. They both attended the University of Marburg and at the same time developed a curiosity for folklore, which grew into a lifelong dedication to collecting German folk tales. The rise of romanticism in the 19th century revived interest in traditional folk stories, and represented a pure form of national literature and culture to the brothers. With the goal of researching a scholarly treatise on folk tales, the brothers established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between 1812 and 1857 their first collection was revised and published many times, and grew from 86 stories to more than 200. In addition to writing and modifying folk tales, the brothers wrote collections of well-respected German and Scandinavian mythologies and in 1808 began writing a definitive German dictionary, that remained incomplete in their lifetime.
Życie was an illustrated weekly established in 1897 and published in Kraków and Lwów in the Austrian partition of Poland. Founded by Ludwik Szczepański, with time it became one of the most popular Polish literary and artistic journals. Although short-lasting, it shaped an entire generation of Polish artists and art critics, notably those associated with the so-called Young Poland. Initially the weekly was focused on current news, politics, social and national matters in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Galicia. Among its collaborators and correspondents in the early period were Socialist journalists Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz, Iza Moszczeńska and Wilhelm Feldman. The magazine was initially a commercial failure and failed to gain enough readership. Under such circumstances the title was bought by Ignacy Sewer-Maciejowski, who offered the job of editor in chief to Stanisław Przybyszewski, who refocused the magazine to art and literary matters. Since then Życie gained much popularity thanks to publishing literary works by some of the most renown Polish writers of the epoch, including Stanisław Przybyszewski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Gabriela Zapolska, Jan Kasprowicz, Maria Konopnicka, Adolf Dygasiński and Adam Asnyk. Stanisław Wyspiański became the new art director of the magazine. Thanks to his efforts each edition was richly illustrated with reproductions of symbolist, impressionist and Art Nouveau paintings and prints
|British Expeditionary Force|
British Expeditionary Force
The British Expeditionary Force or BEF was the force sent to the Western Front during World War I. Planning for a British Expeditionary Force began with the Haldane reforms of the British Army carried out by the Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War. The term "British Expeditionary Force" is often used to refer only to the forces present in France prior to the end of the First Battle of Ypres on 22 November 1914. By the end of 1914—after the battles of Mons, the Le Cateau, the Aisne and Ypres—the old regular British army had been wiped out, although it managed to help stop the German advance. An alternative endpoint of the BEF was 26 December 1914, when it was divided into the First and Second Armies. B.E.F. remained the official name of the British Army in France and Flanders throughout the First World War. German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm, who was famously dismissive of the BEF, reportedly issued an order on 19 August 1914 to "exterminate...the treacherous English and walk over General French's contemptible little army". Hence, in later years, the survivors of the regular army dubbed themselves "The Old Contemptibles". No evidence of any such order being issued by the Kaiser has ever been found. It was likely a British propaganda invention, albeit one often repeated as fact.
The Deutsches Theater in Berlin is a well-known German theatre. It was built in 1850 as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Frederick William IV of Prussia. Located on Schumann Street, the Deutsches Theater consists of two adjoining stages that share a common, classical facade. The main stage was built in 1850, originally for operettas. Adolf L'Arronge founded the Deutsches Theater in 1883 with the ambition of providing Berliners with a high-quality ensemble-based repertory company on the model of the German court theatre, the Meiningen Ensemble, which had been developed by Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his colleagues to become "the most widely admired and imitated company in Europe", thanks to its historically accurate sets and costumes, vividly-realized crowd scenes, and meticulous directorial control. Otto Brahm, the leading exponent of theatrical Naturalism in Germany, took over the direction of the theatre in 1894, and applied that approach to a combination of classical productions and stagings of the work of the new realistic playwrights. One of Brahm's ensemble, the legendary theatre director Max Reinhardt, took over the directorship in 1904. Under his leadership it acquired a reputation as one of the most significant theatres in the world. In 1905 he founded a theatre-school and built a chamber theatre. Reinhardt remained the artistic director of the theatre until he fled Nazi Germany in 1933.
The Flakpanzer IV "Wirbelwind" was a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun based on the Panzer IV tank. It was developed in 1944 as a successor to the earlier self-propelled anti-aircraft gun Möbelwagen. In the first years of the war, the Wehrmacht had less interest in developing self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, but as the Allies began to gain air superiority, the need for more mobile and better-armed self-propelled anti-aircraft guns increased. During the early summer of 1944, SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Wilhelm Krause with the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend came up with the concept of the Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind. He presented the concept to SS-Obersturmbannführer Max Wünsche, commanding officer of the 12th SS Panzer Regiment and it was approved by Hitler. The Panzer IV's turret was removed and replaced with an open-top, nine-sided turret which housed a quadruple 2 cm Flakvierling 38 L/112.5. A closed-top design would have been preferable, but this was not possible due to the heavy smoke generated by the four anti-aircraft guns. Production of the tank was carried out by Ostbau Werke in Sagan, Silesia. Thereafter, the 2 cm shells proved less effective against aircraft so a more powerful successor was produced which eventually replaced it. Known as the Flakpanzer IV Ostwind, the successor was equipped with a single 3.7 cm FlaK 43.
Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm Furtwängler was a German conductor and composer. He is considered to have been one of the greatest symphonic and operatic conductors of the 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s, Furtwängler was one of the leading conductors in Europe. He became the principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic in 1922 and principal conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. He was also a major guest conductor of other leading orchestras including the Vienna Philharmonic. He was the leading conductor who remained in Germany during the Second World War and, although not an adherent to the Nazi regime, this decision caused controversy for the rest of his life. The extent to which his presence lent prestige to the Third Reich is still debated. Furtwängler's interpretive art is well documented in commercial and off-air recordings and this has led to him being revered by countless musicians, critics and record collectors since his death. Furtwängler's conducting style is often contrasted to that of his older contemporary Arturo Toscanini, whose work during this period is also widely documented. Like Toscanini, Furtwängler was a major influence on many later conductors, and his name is often mentioned when discussing their interpretive styles. However, unlike Toscanini, Furtwängler sought a weighty, less rhythmically strict, more bass-oriented orchestral sound, with more conspicuous use of tempo inflections, not indicated in the printed score.
An orchestrion is a generic name for a machine that plays music and is designed to sound like an orchestra or band. Orchestrions may be operated by means of a large pinned cylinder or by a music roll and less commonly book music. The sound is usually produced by pipes, though they will be voiced differently to those found in a pipe organ, as well as percussion instruments. Many orchestrions contain a piano as well. The first known automatic playing orchestrion was the panharmonicon, invented in 1805 by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel. Friedrich Wilhelm Kaufmann copied this automatic playing machine in 1808 and his family produced orchestrions from that time on. One of Mälzel's panharmonicons was sent to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1811 and was exhibited there and then in New York and other cities. Mälzel also was on tour with this instrument in the United States from 7 February 1826 until he died in 1838. In 1817 Flight & Robson in London built a similar automatic instrument called Apollonicon and in 1823 William M. Goodrich copied Mälzel's panharmonicon in Boston, USA. The name "orchestrion" has also been applied to three specific musical instruments: ⁕A chamber organ, designed by Abt Vogler in 1785, which in a space of 9 cubic feet contained no less than 900 pipes, 3 manuals of 63 keys each and 39 pedals.
Ingenui or ingenuitas, was a legal term of ancient Rome indicating those freemen who were born free, as distinct from, for example, freedmen, who were freemen who had once been slaves. In ancient Rome, free men were either ingenui or libertini. Ingenui indicated those free men who were born free. Libertini were those men who were manumitted from legal slavery. Although freedmen were not ingenui, the sons of libertini were ingenui. A libertinus could not by adoption become ingenuus. If a female slave was pregnant, and was manumitted before she gave birth to the child, that child was born free, and therefore was ingenuus. In other cases, also, the law favored the claim of free birth, and consequently of ingenuitas. If a man's ingenuitas was a matter in dispute, there was a judicium ingenuitatis, which was a court to determine status with regard to patronal rights. The words "ingenuus" and "libertinus" are often opposed to one another; and the title of freeman, which would comprehend libertinus, is sometimes limited by the addition of ingenuus. According to Cincius, in his work on Comitia, quoted by Festus, those who in his time were called ingenui, were originally called patricii, which is interpreted by some scholars such as Carl Wilhelm Göttling to mean that Gentiles were originally called ingenui also, an interpretation that is the subject of some dispute.
Sem is a village in Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway. Sem was a former municipality in Vestfold. The parish of Sæm was established as a municipality January 1, 1838. According to the 1835 census the municipality had a population of 3,590. On 1 January 1965 the district Stang with 126 inhabitants was incorporated into the former municipality of Borre. On 1 January 1988 the rest was incorporated into the municipality of Tønsberg. Prior to the merger Sem was about three times the size of Tønsberg, which had a population of 21,948. The village of Sem has a population of 1,981, of which 42 people live within the border of the neighboring municipality Stokke. The village is situated five kilometers west of the city of Tønsberg. Originally the municipality and the parish were named after the historic Sem Manor. During the Middle Ages, Sem Manor was a royal and feudal overlord residence at the site where Jarlsberg Manor is located today. King Harald Fairhair chose to install his son Bjorn Farmann as the master of the estate. It was here that Bjorn Farmann was killed by Eric Bloodaxe in 927. In 1673, Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld took over the property which until then had belonged to the King of Denmark. Griffenfeldt named the farm Griffenfeldgård, but three years later it was renamed Jarlsberg Manor. In 1682 the buildings on Jarlsberg burned and new buildings of stone were built by the new owner, the Danish-Norwegian Field Marshal Wilhelm Gustav Wedel.
Lactic acid, also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in various biochemical processes and was first isolated in 1780 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid with the chemical formula C3H6O3. It has a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, making it an alpha hydroxy acid. In solution, it can lose a proton from the acidic group, producing the lactate ion CH3CHCOO−. Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit smaller, meaning lactic acid deprotonates ten times as easily as acetic acid does. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bridge between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group, making the latter less capable of strongly attracting its proton. Lactic acid is miscible with water or ethanol, and is hygroscopic. Lactic acid is chiral and has two optical isomers. One is known as L--lactic acid or-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D--lactic acid or-lactic acid. In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant, and keeps the plant growing. The Shoot Apical Meristem gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers. The cells of the apical meristems - SAM and RAM - divide rapidly and are considered to be indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end fate. In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, which have an analogous behavior and function. The term meristem was first used in 1858 by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in his book Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik. It is derived from the Greek word merizein, meaning to divide, in recognition of its inherent function. In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. Meristematic cells are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of continued cellular division. Furthermore, the cells are small and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The vacuoles are extremely small. The cytoplasm does not contain differentiated plastids, although they are present in rudimentary form. Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular cavities. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall.
a bold metaphysical thinker, born in Danzig, of Dutch descent; was early dissatisfied with life, and conceived pessimistic views of it; in 1814 jotted down in a note-book, "Inward discord is the very bane of human nature so long as a man lives," and on this fact he brooded for years; at length the problem solved itself, and the solution appears in his great work, "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" ("The World as Will and Idea"), which he published in 1718; in it, as in others of his writings, to use the words of the late Professor Wallace of Oxford, Schopenhauer "draws close to the great heart of life, and tries to see clearly what man's existence and hopes and destiny really are, which recognises the peaceful creations of art as the most adequate representation the sense-world can give of the true inward being of all things, and which holds the best life to be that of one who has pierced, through the illusions dividing one conscious individuality from another, into that great heart of eternal rest where we are each members one of another essentially united in the great ocean of Being, in which, and by which, we alone live." Goethe gives a similar solution in his "Wilhelm Meister"; is usually characterised as a pessimist, and so discarded, but such were all the wise men who have contributed anything to the emancipation of the world, which they never would have attempted but for a like sense of the evil at the root of the world's misery; and as for his philosophy, it is a protest against treating it as a science instead of an art which has to do not merely with the reasoning powers, but with the whole inmost nature of man (1788-1860).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Mass movement refers to the political concept of a political party or movement which is supported by large segments of a population. Political movements that typically advocate the creation of a mass movement include the ideologies of communism and fascism. Both communists and fascists typically support the creation of mass movements as a means to overthrow a government and create their own government, the mass movement then being used afterwards to protect the government from being overthrown itself. The social scientific study of mass movements focuses on such elements as charisma, leadership, active minorities, cults and sects, followers, mass man and mass society, alienation, brainwashing and indoctrination, authoritarianism and totalitarianism. The field emerged out of crowd or mass psychology, which had gradually widened its scope from mobs to social movements and opinion currents, and then to mass and media society. One influential early text was the double essay on the herd instinct by British surgeon Wilfred Trotter. It also influenced the key concepts of the superego and identification in Massenpsychologie by Sigmund Freud, misleadingly translated as Group psychology. They are linked to ideas on sexual repression leading to rigid personalities, in the original Mass psychology of fascism by Freudo-Marxist Wilhelm Reich. This then rejoined ideas formulated by the Frankfurt School and Theodor Adorno, ultimately leading to a major American study about The authoritarian personality, as a basis for xenophobia and anti-Semitism. Another early theme was the relationship between masses and elites, both outside and within such movements.
Oxenstierna, an ancient Swedish noble family, the origin of which can be traced up to the middle of the 14th century, which had vast estates in Södermanland and Uppland, and began to adopt its armorial designation of Oxenstierna as a personal name towards the end of the 16th century. Its most notable members include the following: ⁕Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, regent of Sweden ⁕Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, Powerful chancellor of the Realm, during Sweden's Age of Greatness ⁕Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Bengt Oxenstierna, Swedish Privy Councillor, Governor-General of Ingria and Livonia; ⁕Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna of Korsholm and Vasa, President of the Royal Swedish Chancellery, Military Governor of Warsaw; ⁕Christiana Oxenstierna ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, member of the Swedish Academy; ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, winner of the Olympic gold medal in modern pentathlon. The Oxenstierna brought the blood of Agnes Hákonardottir and Charles VIII of Sweden back into the throne of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the persons of Christian IX of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, the current monarch. All three monarchs today descends from the Oxenstierna through their common ancestor, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose paternal grandmother was Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlobitten, great-great-granddaughter of Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna, 1st Count of Korsholma and Vaasa, himself father of Bengt Gabrielsson the aforementioned and first cousin of Axel and Bengt Gustafssöner, as well as great-great-great-great-grandson of regent Bengt Jönsson the aforementioned. Oxenstierna was also the distant descendant of the aforementioned Charles VIII of Sweden and Agnes Hákonardottir.
Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" furthered by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. It is the third sphere of 'right' that he establishes, and is marked by family life, civil society, and the state. It attempts to bridge individual subjective feelings and the concept of general rights. To properly comprehend the third sphere, that is Sittlichkeit, one must first review its counterparts which are the two former spheres. The first of the two, the sphere of Right, constitutes what Hegel would call negative freedom, which is to say, freedom ascertained through the denial of outside impetus. The eventual problem, or limitation, of this kind of freedom is made evident when one considers volition without duty - without any real impetus, pulse, drive. The second sphere constitutes Kantian morality, and is therefore called Morality. Given that the purpose of Hegel's philosophy is to provide a critique of his modern day Spirit, he criticizes the deployment of Kantian morality in society for being insufficient. He explains this deficiency through pathologies of loneliness, depression and agony - which he considers to be the empirical grounding behind his writing. To properly understand the movement from these two first spheres to the last, one must also understand to solipsist approach the aforementioned two spheres present, treating the phenomena as if it were atomic. This particularity is what pushes Hegel to assess that he is synthesizing these two spheres and surpassing them in his third sphere of Ethical life.
Originally invented by Wilhelm Altendorf in 1906, a panel saw is any type of sawing machine that cuts sheets into sized parts. Its invention set a new standard in woodworking, with dramatic differences from tradition machines. Up to that time, a conventional table saw had no mechanism for edging. Meaning that for the first and second longitudinal cut on untreated massive wood, the lumber always had to be fed manually through the saw blade. The new system accomplished the task more elegantly by allowing the work piece to be fed through the saw blade while lying on a sliding table. Thus cutting becomes faster, accurate and effortless. Panel saws are used by cabinet shops to easily cut Panels, Profiles, Solid-wood, plywood, MDF, Laminates, Plastic Sheets and melamine sheets into sizes or cabinet components. They are also used by sign shops to cut sheets of aluminum, plastic and wood for their sign blanks. Some higher end panel saws such as those used on Altendorf saws feature computer controls that move the blade and fence systems to preset values. Other lower end machines offer simplicity and ease of use, including full scale hobbyist level panel saws at a mere fraction of the cost. While the entry level machines are designed for light duty usage, they offer home DIYers a cheap alternative for infrequent cutting when accuracy and clean cuts are not required.
The Iron Cross is a cross symbol typically in black with a white or silver outline that originated after 1219 when the Kingdom of Jerusalem granted the Teutonic Order the right to combine the Teutonic Black Cross placed above a silver Cross of Jerusalem. The military decoration called the Iron Cross which existed in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire and Third Reich, was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who were awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class respectively for their actions as pilots during World War II. The Iron Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. The Iron Cross was reintroduced as an award in the German Army in 1939 with a Swastika added in the center during the Third Reich in World War II. In 1956, the Iron Cross resumed its German military usage, as it became the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces. The traditional design is black and this design is used on armored vehicles and aircraft. A newer design in blue and silver is used as the emblem in other contexts.
The Kulturkreis school was a central idea of the early 20th-century Austrian school of anthropology that sought to redirect the discipline away from the quest for an underlying, universal human nature toward a concern with the particular histories of individual societies. It was the notion of a culture complex as an entity that develops from a centre of origin and becomes diffused over large areas of the world. The theory developed under the ethnologists Fritz Graebner and Wilhelm Schmidt, who believed that a limited number of Kulturkreise developed at different times and in different places and that all cultures, ancient and modern, resulted from the diffusion of cultural complexes—functionally related groups of culture traits— from these cultural centres. Proponents of this school believed that the history of any culture could be reconstructed through the analysis of its culture complexes and the tracing of their origins to one or more of the Kulturkreise. Arguing against the idea, then current, that "natural people" were remnants from the prehistoric era who could reveal the true nature of humanity, Kulturkreis scholars brought history back into the study of allegedly timeless peoples. They relied on diffusionist principles, believing that similarities among cultures could be shown to be the result of cultural influence, rather than the result of a universal human nature, and that circles of interaction among various peoples could and should be delineated by the professional anthropologist. In America, Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard was known to have been influenced by the same Vienna Kulturkreis scholars as Fürer-Haimendorf, and indeed, spent a year in Vienna while Fürer-Haimendorf was there.
Joseph Priestley, FRS was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery. During his lifetime, Priestley's considerable scientific reputation rested on his invention of soda water, his writings on electricity, and his discovery of several "airs", the most famous being what Priestley dubbed "dephlogisticated air". However, Priestley's determination to defend phlogiston theory and to reject what would become the chemical revolution eventually left him isolated within the scientific community. Priestley's science was integral to his theology, and he consistently tried to fuse Enlightenment rationalism with Christian theism. In his metaphysical texts, Priestley attempted to combine theism, materialism, and determinism, a project that has been called "audacious and original". He believed that a proper understanding of the natural world would promote human progress and eventually bring about the Christian Millennium. Priestley, who strongly believed in the free and open exchange of ideas, advocated toleration and equal rights for religious Dissenters, which also led him to help found Unitarianism in England. The controversial nature of Priestley's publications combined with his outspoken support of the French Revolution aroused public and governmental suspicion; he was eventually forced to flee, in 1791, first to London, and then to the United States, after a mob burned down his home and church. He spent the last ten years of his life living in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania.
Wilhelm Reich was an Austrian psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of psychoanalysts after Sigmund Freud, and one of the most radical figures in the history of psychiatry. He was the author of several influential books and essays, most notably Character Analysis, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, and The Sexual Revolution. His work on character contributed to the development of Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, and his idea of muscular armour – the expression of the personality in the way the body moves – shaped innovations such as body psychotherapy, Fritz Perls's Gestalt therapy, Alexander Lowen's bioenergetic analysis, and Arthur Janov's primal therapy. His writing influenced generations of intellectuals: during the 1968 student uprisings in Paris and Berlin, students scrawled his name on walls and threw copies of The Mass Psychology of Fascism at the police. After graduating in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1922, Reich studied neuropsychiatry under Julius Wagner-Jauregg and became deputy director of the Vienna Ambulatorium, Freud's psychoanalytic outpatient clinic. Described by Elizabeth Danto as a large man with a cantankerous style who managed to look scruffy and elegant at the same time, he tried to reconcile psychoanalysis with Marxism, arguing that neurosis is rooted in physical, sexual and socio-economic conditions, and in particular in a lack of what he called "orgastic potency." He visited patients in their homes to see how they lived, and took to the streets in a mobile clinic, promoting adolescent sexuality and the availability of contraceptives, abortion and divorce, a provocative message in Catholic Austria. He said he wanted to "attack the neurosis by its prevention rather than treatment."
Mercedes was a brand of the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. DMG which began to develop in 1900, after the death of its co-founder, Gottlieb Daimler. Although the name was not lodged as a trade name until 23 June 1902 and had to wait until 26 September to be registered legally, the brand name eventually would be applied to an automobile model built by Wilhelm Maybach to specifications by Emil Jellinek that was delivered to him on 22 December 1900. By Jellinek's contract, the new model contained a newly designed engine designated "Daimler-Mercedes". This engine name is the first instance of the use of the name, Mercedes, by DMG. The automobile model would later be called, the Mercedes 35 hp. An Austrian diplomat based in Nice, a business man running a profitable business selling cars, and a racing enthusiast, Emil Jellinek had been racing DMG automobiles under the pseudonym Mercédès, after his daughter, Mercédès Jellinek. Later he contracted with DMG for a small series of dedicated sports cars containing an engine that officially bore his daughter's name. He raced them very successfully, gaining recognition that increased interest in customers and Jellinek was placed on the board of directors of DMG. This model was a significant advancement in the history of automobiles. The model was released for sale in 1901 under the name of Mercedes 35 hp and, because of the success of the model, DMG began to apply the name as a series to other models such as, Mercedes 8/11 hp and Mercedes 40 hp Simplex. Jellinek seems to have become obsessed with the name and even had his name changed to Jellinek-Mercedes. Maybach quit DMG in 1907 and started up his own business.
Orgone energy was a hypothetical universal life force originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich. In its final conception, developed by Reich's student Charles Kelly after Reich's death, Orgone was conceived as the anti-entropic principle of the universe, a creative substratum in all of nature comparable to Mesmer's animal magnetism, the Odic force of Carl Reichenbach and Henri Bergson's élan vital. Orgone was seen as a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether, but more closely associated with living energy than inert matter. It could coalesce to create organization on all scales, from the smallest microscopic units—called bions in orgone theory—to macroscopic structures like organisms, clouds, or even galaxies. Reich's theories held that deficits or constrictions in bodily orgone were at the root of many diseases—including cancer—much as deficits or constrictions in the libido could produce neuroses in Freudian theory. He created the Orgone Institute to pursue research into orgone energy after he emigrated to the US, and used it to publish literature and distribute material relating to the topic for more than a decade. Reich designed special "orgone accumulators"—devices ostensibly collecting and storing orgone energy from the environment—for improvement of general health or even for weather control. Ultimately, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration obtained a federal injunction barring the interstate distribution of orgone-related materials, on the grounds that Reich and his associates were making false and misleading claims, and later jailed Reich and destroyed all orgone-related materials at the institute after Reich violated the injunction. Contrary to common misconception, Reich always rejected the idea that the accumulator could provide orgastic potency.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, with the objective to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middlegame, and endgame. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Indian chess Grandmaster Viswanathan Anand. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World Championship, the Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competition is sanctioned by the World Chess Federation, which adopted the now-standard Staunton chess set in 1924 for use in all official games. There are also many chess variants, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards.
In psychoanalysis, the primal scene is the initial witnessing by a child of a sex act, usually between the parents, that traumatizes the psychosexual development of that child. The scene witnessed may also occur between animals, and be displaced onto humans. Ned Lukacher has proposed using the term in literary criticism to refer to a kind of intertextuality in which the ability to interpret one text depends on the meaning of another text. The expression "primal scene" refers to the sight of sexual relations between the parents, as observed, constructed, and/or fantasized by the child and interpreted by the child as a scene of violence. The scene is not understood by the child, remaining enigmatic but at same time provoking sexual excitement. The term appeared for the first time in Freud's work apropos of the "Wolf Man" case, but the notion of a sexual memory experienced too early to have been translated into verbal images, and thus liable to return in the form of conversion symptoms or obsessions, was part of his thinking as early as 1896, as witness his letter of May 30 of that year to Wilhelm Fliess, where he evokes a "surplus of sexuality" that "impedes translation". Here we are already close to the model of the trauma and its "deferred" effect. The following year, in his letter to Fliess of May 2, Freud gave the approximate age when in his estimation children were liable to "hear things" that they would understand only "subsequently" as six or seven months. The subject of the child's witnessing parental coitus came up as well, albeit in an older child, with the case of "Katharina," in the Studies on Hysteria, and Freud evoked it yet again in The Interpretation of Dreams, with the fantasy of the young man who dreamed of watching his parents copulating during his life in the womb.
Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola, more commonly Rudolf Caracciola, was a racing driver from Remagen, Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship, the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship, an unsurpassed three times. He also won the European Hillclimbing Championship three times – twice in sports cars, and once in Grand Prix cars. Caracciola raced for Mercedes-Benz during their original dominating Silver Arrows period, named after the silver colour of the cars, and set speed records for the firm. He was affectionately dubbed Caratsch by the German public, and was known by the title of Regenmeister, or "Rainmaster", for his prowess in wet conditions. Caracciola began racing while he was working as apprentice at the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen during the early 1920s, first on motorcycles and then in cars. Racing for Mercedes-Benz, he won his first two Hillclimbing Championships in 1930 and 1931, and moved to Alfa Romeo for 1932, where he won the Hillclimbing Championship for the third time. In 1933, he established the privateer team Scuderia C.C. with his fellow driver Louis Chiron, but a crash in practice for the Monaco Grand Prix left him with multiple fractures of his right thigh, which ruled him out of racing for more than a year. He returned to the newly reformed Mercedes-Benz racing team in 1934, with whom he won three European Championships, in 1935, 1937 and 1938. Like most German racing drivers in the 1930s, Caracciola was a member of the Nazi paramilitary group National Socialist Motor Corps, but never a member of the Nazi Party. He returned to racing after the Second World War, but crashed in qualifying for the 1946 Indianapolis 500. A second comeback in 1952 was halted by another crash, in a sports car race in Switzerland.
|Rainer Maria Rilke|
Rainer Maria Rilke
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke —better known as Rainer Maria Rilke—was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. Rilke is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", writing in both verse and highly lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as inherently "mystical". His writings include one novel, several collections of poetry, and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes haunting images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief, solitude, and profound anxiety. These deeply existential themes tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers. Rilke was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, travelled extensively throughout Europe and North Africa, including Russia, Spain, Germany, France, Italy, and in his later years settled in Switzerland—settings that were key to the genesis and inspiration for many of his poems. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were originally written in French and dedicated to the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Among English-language readers, his best-known works include the poetry collections Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus, the semi-autobiographical novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, and a collection of ten letters that was published after his death under the title Letters to a Young Poet. In the later 20th century, his work has found new audiences through its use by New Age theologians and self-help authors, and through frequently quoting in television programs, books and motion pictures. In the United States, Rilke is one of the more popular, best-selling poets—along with 13th-century Sufi mystic Rumi and 20th-century Lebanese-American poet Khalil Gibran.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. Chlorine is in the halogen group and is the second lightest halogen after fluorine. The element is a yellow-green gas under standard conditions, where it forms diatomic molecules. It has the highest electron affinity and the third highest electronegativity of all the elements; for this reason, chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent. Free chlorine is rare on Earth, and is usually a result of direct or indirect oxidation by oxygen. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times. Around 1630 chlorine gas was first synthesized in a chemical reaction, but not recognized as a fundamentally important substance. Characterization of chlorine gas was made in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who supposed it an oxide of a new element. In 1809 chemists suggested that the gas might be a pure element, and this was confirmed by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, who named it from Ancient Greek: χλωρóς khlôros "pale green". Nearly all chlorine in the Earth's crust occurs as chloride in various ionic compounds, including table salt. It is the second most abundant halogen and 21st most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis. The high oxidizing potential of elemental chlorine led commercially to free chlorine's bleaching and disinfectant uses, as well as its many uses of an essential reagent in the chemical industry. Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride, as well as many intermediates for production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring, was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party. A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron". A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.
Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. The insight with exploiting infinitesimals was that objects could still retain certain specific properties, such as angle or slope, even though these objects were quantitatively small. The word infinitesimal comes from a 17th-century Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infinite-th" item in a series. It was originally introduced around 1670 by either Nicolaus Mercator or Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object which is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size; or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective, "infinitesimal" in the vernacular means "extremely small". In order to give it a meaning it usually has to be compared to another infinitesimal object in the same context. Infinitely many infinitesimals are summed to produce an integral. Archimedes used what eventually came to be known as the Method of indivisibles in his work The Method of Mechanical Theorems to find areas of regions and volumes of solids. In his formal published treatises, Archimedes solved the same problem using the Method of Exhaustion. The 15th century saw the work of Nicholas of Cusa, further developed in the 17th century by Johannes Kepler, in particular calculation of area of a circle by representing the latter as an infinite-sided polygon. Simon Stevin's work on decimal representation of all numbers in the 16th century prepared the ground for the real continuum. Bonaventura Cavalieri's method of indivisibles led to an extension of the results of the classical authors. The method of indivisibles related to geometrical figures as being composed of entities of codimension 1. John Wallis's infinitesimals differed from indivisibles in that he would decompose geometrical figures into infinitely thin building blocks of the same dimension as the figure, preparing the ground for general methods of the integral calculus. He exploited an infinitesimal denoted in area calculations.
Spione (English title: Spies, under which title it was released in the United States) is a German silent espionage thriller written and directed by Fritz Lang in 1928. Lang's wife, Thea von Harbou, worked as a co-writer. The film was Lang's penultimate silent film, and the first for his own production company; Fritz Lang-film GmbH. As in Lang's Mabuse films, such as Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse, Rudolf Klein-Rogge plays a master criminal aiming for world domination. Spione was restored to its original length by the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung during 2003 and 2004. No original negatives survive, but a high quality nitrate copy is held at the Národni Filmovy Archiv at Prague. Beautiful Russian spy Sonja Baranikowa (Gerda Maurus) seduces Colonel Jellusic (Fritz Rasp) into betraying his country for her employer, Haghi (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a seemingly respectable bank director who is actually the criminal mastermind of a powerful espionage organization. Jason (Craighall Sherry), head of the Secret Service, gives the task of bringing the mysterious Haghi down to a handsome young agent known only as Number 326. 326 believes his identity is a secret, but Haghi is well aware of him. He assigns Sonja to worm her way into 326's confidence. She convinces 326 that she has just shot a man who tried to force himself on her. He hides her from the police. What Haghi does not anticipate is that the couple will fall in love. Unwilling to betray 326, she quietly slips away after they spend the afternoon and evening together. He trails her to Colonel Jellusic, whom he mistakes for her lover (she is actually paying him for his treason). Haghi suspects Sonya's feelings for 326. When she refuses to act against 326, he confines her to a room in his secret headquarters. Meanwhile, Haghi is after a crucial, secret Japanese treaty. He blackmails Lady Leslane (Hertha von Walther), an opium addict, into betraying what her husband knows of the negotiations. Akira Masimoto (Lupu Pick), the Japanese head of security responsible for the treaty's safekeeping, crosses paths with 326. When 326 seeks out Sonya, he finds her apartment stripped bare. Masimoto finds him drowning his sorrows in a bar and informs him that he would have arrested the woman as a spy had she not disappeared. Masimoto gives each of three couriers a sealed packet to deliver to Tokyo; he informs them that a copy of the treaty is inside one of them. Haghi obtains all three packages, but finds only newspapers. However, Haghi has one more card up his sleeve. Masimoto pities Kitty (Liene Dyers), a young woman he finds huddling in a doorway during a rainstorm, and takes her in. When he prepares to leave for Japan with the treaty, she begs him to spend a few hours with her. He gives in, attracted by her beauty. However, when he wakes up later, she is gone, as is the treaty. Disgraced, he commits ritual suicide. 326 tracks Jellusic down, but too late. To tie up loose ends, Haghi has already betrayed the colonel. When confronted by his superiors, Jellusic shoots himself to avoid a scandal. 326 wires the serial numbers of the bank notes used to pay Jellusic, which Jason passes on to agent 719, working undercover as a circus clown, to trace. On the train trip back, 326 is nearly killed in a trap set by Haghi. While he is sleeping, his car is detached and left in a tunnel. He awakens just before another train smashes into it. Sonya, tricked into trying to smuggling the treaty out of the country by Haghi's promise not to harm 326, learns of the crash, races to the site and is reunited with her love. 326 orders Haghi's bank surrounded. Then he sends Sonya away with his trusted chauffeur, Franz (Paul Hörbiger), while he and his men search for Haghi. However, Haghi captures Sonya and Franz, and sends 326 an ultimatum: clear the building within 15 minutes or Sonya will die. After agonizing, 326 continues searching, even after poison gas is released. Fortunately, Franz...
The Chance is a concert and theater complex in downtown Poughkeepsie, New York, United States. It was opened as a vaudeville house called the Dutchess Theatre in 1926. It became the Carol Players Playhouse, then the Playhouse Theatre in 1928. Showing vaudeville and films at the time, the theatre introduced silent film in the 1920′s. From 1945 to 1970 the building was closed and was used as a storage facility. In 1970 Larry Plover opened the venue as “Sal’s Last Chance Saloon”. Plover turned the old vaudeville theatre into a music venue; welcoming legendary acts such as The Police, The Ramones, Muddy Waters, Pete Seeger, Doc Watson and Charles Mingus. Closed again in 1977, Peter Francese re-opened the venue in 1980 under the name “The Chance”. In 1994 current owner, Frank Pallett acquired the legendary music venue. The complex currently consists of 4 rooms; The Chance, which is the primary concert hall; The Loft, a smaller upstairs concert hall; The Platinum Lounge, a downstairs bar/nightclub; and The Nuddy Irishmen, a downstairs cafe/bar. Many famous and local acts have performed at The Chance, including: A Dying Vision, A Static Lullaby, A Wilhelm Scream, Ace Enders of The Early November, Ace Frehley of Kiss, Adema, Agnostic Front, Aiden, Alexisonfire, Alien Ant Farm, All Out War, All That Remains, Allan Holdsworth, American Hi-Fi, Anthrax, As I Lay Dying, Asia, August Burns Red, Avenged Sevenfold, Bad Brains, Baby New Year, The Band Bayside, B.B. King, Between The Buried And Me, Big Audio Dynamite II, Big Country, Billy Club Sandwich, Black Veil Brides, Blink-182, Blotto, Blue Murder, Blue Öyster Cult, Bob Dylan, Bon Jovi, Boys Like Girls, Breaking Benjamin, Breath of Silence, Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden, Buckcherry, Bulletboys, Burning Spear, Cannibal Corpse, Cheap Trick, Chevelle, Chick Corea, Chiodos, Clutch, Converge, Crossfade, Darkest Hour, David Bowie, Dead Sara, Dio, Dissolve, Dokken, Don Dokken from Dokken, Dope, Dream Theater, Dropkick Murphys, Dropp'D, Duran Duran, E. Town Concrete, Eighteen Visions, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Evergreen Terrace, Every Time I Die, Fall Out Boy, Far Beyond Gone, Fates Warning, Fishbone, Flogging Molly, Fuel, Gang Of Four, George Lynch from Dokken, Get Scared, Gizmachi, Goatwhore, God Forbid, Good Charlotte, Greg Allman, Guns N' Roses, GWAR, Gym Class Heroes, Hawthorne Heights, Hellogoodbye, Horse the Band, Iggy Pop, In This Moment, INXS, James Brown, James Labrie of Dream Theater, Jimmy Cliff, Joe Jackson, Jerry Garcia, Joan Jett Joe Perry Project, "Dr. Dirty" John Valby, Jonas Brothers, Johnny Cash and The Carter Sisters Judas Priest, Just Surrender, King's X, Kris Kristofferson, Less Than Jake, Lori Lieberman, Lostprophets, Marillion, Matchbook Romance, Meatloaf Meets The Sky, Megadeth, Men Without Hats, The Misfits, Modern Day Escape, Modern English, moe., Moneen, Motograter, Motörhead, Mudvayne, Murphy's Law, Mushroomhead, My Chemical Romance, Name Taken, Neon Trees, New Found Glory, The Offspring, Otep, Ozzy Osbourne, Panic! At the Disco, Pat Benatar Pat Metheny, Paul Stanley of Kiss, Perfect Thyroid, Peter Criss of Kiss, Peter Frampton, Phish, Powerman 5000, Puddle of Mudd, Queensrÿche, Robbie Dupree, Romeo Void, Saliva, Sam Hill, Savatage, Scary Kids Scaring Kids, See You Next Tuesday, Senses Fail, Shadow Image, Shadows Fall, Shai Hulud, Silverstein, Skid Row, Slayer, Smile Empty Soul, Smoke Or Fire, Social Distortion, Soul 4 Sale, Static-X, Stephen Lynch, Steve Howe, Stone Sour, Story of the Year, Stretch Arm Strong, Stryper, Sum 41, Suicidal Tendencies, Symphony X, Taking Back Sunday, Take One Car, Tesla, The Black Crowes, The Business, The Butthole Surfers, The David Belker Experience, The Devil Wears Prada, The Early November, The English Beat, The Exies, The Fixx, The Jesus & Mary Chain, The Leo Project, The Number Twelve Looks Like You, The Pixies, The Red Chord, The Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus, The Sleeping, The Starting Line, The Suicide Machines