Definitions containing gérard, françois pascal simon, baron

We've found 250 definitions:

JRT

JRT

JRT is an implementation of the Pascal programming language. It was available in the early 1980s on the CP/M operating system. At the end of the 1970s, the most popular Pascal implementation for microcomputers was UCSD Pascal, which many people considered overpriced at hundreds of dollars. The original basis for UCSD Pascal was the p-machine compiler from ETH Zurich the originators of Pascal. JRT was a Pascal interpreter, that compiled down to its own pseudo-code totally separate from UCSD Pascal p-code. It was written by Jim Russell Tyson who had the idea that if he dropped the price he'd sell more copies. He sold it cheaply, reducing the price from $295.00 to $29.95, and it was a wild success. Too wild as it turned out. Orders far surpassed JRT's ability to produce product and the company eventually filed for bankruptcy in November 1983 with many cancelled orders and unable to meet the still high demand. The product eventually continued through a version 4 priced at $69.95 and along with a Modula-2 at $99.95 may have been successful had not Turbo Pascal shown up for about the same price. Turbo Pascal was a true compiler with an IDE as well as a business model that allowed it to meet customer demand.

— Freebase

Vavasor

Vavasor

the vassal or tenant of a baron; one who held under a baron, and who also had tenants under him; one in dignity next to a baron; a title of dignity next to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Pascal's Wager

Pascal's Wager

Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist, Blaise Pascal. It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss. Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework. The wager was set out in section 233 of Pascal's posthumously published Pensées. Pensées, meaning thoughts, was the name given to the collection of unpublished notes which, after Pascal's death, were assembled to form an incomplete treatise on Christian apologetics. Historically, Pascal's Wager was groundbreaking because it charted new territory in probability theory, marked the first formal use of decision theory, and anticipated future philosophies such as existentialism, pragmatism, and voluntarism.

— Freebase

Concurrent Pascal

Concurrent Pascal

Concurrent Pascal was designed by Per Brinch Hansen for writing concurrent computing programs such as operating systems and real-time monitoring systems on shared memory computers. A separate language, Sequential Pascal, is used as the language for applications programs run by the operating systems written in Concurrent Pascal. Both languages are extensions of Niklaus Wirth's Pascal, and share a common threaded code interpreter. The following describes how Concurrent Pascal differs from Wirth's Pascal.

— Freebase

Paul Simon

Paul Simon

Paul Frederic Simon is an American musician and singer-songwriter. Simon's fame, influence, and commercial success began as part of the duo Simon & Garfunkel, formed in 1964 with musical partner Art Garfunkel. Simon wrote most of the pair's songs, including three that reached No. 1 on the U.S. singles charts: "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson", and "Bridge Over Troubled Water". The duo split up in 1970 at the height of their popularity, and Simon began a successful solo career as a guitarist and singer-songwriter, recording three highly acclaimed albums over the next five years. In 1986, he released Graceland, an album inspired by South African township music. Simon also wrote and starred in the film One-Trick Pony and co-wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman with the poet Derek Walcott. Simon has earned 12 Grammys for his solo and collaborative work, including the Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2001, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and in 2006 was selected as one of the "100 People Who Shaped the World" by Time magazine. Among many other honors, Simon was the first recipient of the Library of Congress's Gershwin Prize for Popular Song in 2007. In 1986 Simon was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Music degree from Berklee College of Music where he currently serves on the Board of Trustees.

— Freebase

Simon Magus

Simon Magus

Simon the Sorcerer or Simon the Magician, in Latin Simon Magus, was a Samaritan magus or religious figure and a convert to Christianity, baptised by Philip the Evangelist, whose later confrontation with Peter is recorded in Acts 8:9–24. The sin of simony, or paying for position and influence in the church, is named for Simon. The Apostolic Constitutions also accuses him of lawlessness. According to Recognitions, Simon's parents were named Antonius and Rachel. Surviving traditions about Simon appear in anti-heretical texts, such as those of Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius, where he is often regarded as the source of all heresies. Justin wrote that nearly all the Samaritans in his time were adherents of a certain Simon of Gitta, a village not far from Flavia Neapolis. Irenaeus held him as being one of the founders of Gnosticism and the sect of the Simonians. Hippolytus quotes from a work he attributes to Simon or his followers the Simonians, Apophasis Megale, or Great Declaration. According to the early church heresiologists Simon is also supposed to have written several lost treatises, two of which bear the titles The Four Quarters of the World and The Sermons of the Refuter.

— Freebase

Simon Says

Simon Says

Simon Says is a child's game for 3 or more players where 1 player takes the role of "Simon" and issues instructions to the other players, which should only be followed if prefaced with the phrase "Simon says", for example, "Simon says, jump in the air". Players are eliminated from the game by either following instructions that are not immediately preceded by the trigger phrase or by failing to follow an instruction which does include the phrase "Simon says". It is the ability to distinguish between valid and invalid commands, rather than physical ability, that usually matters in the game; in most cases, the action just needs to be attempted. The object for the player acting as Simon is to get all the other players out as quickly as possible; the winner of the game is usually the last player who has successfully followed all of the given commands. Occasionally however, 2 or more of the last players may all be eliminated by following a command without "Simon Says", thus resulting in Simon winning the game. The game is well embedded in popular culture, with numerous references in films, music and literature.

— Freebase

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method. In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and fifty prototypes, he invented the mechanical calculator. He built 20 of these machines in the following ten years. Pascal was an important mathematician, helping create two major new areas of research: he wrote a significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry at the age of 16, and later corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science. Following Galileo and Torricelli, in 1646 he refuted Aristotle's followers who insisted that nature abhors a vacuum. Pascal's results caused many disputes before being accepted.

— Freebase

Pensées

Pensées

The Pensées represented a defense of the Christian religion by Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century philosopher and mathematician. Pascal's religious conversion led him into a life of asceticism, and the Pensées was in many ways his life's work. The concept "Pascal's Wager" stems from a portion of this work. The Pensées is in fact a name given posthumously to his fragments, which he had been preparing for an Apology for the Christian Religion and which was never completed. Although the Pensées appears to consist of ideas and jottings, some of which are incomplete, it is believed that Pascal had, prior to his death in 1662, already planned out the order of the book and had begun the task of cutting and pasting his draft notes into a coherent form. His task incomplete, subsequent editors have disagreed on the order, if any, in which his writings should be read. Those responsible for his effects, failing to recognize the basic structure of the work, handed them over to be edited, and they were published in 1669. The first English translation was made in 1688 by John Walker. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that scholars began to understand Pascal's intention. In the 1990s, decisive philological achievements were made, and the edition by Philippe Sellier of the book contains his "thoughts" in more or less the order he left them.

— Freebase

Homeward Bound

Homeward Bound

"Homeward Bound" is an American folk song written by Paul Simon, performed by Simon and Garfunkel, produced by Bob Johnston and recorded on December 14, 1965. The song debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart on February 12, 1966, peaking at #5 and remained on the charts for 12 weeks. It describes Simon's longing to return home to his then girlfriend, Kathy Chitty, who was in London. It is uncertain exactly where the song was written: in an interview with Paul Zollo for SongTalk Magazine, Art Garfunkel says that Simon wrote the song in a railway station "around Manchester" while in an earlier interview for Playboy Magazine Simon stated that the railway station was in Liverpool. It is likely, however, that it was written at Widnes railway station during a long wait for a train, when traveling back from Widnes, where he had been playing; a commemorative plaque is displayed on the wall of the Liverpool-bound waiting room. A live version of the song takes the place on the studio version of the compilation Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits, and its performance from the duo's legendary 1981 reunion concert appeared on the subsequent live album; Simon himself has performed the song with other artists such as George Harrison and Willie Nelson. Several artists have covered this song, including The Beau Brummels, Cher, Glen Campbell, Janie Fricke, Davey Graham, Jack Jones, Jack's Mannequin, Petula Clark, Cliff Richard, Ronan Keating, and The New Christy Minstrels.

— Freebase

Pascal

Pascal

An Algol-descended language designed by Niklaus Wirth on the CDC 6600 around 1967--68 as an instructional tool for elementary programming. This language, designed primarily to keep students from shooting themselves in the foot and thus extremely restrictive from a general-purpose-programming point of view, was later promoted as a general-purpose tool and, in fact, became the ancestor of a large family of languages including Modula-2 and Ada (see also bondage-and-discipline language). The hackish point of view on Pascal was probably best summed up by a devastating (and, in its deadpan way, screamingly funny) 1981 paper by Brian Kernighan (of K&R fame) entitled Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language, which was turned down by the technical journals but circulated widely via photocopies. It was eventually published in Comparing and Assessing Programming Languages, edited by Alan Feuer and Narain Gehani (Prentice-Hall, 1984). Part of his discussion is worth repeating here, because its criticisms are still apposite to Pascal itself after many years of improvement and could also stand as an indictment of many other bondage-and-discipline languages. (The entire essay is available at http://www.lysator.liu./definition/bwk-on-pascal.) At the end of a summary of the case against Pascal, Kernighan wrote:9. There is no escapeThis last point is perhaps the most important. The language is inadequate but circumscribed, because there is no way to escape its limitations. There are no casts to disable the type-checking when necessary. There is no way to replace the defective run-time environment with a sensible one, unless one controls the compiler that defines the “standard procedures”. The language is closed.People who use Pascal for serious programming fall into a fatal trap. Because the language is impotent, it must be extended. But each group extends Pascal in its own direction, to make it look like whatever language they really want. Extensions for separate compilation, FORTRAN-like COMMON, string data types, internal static variables, initialization, octal numbers, bit operators, etc., all add to the utility of the language for one group but destroy its portability to others.I feel that it is a mistake to use Pascal for anything much beyond its original target. In its pure form, Pascal is a toy language, suitable for teaching but not for real programming.Pascal has since been entirely displaced (mainly by C) from the niches it had acquired in serious applications and systems programming, and from its role as a teaching language by Java.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi is one of the Loa of Haitian Vodou. Samedi is a Loa of the dead, along with Baron's numerous other incarnations Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, and Baron Kriminel. He is often syncretized with Saint Martin de Porres. He is the head of the Guédé family of Loa, or an aspect of them, or possibly their spiritual father. "Samedi" means "Saturday" in French. His wife is the Loa Maman Brigitte.

— Freebase

Pascal's triangle

Pascal's triangle

In mathematics, Pascal's triangle is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients. It is named after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal in much of the Western world, although other mathematicians studied it centuries before him in India, Greece, Iran, China, Germany, and Italy. The rows of Pascal's triangle are conventionally enumerated starting with row n = 0 at the top. The entries in each row are numbered from the left beginning with k = 0 and are usually staggered relative to the numbers in the adjacent rows. A simple construction of the triangle proceeds in the following manner. On row 0, write only the number 1. Then, to construct the elements of following rows, add the number above and to the left with the number above and to the right to find the new value. If either the number to the right or left is not present, substitute a zero in its place. For example, the first number in the first row is 0 + 1 = 1, whereas the numbers 1 and 3 in the third row are added to produce the number 4 in the fourth row. This construction is related to the binomial coefficients by Pascal's rule, which says that if then for any nonnegative integer n and any integer k between 0 and n.

— Freebase

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. "Three years later, he was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 km southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary." In the year 1128, Bernard assisted at the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. After the council of Étampes, Bernard went to speak with the King of England, Henry I, Beauclerc, about the king's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. Beauclerc was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Anacletus II; he convinced him to support Innocent. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair III of Germany. Lothair became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. Despite the councils of Étampes, Wurzburg, Clermont, and Rheims all supporting Innocent, there were still large portions of the Christian world supporting Anacletus. At the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Castile, and Aragon supported Innocent; however, most of Italy, southern France, and Sicily, with the patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem, supported Anacletus. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. The first person whom he went to was Gerard of Angoulême. He proceeded to write a letter known as Letter 126, which questioned Gerard's reasons for supporting Anacletus. Bernard would later comment that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. After convincing Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit the Count of Poitiers. He was the hardest for Bernard to convince. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. After that, Bernard spent most of his time in Italy convincing the Italians to pledge allegiance to Innocent. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. Bernard denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected as Pope Eugenius III. Having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy.

— Freebase

John Gerard

John Gerard

John Gerard aka John Gerarde was a botanist and herbalist. He maintained a large herbal garden in London. His chief notability is as the author of a big – 1480 pages – and heavily illustrated Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. First published in 1597, it was the most widely circulated botany book in English in the 17th century. Except for the additions of a number of plants from his own garden and from North America, Gerard's Herbal is largely an English translation of Rembert Dodoens Herbal of 1554, itself also highly popular. Gerard's Herball is profusely illustrated with high-quality drawings of plants, with the printer's woodcuts for the drawings largely coming from Dodoens' book and from other Continental European sources. A couple of decades after Gerard's death, his Herbal was corrected and expanded, which strengthened the book's position in the 17th century. The botanical genus Gerardia is named in his honour.

— Freebase

baroness

baroness

a noblewoman who holds the rank of baron or who is the wife or widow of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe, of St Peter in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, It was created in 1918 for the press baron Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Baron Northcliffe. He had already been created a baronet in 1904 and Baron Northcliffe, of the Isle of Thanet in the County of Kent, in 1905. All these titles became extinct on his death in 1922. Lord Northcliffe was the elder brother of Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet and Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet.

— Freebase

Freiherr

Freiherr

"Freiherr", "Freifrau" and "Freiin" are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, and in its various successor states, including Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above Ritter and below Graf. It corresponds to baron in rank; a Freiherr is sometimes also referred to as "Baron"; he is always addressed as "Herr Baron" or "Baron".

— Freebase

Barony

Barony

the fee or domain of a baron; the lordship, dignity, or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Pascal

Pascal

The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength, named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and philosopher Blaise Pascal. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal, kilopascal, megapascal, and gigapascal. On Earth, standard atmospheric pressure is 101,325 Pa. Meteorological barometric pressure reports typically report atmospheric pressure in hectopascals. The kilopascal is used in other applications such as inflation guidance markings on bicycle tires. One hectopascal corresponds to about 0.1% of atmospheric pressure slightly above sea level; one kilopascal is about 1% of atmospheric pressure. One hectopascal is equivalent to one millibar; one standard atmosphere is exactly equal to 101.325 kPa or 1013.25 hPa or 101325 Pa. The corresponding Imperial unit is pounds per square inch.

— Freebase

Androcles and the Lion

Androcles and the Lion

Androcles and the Lion is a 1952 RKO film produced by Gabriel Pascal from the George Bernard Shaw play. This was Pascal's last film, made two years after the death of Shaw, his long-standing friend and mentor, and two years before Pascal's own death.

— Freebase

shopkick

shopkick

shopkick was founded in June 2009 by Cyriac Roeding, Jeff Sellinger, Aaron Emigh, and is funded by Kleiner Perkins’ iFund, Greylock Partners and Reid Hoffman, founder of LinkedIn, and investor in Facebook and Zynga, and Ron Conway. shopkick bridges the worlds of mobile and physical retail. In August 2010, shopkick launched the first mobile application that hands consumers rewards and exclusive deals at shopkick’s national retail partners simply for walking into thousands of stores and malls. shopkick created a new location technology that allows the app to verify the user is actually present inside a store (GPS is too inaccurate for that). shopkick broadcasts an inaudible audio signal at a high-pitch frequency that can be picked up by a smartphone’s microphone, either through the store’s existing music system or through a small transmitter. The shopkick app decodes the signal and the user receives shopkick’s universal reward currency called “kicks.”Like advertisers can get measurable click traffic in the online world on Google, they can get measurable foot traffic and product engagement in the real world through shopkick. Shopkick generates and directs intent at home and in the store. Shopkick’s growing partner alliance includes Target, Macy’s, Old Navy, Best Buy, American Eagle, Crate & Barrel, Sports Authority, Toys”R”Us, Simon Malls (largest U.S. mall operator), Procter & Gamble, Kraft Foods, Unilever, Coca-Cola, Intel, HP, Disney, General Mills, Colgate, Clorox, Revlon, Levi’s. The app was rated the #4 most widely used shopping app in the U.S. in 2012 by Nielsen, ahead of Starbucks and Target, and any other physical retailers’ proprietary apps, and the #1 most engaging app (minutes spent per month per user). Target rolled out shopkick nationwide to all its 1,700 U.S. stores in 2012, after testing

— CrunchBase

Acol

Acol

Acol is the bridge bidding system that, according to The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, is "standard in British tournament play and widely used in other parts of the world". It is named after the Acol Bridge Club, previously located on Acol Road in London NW6, where the system started to evolve in the late 1920s. According to Terence Reese, its main devisers were Maurice Harrison-Gray, Jack Marx and S. J. Simon. Marx himself, writing in the Contract Bridge Journal in December, 1952, said: "...the Acol system was pieced together by Skid Simon and myself the best part of 20 years ago." In another account, Marx and Simon... The first book on the system was written by Ben Cohen and Terence Reese. Skid Simon explained the principles that lay behind the system, and the system was further popularised in Britain by Iain Macleod. The Acol system is continually evolving but the underlying principle is to keep the bidding as natural as possible. It is common in the British Commonwealth but rarely played in the United States.

— Freebase

Simon the Zealot

Simon the Zealot

The apostle called Simon Zelotes, Simon the Zealot, in Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13; and Simon Kananaios or Simon Cananeus, was one of the most obscure among the apostles of Jesus. Little is recorded of him aside from his name. A few pseudepigraphical writings were connected to him, and Jerome does not include him in De viris illustribus.

— Freebase

Hotcakes

Hotcakes

Hotcakes is singer-songwriter Carly Simon's fourth studio album. Released in 1974, it became one of her biggest selling albums. The album featured the hits "Mockingbird", a duet with her then-husband James Taylor, and "Haven't Got Time for the Pain", as well as many other songs that reflected Simon's upbeat mood during her pregnancy with her first child. On the album cover, Simon sits in a gleamingly white kitchen, robustly pregnant, smiling brightly and wearing a somewhat bohemian white linen dress. The album went gold immediately and it stayed on the charts for eight months, yet it was initially overshadowed commercially by two other major albums released by Simon's own label, Elektra/Asylum, in the same month as Hotcakes, Joni Mitchell's Court and Spark and Bob Dylan's Planet Waves. These took the #2 and #1 spots, respectively, on the Billboard album chart while Hotcakes peaked at #3. Hotcakes went on to sell several hundred thousand more copies than Dylan's album and was listed in the Top 40 of Billboard's Year End Top albums for 1974, while Planet Waves did not make the Top 50.

— Freebase

Garrett

Garrett

, transferred from the surname, or in Ireland directly from Gerard.

— Wiktionary

Gerry

Gerry

A diminutive of the male given names Gerald and Gerard.

— Wiktionary

Goutwort

Goutwort

a coarse umbelliferous plant of Europe (Aegopodium Podagraria); -- called also bishop's weed, ashweed, and herb gerard

— Webster Dictionary

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes are a series of prizes awarded annually by the Académie Française. They were endowed by the French benefactor Baron de Montyon. Prior to start of the French Revolution, the Baron de Montyon established a series of prizes to be given away by the Académie Française, the Académie des Sciences, and the Académie Nationale de Médecine. These were abolished by the National Convention, but were taken up again when Baron de Montyon returned to France in 1815. When he died, he bequeathed a large sum of money for the perpetual endowment of four annual prizes. The endowed prizes were as follows: ⁕Making an industrial process less unhealthy ⁕Perfecting of any technical improvement in a mechanical process ⁕Book which during the year rendered the greatest service to humanity ⁕The "prix de vertu" for the most courageous act on the part of a poor Frenchman These prizes were considered by some to be a forerunner of the Nobel Prize.

— Freebase

Baron Verulam

Baron Verulam

The title Baron Verulam was created in two separate and unrelated instances: first as Baron Verulam, of Verulam, in the Peerage of England, then secondly as Baron Verulam, of Gorhambury in the County of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was firstly created for the English philosopher and statesman Sir Francis Bacon, and secondly created for James Grimston, 3rd Viscount Grimston.

— Freebase

Scottish feudal lordship

Scottish feudal lordship

A feudal lordship is a Scottish feudal title that is held in baroneum, which Latin term means that its holder, who is called a feudal lord, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal lordship is an ancient title of nobility in Scotland. The holder may or may not be a Lord of Regality, which meant that the holder was appointed by the Crown and had the power of "pit and gallows", meaning the power to authorise the death sentence. A Scottish feudal lord ranks above a Scottish feudal baron, but below a lord of parliament which is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, and below a feudal earldom, which is a feudal barony of still higher degree than a feudal lordship. There are far fewer feudal lordships than feudal baronies, whilst feudal earldoms are very rare. While feudal barons originally sat in parliament, all of the peerage, originally, was within the feudal system. Later, some of what used to be feudal lordships came to be known as peerages while others were sold, inherited by greater peers, or otherwise disqualified from the modern-day peerage. The feudal rights were gradually emasculated and, with the demise of the Scottish parliament in 1707, the right of feudal barons to sit in parliament ceased altogether, unless, that is, a feudal baron was also a Peer.

— Freebase

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe Fénelon was a Sulpician missionary in New France. He was ten years older than his half-brother, François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai. Little is known of François in his early years until he left for the missions of New France in 1667 as yet not an ordained priest. Bishop Laval took care of this matter, ordaining him in June, 1668. He and M. Trouvé left almost immediately to establish a mission for the Iroquois, at their request, near the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario..

— Freebase

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton, was a British Jewish businessman. Marks was born in Leeds and educated at The Manchester Grammar School. In 1907 he inherited a number of "penny bazaars" from his father, Michael Marks, which had been established with Thomas Spencer. With the help of Israel Sieff, he built Marks & Spencer into an icon of British business. Marks was knighted in 1944 and in 1961 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Marks of Broughton, of Sunningdale in the Royal County of Berkshire. He died in December 1964, aged 76, and was succeeded in the barony by his only son Michael.

— Freebase

Lima/on

Lima/on

a curve of the fourth degree, invented by Pascal. Its polar equation is r = a cos / + b

— Webster Dictionary

Port-royalist

Port-royalist

one of the dwellers in the Cistercian convent of Port Royal des Champs, near Paris, when it was the home of the Jansenists in the 17th century, among them being Arnauld, Pascal, and other famous scholars. Cf. Jansenist

— Webster Dictionary

Delphi

Delphi

A programming language based on PASCAL.

— Wiktionary

Pascal

Pascal

The French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal.

— Wiktionary

Pascal

Pascal

The Pascal programming language.

— Wiktionary

Visual Basic

Visual Basic

A programming language developed by Microsoft, broadly descended from BASIC and Pascal and later superseded by VB.NET, in which all programs have a graphical user interface.

— Wiktionary

millipascal

millipascal

A unit equal to one thousandth of a pascal (symbol mPa).

— Wiktionary

fermat

Fermat, Pierre de Fermat

French mathematician who founded number theory; contributed (with Pascal) to the theory of probability (1601-1665)

— Princeton's WordNet

pascal compiler

Pascal compiler

a compiler for programs written in Pascal

— Princeton's WordNet

pierre de fermat

Fermat, Pierre de Fermat

French mathematician who founded number theory; contributed (with Pascal) to the theory of probability (1601-1665)

— Princeton's WordNet

Montfort, Simon de

Montfort, Simon de

son of a French count; came to England in 1230, where he inherited from his grandmother the earldom of Leicester; attached to Henry III., and married to the king's sister, he was sent to govern Gascony in 1248; returned in 1253, and passed over to the side of the barons, whom he ultimately led in the struggle against the king; after repeated unsuccessful attempts to make Henry observe the Provisions of Oxford, Simon took arms against him in 1263; the war was indecisive, and appeal being made to the arbitration of Louis the Good, Simon, dissatisfied with his award, renewed hostilities, defeated the king at Lewes, and taking him and his son prisoner, governed England for a year (1264-65); he sketched a constitution for the country, and summoned the most representative parliament that had yet met, but as he aimed at the welfare of not the barons only, but the common people as well, the barons began to distrust him, when Prince Edward, having escaped from captivity, joined them, and overthrew Simon at Evesham, where he was slain (1206?-1265).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Saint-Simonian

Saint-Simonian

a follower of the Count de St. Simon, who died in 1825, and who maintained that the principle of property held in common, and the just division of the fruits of common labor among the members of society, are the true remedy for the social evils which exist

— Webster Dictionary

Simonian

Simonian

one of the followers of Simon Magus; also, an adherent of certain heretical sects in the early Christian church

— Webster Dictionary

Zohar

Zohar

a Jewish cabalistic book attributed by tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century, a. d. Modern critics believe it to be a compilation of the 13th century

— Webster Dictionary

Laplace

Laplace

Pierre-Simon Laplace, French mathematician 1749-1827, used attributively in the names of various mathematical concepts named after him (see "Derived terms" below)

— Wiktionary

Si

Si

A diminutive of the male given name Simon.

— Wiktionary

Zohar

Zohar

A Jewish cabalistic book attributed by tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century AD. Modern critics believe it to be a compilation of the 13th century.

— Wiktionary

Simpson

Simpson

A Scottish and northern English patronymic surname derived from Sim, the short form of Simon.

— Wiktionary

Sim

Sim

A male given name, diminutive of Simon and Simeon.

— Wiktionary

Simmons

Simmons

A southern English patronymic surname from the given name Simon.

— Wiktionary

Simon says

Simon says

A children's game where players must carry out only those commands that are preceded by the utterance "Simon says".

— Wiktionary

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. Pressure is force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Pressure is measured in any unit of force divided by any unit of area. The SI unit of pressure is which is called the pascal after the seventeenth-century philosopher and scientist Blaise Pascal. A pressure of 1 Pa is small; it approximately equals the pressure exerted by a dollar bill resting flat on a table. Everyday pressures are often stated in kilopascals.

— Freebase

Microsystems

Microsystems

Microsystems was a personal computing magazine founded by Sol Libes and published from January 1980 to November 1984. Oriented toward the home and business personal computer user, it included an editorial page, letters from readers, technical articles, and advertisements. As a historical reference, it is notable for chronicling in detail the early days of the personal computer. Topics covered in its issues included: ⁕IEEE-696 / S-100 bus systems ⁕the CP/M operating systems from Digital Research: CP/M-80, CP/M Plus, CP/M-86, and MP/M ⁕the MS-DOS operating system from Microsoft ⁕implementations of the PL/I language: PL/I-80 and PL/I-86 from Digital Research ⁕the Turbo Pascal and UCSD Pascal languages ⁕the 8080, Z80, 8086, and 80286 microprocessors

— Freebase

Pascal Verrot

Pascal Verrot

Pascal Verrot is a French-born orchestra conductor who holds the post of principal conductor of the Sendai Philharmonic and former musical director of Picardie Orchestra. Prior to that, he was music director of the Québec Symphony Orchestra, the oldest orchestra in Canada, from 1991 to 1997. Born in Lyon, France, in 1959, Mr. Verrot holds degrees both from the Sorbonne University in Paris and the Paris Conservatory where he studied for four years with Jean-Sébastien Béreau, winning first prize in the conducting competition. During that time, he made his debut as oboist and conductor of the wind ensemble Union Musicale of Villefranche sur Saône. He also studied for three years with the late Franco Ferrara at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy. Pascal Verrot made his international debuts in 1985, when he was prize winner at the Tokyo International Conducting Competition. Since then, his guest conducting appearances have included many performances in Japan, in France and in North-America. Mr. Verrot has conducted several North-American renowned ensembles that include the Boston Symphony, the Montreal Symphony, the Toronto Symphony, the Utah Symphony and most recently the Pacific Symphony. His native country of France has offered him numerous occasions to lead major orchestras.

— Freebase

Pascal's law

Pascal's law

Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure ratio remains the same. The law was established by French mathematician Blaise Pascal.

— Freebase

Contrecoup

Contrecoup

Contrecoup is a 1997 short drama war film written by Guilherme Botelho and Pascal Magnin and directed by Pascal Magnin.

— Freebase

Optimedica

Optimedica

OptiMedica® Corporation is a medical device company dedicated to working with ophthalmologists to evolve standards of care which provide significant benefits to both physicians and patients. Located in Santa Clara California, the company was founded in January 2004 to develop a radically new technology for the treatment of ocular disease. Initially developed at Stanford University, and exclusively licensed to the OptiMedica Corporation, the PASCAL® Method of Photocoagulation is used to treat a variety of retinal conditions including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal vascular occlusive disease. The PASCAL Photocoagulator provides significantly improved performance for the physician and an enhanced therapeutic experience for the patient.

— Freebase

Mechanical calculator

Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, was a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic. Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obsolete by the advent of the electronic calculator. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642; it was called Pascal's Calculator or Pascaline and was the only working mechanical calculator in the 17th century. Thomas' arithmometer, the first commercially successful machine, was manufactured two hundred years later in 1851; it was the first mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. For forty years the arithmometer was the only type of mechanical calculator available for sale. The comptometer, introduced in 1887, was the first machine to use a keyboard which consisted of columns of nine keys for each digit. The Dalton adding machine, manufactured from 1902, was the first to have a 10 key keyboard. Electric motors were used on some mechanical calculators from 1901. In 1961, a comptometer type machine, the Anita mk7 from Sumlock comptometer Ltd., became the first desktop mechanical calculator to receive an all electronic calculator engine, creating the link in between these two industries and marking the beginning of its decline. The production of mechanical calculators came to a stop in the middle of the 1970s closing an industry that had lasted for 120 years.

— Freebase

Younger Brother

Younger Brother

Younger Brother is an electronic duo formed in 2003 by Simon Posford and Benji Vaughan. Their debut album A Flock of Bleeps was released in 2003, followed by The Last Days of Gravity in 2007 and Vaccine in 2011. After making a remix for a charity record, Simon Posford and Benji Vaughan decided to come together in the studio to create their own type of electronic music that is generally described as “unclassifiable.” The album A Flock of Bleeps released on Twisted Records became a cult classic in the underground electronica scene and included such tracks as ‘Crumblenaut’ and ‘Finger’. This led to massive demand to see them live and they have played shows from London to Tokyo, New York to Moscow. Inspired by the live shows Simon and Benji decided to move away from the pure electronic sound of the first album A Flock of Bleeps and create a more organic sound. Having no band, they played the instruments themselves and recruited long-time friend and former Leftfield vocalist Ruu Campbell to perform the vocals. The resulting album was Last Days of Gravity release in 2007 narrowly missed a nomination for the 2008 Mercury Music Prize and received masses of positive press. They also returned to play shows with the "Younger Brother Live" band in Boulder and Denver, Colorado and in California, which included Marc Brownstein on bass, Tom Hamilton on guitar, and Joe Russo on drums in Japan, the US and played a sell out show to 3,000 people at the Brixton Academy, London.

— Freebase

Timeslip

Timeslip

Timeslip is a British children's science fiction television series made by ATV for the ITV network and broadcast between 1970 and 1971. The series centres around two children, Simon Randall and Liz Skinner who discover the existence of a strange anomaly, known as the “Time Barrier”, that enables them to travel in time to different historical periods in alternate pasts and futures. The two children have contrasting personalities; whereas Simon is studious, Liz is something of a tomboy, and this often leads to conflict between the two. However, as the series progresses, their antagonism matures into a deep bond of friendship. The main theme of the series is concerned with the way mankind uses – and abuses – science and technology. It explores how the pursuit of scientific knowledge and advancement can lead to the depersonalisation of individuals and the abandonment of moral principles. A secondary theme – explored in the instances where Liz and Simon encounter potential future versions of themselves – concerns the extent to which an individual can change according to the situations encountered in his or her life.

— Freebase

Simkin

Simkin

Simkin is a scripting language that can be embedded in Java or C++ applications. It can be stored in a variety of file formats, including XML. It was invented by Simon Whiteside. The language's name is based on Simon Whiteside's, 'Simkin' being a Victorian pet-name for 'Simon'. The ManuScript language used by plug-ins for the Sibelius notation program is based on Simkin.

— Freebase

Nomis Solutions

Nomis Solutions

Nomis Solutions is the recognized leader in Profit-based Pricing for banking and finance. Powered by price optimization technology, Profit-based Pricing is an innovative approach that enables executives to strategically use pricing to achieve improved financial results, gain insight into customer preferences, and support compliance. The award-winning Nomis Price Optimizer Suite is a set of business solutions that combines pricing analytics, optimization, and execution into a comprehensive pricing strategy and process. The suite includes specific solutions for auto finance, home equity lending, personal lending, mortgage, and deposits. Each solution delivers quick time-to-benefit, increases profits and market share by 10-20%, and provides valuable insights about how customer preferences impact product and portfolio performance, within a strong compliance framework. Select customers include AmeriCredit, Ford Motor Credit Company, GE Consumer Finance, HBoS plc, and WaMu. Headquartered in San Bruno, CA, Nomis Solutions has offices in Charlotte, NC, and London, United Kingdom. Nomis Solutions History Nomis Solutions was founded by Dr. Robert L. Phillips and Simon Caufield in 2002. Dr. Phillips has worked in the area of Price Optimization for 20 years and was instrumental in the adoption of the technology in many industries including: airline, hotel, manufacturing and retail. After successfully generating additional profits for these industries, Dr. Phillips was interested in helping banks and finance companies achieve the same benefits. He partnered with Simon Caufield, an expert in financial services, to identify the unique profitability dynamics of the industry. Banks and finance companies have an immense amount of customer data, which is a critical component to developing price optimization solutions in any industry. Based on the availability of this data as well as the market readiness for an innovative approach to pricing that is focused on the customer and helps maximize profits, Dr. Phillips and Simon Caufield founded the company Nomis Solutions to deliver Profit-based Pricing solutions to the financial services industry.

— Freebase

Bagot

Bagot

Bagot was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1867 to 1935. It was created by the British North America Act of 1867, and was amalgamated into the St. Hyacinthe—Bagot electoral district in 1933. Bagot initially consisted of part of the Township of Upton, the township of Acton and the parishes of Saint Hugues, Saint Simon, Sainte Rosalie, Saint Dominique, St. Helene, St. Liboire and Saint Pie. In 1892, it was redefined to consist of the town of Acton, the village of Upton, and the parishes of St. André d'Acton, St. Ephrem d'Upton, Ste. Hélène, St. Hugues, Ste. Rosalie, St. Simon, St. Théodore d'Acton, St. Marcel and St. Dominique, and those parts of the parishes of St. Nazaire and Ste. Christine that were included in the township of Acton. In 1903, it was redefined to consist of the town of Acton, the village of Upton, and the parishes of St. André d'Acton, St. Ephrem d'Upton, Ste. Hèlène, St. Hugues, St. Liboire, St. Pie, Ste. Rosalie, St. Simon, St. Théodore d'Acton, St. Dominique, St. Nazaire and Ste. Christine. In 1924, it was redefined to consist of the County of Bagot.

— Freebase

bolivia

Bolivia, Republic of Bolivia

a landlocked republic in central South America; Simon Bolivar founded Bolivia in 1825 after winning independence from Spain

— Princeton's WordNet

colombia

Colombia, Republic of Colombia

a republic in northwestern South America with a coastline on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of Simon Bolivar; Spanish is the official language

— Princeton's WordNet

henry iii

Henry III

son of King John and king of England from 1216 to 1272; his incompetence aroused baronial opposition led by Simon de Montfort (1207-1272)

— Princeton's WordNet

republic of bolivia

Bolivia, Republic of Bolivia

a landlocked republic in central South America; Simon Bolivar founded Bolivia in 1825 after winning independence from Spain

— Princeton's WordNet

republic of colombia

Colombia, Republic of Colombia

a republic in northwestern South America with a coastline on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of Simon Bolivar; Spanish is the official language

— Princeton's WordNet

stanford-binet test

Stanford-Binet test

revision of the Binet-Simon Scale

— Princeton's WordNet

nobleman

nobleman

A peer; an aristocrat; ranks range from baron to king to emperor.

— Wiktionary

baroness

baroness

The female ruler of a barony. The male equivalent is baron.

— Wiktionary

barony

barony

A dominion ruled by a baron or baroness, often part of a larger kingdom or empire.

— Wiktionary

thane

thane

in Anglo-Saxon England, a man holding lands from the king, or from a superior in rank. There were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Norman Conquest, this title was no longer used, and baron took its place.

— Wiktionary

viscount

viscount

A member of the peerage above a baron but below a count or earl.

— Wiktionary

Lord

Lord

A British aristocratic title used as a form of address for a marquess, earl or viscount; the usual style for a baron; a courtesy title for a younger son of a duke or marquess

— Wiktionary

Verulam

Verulam

Baron Verulam, Viscount St Albans

— Wiktionary

Byron

Byron

George Gordon (Noel) Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788u2013April 19, 1824), a famous English poet and leading figure in romanticism.

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

belonging or relating to a baron or barons

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

suitable for a baron

— Wiktionary

rix-baron

rix-baron

A baron of the German Empire.

— Wiktionary

Red Baron

Red Baron

An equivalent of the Red Baron, ace fighter pilot.

— Wiktionary

baby doc

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

duvalier

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacques lucien monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

jacques monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

jean-claude duvalier

Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc

son and successor of Francois Duvalier as president of Haiti; he was overthrown by a mass uprising in 1986 (born in 1951)

— Princeton's WordNet

monod

Monod, Jacques Monod, Jacques Lucien Monod

French biochemist who (with Francois Jacob) explained how genes are activated and suggested the existence of messenger RNA (1910-1976)

— Princeton's WordNet

rabelaisian

Rabelaisian

of or relating to or characteristic of Francois Rabelais or his works

— Princeton's WordNet

Brethren of the Common Life

Brethren of the Common Life

The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ. Without taking up irrevocable vows, the Brethren banded together in communities, giving up their worldly goods to live chaste and strictly regulated lives in common houses, devoting every waking hour to attending divine service, reading and preaching of sermons, labouring productively, and taking meals in common that were accompanied by the reading aloud of Scripture: "judged from the ascetic discipline and intention of this life, it had few features which distinguished it from life in a monastery", observes Hans Baron.

— Freebase

adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baron adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baronetcy

baronetcy

the title of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

baronet

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the estate of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the domain of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

bart

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

edgar douglas adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

peer

peer

a nobleman (duke or marquis or earl or viscount or baron) who is a member of the British peerage

— Princeton's WordNet

thane

thane

a feudal lord or baron

— Princeton's WordNet

viscount

viscount

a British peer who ranks below an earl and above a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Peerage of the United Kingdom

The Peerage of the United Kingdom and British Empire comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898. The ranks of the peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron. The last non-royal dukedom was created in 1900, and the last marquessate in 1926. Creation of the remaining ranks mostly ceased once Harold Wilson's Labour government took office in 1964, and only four non-royal hereditary peerages have been created since then. These were: ⁕John Morrison, 1st Baron Margadale, 1965 ⁕William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, 1983 ⁕George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy, 1983 ⁕Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, 1984 Until the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, all peers of the United Kingdom were automatically members of the House of Lords. However, from that date, most of the hereditary peers ceased to be members as part of Parliamentary reform, whereas the life peers retained their seats. All hereditary peers of the first creation, and all surviving hereditary peers who had served as Leader of the House of Lords were offered a life peerage in order to allow them to sit in the House should they so choose.

— Freebase

Vavasour

Vavasour

A vavasour, is a term in Feudal law. A vavasour was the vassal or tenant of a baron, one who held their tenancy under a baron, and who also had tenants under him. Alternative spellings include: vavasour, valvasor, vasseur, vasvassor, oavassor, and others. In its most general sense the word thus indicated a mediate vassal, i.e. one holding a fief under a vassal. The word was, however, applied at various times to the most diverse ranks in the feudal hierarchy, being used practically as the synonym of vassal. Thus tenants-in-chief of the crown are described by the Emperor Conrad II as valvassores majores, as distinguished from mediate tenants, valvassores minores. Gradually the term without qualification was found convenient for describing sub-vassals, tenants-in-chief being called capitanei or barones; Its implication, however, still varied in different places and times. Bracton ranks the magnates seu valvassores between barons and knights; for him they are "men of great dignity," and in this order they are found in a charter of Henry II of England. But in the regestum of Philip II Augustus we find that five vavassors are reckoned as the equivalent of one knight. Finally, Du Cange quotes two charters, one of 1187, another of 1349, in which vavassors are clearly distinguished from nobles.

— Freebase

Robber baron

Robber baron

A robber baron or robber knight was an unscrupulous and despotic noble of the medieval period in Europe. The term has slightly different meanings in different countries. In modern U.S. parlance, the term is also used to describe unscrupulous industrialists. Robber baron behavior among the Germanic warrior class in medieval Europe indirectly led to the Catholic innovations of the Peace and Truce of God.

— Freebase

Lithophane

Lithophane

A lithophane is an etched or molded artwork in thin very translucent porcelain that can only be seen clearly when back lit with a light source. It is a design or scene in intaglio that appears "en grisaille" tones. A lithophane presents a three dimensional image - completely different from two dimensional engravings and daguerreotypes that are "flat". The images change characteristics depending on the light source behind them. Window lithophane panel scenes change throughout the day depending upon the amount of sunlight. The varying lightsource is what makes lithophanes more interesting to the viewer than two dimensional pictures. The word "lithophane" derives from Greek "litho", which is from "lithos" which means stone or rock, and "phainein" meaning "to cause to appear" or "to cause to appear suddenly". From this is derived a meaning for lithophane of "light in stone" or to "appear in stone" as the three dimensional image appears suddendly when lit with a back light source. European lithophanes were first produced nearly at the same time in France, Germany, Prussia, and England around the later part of the 1820s. Many times historians credit Baron Paul de Bourging with inventing the process "email ombrant" of lithophanes in 1827 in France. Robert Griffith Jones acquired Bourging's rights in 1828 and licensed out to English factories to make them. The English factories sometimes used the name "lithophane" for specimens of ordinary "email ombrant." Some say however it was Georg Friedrich Christoph of Prussia that actually perfected the true lithophane process in 1828. Others say the technique was developed in Berlin and other parts of Germany by such manufacturers as Königlichen Porzellan-Manufaktur and Porzellanmanufactur. This is why sometimes lithophanes are referred to as "Berlin transparency." There is a well known mark of Ad'T' on lithophanes from Rubles, near Melun in France. It is thought to be the mark of Baron A. de Tremblay, however some scholars on the subject think he only made earthenware and not true lithophanes and the mark belongs to a yet unknown source.

— Freebase

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots. In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. Keynes instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate "boom and bust" cycles of economic activity. He advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were adopted by leading Western economies. In 1942, Keynes was awarded a hereditary peerage as Baron Keynes of Tilton in the County of Sussex. Keynes died in 1946, but during the 1950s and 1960s the success of Keynesian economics resulted in almost all capitalist governments adopting its policy recommendations.

— Freebase

Red Baron

Red Baron

Red Baron is a critically acclaimed video game for the PC, created by Damon Slye at Dynamix and published by Sierra Entertainment. It was released in 1990. As the name suggests, the game is a flying simulation set on the Western Front of World War I. The player can engage in single missions or career mode, flying for either the German Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps. In the course of the game the player might find himself either flying in the Red Baron's squadron Jasta 11, or encountering him as an enemy above the front.

— Freebase

Chit

Chit

Chits are a type of wargame counter that are generally not directly representational but used for the following purposes: ⁕Tracking, being placed on a numeric runner to indicate turn status, as in some rule variants for Squad Leader. In Axis & Allies Revised Edition, chits can be used to track air unit movement, indicating how many spaces fighters or bombers can move after combat. ⁕Randomization or chit drawing, as in Air Baron, where at the start of each round, one color-coded chit per player is placed in a cup. The chits are drawn sequentially to determine the current order of play. Chit drawing is also used in Air Baron to pay income. Every purchased airline spoke, plus all hubs, have a unique chit placed in a cup. At the start of every turn, the player randomly draws two chits, paying the owner appropriately. Chits are replaced at the end of each round. ⁕Fog of war, with some chits marked with question marks or placed over unit chits, allowing the opposing player to see where opposing forces are but hiding the type of unit. ⁕Terrain attributes, where numeric chits are randomly distributed over the terrain to indicate the frequency that resources are available in The Settlers of Catan.

— Freebase

Tenant-in-chief

Tenant-in-chief

In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief, denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy. The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. Other names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron, although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron. The Latin term was tenens in capite; In most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church, however in England after the Norman Conquest, the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown. A tenure by frankalmoin, which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement. Every land-holding was deemed by feudal custom to be no more than an estate in land whether directly or indirectly held of the king; absolute title in land could only be held by the king himself, the most anyone else could hold was a right over land, not a title in land per se. In England, a tenant-in-chief could enfief, or grant fiefs carved out of his own holding, to his own followers. The creation of subfiefs under a tenant-in-chief or other fief-holder was known as subinfeudation. The Norman kings, however, eventually imposed on all free men who occupied a tenement a duty of fealty to the crown rather than to their immediate lord who had enfeoffed them. This was to diminish the possibility of sub-vassals being employed by tenants-in-chief against the crown.

— Freebase

Victor Horta

Victor Horta

Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that he is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts. The French architect Hector Guimard was deeply influenced by Horta and further spread the "whiplash" style in France and abroad. In 1932 King Albert I of Belgium conferred on Horta the title of Baron for his services to architecture. Four of the buildings he designed have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

— Freebase

Piera

Piera

Piera is a municipality covers a large portion of the southeastern corner of the comarca of Anoia in Catalonia, Spain, on the left bank of the Anoia river. The agricultural land, mostly non-irrigated, is used for the cultivation of cereals, grapes, olives and almonds. The town itself hosts a number of light industries: textiles, plastics and construction materials. Tourism during the summer months is also relatively important for the local economy. The FGC railway line R6 from Martorell and Barcelona to Igualada runs through the town, while local roads lead to Capellades and Sant Sadurní d'Anoia. Notable monuments include the castle of Fontanet. The castle which was restored in 1916 by Ramon de Viala d'Aiguavives, Baron of Almenar is documented in 955 a.c. and now used for private functions. The sister of the Baron of Almenar, Isabel de Viala d'Aiguavives also financed and patroned the modernist church of Ca n'Aguilera which was donated to Barcelona's Bishop by Zaragoza de Viala family on 1921. The architect of Ca N'Aguilera modernist church is Francesc Berenguer i Mestres, who was Antoni Gaudi's disciple and personal friend. Another Piera relevant monument is the church of Santa Maria, with both gothic and roman elements

— Freebase

Earl Grey

Earl Grey

Earl Grey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1806 for General Charles Grey, 1st Baron Grey. He had already been created Baron Grey, of Howick in the County of Northumberland, in 1801, and was made Viscount Howick, in the County of Northumberland, at the same time as he was given the earldom. A member of the prominent Grey family of Northumberland, he was the third son of Sir Henry Grey, 1st Baronet, of Howick. Lord Grey was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, 2nd Earl Grey. He was a prominent Whig politician and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1830 to 1834, which tenure saw the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832. In 1808 he also succeeded his uncle as third Baronet, of Howick.

— Freebase

Whithorn

Whithorn

Whithorn is a former royal burgh in Wigtownshire Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. The town was the location of the first recorded Christian church in Scotland, Candida Casa : the 'White [or 'Shining'] House', built by Saint Ninian about 397. Ref. The Whithorn Trust Refer to Archaeological and Historical Collections relating to Ayrshire and Galloway. vol.VII. pp.53-55 Whithorn is also the name of the area of 10,000 acres in Wigtownshire, in the District Council Region of Dumfries and Galloway 11 miles south from Wigtown, about eight miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, anciently divided into baronies, each controlled by a baron of the court of the barony, i.e. Houston, Baron of the Barony of Busbie or Busby. Burke's Peerage Lineage: This Baronet is heir male of the HOUSTOUNs O.C., the chiefs of which were heritable Baillies and Justiciaries of the Barony of Busbie, Wigtownshire. Scottish feudal lordship Scottish feudal barons sat in Parliament by virtue of holding their lands 'per baroniam', that is as barons.. Whithorn was first known as Candida Casa. 'Whithorn' is a modern form of the Anglo-Saxon version of this name, Hwit Ærne, 'white house'. In Gallovidian Gaelic, it was called Rosnat, or Futarna, the latter a version of the Anglo-Saxon name.

— Freebase

Nobile

Nobile

Nobile or Nob. is an Italian title of nobility ranking between that of baron and knight. As with some other titles of nobility, such as baron or count, nobile is also used immediately before the family name, usually in the abbreviated form: Nob. The word “nobile” is derived from the Latin “nobilis”, meaning honourable. The heraldic coronet of a nobile is composed of a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five pearls, either on stems or set directly upon the rim. The armorial shield of a nobile is surmounted by a silver helm displayed in a ¾ side-view and surmounted by the coronet already described. A noble entitled to wear a coronet of noble status also customarily displays it above the shield in the full heraldic achievement associated with the particular title in question.

— Freebase

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian, of Cambridge in the County of Cambridge, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 27 January 1955 for the electrophysiologist and Nobel Prize recipient Edgar Adrian. He was succeeded by his only son, the second Baron. He was Professor of cell physiology at the University of Cambridge. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1995.

— Freebase

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte is a death loa and the wife of Baron Samedi in Vodou. She drinks rum infused with hot peppers and is symbolized by a black rooster. Like Baron and the Ghede, she uses obscenities. She protects gravestones in cemeteries if they are properly marked with a cross. A New World loa, Maman Brigitte is syncretized with various saints, including:Saint Brigid, and Mary Magdalene

— Freebase

Louis XIV.

Louis XIV.

the "Grand Monarque," son of the preceding, was only nine when his father died, and the government was in the hands of his mother, Anne of Austria, and Cardinal Mazarin, her minister; under the regency the glory of France was maintained in the field, but her internal peace was disturbed by the insubordination of the parlement and the troubles of the Fronde; by a compact on the part of Mazarin with Spain before he died Louis was married to the Infanta Maria Theresa in 1659, and in 1660 he announced his intention to rule the kingdom alone, which he did for 54 years with a decision and energy no one gave him credit for, in fulfilment of his famous protestation L'état, c'est moi, choosing Colbert to control finance, Louvois to reorganise the army, and Vauban to fortify the frontier towns; he sought to be as absolute in his foreign relations as in his internal administration, and hence the long succession of wars which, while they brought glory to France, ended in exhausting her; at home he suffered no one in religious matters to think otherwise than himself; he revoked the Edict of Nantes, sanctioned the dragonnades in the Cévennes, and to extirpate heresy encouraged every form of cruelty; yet when we look at the men who adorned it, the reign of Louis XIV. was one of the most illustrious in letters and the arts in the history of France: Corneille, Racine, and Molière eminent in the drama, La Fontaine and Boileau in poetry, Bossuet in oratory, Bruyère and Rochefoucauld in morals, Pascal in philosophy, Saint-Simon and Retz in history, and Poussin, Lorraine, Lebrun, Perault, &c., in art (1636-1715).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Counts of Clermont-Tonnerre

Counts of Clermont-Tonnerre

Clermont-Tonnerre is the name of a French family, members of which played some part in the history of France, especially in Dauphiné, from about 1100 to the French Revolution. Sibaud, lord of Clermont in Viennois, who first appears in 1080, was the founder of the family. His descendant, another Sibaud, commanded some troops which aided Pope Calixtus II in his struggle with the Antipope Gregory VIII; and in return for this service it is said that the pope allowed him to add certain emblems, two keys and a tiara to the arms of his family. A direct descendant, Ainard, called vicomte de Clermont, was granted the dignity of captain-general and first baron of Dauphiné by his suzerain Humbert, dauphin of Viennois, in 1340; and in 1547 Clermont was made a county for Antoine, who was governor of Dauphiné and the French king's lieutenant in Savoy. In 1572, Antoine's son Henri was created a duke, but as this was only a brevet title it did not descend to his son. Henri was killed before La Rochelle in 1573. In 1596 Henri's son, Charles Henri, count of Clermont, added Tonnerre to his heritage; but in 1648 this county was sold by his son and successor, François.

— Freebase

Baron

Baron

a husband; as, baron and feme, husband and wife

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the dignity or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the land which gives title to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baroness

Baroness

a baron's wife; also, a lady who holds the baronial title in her own right; as, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts

— Webster Dictionary

Baronet

Baronet

a dignity or degree of honor next below a baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of knights except those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners

— Webster Dictionary

Baronial

Baronial

pertaining to a baron or a barony

— Webster Dictionary

Court-baron

Court-baron

an inferior court of civil jurisdiction, attached to a manor, and held by the steward; a baron's court; -- now fallen into disuse

— Webster Dictionary

Lady

Lady

a woman of social distinction or position. In England, a title prefixed to the name of any woman whose husband is not of lower rank than a baron, or whose father was a nobleman not lower than an earl. The wife of a baronet or knight has the title of Lady by courtesy, but not by right

— Webster Dictionary

Napier's rods

Napier's rods

a set of rods, made of bone or other material, each divided into nine spaces, and containing the numbers of a column of the multiplication table; -- a contrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor of logarithms, for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division

— Webster Dictionary

Peer

Peer

a nobleman; a member of one of the five degrees of the British nobility, namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of the realm

— Webster Dictionary

Thane

Thane

a dignitary under the Anglo-Saxons and Danes in England. Of these there were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Conquest, this title was disused, and baron took its place

— Webster Dictionary

Tolt

Tolt

a writ by which a cause pending in a court baron was removed into a country court

— Webster Dictionary

Viscount

Viscount

a nobleman of the fourth rank, next in order below an earl and next above a baron; also, his degree or title of nobility. See Peer, n., 3

— Webster Dictionary

Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. Its name is from Latin caulis and flower,. Brassica oleracea also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups. For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture, as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy", but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.

— Freebase

François Blondel

François Blondel

Nicolas-François Blondel was a soldier, engineer of fortifications, diplomat, civil engineer and military architect, called "the Great Blondel", to distinguish him in a dynasty of French architects. He is remembered for his Cours d'architecture which remained a central text for over a century. His precepts placed him in opposition with Claude Perrault in the larger culture war known under the heading Querelle des anciens et des modernes. If François Blondel was not the most highly reputed among the académiciens of his day, his were the writings that most generally circulated among the general public, the Cours de Mathématiques, the Art de jetter les Bombes, the Nouvelle manière de fortifier les places and, above all his Cours d'Architecture. He was well educated in languages as a youth, and participated for a time in the Thirty Years' War In 1640 the Cardinal de Richelieu entrusted him with diplomatic missions in Portugal, Spain and Italy, which gave him an opportunity to study at first hand the fortification systems of those nations. Richelieu named him sub-lieutenant of one of his galleys, La Cardinale, aboard which he participated in the attack on the port of Tarragona and served for a time as governor at Palamos. In 1647 Blondel commanded the artillery of the naval expedition against the Spanish at Naples. With the peace he finished his military career with the brevet of maréchal des camps.

— Freebase

François Certain Canrobert

François Certain Canrobert

François Certain de Canrobert, usually known as François Certain-Canrobert and later simply as Maréchal Canrobert, was a marshal of France.

— Freebase

François Fénelon

François Fénelon

François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, more commonly known as François Fénelon, was a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer. He today is remembered mostly as the author of The Adventures of Telemachus, first published in 1699.

— Freebase

Kering

Kering

Kering is a French multinational holding company which develops a worldwide brand portfolio distributed in 120 countries. The company was founded in 1963 by the businessman François Pinault and is now run by his son François-Henri Pinault. It is quoted on Euronext Paris and is a constituent of the CAC 40 index. On 22 March 2013, Pinault announced that the group would rename itself as Kering, and was approved by shareholders on 18 June 2013.

— Freebase

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand

Charles-François Galand was a French gunsmith who worked in Liege and Paris, France. He manufactured many revolvers for civilian and military use, including the Galand Revolver, the Tue Tue, and the tiny Le Novo. The Velo-dog, developed from the Tue Tue and the Novo, was designed by Charles-François' son René in 1904. The original Galand revolver was a double-action, open frame revolver patented in 1868. Military versions were produced in 9 mm while civilian versions were made in 12 mm. The gun is easily recognizable due to its long extraction lever, which stretches under the gun to form the trigger guard. Pulling the lever forward separates the barrel and cylinder from the rest of the gun. At the same time the extractor plate is blocked which catches any cartridges in the cylinder, thereby extracting them. The first model was manufactured both in Liege and in Birmingham, England by the British arms firm Braendlin and Sommerville, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Galand-Sommerville. Sommerville shared the patent for the case extracting system with Galand. The Galand-Perrin is an identical model which uses the Perrin cartridge.

— Freebase

Hot air balloon

Hot air balloon

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. It is part of a class of aircraft known as balloon aircraft. On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first untethered manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes in a hot air balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more specifically, thermal airships. A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket, which carries passengers and a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the air surrounding.

— Freebase

Blanchet

Blanchet

The Blanchet family were French harpsichord-makers from the late-17th century to the mid-19th century, by which time they had become piano makers. Nicolas Blanchet I was born in Reims and by 1686 was living in Paris, where he spent the rest of his life. He became a master instrument-maker in 1689. There was an earlier instrument maker of the same name who worked in Paris in the early 17th century, but it is not known whether the two were related. François-Étienne Blanchet I was the second son of Nicholas Blanchet I and followed him in his craft, becoming a full partner in 1722. He lived his life in Paris, as did all his descendants. He married Elisabeth Gobin in 1727 and they had two children. François Couperin owned a large harpsichord by Blanchet; instruments made by the Blanchet family were of a high quality, much in demand and sold for high prices. Like the Goermans family, the Blanchet family made many ravalements of 17th-century Flemish instruments, especially those of the Ruckers family. Ruckers harpsichords were highly prized in France at that time to such an extent that in some 'Ruckers' instruments only the soundboard was original, or nothing at all.

— Freebase

Mentalization

Mentalization

Mentalization is a psychological concept that describes the ability to understand the mental state of oneself and others which underlies overt behaviour. Mentalization can be seen as a form of imaginative mental activity, which allows us to perceive and interpret human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states. While the Theory of Mind has been discussed in philosophy at least since Descartes, the concept of mentalization emerged in psychoanalytic literature in the late 1960s, and became empirically tested in 1983 when Heinz Wimmer and Josef Perner ran the first experiment to investigate when children can understand false belief, inspired by Daniel Dennett's interpretation of a Punch and Judy scene. The field diversified in the early 1990s when Simon Baron-Cohen and Uta Frith, building on the Wimmer and Perner study, and others merged it with research on the psychological and biological mechanisms underlying autism and schizophrenia. Concomitantly, Peter Fonagy and colleagues applied it to developmental psychopathology in the context of attachment relationships gone awry. More recently, several child mental health researchers such as Arietta Slade, John Grienenberger, Alicia Lieberman, Daniel Schechter, and Susan Coates have applied mentalization both to research on parenting and to clinical interventions with parents, infants, and young children.

— Freebase

Enfantin, Barthélemy Prosper

Enfantin, Barthélemy Prosper

a Socialist and journalist, born in Paris, adopted the views of Saint-Simon (q. v.); held subversive views on the marriage laws, which involved him in some trouble; wrote a useful and sensible book on Algerian colonisation, and several works, mainly interpretative of the theories of Saint-Simon (1796-1864).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Louis XVII.

Louis XVII.

second son of the preceding, shut up in the Temple, was, after the execution of his mother, proclaimed king by the Emigrants, and handed over in his prison to the care of one Simon, a shoemaker, in service about the prison, to bring him up in the principles of Sansculottism; Simon taught him to drink, dance, and sing the carmagnole; he died in prison "amid squalor and darkness," his shirt not changed for six months (1785-1796).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Decal

Decal

A decal or transfer is a plastic, cloth, paper or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a pattern or image that can be moved to another surface upon contact, usually with the aid of heat or water. The word is short for decalcomania, which is the English version of the French word décalcomanie. The technique was invented by Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process he called "decalquer"; it became widespread during the decal craze of the late 19th century.

— Freebase

Decalcomania

Decalcomania

Decalcomania, from the French décalcomanie, is a decorative technique by which engravings and prints may be transferred to pottery or other materials. It was invented in England about 1750 and imported into the United States at least as early as 1865. Its invention has been attributed to Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process, which he called "decalquer". The first known use of the French term décalcomanie, in Mary Elizabeth Braddon's Eleanor's Victory, was followed by the English decalcomania in an 1865 trade show catalog; it was popularized during the ceramic transfer craze of the mid-1870s. Today the shortened version is "Decal". The surrealist Oscar Domínguez took up the technique in 1936, using gouache spread thinly on a sheet of paper or other surface, which is then pressed onto another surface such as a canvas. Dominguez used black gouache, though colours later made their appearance. German artist Max Ernst also practiced decalcomania, as did Hans Bellmer and Remedios Varo.

— Freebase

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.

— Freebase

Saint Peter

Saint Peter

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, was an early Christian leader, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ according to the New Testament and Christian tradition, and the very first Bishop. Peter is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and is venerated as a Saint and Pope by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy. The son of John or of Jonah or Jona, he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the Catholic Church's first pope. He is credited with establishing the church in Antioch and presiding for seven years as the leader of that city's Christian community. Either in person or via epistle, his words reached Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia where they were received by scattered communities of believers: Jews, Hebrew Christians and Gentiles. Peter then went to Rome where in the second year of Emperor Claudius Germanicus, it is claimed, he overthrew the sorcerer Simon Magus, was later freed by his Guardian Angel from prison, and held the Cathedral Chair for 25 years.

— Freebase

RMS

RMS

RMS is a jazz fusion band formed in 1982. It consists of three well known and acclaimed British session musicians. Guitarist, Ray Russell, bass player, Mo Foster and drummer Simon Phillips. As of mid-2007 RMS have started touring the UK. Due to his commitments with Toto, Simon Phillips has been replaced with Gary Husband. They have performed a few small shows in the south of England with further shows planned throughout the UK in 2008.

— Freebase

Cushion

Cushion

A cushion is a soft bag of some ornamental material, stuffed with wool, hair, feathers, polyester staple fiber, non-woven material, or even paper torn into fragments. It may be used for sitting or kneeling upon, or to soften the hardness or angularity of a chair or couch. A cushion is also referred to as a bolster, hassock, headrest and a sham. Cushions and rugs can be used temporarily outside to soften a hard ground. They can be placed on sunloungers and used to prevent annoyances from moist grass and biting insects. Some dialects of English use this word to refer to throw pillows as well. The cushion is a very ancient article of furniture; the inventories of the contents of palaces and great houses in the early Middle Ages constantly made mention of them. Cushions were then often of great size, covered with leather, and firm enough to serve as a seat, but the steady tendency of all furniture has been to grow smaller with time. Cushions were, indeed, used as seats at all events in France and Spain at a very much later period, and in Saint-Simon's time we find that in the Spanish court they were still regarded as a peculiarly honourable substitute for a chair. In France, the right to kneel upon a cushion in church behind the king was jealously guarded and strictly regulated, as we learn again from Saint-Simon. This type of cushion was called a carreau, or square. When seats were rude and hard, cushions may have been a necessity; they are now one of the minor luxuries of life.

— Freebase

Gatecrasher

Gatecrasher

Gatecrasher is an international clubbing brand made famous by the "Gatecrasher" dance music events held at the "Gatecrasher One" nightclub in Sheffield, England, during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The event received numerous awards, including "Club Of The Year" at the Ericsson Muzik Magazine Dance Awards in 1998. The promoters for the brand are Simon Raine, Simon Oates and, until 2004, Scott Bond. As of 2011, there are three permanent Gatecrasher venues located in the United Kingdom cities of Birmingham, Watford and Nottingham.

— Freebase

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet was a French psychologist who invented the first usable intelligence test, known at the time as the Binet test and today referred to as the IQ test. His principal goal was to identify students who needed special help in coping with the school curriculum. Along with his collaborator Théodore Simon, Binet published revisions of his intelligence scale in 1908 and 1911, the last appearing just before his death. A further refinement of the Binet-Simon scale was published in 1916 by Lewis M. Terman, from Stanford University, who incorporated William Stern's proposal that an individual's intelligence level be measured as an. Terman's test, which he named the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, formed the basis for one of the modern intelligence tests still commonly used today. They are all colloquially known as IQ tests.

— Freebase

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman". His ideas, expressed largely through a succession of journals such as l'Industrie, La politique and L'Organisateur centered on a perception that growth in industrialization and scientific discovery would have profound changes on society. He believed, nonetheless, that society would restructure itself by abandoning traditional ideas of temporal and spiritual power, an evolution that would lead, inevitably, to a productive society based on, and benefiting from, a " ... union of men engaged in useful work", the basis of "true equality". These ideas influenced Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and many other thinkers and social theorists.

— Freebase

Simon

Simon

Simon is an electronic game of memory skill invented by Ralph H. Baer and Howard J. Morrison, with software programming by Lenny Cope, and manufactured and distributed by Milton Bradley. Simon was launched in 1978 at Studio 54 in New York City and was an immediate success, becoming a pop culture symbol of the 1970s and 1980s.

— Freebase

Televise

Televise

Televise were an electronic shoegazing band formed by former Slowdive and Lowgold drummer Simon Scott in 2004. They released their debut single "Smile" in December 2004 followed by an EP, the 3-track Outside Out, in April 2005 to a warm reception from music press. In July 2005, the band recorded the soundtrack and an original song for the Australian film, How My Next Door Neighbour Discovered Life On Mars, which received several award nominations. Debut album "Songs to sing in A&E" was released soon after which began to see them develop an experimental edge that combines melody, ambience and textures of guitar and electronic noise. 1 May 2007 "Strings and Wires" mini-LP was released on Drifting Falling Records which saw Scott relocate Televise out of London to Cambridgeshire and begin to operate without the musicians that recorded with him on the debut album. This recording threw Scott into electronic and ambient textured sounds that the British music compared to Fennesz, Tim Hecker and other modern electronic pioneers. October 2007 saw a remix vinyl only 7" released on AC30 featuring Ulrich Schnauss, who has often said that Scott's old band slowdive were a major influence on his work, and also Isan who covered two songs on the Morr Music album "Blue Skied and Clear" which is a Slowdive covers album. Simon is also 50% of Morr Music band Seavault with Antony Ryan from Isan who released the "Mercy Seat/ I could be happy" 7" single in November 2007.

— Freebase

Free Press

Free Press

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon and Schuster. It was one of the best-known imprints specializing in serious nonfiction. In 2012, it ceased to exist as a distinct imprint entity and merged into Simon & Schuster, the company's flagship imprint, however some books would still be published using the Free Press imprimatur.

— Freebase

Santorin

Santorin

Santorin is a German Drum 'n' Bass record label founded in 1999, and is dedicated to the more 'soulful' side of the genre, as described by label founder Simon Jarosch. Popular artist include: Simon V, Young Ax.

— Freebase

Feeder

Feeder

Feeder are a British alternative rock band based in Newport, Wales. The band was formed in 1992 under the name of "Reel" by the remaining members Grant Nicholas, Jon Lee and Simon Blight of electroacoustic group Raindancer, after the departure of their guitarist John Canham, although Simon Blight departed in 1992 to make way for Taka Hirose, after the band had used many session bassists from 1992-1995. Feeder's lineup after signing with The Echo Label in 1994 consisted of Grant Nicholas and Jon Lee, while still using session bassists and were heard on early demos. In January 2002, Jon Lee took his own life in his Miami home before former Skunk Anansie drummer Mark Richardson, began to record and play with the band before being made an official member. In May 2009 he parted company with Feeder to return to a reformed Skunk Anansie. Since Mark's departure, Feeder have employed drummer Karl Brazil, although for sessions and touring commitments for Renegades they employed Australian Damon Wilson and former Mexicolas drummer Tim Trotter. Feeder has released eight studio albums, three compilations, two EP's and 34 singles. Feeder's music has been inspired by a wide variety of artists and styles, including The Police, Nirvana and Smashing Pumpkins. The band's sound was radically changed from that of Rain Dancer on their debut release the Two Colours EP, but has since introduced more acoustic aspects to their music, including elements of pianos and string orchestras.

— Freebase

Bookends

Bookends

Bookends is the fourth studio album by Simon & Garfunkel, released on April 3, 1968 by Columbia Records. It was produced by Paul Simon, Roy Halee and Art Garfunkel. The songs of the first side of the album follow a unified concept, exploring a life journey from childhood to old age, while the second side contained unused songs intended for The Graduate soundtrack. Bookends was a #1 hit on Billboard's Pop Albums chart, as well as in the UK. Four singles charted: "A Hazy Shade of Winter", "At the Zoo", "Fakin' It" and "Mrs Robinson," which peaked at #13, #16 and #23 and #1, respectively. In 2003, the TV network VH1 named Bookends the 93rd greatest album of all time. In 2003, the album was ranked number 233 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

— Freebase

Simony

Simony

Simony is the act of paying for sacraments and consequently for holy offices or for positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9-24. Simon Magus was said to have offered two disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, payment so that anyone on whom he would place his hands would receive the power of the Holy Spirit. This is the origin of the term simony; but it also extends to other forms of trafficking for money in "spiritual things". Simony was also one of the important issues during the Investiture Controversy.

— Freebase

Anticipation

Anticipation

Anticipation is singer-songwriter Carly Simon's second studio album, released in 1971. It is best known for its title track, "Anticipation", which was a top-twenty chart hit in the U.S.; it was later used as the soundtrack for a television commercial for Heinz ketchup in the late 1970s. The song relates Simon's state of mind as she waits to go on a date with Cat Stevens.

— Freebase

Végétal

Végétal

Végétal is the second studio album by singer-songwriter Émilie Simon. Overall, it is her third album, the soundtrack to the French version of March of the Penguins included. The album has a floral theme running through it. All the lyrics relate to plants and there are also sounds taken from actual plants. The CD can be used in Émilie Simon's official website to access exclusive content such as bonus tracks, remixes, and a music video for "Fleur De Saison". A special edition of the album was released in December 2006, featuring bonus tracks, remixes of "Fleur De Saison" and Opium, an exclusive short film on the making of the album and the video clip for "Fleur De Saison" on a bonus CD. So far, 5 editions of Végétal exists, each one different from each other through the inclusion of extras and bonuses.

— Freebase

Moonchild

Moonchild

Moonchild is a novel written by the British occultist Aleister Crowley in 1917. Its plot involves a magical war between a group of white magicians, led by Simon Iff, and a group of black magicians over an unborn child. It was first published by Mandrake Press in 1929 and its recent edition is published by Weiser. In this work, numerous acquaintances of Crowley appear as thinly disguised fictional characters. Crowley portrays MacGregor Mathers as the primary villain, including him as a character named SRMD, using the abbreviation of Mathers' magical name. Arthur Edward Waite appears as a villain named Arthwaite, and the unseen head of the Inner Circle of which SRMD was a member, "A.B." is theosophist Annie Besant. Among Crowley's friends and allies Allen Bennett appears as Mahatera Phang, Isadora Duncan appears as Lavinia King, and Mary D'Este as Lisa la Giuffria. Cyril Grey is Crowley himself, while Simon Iff is either an idealized version of an older and wiser Crowley or his friend Allen Bennett.

— Freebase

Private Parts

Private Parts

Private Parts is the first book written by American radio personality Howard Stern. Released on October 7, 1993 by Simon & Schuster, it is the fastest-selling book in the company's history. It was later adapted into a film in 1997 starring Stern and his radio show staff as themselves. The early chapters are autobiographical, covering Stern's upbringing and early career, while later chapters are more in the style of a memoir, covering recurring themes from his radio show such as sex, flatulence, and celebrities. Stern's choices for the title were I, Moron, Mein Kampf and Penis but were refused by the publisher, although Mein Kampf would be used as the title of the book's fifth chapter regarding the beginning of his career. They then compromised with the title Private Parts, suggested by Stern's co-host Robin Quivers, which Stern liked as a sexual pun referring to the personal "private parts" of his life with a popular euphemism for genitalia. The book received mixed reviews from critics, often drawing comparisons to Lenny Bruce's How to Talk Dirty and Influence People. Like Stern's radio show, it received a great deal of opposition due to its content. It is number 87 on the American Library Association's list of the "100 Most Frequently challenged books Between 1990 and 2000." A paperback edition was released in September 1994, where Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, printed a further 2.8 million copies. In late 1995, Stern published a second book called Miss America.

— Freebase

Ordinary World

Ordinary World

"Ordinary World" is the first single from Duran Duran's self-titled 1993 album, better known as The Wedding Album. The single peaked at No. 1 on the U.S. Hot 100 Airplay chart, U.S. Top 40 Mainstream and the Canadian singles chart. It also peaked at No. 3 in the American charts and No. 6 in the British charts. The song won an Ivor Novello Award in May 1994. Simon LeBon, the vocalist, later sang this song with Luciano Pavarotti, to help children affected by war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In a retrospective review of "Ordinary World", Allmusic journalist Donald A. Guarisco praised the song for having what he described as "a warm ballad feel, matching elegant verses full of entrancing repeating-note hooks with a rousing chorus built on soaring runs of ascending notes." Guarisco described Simon LeBon's vocal as being "rich in emotion but tastefully restrained".

— Freebase

Hasmonean dynasty

Hasmonean dynasty

The Hasmonean dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity. Between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE, the dynasty ruled semi-autonomously from the Seleucids in the region of Judea. From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded into the neighbouring regions of Galilee, Iturea, Perea, Idumea and Samaria, and took the title "basileus". Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. In 63 BCE, the kingdom was conquered by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. The Kingdom had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian Dynasty in 37 BCE. Even then, Herod the Great tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess, Mariamne, and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace. The dynasty was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after his brother Judas the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army during the Maccabean Revolt. According to historical sources, including 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees and the first book of The Wars of the Jews by Jewish historian Josephus, after Antiochus IV's successful invasion of Ptolemaic Egypt was turned back by the intervention of the Roman Republic, Antiochus instead moved to assert strict control over Israel, sacking Jerusalem and its Temple, suppressing Jewish religious and cultural observances, and imposing Hellenistic practices. The ensuing revolt by the Jews began a twenty-five-year period of Jewish independence potentiated by the steady collapse of the Seleucid Empire under attacks from the rising powers of the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire. However, the same power vacuum that enabled the Jewish state to be recognized by the Roman Senate c. 139 BCE was later exploited by the Romans themselves. Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, Simon's great-grandsons, became pawns in a proxy war between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. The deaths of Pompey, Caesar, and the related Roman civil wars temporarily relaxed Rome's grip on Israel, allowing a very brief Hasmonean resurgence backed by the Parthian Empire. This short independence was rapidly crushed by the Romans under Mark Antony and Octavian. The installation of Herod the Great as king in 37 BCE made Israel a Roman client state and marked the end of the Hasmonean dynasty. In AD 6, Rome joined Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea into the Roman province of Iudaea. In AD 44, Rome installed the rule of a Roman procurator side by side with the rule of the Herodian kings.

— Freebase

Pen Pusher

Pen Pusher

Pen Pusher was a London-based literary magazine, published three times a year, that featured original short fiction, poetry, reviews, columns, literary facts and curiosities. Founded in January 2006 by Anna Goodall, Felicity Cloake and Hape Mueller, the first issue was published in April 2006. The magazine can currently be obtained at selected retailers in London and via the magazine's website. Pen Pusher ceased publication in February 2011 citing "our continuing lack of a grant or funding of any kind – and an ill-advised lack of interest in the digital world" as the reason. The magazine's office was in the Mildmay area of London. The Kaiser Chiefs' front man, Ricky Wilson, designed the magazine's emblem and was rewarded for his pains with the gift of an antique whistle as Pen Pusher's usual gift of thanks—a wheel of cheese—was unsuitable due to his dairy aversion. Pen Pusher provided a platform for new writing talent and welcomes submissions of reviews, features, short fiction and poetry. As well as championing new writing, the magazine featured more well-known literary names. Contributors to the magazine include Simon Callow, Hugo Williams, Simon Munnery, Josie Long and John Hegley.

— Freebase

Neil Simon

Neil Simon

Neil Simon is an American playwright and screenwriter. He has written over thirty plays and nearly the same number of movie screenplays, most adapted from his plays. He has received more Oscar and Tony nominations than any other writer. He grew up in New York during the Great Depression, with his parents' financial hardships affecting their marriage, and giving him a mostly unhappy and unstable childhood. He often took refuge in movie theaters where he enjoyed watching the early comedians like Charlie Chaplin, which inspired him to become a comedy writer. After a few years in the Army Air Force Reserve after graduating high school, he began writing comedy scripts for radio and some popular early television shows. Among them were The Phil Silvers Show and Sid Caesar's Your Show of Shows in 1950, where he worked alongside other young writers including Carl Reiner, Mel Brooks and Selma Diamond. He began writing his own plays beginning with Come Blow Your Horn, which took him three years to complete and ran for 678 performances on Broadway. It was followed by two more successful plays, Barefoot in the Park and The Odd Couple, for which he won a Tony Award, making him a national celebrity and “the hottest new playwright on Broadway.” His style ranged from romantic comedy to farce to more serious dramatic comedy. Overall, he has garnered seventeen Tony nominations and won three. During one season, he had four successful plays showing on Broadway at the same time, and in 1983 became the only living playwright to have a New York theatre, the Neil Simon Theatre, named in his honor. During the time between the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, he wrote both original screenplays and stage plays, with some films actually based on his plays.

— Freebase

Sabbat

Sabbat

Sabbat are a thrash metal band from Nottingham, England, currently consisting of Martin Walkyier, Andy Sneap, Simon Jones, Gizz Butt and Simon Negus. Over the years Sabbat have released three studio albums, four demos, two split singles/compilation albums, two singles and a live VHS. In 1988, the band released their debut album History of a Time to Come, which earned them further recognition. Their next album, Dreamweaver was also critically acclaimed. Shortly after the release of Mourning Has Broken, tensions with the band began to surface, most of them revolved around money. This resulted in Sabbat breaking up. After an attempted reunion in 2001, which was blocked by Sneap, the original Sabbat lineup reunited in 2006, and in December of that year, performed together for the first time in sixteen years at four different venues in England. The band have continued to perform at many live venues and festivals around the world since then, but have not released any new material.

— Freebase

Simón Bolívar

Simón Bolívar

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte y Blanco, commonly known as Simón Bolívar, was a Venezuelan military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas. Following the triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Hispanic-America, a republic, now known as Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Bolívar remains regarded in Hispanic-America as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator. During his lifetime, he led Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia to independence, and helped lay the foundations for democratic ideology in much of Latin America.

— Freebase

Banjo clock

Banjo clock

The banjo clock, or banjo timepiece, is an American wall clock with a banjo-shaped case. It was invented by Simon Willard, originally of Grafton, Massachusetts, later of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and patented in 1802. The banjo clock normally lacks a striking mechanism and indicates time only by its hands and dial, for which reason some horologists may insist upon calling it a timepiece rather than a true clock. In popular usage though, no such distinction is made. The banjo style of wooden case usually features a round opening for a painted dial, a long-waisted throat, and a rectangular pendulum box with hinged door. Both the throat and door are ornamented with reverse-painted glass panels, and the case is usually flanked by curved and pierced brass frets. A finial mounted atop the case usually takes the form of a cast-brass eagle or a turned, giltwood acorn. Only 4,000 authentic Simon Willard banjo clocks were made. The style was widely copied by other members of the Willard family of clockmakers and many others clockmakers, both craftsmen and industrial manufacturers. Variants of the banjo-style clock made by others include examples with square or diamond-shaped dials, and the extremely opulent, heavily gilt "girandole" style.

— Freebase

At the Zoo

At the Zoo

"At the Zoo" was one of Simon's and Garfunkel's single releases in 1967. The song is one of Paul Simon's many tributes to his hometown of New York City. The narrative tells the story of a trip to the Central Park Zoo; when the singer reaches the zoo, he anthropomorphizes the animals in various amusing ways, with a resulting cynical eye towards human life. Such statements as "elephants are kindly, but they're dumb," "antelopes are missionaries" and "pigeons plot in secrecy" reflect more about man than they do about the menagerie. The song was licensed in advertisements for the Bronx Zoo and the San Francisco Zoo in the late 1970s.

— Freebase

Jeshurun

Jeshurun

Jeshurun, in the Hebrew Bible, is a poetic name for Israel. Derived from root word meaning upright, just, straight. Jeshurun appears four times in the Hebrew Bible — three times in Deuteronomy and once in Isaiah. It can mean the people of Israel (Deut. 32:15; 33:26), the Land of Israel (Deut. 33:5;), or the Patriarch Jacob (whom an Angel renamed Israel in Genesis 32:29) (Isa. 44:2). In the Midrash, Rabbi Berekiah in the name of Rabbi Simon interpreted Jeshurun to mean the Patriarch Israel. (Genesis Rabbah 77:1.) The word Jeshurun may have a relationship to the same root as the Hebrew word “upright,” “yesharim.” Numbers appears to use the word “upright,” “yesharim,” as a play on the word “Jeshurun” to refer to the people of Israel. (Num. 23:10.) Similarly, Rabbi Berekiah in the name of Rabbi Judah b. Rabbi Simon interpreted Jeshurun to mean “the noblest and best among you.” (Genesis Rabbah 77:1.) Rabbi Aha bar Jacob told that the breastplate of the High Priest (or Kohen Gadol) contained the words “The tribes of Jeshurun,” thus supplying the otherwise missing Hebrew letter tet in the word “tribes.” (Babylonian Talmud Yoma 73b; see also Exodus Rabbah 38:9.) In the Zohar, Rabbi Hiya explains that “Jeshurun suggests the word shur [row, side] and indicates that he [Jacob] has his rank on this side and on the other." (Zohar 1:177b.)

— Freebase

Information Processing Language

Information Processing Language

Information Processing Language is a programming language developed by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon at RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Institute of Technology around 1956. Newell had the role of language specifier-application programmer, Shaw was the system programmer, and Simon took the role of application programmer-user. The language includes features intended to support programs that could perform general problem solving, including lists, associations, schemas, dynamic memory allocation, data types, recursion, associative retrieval, functions as arguments, generators, and cooperative multitasking. IPL pioneered the concept of list processing, albeit in an assembly-language style.

— Freebase

Herbert Simon

Herbert Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon, informally known as the Hebrew Hercules, was an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, psychologist, and professor—most notably at Carnegie Mellon University—whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science, computer science, public administration, economics, management, philosophy of science, sociology, and political science. With almost a thousand very highly cited publications, he is one of the most influential social scientists of the 20th century. Simon was among the founding fathers of several of today's important scientific domains, including artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, attention economics, organization theory, complex systems, and computer simulation of scientific discovery. He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing, and was the first to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions. He also received many top-level honors later in life. These include: becoming a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959; election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1967; the ACM's Turing Award for making "basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing"; the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"; the National Medal of Science; and the APA's Award for Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology.

— Freebase

Run the Risk

Run the Risk

Run the Risk was a BBC1 children's show, which aired from the latter half of 1992 until the beginning of 1998. It was aired on Saturday mornings during Going Live, and later Live & Kicking, and was later repeated as its own individual show. It was presented by Peter Simon for the entire run alongside Shane Richie, John Eccleston and Bobby Davro, for part of the run. The games the teams had to do involved gunge and were similar to those performed on It's a Knockout. Run the Risk borrowed much from its predecessor, Double Dare, which was also hosted by Peter Simon. The sections between the games were written by Paul Duddridge..

— Freebase

ST Dupont

ST Dupont

ST Dupont Paris is a brand name and manufacturer of lighters, collectible pens, handbags, perfumes, cigarette, and recently other gadgets using the trademark diamond-head pattern. The company has been producing luxury items since 1872 when founded by Simon Tissot Dupont. The founder of the brand, Simon Tissot-Dupont was born in Savoy in 1847. S.T. Dupont owes its initials to him.

— Freebase

Nobody Does It Better

Nobody Does It Better

"Nobody Does It Better" is a power ballad composed by Marvin Hamlisch with lyrics by Carole Bayer Sager. It was recorded by Carly Simon as the theme song for the 1977 James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. It was the first Bond theme song to be titled differently from the name of the film since Dr. No, although the phrase "the spy who loved me" is included in the lyric. The song was released as a single from the film's soundtrack album. "Nobody Does It Better" became a major hit, spending three weeks at number two on the US Billboard Hot 100 and number one on the Easy Listening chart. It also spent four weeks at number two on the Cash Box chart, kept from the top by Debby Boone's "You Light Up My Life", and it also reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart. The song was certified Gold by the RIAA, signifying sales of 1 million copies in the US. "Nobody Does It Better" was Carly Simon's longest-charting hit. Her earlier hit, "You're So Vain" spent three weeks at number one, however, its chart run was two months shorter than that of "Nobody Does It Better."

— Freebase

Steadman

Steadman

Steadman is a British indie rock band, formed in Hastings in 1998. The band's original name was The Dharmas, but they changed the name after they canceled their contract with the label Arista, and signed with lead singer Simon Steadman's own label, Freeloader Recordings. Steadman's first album, Loser Friendly, was released in the United Kingdom in 2000. Steadman released their second album, Revive, in 2003, which was produced by Alain Johannes and Natasha Shneider. The last iteration of the lineup employed lead singer Simon Steadman, guitarist James Board, bass guitarist David Walton, drummer Russel Field, and keyboardist Chris Murphy. Steadman's sound is clearly influenced by the Britpop-bands Oasis and Radiohead. The band has also been compared to Richard Ashcroft's band The Verve. Though Steadman has not seen much success, the band has got many good reviews, most notably from Sir Paul McCartney, who endorsed the band in a handwritten note handed to them after having showed up at one of their gigs in the United Kingdom. Mid 2005 Steadman said "Steal this Music!!" and released their music as free downloads on their website under a Creative Commons licence.

— Freebase

Student Grant

Student Grant

Student Grant is a cartoon strip created by Simon Thorp for the British comic Viz. He first appeared in 1992 and became widely popular, featuring regularly for the rest of the decade. The character, created by Simon Thorp, is a University student named Grant Wankshaft, attending the fictional Spunkbridge University, which is not actually a university, in fact a polytechnic. Grant is pretentious, lazy, smug and conceited, and peppers his speech with the word "actually". He does little or no work for his degree. Grant, vainly, thinks of himself as a world-wise liberal intellectual, but is frequently shown as bigoted, not especially bright, and reliant on his parents for money, with little idea about the world outside of campus. He spends money freely but begrudges paying full price for anything because, as he constantly notes "students are really feeling the pinch". He has a number of friends just like him, eager to express their individuality by wearing the same clothes, fashions, invariably ridiculous, like huge hats, bright yellow dungarees and T-shirts with slogans on them like Thunderbirds Are Go! and, in the late 1990s especially, Teletubbies Say 'Eh Oh'!.

— Freebase

Brethren of the Common Life

Brethren of the Common Life

a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God," founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Dow

Dow

or Douw, Gerard, a distinguished Dutch genre-painter, born at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his works, which are very numerous, are the fruit of a devoted study of nature, and are remarkable for their delicacy and perfection of finish; examples of his works are found in all the great galleries of Europe (1613-1675).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

William the Silent

William the Silent

Prince of Orange, a cadet of the noble house of Nassau, the first Stadtholder of the Netherlands, a Protestant by birth; he was brought up a Catholic, but being at heart more a patriot than a Catholic, he took up arms in the cause of his country's freedom, and did not rest till he had virtually freed it from the Spanish yoke, which was then the dominant Catholic power; his enemies procured his assassination in the end, and he was murdered by Belthazar Gerard, at Delft; he was brought up at the court of Charles V., where "his circumspect demeanour procured him the surname of Silent, but under the cold exterior he concealed a busy, far-sighted intellect, and a generous, upright, daring heart" (1533-1584).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Apache Subversion

Apache Subversion

Apache Subversion is a software versioning and revision control system distributed under an open source license. Developers use Subversion to maintain current and historical versions of files such as source code, web pages, and documentation. Its goal is to be a mostly compatible successor to the widely used Concurrent Versions System. The open source community has used Subversion widely: for example in projects such as Apache Software Foundation, Free Pascal, FreeBSD, GCC, Mono and SourceForge. Google Code also provides Subversion hosting for their open source projects. CodePlex offers access to Subversion as well as to other types of clients. The corporate world has also started to adopt Subversion. A 2007 report by Forrester Research recognized Subversion as the sole leader in the Standalone Software Configuration Management category and as a strong performer in the Software Configuration and Change Management category. Subversion was created by CollabNet Inc. in 2000, and is now a top-level Apache project being built and used by a global community of contributors.

— Freebase

Joule

Joule

The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy expended in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one meter, or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule. In terms firstly of base SI units and then in terms of other SI units: where N is the newton, m is the meter, kg is the kilogram, s is the second, Pa is the pascal, and W is the watt. One joule can also be defined as: ⁕The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt, or one '"coulomb volt". This relationship can be used to define the volt. ⁕The work required to produce one watt of power for one second, or one "watt second". This relationship can be used to define the watt.

— Freebase

WEB

WEB

WEB is a computer programming system created by Donald E. Knuth as the first implementation of what he called "literate programming": the idea that one could create software as works of literature, by embedding source code inside descriptive text, rather than the reverse, in an order that is convenient for exposition to human readers, rather than in the order demanded by the compiler. WEB consists of two secondary programs: TANGLE, which produces compilable Pascal code from the source texts, and WEAVE, which produces nicely-formatted, printable documentation using TeX. CWEB is a version of WEB for the C programming language, while noweb is a separate literate programming tool, which is inspired by WEB and which is language agnostic. The most significant programs written in WEB are TeX and Metafont. Modern TeX distributions use another program Web2C to convert WEB source to C.

— Freebase

Ada

Ada

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in language support for explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada is an international standard; the current version is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012. Ada was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull under contract to the United States Department of Defense from 1977 to 1983 to supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the DoD. Ada was named after Ada Lovelace, who is credited as being the first computer programmer.

— Freebase

Poise

Poise

The poise is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. The analogous unit in the International System of Units is the pascal second: The poise is often used with the metric prefix centi-. A centipoise is one one-hundredth of a poise, and one millipascal-second in SI units. Centipoise is properly abbreviated cP, but the alternative abbreviations cps, cp, and cPs are also commonly seen. Water has a viscosity of 0.00899 Poise at 25 °C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

— Freebase

Ambient pressure

Ambient pressure

The ambient pressure on an object is the pressure of the surrounding medium, such as a gas or liquid, which comes into contact with the object. In underwater diving, ambient pressure diving is diving exposed to the water depth pressure, rather than in a pressure-excluding hard suit or submarine. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal, which is a very small unit relative to atmospheric pressure on Earth, so kilopascals are more commonly used in this context. The ambient atmospheric pressure at sea level is not constant: it varies with the weather, but averages around 100 kPa. In fields such as meteorology and scuba diving, it is common to see ambient pressure expressed in bar or millibar. One bar is 100kPa or approximately ambient pressure at sea level. Ambient pressure may in other circumstances be measured in pounds per square inch or in atmospheres. One atmosphere is also approximately the ambient pressure at sea level and is equal to 14.7 psi or 1.01325 bar, which is close enough for bar and atm to be used interchangeably in many applications. In scuba diving, the ambient pressure on the diver increases linearly with depth. Since water is much denser than air, a diver will experience much greater changes in ambient pressure than can be experienced above water. Each 10 metres of depth adds another bar to the ambient pressure.

— Freebase

Hot Pants

Hot Pants

Hot Pants is one of the numerous groups involving the French singer-songwriter of Spanish descent Manu Chao and his cousin, drummer Santi. As with all of Chao's music, the group had many influences, most notably The Clash, which contributed to their rockabilly sound. The group sang in English and Spanish. The group released a demo tape in 1984 entitled "Mala Vida," and in 1985 they released a 45 with the single "So many nites". They released a full length album entitled Loco Mosquito in 1986, which was re-released in 2000. The members of the group were: ⁕Manu Chao: guitar/vocals ⁕Pascal Borgne: guitar ⁕Jean-Marc: bass guitar ⁕Santi: drums

— Freebase

ORBit

ORBit

ORBit is a CORBA 2.4 compliant Object Request Broker. It features mature C, C++ and Python bindings, and less developed bindings for Perl, Lisp, Pascal, Ruby, and Tcl. Most of the code is distributed under the LGPL license, although the IDL compiler and utilities use the GPL. ORBit was originally written to serve as middleware for the GNOME project, but has seen use outside of the project.

— Freebase

Bulk modulus

Bulk modulus

The bulk modulus of a substance measures the substance's resistance to uniform compression. It is defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal pressure increase to the resulting relative decrease of the volume. Its base unit is the pascal.

— Freebase

Coefficient

Coefficient

In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of an expression; it is usually a number, but in any case does not involve any variables of the expression. For instance in the first two terms respectively have the coefficients 7 and −3. The third term 1.5 is a constant. The final term does not have any explicitly written coefficient, but is considered to have coefficient 1, since multiplying by that factor would not change the term. Often coefficients are numbers as in this example, although they could be parameters of the problem, as a, b, and c in when it is understood that these are not considered as variables. Thus a polynomial in one variable x can be written as for some integer, where are coefficients; to allow this kind of expression in all cases one must allow introducing terms with 0 as coefficient. For the largest with, is called the leading coefficient of the polynomial. So for example the leading coefficient of the polynomial is 4. Specific coefficients arise in mathematical identities, such as the binomial theorem which involves binomial coefficients; these particular coefficients are tabulated in Pascal's triangle.

— Freebase

Interpreter

Interpreter

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming language. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution: ⁕execute the source code directly ⁕translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and immediately execute this ⁕explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system Early versions of the Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal is an example of the third type. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, which is then linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler. Some systems, such as Smalltalk, contemporary versions of BASIC, Java and others may also combine two and three. While interpretation and compilation are the two main means by which programming languages are implemented, they are not mutually exclusive, as most interpreting systems also perform some translation work, just like compilers. The terms "interpreted language" or "compiled language" signify that the canonical implementation of that language is an interpreter or a compiler, respectively. A high level language is ideally an abstraction independent of particular implementations.

— Freebase

Vitalic

Vitalic

Pascal Arbez better known by his stage name Vitalic is an electronic music artist. He was born in France.

— Freebase

Remus

Remus

Remus is the inner and smaller moon of the main-belt asteroid 87 Sylvia. It follows an almost-circular close-to-equatorial orbit around the parent asteroid. In this respect it is similar to the other moon Romulus. Remus was discovered several years after Romulus on images taken starting on August 9, 2004, and announced on August 10, 2005. It was discovered by Franck Marchis of UC Berkeley, and Pascal Descamps, Daniel Hestroffer, and Jérôme Berthier of the Observatoire de Paris, France, using the Yepun telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. Marchis, the project leader, was waiting for the completion of the image acquisition programme before starting to process the data. Just as he was set to go on vacation in March 2005, Descamps sent him a brief note entitled "87 Sylvia est triple ?" pointing out that he could see two moonlets on several images of Sylvia. The entire team then focused quickly on analysis of the data, wrote a paper, submitted an abstract to the August meeting in Rio de Janeiro and submitted a naming proposal to the IAU. Its full designation is Sylvia II Remus; before receiving its name, it was known as S/2004 1. The moon is named after Remus, twin of the mythological founder of Rome, one of the children of Rhea Silvia raised by a wolf.

— Freebase

Binomial coefficient

Binomial coefficient

In mathematics, binomial coefficients are a family of positive integers that occur as coefficients in the binomial theorem. They are indexed by two nonnegative integers; the binomial coefficient indexed by n and k is usually written . It is the coefficient of the x term in the polynomial expansion of the binomial power. Under suitable circumstances the value of the coefficient is given by the expression . Arranging binomial coefficients into rows for successive values of n, and in which k ranges from 0 to n, gives a triangular array called Pascal's triangle. This family of numbers also arises in many other areas than algebra, notably in combinatorics. For any set containing n elements, the number of distinct k-element subsets of it that can be formed is given by the binomial coefficient . Therefore is often read as "n choose k". The properties of binomial coefficients have led to extending the meaning of the symbol beyond the basic case where n and k are nonnegative integers with k ≤ n; such expressions are then still called binomial coefficients. The notation was introduced by Andreas von Ettingshausen in 1826, although the numbers were already known centuries before that. The earliest known detailed discussion of binomial coefficients is in a tenth-century commentary, due to Halayudha, on an ancient Hindu classic, Pingala's chandaḥśāstra. In about 1150, the Indian mathematician Bhaskaracharya gave a very clear exposition of binomial coefficients in his book Lilavati.

— Freebase

Infinite monkey theorem

Infinite monkey theorem

The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. In this context, "almost surely" is a mathematical term with a precise meaning, and the "monkey" is not an actual monkey, but a metaphor for an abstract device that produces an endless random sequence of letters and symbols. The relevance of the theory is questionable—the probability of a monkey exactly typing a complete work such as Shakespeare's Hamlet is so tiny that the chance of it occurring during a period of time even a hundred thousand orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe is extremely low. Variants of the theorem include multiple and even infinitely many typists, and the target text varies between an entire library and a single sentence. The history of these statements can be traced back to Aristotle's On Generation and Corruption and Cicero's De natura deorum, through Blaise Pascal and Jonathan Swift, and finally to modern statements with their iconic typewriters. In the early 20th century, Émile Borel and Arthur Eddington used the theorem to illustrate the timescales implicit in the foundations of statistical mechanics.

— Freebase

Ritualization

Ritualization

Ritualization is a behavior that occurs typically in a member of a given species in a highly stereotyped fashion and independent of any direct physiological significance. Ritualization is also associated with the work of the religious studies scholar Catherine Bell. Bell, drawing on the Practice Theory of Pierre Bourdieu, has taken a less functional view of ritual with her elaboration of ritualization. More recently scholars interested in the cognitive science of religion such as Pascal Boyer, Pierre Liénard, and William W. McCorkle Jr. have been involved in experimental, ethnographic, and archival research on how ritualized actions might inform the study of ritualization and ritual forms of action. Boyer, Liénard, and McCorkle argue that ritualized compulsions are in relation to an evolved cognitive architecture where social, cultural, and environmental selection pressures stimulate "hazard-precaution" systems such as predation, contagion, and disgust in human minds. Furthermore, McCorkle advances the hypothesis that these ritualized compulsions were turned into ritual scripts by professional guilds only several thousand years ago with advancement in technology such as the domestication of plants and animals, literacy, and writing.

— Freebase

Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. The resistance offered by the peripheral circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance, while the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance. The systemic vascular resistance may also be referred to as the total peripheral resistance. Vasoconstriction increases SVR, whereas vasodilation decreases SVR. Units for measuring vascular resistance are dyn·s·cm−5, pascal seconds per cubic metre or, for ease of deriving it by pressure and cardiac output, it can be given in mmHg·min/l. This is numerically equivalent to hybrid reference units, also known as Wood units, frequently used by pediatric cardiologists. To convert from Wood units to MPa·s/m³ you must multiply by 8, or to dyn·s·cm−5 you must multiply by 80.

— Freebase

Laal language

Laal language

Laal is an unclassified language spoken by 749 people in three villages in the Moyen-Chari prefecture of Chad on opposite banks of the Chari River, called Gori, Damtar, and Mailao. It may be a language isolate, in which case it would represent an isolated survival of an earlier language group of central Africa. It is unwritten. According to former SIL-Chad member David Faris, it is in danger of extinction, with most people under 25 shifting to the locally more widespread Baguirmi language. This language first came to the attention of academic linguists in 1977, through Pascal Boyeldieu's fieldwork in 1975 and 1978. His fieldwork was based for the most part on a single speaker, M. Djouam Kadi of Damtar.

— Freebase

Jesuitism

Jesuitism

Jesuitism is a label given to particular casuistic approach to moral questions and problems often described by the adjective jesuitical, so called because it was promoted by some Jesuits of the 17th century rather than being the beliefs of the Society of Jesus as a religious order. The word seems to have been used for the first time in 1622. Jesuitism is not a systematically developed Moral Theology school, but some Jesuit theologians, in view of promoting personal responsibility and the respect of freedom of conscience, stressed the importance of the 'case by case' approach to personal moral decisions and ultimately developed and accepted a casuistry where at the time of decision, individual inclinations were more important than the moral law itself. It has been described as an attempt to achieve holy ends by unholy means. Blaise Pascal, the French mathematician, religious philosopher and Jansenist sympathiser, vigorously attacked the moral laxism of such Jesuits in his famous Lettres provinciales of 1656-57. It is also at odds with official Church doctrine. Although Vatican II does stress the primacy of conscience.

— Freebase

Geoeconomics

Geoeconomics

Broadly, geoeconomics is the study of the spatial, temporal, and political aspects of economies and resources. The formation of geoeconomics as a branch of geopolitics is often attributed to Edward Luttwak, an American economist and consultant, and Pascal Lorot, a French economist and political scientist.

— Freebase

Jansenism

Jansenism

Jansenism was a Christian theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638. It was first popularized by Jansen's friend Jean du Vergier, Abbé de Saint-Cyran, and after Saint-Cyran's death in 1643 was led by Antoine Arnauld. Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement within the Catholic Church. The theological centre of the movement was the Parisian convent of Port-Royal, which was a haven for writers including Saint-Cyran, Arnauld, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal, and Jean Racine. Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustinism, Jesuits coined the term "Jansenism" to identify them as having Calvinist affinities. The papal bull Cum occasione, issued by Pope Innocent X in 1653, condemned five cardinal doctrines of Jansenism as heresy — especially the relationship between human free will and efficacious grace, wherein the teachings of Augustine, as presented by the Jansenists, contradicted the teachings of the Jesuit School. Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the pope's pronouncements while retaining their distinctives, and enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX. However, further controversy led to the bull Unigenitus, issued by Clement XI in 1713, which marked the end of Catholic toleration of Jansenist doctrine.

— Freebase

SISAL

SISAL

SISAL is a general-purpose single assignment functional programming language with strict semantics, implicit parallelism, and efficient array handling. SISAL outputs a dataflow graph in Intermediary Form 1. It was derived from VAL, and adds recursion and finite streams. It has a Pascal-like syntax and was designed to be a common high-level language for numerical programs on a variety of multiprocessors.

— Freebase

Grounding: The Last Days of Swissair

Grounding: The Last Days of Swissair

Grounding - Die letzten Tage der Swissair is a film about the collapse in 2001 of Swissair, Switzerland's national airline, by Michael Steiner and Tobias Fueter, presented in January 2006. Producers: Peter-Christian Fueter & Pascal Najadi.

— Freebase

Entre Nous

Entre Nous

Entre Nous is a 1983 French biographical drama film directed by Diane Kurys, who shares the writing credits with Olivier Cohen. Set in the France of the mid twentieth century, the film stars Isabelle Huppert, Miou-Miou, Guy Marchand, Jean-Pierre Bacri and Christine Pascal. Coup de Foudre means "love at first sight".

— Freebase

Adding machine

Adding machine

An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations. In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipment until they were phased out in favor of calculators in the 1970s and by personal computers beginning in about 1985. The older adding machines were rarely seen in American office settings by the year 2000. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642; it was an adding machine that could perform additions and subtractions directly and multiplication and divisions by repetitions. He was followed by Thomas de Colmar who launched the mechanical calculator industry in 1851 when he released his simplified arithmometer. However, they didn't gain widespread use until Dorr E. Felt started manufacturing his comptometer and Burroughs started the commercialization of his adding machine.

— Freebase

Fideism

Fideism

Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths. The word fideism comes from fides, the Latin word for faith, and literally means "faith-ism." Theologians and philosophers have responded in various ways to the place of faith and reason in determining the truth of metaphysical ideas, morality, and religious beliefs. The term fideist, one who argues for fideism, is very rarely self-applied. Support of fideism is most commonly ascribed to four philosophers: Pascal, Kierkegaard, William James, and Wittgenstein; with fideism being a label applied in a negative sense by their opponents, but which is not always supported by their own ideas and works or followers. There are a number of different forms of fideism.

— Freebase

Polony

Polony

Polony is a contraction of "polymerase colony," a small colony of DNA. Polonies are discrete clonal amplifications of a single DNA molecule, grown in a gel matrix. This approach greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Polonies can be generated using several techniques that include solid-phase PCR in polyacrylamide gels. However, other earlier patented technologies, such as that from Manteia Predictive Medicine, which generate DNA on a solid phase surface by bridge amplification - are generally referred to as "Clusters". The terminology and distinction between 'polony' and 'cluster' have become confused recently. Growth of clonal copies of DNA on bead surfaces remains to be generically named although some also seek to name this technique as a "polony" method. The concept of localizing and analyzing regions containing clonal nucleic acid populations was first described in patents by Brown, et al.., however these are in liquid phase. Clusters are distinct in that they are based on solid-phase amplification of single DNA molecules where the DNA has been covalently attached to a surface. This technology,initially coined "DNA colony generation", had been invented and developed in late 1996 at Glaxo-Welcome's Geneva Biomedical Research Institute, by Dr Pascal Mayer and Dr Laurent Farinelli, and was publicly presented for the first time in 1998. It was finally brought to market by Illumina

— Freebase

Pressure gradient

Pressure gradient

In atmospheric sciences, the pressure gradient is a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location. The pressure gradient is a dimensional quantity expressed in units of pressure per unit length. The SI unit is pascal per meter.

— Freebase

Reyn

Reyn

In fluid dynamics, the Reyn is a British unit of dynamic viscosity. Named in honour of Osbourne Reynolds, for whom Reynolds number is also named One Reyn is:-2 Relation between Reyn and centipoise is approximately:6 In SI units, viscosity is expressed as newton-seconds per square meter, or pascal-seconds. The conversion factor between the two is the same for stress:

— Freebase

Sound pressure

Sound pressure

Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in water with a hydrophone. The SI unit for sound pressure p is the pascal. Sound pressure level or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. It is measured in decibels above a standard reference level. The standard reference sound pressure in air or other gases is 20 µPa, which is usually considered the threshold of human hearing.

— Freebase

Six Perfections

Six Perfections

Six Perfections is a champion Thoroughbred race horse, bred by the Niarchos family. She is best known for her 2003 win in the Breeders' Cup Mile. Yogya, Six Perfections' dam, is a half sister of to two-time Breeders Cup Mile winner Miesque. Celtic Swing, Six Perfections' sire, had many group one wins, including a first in the Prix du Jockey Club. Six Perfections was trained by Pascal Bary and finished in third or better in thirteen of her fourteen starts, including a 2nd in the 1,000 Guineas. For her performance in the 2002 racing season Six Perfections earned the Cartier Award for Two-Year-Old European Champion Filly. Six Perfections ran in her second Breeders Cup mile in October 2004, where she finished 3rd. Following this race, the horse was retired to broodmare duties, was mated to Storm Cat and subsequently produced a bay colt. The colt was named Planet Five and won the Prix du Gros Chêne in 2010.

— Freebase

Signum

Signum

Signum is the name for two European producers, Pascal Minnaard and Ronald Hagen They are producers who create and remix mainly trance music.

— Freebase

Binomial theorem

Binomial theorem

In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial. According to the theorem, it is possible to expand the power into a sum involving terms of the form axy, where the exponents b and c are nonnegative integers with b + c = n, and the coefficient a of each term is a specific positive integer depending on n and b. When an exponent is zero, the corresponding power is usually omitted from the term. For example, The coefficient a in the term of axy is known as the binomial coefficient or . These coefficients for varying n and b can be arranged to form Pascal's triangle. These numbers also arise in combinatorics, where gives the number of different combinations of b elements that can be chosen from an n-element set.

— Freebase

SKED

SKED

Designed by Arthur Snapper at Western University of Michigan in the early 1970's, SKED is a state notation, quasi-parallel programming language for the real-time control of experimental apparatus.  Originally exchanged between cooperating laboratories on paper tape (and later on DEC Tape), through the SKED Users Group (SKUG).SKED was a standard method for the control of experimental apparatus in Operant Conditioning laboratories from the early-1970's through the early 90's.  It was implemented on Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-8 and PDP-11 (released by State Systems, Inc.) and adapted for Intel 80286 PCs by Med Associates, Inc. as a Pascal precompiler.The language consists of numbered States Sets (designated "S.S.n,") which contain numbered states ("Sn"), where n is a numeric identifier.States define entry conditions and transition rules for changing to other States within the State Set.  State Sets can be synchronized by sending global "Z pulse" messages to all State Sets.The langage includes syntax for reading/writing the binary state of control lines to the apparatus, assigning numeric array variables ("counters") and performing simple branch conditionals.Sample PDP-8 SKED Listing: //////////////////////////////////////// / / / FIXED RATIO 60 / / TIME-SHARE SUPER SKED / / / //////////////////////////////////////// /FR60S.SK FIXED RATIO 60 EXAMPLE /**SKED PROGRAM TO COLLECT EVERY IRT /AND APPEND IT TO A CODE NUMBER /2=LIGHT ABOVE LEVER 3=FEEDER 4=STEPPER 5=REPORT 6=MOTOR 1=RESET /Z1=COUNT OF REINFORCEMENTS /Z2=CUMULATIVE RECORDER /CODE: 0=IRT / 1=REINFORCED IRT / 7=END OF SESSION / 2=RESPONSES DURING REINFORCEMENT / 3=END OF REINFORCEMENT CYCLE S.S.1,/RATIO S1, R12:ON2,4,5,6,1;OPEN;IF B=0[SET B=60];SET B(1)=B--->S2 /DEFAULT RATIO SIZE=60 S2, B(1) R1:RECORD 1;SET B(1)=B;ON3;OFF2,5,6;Z2;Z1--->S3 /FEED ON,LIGHT & MOTOR /OFF,REPORT,CODE=1 R1:OFF4;Z2;;RECORD0--->SX /STEP RECORDER,INC COUNTER & CODE=0 S3, R1:RECORD 2;--->SX /NO CUM RECORD,INC COUNTER & CODE=2 4":OFF3;ON6,2;RECORD 3;--->S2 /OFF FEED,ON LIGHT & MOTOR /INC COUNTER & CODE=3 S.S.2,/CUMULATIVE RECORDERS S1, Z2--->S2 S2, .02":ON4,5--->S1 /STEP AND/OR REPORT S.S.3,/END OF SESSION S1, R12--->S2 S2, 60'+100Z1+R13:RECORD 7--->S3 /CODE=7 /END SESSION FROM KEYBOARD S3, .01":CLOSE--->STOP /HIT LAST DUMP 'TILL WE HAVE TIME $ //////////////////////////////////////// / / / VARIABLE INTERVAL / /****FOR SUPER SKED*** / / / //////////////////////////////////////// /VI WITH CODED IRTS AND DUMPS /VINTER.SK /CONTAINS LIST FOR ONE AND TWO MINUTE VI-SELECT WITH "/" /TIMES MAY BE SELECTED RANDOMLY OR SEQUENTIALY -- USE "/" / TO COMMENT OUT RAND OR LIST FUNCTION IN S1 & S2 OF S.S.1 CTRS=1 /3 = FEEDER /2 = LIGHT /1 = RESET /4 = STEPPER /5 = REPORT /6 = MOTOR /CODE :0=IRT / 1=REINFORCED IRT / 7=END OF SESSION / 2=RESPONSES DURING REINFORCEMENT / 3=END OF REINFORCEMENT CYCLE / 4=END OF INTERVAL / /VARIABLES: A=LIST OF INTERVALS / B=POINTER TO NEXT ELEMENT--B MAY BE SET BEFORE SESSION STARTS / Z=CURRENT INTERVAL / /TWO MINUTE VI /LIST A=6",12.32",18.98",26.04",33.54",41.54",50.11",59.34",69.34",80.25", /92.25",105.59",120.59",137.73",157.73",181.70",211.73",251.73",311.73",431.73" / /ONE MINUTE VI LIST A=15",40",80",3",110",50",118",20",105",115",5",100",30",10",60",90",70",17" / / S.S.1,/ IRT CODING S1, / R12:LIST Z=A(B);ON2,1,4,5,6;OPEN-->S2 R12:RAND Z=A;ON1,2,4,5,6;OPEN---->S2 /RANDOM FROM LIST A S2, / Z T:LIST Z=A(B);RECORD 4--->S3 Z T:RAND Z=A;RECORD 4--->S3 /RAND WITHOUT...

— Freebase

Limaçon

Limaçon

In geometry, a limaçon or limacon, also known as a limaçon of Pascal, is defined as a roulette formed when a circle rolls around the outside of a circle of equal radius. It can also be defined as the roulette formed when a circle rolls around a circle with half its radius so that the smaller circle is inside the larger circle. Thus, they belong to the family of curves called centered trochoids; more specifically, they are epitrochoids. The cardioid is the special case in which the point generating the roulette lies on the rolling circle; the resulting curve has a cusp. The term derives from the French word limaçon, which refers to small snails. Depending on the position of the point generating the curve, it may have inner and outer loops, it may be heart-shaped, or it may be oval. A limaçon is a bicircular rational plane algebraic curve of degree 4.

— Freebase

LSM

LSM

LSM is a line of laser point scanning confocal and two photon microscopes produced by Carl Zeiss AG. The 5th generation, including the LSM 510, LSM 5 Pascal, and LSM 5 Live are now obsoleted by the LSM 700/710/780 series released after 2008. LSM models produce a file format with the filename extension ".lsm". There are different generations of this file format depending on the generation of the microscope model, but all are essentially extensions of the TIFF multiple image stack file format, containing instrument specific hardware settings metadata and thumbnail images.

— Freebase

HyperTalk

HyperTalk

HyperTalk is a high-level, procedural programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer's HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson. The main target audience of HyperTalk was beginning programmers, hence HyperTalk programmers were usually called authors, and the process of writing programs was called "scripting". HyperTalk scripts are fairly similar to written English, and use a logic structure similar to the Pascal programming language. The case-insensitive language was interpreted at first, but gained just-in-time compilation with HyperCard 2.0. It supports the basic control structures of procedural languages: repeat for/while/until, if/then/else, as well as function and message "handler" calls. Data types are transparent to the user, conversion happens transparently in the background between strings and numbers. There are no classes or data structures in the traditional sense; their place was taken by special string literals, or rather "lists" of "items" delimited by commas.

— Freebase

Dureza

Dureza

Dureza is a dark-skinned French wine grape variety from the Ardèche department of south central France in the Rhône-Alpes region. The grape is most widely known for being the father vine of Syrah--a discovery that confirmed that the Syrah vine was native to France and not introduced to the country from Persia, Sicily, Egypt or elsewhere, as had been speculated. Dureza was historically used for production of red wine, but is hardly grown any more and is not part of the list of the allowed grape varieties of any French Appellation d'origine contrôlée wine, though it can be produced under some vin de pays. There were only 11 hectares planted to Dureza in the late 1970s: by 1988 only one hectare remained. However since the variety's relationship to Syrah was revealed, interest in Dureza has been increasing: Pascal Jamet has introduced plantings of the grape to the Saint-Joseph AOC in the northern Rhône Valley, for wine to be made under the appellation of Collines Rhodaniennes vin de pays.

— Freebase

Data acquisition

Data acquisition

Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. Data acquisition systems typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing. The components of data acquisition systems include: ⁕Sensors that convert physical parameters to electrical signals. ⁕Signal conditioning circuitry to convert sensor signals into a form that can be converted to digital values. ⁕Analog-to-digital converters, which convert conditioned sensor signals to digital values. Data acquisition applications are controlled by software programs developed using various general purpose programming languages such as BASIC, C, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal.

— Freebase

Martyrs

Martyrs

Martyrs is a 2008 horror film written and directed by Pascal Laugier. It was first screened during the 2008 Cannes Film Festival at the Marché du Film, and the film's French release was on 3 September 2008. The American rights for the film were purchased by the Weinstein Company and the company was responsible for the release of the DVD in April 2009. An American remake of the film was in development as of November 2010, with the producers of Twilight overseeing the process. The film has been associated with the New French Extremity movement.

— Freebase

Procedural programming

Procedural programming

Procedural programming can sometimes be used as a synonym for imperative programming, but can also refer to a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, methods, or functions, simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. Procedural programming is a list or set of instructions telling a computer what to do step by step and how to perform from the first code to the second code. Procedural programming languages include C, C++, Fortran, Pascal, and BASIC.

— Freebase

Pascal Ohsé

Pascal Ohsé

Pascal Ohsé, known also by his stage name Soel, is a French jazz trumpeter. He is perhaps best known for his contributions to albums Boulevard and Tourist by St. Germain. In 2003 he released the album Memento under his stage name.

— Freebase

stabs

stabs

stabs is a debugging data format for storing information about computer programs for use by symbolic and source-level debuggers. It "was apparently invented by Peter Kessler at the University of California, Berkeley" for use with a Pascal compiler.

— Freebase

JAL

JAL

JAL is a Pascal-like programming language and compiler that generates executable code for PIC microcontrollers. It is a free-format language with a compiler that runs on Linux, MS-Windows and MS-DOS. It is configurable and extendable through the use of libraries and can even be combined with PIC assembly language.

— Freebase

Institut de l'information scientifique et technique

Institut de l'information scientifique et technique

The Institut de l'information scientifique et technique, or INIST is the CNRS centre of documentation located in France. It has as mission to collect, treat and diffuse results of scientific and technical research. The INIST produces three bibliographic multilingual and multidisciplinary databases: PASCAL, FRANCIS, and DOGE. It is based at Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, in a building designed by Jean Nouvel. In addition, INIST publishes a number of electronic journals.

— Freebase

Internal pressure

Internal pressure

Internal pressure is a measure of how the internal energy of a system changes when it expands or contracts at constant temperature. It has the same dimensions as pressure, the SI unit of which is the pascal. Internal pressure is usually given the symbol . It is defined as a partial derivative of internal energy with respect to volume at constant temperature:

— Freebase

Lonely Child

Lonely Child

Lonely Child is a 2005 Black and White Drama written and directed by Pascal Robitaille.

— Freebase

Contrary

Contrary

Contrary was a character from Malibu Comics' Ultraverse. She was created by Gerard Jones and Martin Egeland and first appeared in the series Freex, though she was better known as the founder of Ultraforce. Though it has never been truly confirmed, it is heavily implied in Freex that the nurse nicknamed "Wetware Mary" was the same woman who would eventually become Contrary. Both were humans who had access to the advanced technology of the Fire People, and both manipulated people in various ways for their own agendas.

— Freebase

Broken rhyme

Broken rhyme

Broken rhyme, also called Split rhyme, is a form of rhyme. It is produced by dividing a word at the line break of a poem to make a rhyme with the end word of another line. Gerard Manley Hopkins' poem The Windhover, for example, divides the word "kingdom" at the end of the first line to rhyme with the word "wing" ending the fourth line. Hopkins is rare in using the device in serious poems. More commonly, the device is used in comic or playful poetry, as in the sixth stanza of Edward Lear's "How Pleasant to Know Mr. Lear" or in Elizabeth Bishop's "Pink Dog."

— Freebase

Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage is a French film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau, released 16 April 2003. The film was a critical success due in part to its tight interweaving of various genres, including spy, romance, World War II, and comedy. The film features the first reteaming of stars Isabelle Adjani and Gérard Depardieu since 1988's Camille Claudel.

— Freebase

Befriended

Befriended

Befriended is the sixth full-length studio album by American alternative rock band The Innocence Mission. The album was released on 25 August 2003 in the United Kingdom and Ireland by Agenda and on 2 September 2003 in the United States and Canada by Badman Recording Co.. The lyrics to the track "No Storms Come" are adapted from the poem "Heaven-Haven," written by poet Gerard Manley Hopkins.

— Freebase

Green Card

Green Card

Green Card is a 1990 romantic comedy film written, produced, directed by Peter Weir and starring Gérard Depardieu and Andie MacDowell. The screenplay focuses on an American woman who enters into a marriage of convenience with a Frenchman so he can obtain a green card and remain in the United States. Depardieu won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. The film won the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.

— Freebase

CQ

CQ

CQ is a 2001 film written and directed by Roman Coppola. It was screened out of competition at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. It is a homage to 1960s European spy/sci-fi spoofs like Barbarella and Danger: Diabolik and the documentary spoof David Holzman's Diary. The cinematography is done by Robert D. Yeoman. The film stars Jeremy Davies, Jason Schwartzman, Giancarlo Giannini, Gérard Depardieu, Billy Zane, and Angela Lindvall. John Phillip Law also appears. The film features an original soundtrack by French electronic band Mellow, which was released on Emperor Norton Records. CQ was released by United Artists. The title "CQ" is revealed to be code for "Seek You", in line with the movie's theme of seeking and finding love.

— Freebase

Bryn

Bryn

Bryn is a component ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, in Greater Manchester, England. It is part of the larger town of Ashton-in-Makerfield and is geographically indistinguishable from it. It forms a separate local council ward. Served by Bryn railway station, Bryn is home to the Three Sisters Recreation Area which has been created from three large spoil tips which remain from Bryn's role in Lancashire's coal mining past. The Three Sisters Recreation Area is also the site of the Three Sisters Race Circuit, which provides race driving instruction and plays host to kart racing events and motorcycle road race meetings at clubman level. Bryn Hall dates from the fourteenth century but has been the seat of the Gerard family since the thirteenth century or earlier. It was a "safe house" for the English Roman Catholic martyr and saint Edmund Arrowsmith and is reputed to be the burial place of his remains. The Unitarian Park Lane Chapel in Wigan Road was built in 1697, though its congregation was founded in 1662. It is the oldest Non-conformist chapel and congregation in the whole district. By the nineteenth century Park Lane was only one of nine non-conformist chapels in the area.

— Freebase

Bunsen

Bunsen

Bunsen is a lunar crater that lies near the northwestern limb of the Moon. It is located to the west of the Oceanus Procellarum and the crater von Braun. To the southeast is the crater Lavoisier, and to the northeast lies Gerard. Northwest of Bunsen, on the far side of the Moon, is McLaughlin. Due to its position this crater appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth, and its visibility is affected by libration. This crater has become considerably worn and eroded by subsequent impacts, leaving a formation that has been described as disintegrated. The most intact portion of the rim is along the northeastern side. There is a smaller, crater-like formation intruding into the southeastern rim. Within the crater, the floor is pitted by tiny impacts, and has a rille system of criss-crossing clefts near the northern and southern rims. There is a low ridge near the southwest corner of the interior.

— Freebase

Thomas Tallis

Thomas Tallis

Thomas Tallis was an English composer who occupies a primary place in anthologies of English church music, and is considered one of England's greatest early composers. He is honoured for his original voice in English musicianship. No contemporary portrait of Tallis survives: the earliest, painted by Gerard van der Gucht, dates from 150 years after Tallis died, and there is no certainty that it is a likeness. In a rare copy of his signature that exists [in block letters], the composer spelled his last name "Tallys."

— Freebase

Repulsion

Repulsion

Repulsion is a 1965 British psychological horror film directed by Roman Polanski, based on a scenario by Gérard Brach and Roman Polanski. It was Polanski's first English language film, and was shot in London, making it his first feature made outside Poland. The cast includes Catherine Deneuve, Ian Hendry, John Fraser and Yvonne Furneaux.

— Freebase

Barocco

Barocco

Barocco is a 1976 French romantic thriller film, directed by André Téchiné. The film stars Isabelle Adjani, Gérard Depardieu and Marie-France Pisier. Identity, redemption and resurrection are the themes of the film. The plot follows a young woman who convinces her boxer boyfriend to accept a bribe to tell a lie that discredits a local politician. When the boyfriend is murdered, she is racked with guilt until she meets the killer and plans to remake him into the image of her slain lover. The film won three César Awards: Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Cinematography and Best Music. The film had a total of 678,734 admissions in France.

— Freebase

Colutea

Colutea

Colutea is a genus of about 25 species of deciduous flowering shrubs in the legume family Fabaceae, growing from 2–5 m tall, native to southern Europe, north Africa and southwest Asia. The leaves are pinnate and light green to glaucous grey-green. The flowers are yellow to orange, pea-shaped and produced in racemes throughout the summer. These are followed by the attractive inflated seed pods which change from pale green to red or copper in colour. Colutea arborescens, known as Bladder Senna— John Gerard cautioned, however, that they are not true senna, "though we have followed others in giving it to name Bastard Sena, which name is very unproper to it"— is indigenous to the Mediterranean; it has yellow flowers. It has a height and spread of up to 5 m. Other species include Colutea orientalis, with grey leaves and coppery flowers.

— Freebase

Cliché

Cliché

A cliché or cliche is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning, or effect, and even, to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology, the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage. The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea that is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. Typically pejorative, "clichés" are not always false or inaccurate; a cliché may or may not be true. Some are stereotypes, but some are simply truisms and facts. Clichés often are employed for comic effect, typically in fiction. Most phrases now considered clichéd originally were regarded as striking, but have lost their force through overuse. In this connection, David Mason and John Frederick Nims cite a particularly harsh judgement by Salvador Dalí: "The first man to compare the cheeks of a young woman to a rose was obviously a poet; the first to repeat it was possibly an idiot." Ironically, in making this statement, Dalí was appropriating the words of French poet Gérard de Nerval: "The first man who compared woman to a rose was a poet, the second, an imbecile."

— Freebase

Clematis

Clematis

Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. Their garden hybrids have been popular among gardeners, beginning with Clematis × jackmanii, a garden standby since 1862; more hybrid cultivars are being produced constantly. They are mainly of Chinese and Japanese origin. Most species are known as clematis in English, while some are also known as traveller's joy, a name invented for the sole British native, C. vitalba, by the herbalist John Gerard; virgin's bower for C. viticella; old man's beard, applied to several with prominent seedheads; and leather flower or vase vine for the North American Clematis viorna.

— Freebase

Coq

Coq

In computer science, Coq is an interactive theorem prover. It allows the expression of mathematical assertions, mechanically checks proofs of these assertions, helps to find formal proofs, and extracts a certified program from the constructive proof of its formal specification. Coq works within the theory of the calculus of inductive constructions, a derivative of the calculus of constructions. Coq is not an automated theorem prover but includes automatic theorem proving tactics and various decision procedures. Coq implements a dependently typed functional programming language. It is developed in France, in the PI.R2 team of the PPS laboratory, jointly operated by INRIA, École Polytechnique, Paris-Sud 11 University, Paris Diderot University and CNRS. There was also formerly a group at École Normale Supérieure de Lyon. The project manager of Coq is Hugo Herbelin. Coq is implemented in OCaml. The word coq means "rooster" in French, and stems from a tradition of naming French research development tools with animal names. It is also a reference to Thierry Coquand, who developed the aforementioned calculus of constructions along with Gérard Huet. Also, at first it was simply called Coc, the acronym of calculus of construction.

— Freebase

Anastatica

Anastatica

Anastatica is a monotypic genus with the type species Anastatica hierochuntica. The genus is a member of the family Brassicaceae, in the division Magnoliophyta of the class Magnoliopsida. The plant is a small gray annual herb that rarely grows above 15 centimetres high, and bears minute white flowers. It is a tumbleweed and a resurrection plant. The most commonly used common name in English may be rose of Jericho; other common names include dinosaur plant, Jericho rose, Mary's flower, Mary's hand, Palestinian tumbleweed, resurrection plant, St. Mary's flower, true rose of Jericho, and wheel. About the name "rose of Jericho", the 16th century herbalist John Gerard is said to have remarked The coiner of the name spoiled it in the mint; for of all plants that have been written of not any are more unlike unto the rose. This species is not to be confused with Selaginella lepidophylla, also known as rose of Jericho and false rose of Jericho.

— Freebase

Timeline

Timeline

Timeline is a 2003 science fiction adventure film directed by Richard Donner, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. A team of present-day archaeologists are sent back in time to rescue their professor from medieval France in the middle of a battle. It stars Paul Walker, Frances O'Connor, Gerard Butler, Billy Connolly, David Thewlis and Anna Friel among others. Jerry Goldsmith composed the original score, which would have been his last before his death in 2004, but it was replaced with a new score by Brian Tyler, after the first cut was re-edited and Goldsmith's increasing health problems did not allow him to continue. The film was poorly received by critics and fans of the book and was a box office failure.

— Freebase

Dianthus barbatus

Dianthus barbatus

Dianthus barbatus is a species of Dianthus native to southern Europe and parts of Asia which has become a popular ornamental garden plant. It is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant growing to 30–75 cm tall, with flowers in a dense cluster of up to 30 at the top of the stems. Each flower is 2–3 cm diameter with five petals displaying serrated edges. Wild plants produce red flowers with a white base, but colours in cultivars range from white, pink, red, and purple or with variegated patterns. The exact origin of its English common name is unknown, but first appears in 1596 in botanist John Gerard's garden catalog. The flowers are edible and may have medicinal properties. Sweet william attracts bees, birds, and butterflies.

— Freebase

Mike Tyson

Mike Tyson

Michael Gerard "Mike" Tyson is a retired American professional boxer. Tyson is a former undisputed heavyweight champion of the world and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win the WBC, WBA and IBF heavyweight titles at 20 years, 4 months, and 22 days old. Tyson won his first 19 professional bouts by knockout, 12 of them in the first round. He won the WBC title in 1986 after defeating Trevor Berbick by a TKO in the second round. In 1987, Tyson added the WBA and IBF titles after defeating James Smith and Tony Tucker. He was the first heavyweight boxer to simultaneously hold the WBA, WBC and IBF titles, and the only heavyweight to successively unify them. In 1988, Tyson became the lineal champion when he knocked out Michael Spinks after 91 seconds. Tyson successfully defended the world heavyweight championship nine times, including victories over Larry Holmes and Frank Bruno. In 1990, he lost his titles to underdog James "Buster" Douglas, by a knockout in round 10. Attempting to regain the titles, he defeated Donovan Ruddock twice in 1991, but he pulled out of a fight with undisputed heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield due to injury. In 1992, Tyson was convicted of raping Desiree Washington and sentenced to six years in prison but was released after serving three years. After his release, he engaged in a series of comeback fights. In 1996, he won the WBC and WBA titles after defeating Frank Bruno and Bruce Seldon by knockout. After being stripped of the WBC title, Tyson lost his WBA crown to Evander Holyfield in November 1996 by an 11th round TKO. Their 1997 rematch ended when Tyson was disqualified for biting Holyfield's ear.

— Freebase

Metatextuality

Metatextuality

Metatextuality is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text. This concept is related to Gérard Genette's concept of transtextuality in which a text changes or expands on the content of another text.

— Freebase


The Web's Largest Resource for

Definitions & Translations


A Member Of The STANDS4 Network