Definitions containing gérard, étienne maurice, comte

We've found 250 definitions:

Maurician

Maurician

Of, or relating to other people called Maurice, for example Maurice of Nassau, Saint Maurice etc.

— Wiktionary

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte, better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Strongly influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and George Eliot. His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism, though now outdated, set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme.

— Freebase

Maurice

Maurice

Maurice was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602. A prominent general in his youth, Maurice fought with success against the Sassanid Persians. Once he became Emperor, he brought the war with Persia to a victorious conclusion: the Empire's eastern border in the Caucasus was vastly expanded and for the first time in nearly two centuries the Romans were no longer obliged to pay the Persians thousands of pounds of gold annually for peace. Maurice campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars – pushing them back across the Danube by 599. He also conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Emperor to do so in over two hundred years. In the West, he established two large semi-autonomous provinces called exarchates, ruled by exarchs, or viceroys, of the emperor. In Italy, Maurice established the Exarchate of Ravenna in 584, the first real effort by the Empire to halt the advance of the Lombards. With the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590, he further solidified the empire's hold on the western Mediterranean. His reign was troubled by financial difficulties and almost constant warfare. In 602, a dissatisfied general named Phocas usurped the throne, having Maurice and his six sons executed. This event would prove cataclysmic for the Empire, sparking a devastating war with Persia that would leave both empires weakened prior to the Muslim invasions.

— Freebase

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. "Three years later, he was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 km southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary." In the year 1128, Bernard assisted at the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. After the council of Étampes, Bernard went to speak with the King of England, Henry I, Beauclerc, about the king's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. Beauclerc was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Anacletus II; he convinced him to support Innocent. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair III of Germany. Lothair became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. Despite the councils of Étampes, Wurzburg, Clermont, and Rheims all supporting Innocent, there were still large portions of the Christian world supporting Anacletus. At the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Castile, and Aragon supported Innocent; however, most of Italy, southern France, and Sicily, with the patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem, supported Anacletus. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. The first person whom he went to was Gerard of Angoulême. He proceeded to write a letter known as Letter 126, which questioned Gerard's reasons for supporting Anacletus. Bernard would later comment that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism. After convincing Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit the Count of Poitiers. He was the hardest for Bernard to convince. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. After that, Bernard spent most of his time in Italy convincing the Italians to pledge allegiance to Innocent. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. Bernard denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected as Pope Eugenius III. Having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy.

— Freebase

John Gerard

John Gerard

John Gerard aka John Gerarde was a botanist and herbalist. He maintained a large herbal garden in London. His chief notability is as the author of a big – 1480 pages – and heavily illustrated Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. First published in 1597, it was the most widely circulated botany book in English in the 17th century. Except for the additions of a number of plants from his own garden and from North America, Gerard's Herbal is largely an English translation of Rembert Dodoens Herbal of 1554, itself also highly popular. Gerard's Herball is profusely illustrated with high-quality drawings of plants, with the printer's woodcuts for the drawings largely coming from Dodoens' book and from other Continental European sources. A couple of decades after Gerard's death, his Herbal was corrected and expanded, which strengthened the book's position in the 17th century. The botanical genus Gerardia is named in his honour.

— Freebase

Étienne

Étienne

Étienne is the stage name of Steven Langlois, who is a Warner Music Canada recording artist. He has sold tens of thousands of CDs worldwide. Following a successful 2007 World Tour 2007 that saw him perform sold-out concerts across Canada, the United States, and Australia, Étienne is a teacher with the Greater Essex County District School Board. Born and raised in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, he began performing at a young age. While attending the University of Windsor, where he graduated with a B.A. in French Language and Literature and a B.Ed., he began composing songs designed to help children learn English, French and Spanish using popular styles of music. Now residing in LaSalle, Ontario, with his wife and two children, he has taught English and French to students from grades one to twelve for the past sixteen years. Étienne writes for several widely-used international school programs produced by leading educational companies including Thomson Nelson, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Prentice Hall, Ginn, Gage Canada and Denmark's Forlag Malling Beck. He has had his songs translated into the Cree language in Saskatchewan.

— Freebase

Choiseul

Choiseul

Choiseul is an illustrious family from Champagne, France, descendents of the comtes of Langres. The family's head was Renaud III de Choiseul, comte de Langres and sire de Choiseul, who in 1182 married Alix de Dreux, daughter of Louis VI of France. It has formed into the Langres, Clémont, Aigremont, Beaugré, Allecourt, Frontières, Praslin, Plessis branches, among others. It also took the name Choiseul-Gouffier from the 18th century onwards. It has produced several marshals: ⁕Jean de Baudricourt, seigneur of Baudricourt and of Choiseul ⁕Charles de Choiseul, comte of the Plessis-Praslin, who served under Henri IV and Louis XIII ⁕César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, duc de Choiseul, who defied Turenne at Rethel, when he commanded the Spanish army ⁕Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French marshal and diplomat, generally known for the best part of his life as marshal du Plessis-Praslin ⁕Claude de Choiseul, comte de Choiseul-Francières, who distinguished himself in the battle of Seneffe against the Dutch Republic and made a marshal in 1693 Two bishops and an archbishop: ⁕Gilbert de Choiseul du Plessis Praslin, brother of marshal César de Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Bishop of Comminges from 1644 to 1670.

— Freebase

Belfort

Belfort

Belfort is a city in north-east France in the Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg. It is the biggest town and the administrative town of the Territoire de Belfort département in the Franche-Comté region. Belfort is located at 400 km from Paris, 141 km from Strasbourg, 290 km from Lyon and 150 km from Zürich. The residents of the city are called ‘’Belfortains’’. It is located on the Savoureuse, on the strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants.

— Freebase

Rutebeuf

Rutebeuf

Rutebeuf, a trouvère, was born in the first half of the 13th century, possibly in Champagne; he was evidently of humble birth, and he was a Parisian by education and residence. His name is nowhere mentioned by his contemporaries. He frequently plays in his verse on the word Rutebeuf, which was probably a nom de guerre, and is variously explained by him as derived from rude boeuf and rude oeuvre. Paulin Paris thought that he began life in the lowest rank of the minstrel profession as a jongleur. Some of his poems have autobiographical value. In Le Mariage de Rutebeuf he says that on the 2 January 1261 he married a woman old and ugly, with neither dowry nor amiability. In the Complainte de Rutebeuf he details a series of misfortunes which have reduced him to abject destitution. In these circumstances he addresses himself to Alphonse, comte de Poitiers, brother of Louis IX, for relief. Other poems in the same vein reveal that his own miserable circumstances were chiefly due to a love of play, particularly a game played with dice; which was known as griesche. It would seem that his distress could not be due to lack of patrons; for his metrical Life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary was written by request of Erard de Valery, who wished to present it to Isabel, queen of Navarre; and he wrote elegies on the deaths of Anceau de l'Isle Adam, the third of the name, who died about 1251, Eudes, comte de Nevers, Theobald II of Navarre, and Alphonse, comte de Poitiers, which were probably paid for by the families of the personages celebrated. In the Pauvreté de Rutebeuf, he addresses Louis IX himself.

— Freebase

Vesoul

Vesoul

Vesoul is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté located in eastern France. Most populated municipality of the department with 15,920 inhabitants in 2009, is the seventh city Franche-Comté. The same year, Urban community of Vesoul which covers 19 municipalities together 34,055 inhabitants while the Urban area of Vesoul which includes 78 municipalities, groups 59,244 inhabitants. Its urban area is the fifth largest Franche-Comté. Its inhabitants are known in French as Vésuliens. Nicknamed the "Nice of the East", the reputation of Vesoul based primarily on the song "Vesoul" by Jacques Brel and the Vesoul International Film Festival of Asian Cinema. Its 16,000 inhabitants, account Vesoul 2000 students and 8000 licensed sport. The city has received many labels and names that reflect the investigation brings to life Vesoul common. Built on top of the hill de la Motte, in the first millennium, the old medieval town of Castrum Vesulium, the city is gradually presented as European commercial and economic center with many traders and exchangers and European Jews. At the end of the Middle Ages, the city experienced a period of strong difficulties as plagues, epidemics, destruction ...

— Freebase

Comtism

Comtism

The positivistic philosophy of Auguste Comte (1798u20131857), according to which metaphysics and theology should be replaced by a hierarchy of sciences from mathematics at the base to sociology at the top.

— Wiktionary

comtism

Comtism

Auguste Comte's positivistic philosophy that metaphysics and theology should be replaced by a hierarchy of sciences from mathematics at the base to sociology at the top

— Princeton's WordNet

Garrett

Garrett

, transferred from the surname, or in Ireland directly from Gerard.

— Wiktionary

Gerry

Gerry

A diminutive of the male given names Gerald and Gerard.

— Wiktionary

Goutwort

Goutwort

a coarse umbelliferous plant of Europe (Aegopodium Podagraria); -- called also bishop's weed, ashweed, and herb gerard

— Webster Dictionary

josef michel montgolfier

Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier

French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)

— Princeton's WordNet

montgolfier

Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier

French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)

— Princeton's WordNet

Continental

Continental

Continental is an album by the British band Saint Etienne which had original release only in Japan. It is a compilation that includes previously released material such as the UK hit "He's on the Phone" as well as curios like their cover of the Paul Gardiner/Gary Numan song "Stormtrooper in Drag". Many of the tracks were recorded during the 'wilderness' years of 1996/97 when the band members worked on their separate projects. The remix versions on this album had all appeared on Casino Classics. As part of the 2009 Saint Etienne back catalogue reissue program, the album has had a UK release for the first time. It also has a Heavenly catalogue number - HVNLP70. The deluxe edition includes four previously unreleased tracks.

— Freebase

Rive-de-Gier

Rive-de-Gier

Rive-de-Gier is a commune in the Loire department in central France. The town is located on both sides of the river Gier. It's between Saint-Etienne and Lyon and had an important part during the French industrial revolution. Rive de Gier is a town in the French department of Loire, arrondissement Saint-Etienne. Rive de Gier has 14,831 inhabitants, so the population is roughly back to the level it was at the end of the 19th Century. Economically Rive-de-Gier was known for coal mining, iron works and glass works. The river Gier has been covered in the center of the city, so the watercourse is not visible in the downtown. As the river is not navigable, was built to transport the coal from the canal Givors, but which is now filled. The community is situated on the edge of the Regional Natural Park Pilat and is associated with this.

— Freebase

Lipslide

Lipslide

Lipslide is the debut solo album from Saint Etienne lead singer Sarah Cracknell. The album was co-produced by Cracknell and a variety of producers and released in the UK by Gut Records in 1997. Upon its release Lipslide earned favorable reviews from music critics, although it was not a commercial success. Musically the album does not stray too far from Cracknell's work with Saint Etienne, as it contains electronic and indie-styled pop music. Lipslide was not released in the United States until 2000. Licenced to Instinct Records, the album's cover art and tracklist were altered — four tracks were removed and replaced by four new songs. Additionally, the song "Home" was presented in a different mix. These four missing songs and the original version of "Home" were later included on the Kelly's Locker EP, released in 2000 by Instinct. "Anymore" was released as a single in the UK prior to the album, peaking at number thirty-nine in the UK Singles Chart in 1996. "Desert Baby" was also released but did not chart.

— Freebase

Montgolfier brothers

Montgolfier brothers

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France.

— Freebase

Saint-Étienne

Saint-Étienne

Saint-Étienne is a city in eastern central France. It is located in the Massif Central, 50 km southwest of Lyon in the Rhône-Alpes region, along the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon. Saint-Étienne is the capital of the Loire département and has a population of approximately 178,500 in the city itself expanding to over 317,000 in the metropolitan area.

— Freebase

Comtist

Comtist

a disciple of Comte; a positivist

— Webster Dictionary

Earl

Earl

a nobleman of England ranking below a marquis, and above a viscount. The rank of an earl corresponds to that of a count (comte) in France, and graf in Germany. Hence the wife of an earl is still called countess. See Count

— Webster Dictionary

Positivism

Positivism

a system of philosophy originated by M. Auguste Comte, which deals only with positives. It excludes from philosophy everything but the natural phenomena or properties of knowable things, together with their invariable relations of coexistence and succession, as occurring in time and space. Such relations are denominated laws, which are to be discovered by observation, experiment, and comparison. This philosophy holds all inquiry into causes, both efficient and final, to be useless and unprofitable

— Webster Dictionary

Mo

Mo

A diminutive of the male given names Moses and Maurice.

— Wiktionary

Morris

Morris

derived from the Norman given name Maurice.

— Wiktionary

Morris

Morris

, transferred from the surnames, or a spelling variant of Maurice.

— Wiktionary

Morse

Morse

, variant of Morris, from the given name Maurice.

— Wiktionary

Moe

Moe

A diminutive of the male given names Moses and Maurice.

— Wiktionary

Atikamekw

Atikamekw

Any of the indigenous inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan ("Our Land") in Saint-Maurice, Quebec.

— Wiktionary

Maurician

Maurician

Of or pertaining to Maurice, a Byzantine emperor.

— Wiktionary

Positivism

Positivism

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, and that there is valid knowledge only in scientific knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence. This view holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought, the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century. Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society.

— Freebase

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism

Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman". His ideas, expressed largely through a succession of journals such as l'Industrie, La politique and L'Organisateur centered on a perception that growth in industrialization and scientific discovery would have profound changes on society. He believed, nonetheless, that society would restructure itself by abandoning traditional ideas of temporal and spiritual power, an evolution that would lead, inevitably, to a productive society based on, and benefiting from, a " ... union of men engaged in useful work", the basis of "true equality". These ideas influenced Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and many other thinkers and social theorists.

— Freebase

Drom

Drom

Drom is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France. As well as a dairy selling comté cheese, butter, cream, fromage blanc and newly resurrected medieval fromage de CLON, Drom boasts three 'Artisans d'art'. Christine Brochier is a master craftswoman/couturière working in fur and leather. She holds the distinction of 'Meilleur Ouvrier de France'. Drom also has an art gallery of pictures, prints, and portraits by Margaret Steel and handmade bespoke desks by Tony Steel. See their website, galerie-steel.com As well as a dairy selling comté cheese, butter, cream, fromage blanc and newly resurrected medieval fromage de CLON, Drom boasts three 'Artisans d'art'. Christine Brochier is a master craftswoman/couturière working in fur and leather. She holds the distinction of 'Meilleur Ouvrier de France'. Drom also has an art gallery of pictures and handmade bespoke furniture run by Margaret and Tony Steel. See their website, www.galerie-steel.com

— Freebase

Mauritius

Mauritius

One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Port Louis. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, occupied by the Dutch 1598-1710, held by the French 1715-1810 when the British captured it, formally ceded to the British in 1814, and became independent in 1968. It was named by the Dutch in honor of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567-1625). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p742 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p341)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

barrymore

Barrymore, John Barrymore

United States actor; son of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1882-1942)

— Princeton's WordNet

barrymore

Barrymore, Ethel Barrymore

United States actress; daughter of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1879-1959)

— Princeton's WordNet

barrymore

Barrymore, Lionel Barrymore

United States actor; son of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1878-1954)

— Princeton's WordNet

barrymore

Barrymore, Georgiana Barrymore, Georgiana Emma Barrymore

United States actress; daughter of John Drew and wife of Maurice Barrymore; mother of Ethel Barrymore and John Barrymore and Lionel Barrymore (1854-1893)

— Princeton's WordNet

ethel barrymore

Barrymore, Ethel Barrymore

United States actress; daughter of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1879-1959)

— Princeton's WordNet

georgiana barrymore

Barrymore, Georgiana Barrymore, Georgiana Emma Barrymore

United States actress; daughter of John Drew and wife of Maurice Barrymore; mother of Ethel Barrymore and John Barrymore and Lionel Barrymore (1854-1893)

— Princeton's WordNet

georgiana emma barrymore

Barrymore, Georgiana Barrymore, Georgiana Emma Barrymore

United States actress; daughter of John Drew and wife of Maurice Barrymore; mother of Ethel Barrymore and John Barrymore and Lionel Barrymore (1854-1893)

— Princeton's WordNet

john barrymore

Barrymore, John Barrymore

United States actor; son of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1882-1942)

— Princeton's WordNet

lionel barrymore

Barrymore, Lionel Barrymore

United States actor; son of Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Barrymore (1878-1954)

— Princeton's WordNet

Little Bear

Little Bear

Maurice Sendak's Little Bear is an educational Canadian children's television series starring a Little Bear voiced by Kristin Fairlie. Originally produced by Nelvana for Nickelodeon, it currently airs on Treehouse TV in Canada and Nick Jr. in the United States. It was first shown in the UK on the Children's BBC, and a part of Toy Box BBC video collection in the late 90s. It was also shown on Nick Jr UK and now airs on Tiny Pop. A direct-to-video/DVD full-length feature film was also created after the series ended. In The Little Bear Movie, Little Bear and his friends help a bear named Cub to help find his parents. It is based on the Little Bear series of books which were written by Else Holmelund Minarik, and illustrated by Maurice Sendak. Most of the characters are moderately anthropomorphic animals, exhibiting both animal and human behaviors, but generally dealing with human problems and concerns. However, Little Bear's friend, Emily, and her grandmother are human and Tutu, their dog, is mostly a normal pet. Other characters in the series include Little Bear and his parents Mother and Father Bear, his paternal uncle Rusty, his two grandparents, the eponymously named animals Duck, Cat, Owl and Hen, in addition to many recurring characters.

— Freebase

Maurice Utrillo

Maurice Utrillo

Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes. Born in the Montmartre quarter of Paris, France, Utrillo is one of the few famous painters of Montmartre who were born there.

— Freebase

Brochet

Brochet

Constructions Aéronautiques Maurice Brochet was a French manufacturer of light aircraft established by Maurice Brochet in Neauphle-le-Château in 1947.

— Freebase

Farman Aviation Works

Farman Aviation Works

Farman Aviation Works was an aircraft company founded and run by the brothers Richard, Henri, and Maurice Farman. They designed and constructed aircraft and engines from 1908 until 1936; during the French nationalization and rationalization of its aerospace industry, Farman's assets were assigned to the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre. In 1941 the Farman brothers reestablished the firm as the "Société Anonyme des Usines Farman", but only three years later it was absorbed by Sud-Ouest. Maurice's son, Marcel Farman, reestablished the SAUF in 1952, but his effort proved unsuccessful and the firm was dissolved in 1956. The Farman brothers built more than 200 types of aircraft between 1908 and 1941.

— Freebase

St. Leonard, Quebec

St. Leonard, Quebec

Saint Leonard is a borough of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Formerly a separate city, it was amalgamated into the city of Montreal in 2002. The former city was originally called St. Léonard de Port Maurice after Leonard of Port Maurice.

— Freebase

Saint-Maurice River

Saint-Maurice River

The Saint-Maurice River is a river in central Quebec which flows south from Gouin Reservoir to empty into the Saint Lawrence River at Trois-Rivières, Quebec. The river is 563 km in length and has a drainage basin of 43,300 km². During the 18th century, early fur traders travelled along the river. During the second half of the 19th century, logging became an important industry in the surrounding Mauricie region. For much of the 20th century, the river was used to transport logs to mills down river and it was, and still is, a major source of hydroelectric power. The river was named after Maurice Poulin de La Fontaine, who owned property along the river in the 17th century. Communities on the river include: ⁕Trois-Rivières ⁕Shawinigan ⁕La Tuque Tributaries of this river include the: ⁕Trenche River ⁕Vermillon River ⁕Matawin River

— Freebase

Barneveldt, Johann van Olden

Barneveldt, Johann van Olden

Grand Pensionary of Holland, of a distinguished family; studied law at the Hague, and practised as an advocate there; fought for the independence of his country against Spain; concluded a truce with Spain, in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice, whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed; being an Arminian, took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party, to which Maurice belonged; was arrested, tried, and condemned to death as a traitor and heretic, and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age, with sanction, too, of the Synod of Dort, in 1619.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Brethren of the Common Life

Brethren of the Common Life

a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God," founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Dow

Dow

or Douw, Gerard, a distinguished Dutch genre-painter, born at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his works, which are very numerous, are the fruit of a devoted study of nature, and are remarkable for their delicacy and perfection of finish; examples of his works are found in all the great galleries of Europe (1613-1675).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

William the Silent

William the Silent

Prince of Orange, a cadet of the noble house of Nassau, the first Stadtholder of the Netherlands, a Protestant by birth; he was brought up a Catholic, but being at heart more a patriot than a Catholic, he took up arms in the cause of his country's freedom, and did not rest till he had virtually freed it from the Spanish yoke, which was then the dominant Catholic power; his enemies procured his assassination in the end, and he was murdered by Belthazar Gerard, at Delft; he was brought up at the court of Charles V., where "his circumspect demeanour procured him the surname of Silent, but under the cold exterior he concealed a busy, far-sighted intellect, and a generous, upright, daring heart" (1533-1584).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Diaporama

Diaporama

A diaporama is a photographic slideshow, sometimes with accompanying audio, ranging from using only one or two slide projectors to a multi-image slideshow using a wide screen and several slide projectors connected to a central controlling device changing the slides, turning lamps on and off etc. The word shares etymological roots with the English words diorama and panorama, both of which come from the Greek root horama, meaning "a view." Diaporama is the French word for slideshow. Robert Thuillier is considered the inventor of the technique in 1950. Salon columnist Camille Paglia used the term as early as March 2008 when she wrote "Speaking of Edie [Sedgwick], I found this 'diaporama' tribute to her...set to a song composed and sung by Étienne Daho."

— Freebase

Aim

Aim

Aim is a British musician, DJ and producer, who was born in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria. Aim's sound is a blend of funky electronic music and hip hop beats, a sound which typified the Grand Central Records label. Much of Aim's work is instrumental, though his records include collaborations with other artists who provide vocals, including Stephen Jones of Babybird, Diamond D, Souls of Mischief, QNC and Kate Rogers. Aim has also worked as remixer, mixing songs for a variety of artists including Ian Brown, Saint Etienne, The Charlatans, Lil' Kim, Thunderbugs, Archive, Down to the Bone, Texas and former label-mates Rae & Christian.

— Freebase

Pers, Cantal

Pers, Cantal

Pers is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France. It is on the edge of the Chataignerie and near the Segala. It is also adjacent to the lake of St Etienne Cantales, a large body of water formed by the damming of the Cere river for hydro electric purposes. The village also has a very good go-cart track, and regularly hosts championship races. As well as the church and the town hall, there are two bars, and a camping site. Gites may also be rented from the farm. There are no shops.

— Freebase

Paola

Paola

Paola is a town in the Grand Harbour area of Malta, with a population of 8,856 people. It is named after Grandmaster Antoine de Paule who laid the foundation stone in 1626, but is commonly known as Raħal Ġdid, which means "new town" in Maltese. Paola is renowned for the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, its large parish church, its beautiful square with shopping centres, the Good Friday procession, and its football club, Hibernians FC. A number of prominent Maltese personalities come from Paola, including Dr.Vincent Moran, Dr.Konrad Mizzi, Silvio Parnis, Jason Azzopardi,Gino Cauchi, Dr.Chris Fearne, Ino Bonello, Mons. Francesco Xuereb, Immanuel Mifsud, Massimo Ellul, Carmel Joseph Farrugia, TV personality Simone Cini, actor and TV personality Etienne St. John, radio & TV presenter Dorian Cassar, songwriter and television producer Joe Julian Farrugia, and singers Klinsmann Coleiro and Ruth Casingena. One of Malta's Prime Ministers, Sir Paul Boffa, resided in this locality.

— Freebase

Tonality

Tonality

Tonality is a system/language of music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center"—the tonic triad; that is, on hierarchical relationships between the triads. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most often used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period, and of Western-influenced popular music throughout much of the world today.

— Freebase

Ça Ira

Ça Ira

Ça Ira is an opera in three acts by Roger Waters based on the French libretto co-written by Étienne and Nadine Roda-Gil on the historical subject of the early French Revolution. Ça Ira was released 26 September 2005, as a double CD album featuring baritone Bryn Terfel, soprano Ying Huang, and tenor Paul Groves.

— Freebase

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect which is classically understood to involve four anatomical abnormalities of the heart. It is the most common cyanotic heart defect, and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. It was described in 1672 by Niels Stensen, in 1773 by Edward Sandifort, and in 1888 by the French physician Étienne-Louis Arthur Fallot, after whom it is named.

— Freebase

Aplomb

Aplomb

In classical ballet, aplomb refers to the basic law of ballet – stability. The French ballet master Jean-Étienne Despréaux defined it in 1806 as a specific kind of dynamic balance fundamental to all positions and movements of ballet. A 1905 book Grammar of the Art of Dancing, Theoretical and Practical referring to Bernhard Klemm, wrote: "Aplomb is the absolute safety in rising and falling back which results from the perpendicular attitude of the upper body and the artistic placing of the feet. By means of aplomb the dancer acquires a precision and an elegance which insure the successful execution of every foot-movement, however artistic and difficult, and thereby creates a pleasing and a satisfactory impression upon the observer. Aplomb may be compared with the sureness of touch of the pianist." Aplomb is achieved with straight body with its weight equally distributed over the supporting foot. Aplomb is controlled by feeling and controlling the muscular sensations in the spine, i.e., by "holding the back". The base of aplomb are the five positions of the feet codified by Pierre Beauchamp in 1680. The correct set of the body influences all ballet steps, and the perfection of the aplomb requires years of training. Exercises at the barre begin the training of the stability and balance.

— Freebase

Kennedia

Kennedia

Kennedia is a genus of plants comprising 16 species, all native to Australia. They are evergreen climbing plants with woody stems. Thet usually have trifoliate leaves and pea-type flowers of various colours from pink to dark red and yellow to black. The genus was named by Étienne Pierre Ventenat after John Kennedy, a partner in the renowned firm of nurserymen, Lee and Kennedy of Hammersmith, London.

— Freebase

Minié ball

Minié ball

The Minié ball, or Minie ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War.

— Freebase

Benighted

Benighted

Benighted is a death metal band formed in Saint-Étienne, France, in 1998. The band comprises vocalist Julien Truchan, guitarists Adrien Guérin and Olivier Gabriel, bassist Eric Lombard and drummer Kevin "Kikou" Foley. They released six albums since formation.

— Freebase

Monomania

Monomania

In 19th century psychiatry, monomania was a form of partial insanity conceived as single pathological preoccupation in an otherwise sound mind. Partial insanity, variations of which enjoyed a long pre-history in jurisprudence, was in contrast to the traditional notion of total insanity, exemplified in the diagnosis of mania, as a global condition effecting all aspects of understanding and which reflected the position that the mind or soul was an indivisible entity. Coined by the French psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol around 1810, monomania was a new disease-concept characterised by the presence of an expansive idée fixe in which the mind was diseased and deranged in some facets but otherwise normal in others. Esquirol and his circle delineated three broad categories of monomania coherent with the traditional tripartite classification of the mind into intellectual, emotional and volitional faculties. Emotional monomania is that in which the patient is obsessed with only one emotion or several related to it; intellectual monomania is that which is related to only one kind of delirious idea or ideas. Although, monomania was retained as one of seven recognized categories of mental illness in the 1880 US census, its importance as a psychiatric diagnostic category was in decline from the mid-19th century. It no longer appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

— Freebase

Phocomelia

Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital disorder involving malformation of the limbs. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire coined the term in 1836. Although various numbers of factors can cause phocomelia, the prominent roots come from the use of the drug thalidomide and from genetic inheritance. The occurrence of this malformation in an individual results in various abnormalities to the face, limbs, ears, nose, vessels and many other underdevelopments. Although operations can be done to fix the abnormality it is difficult due to the lack of nerves, bones, and other related structures.

— Freebase

Tanguy

Tanguy

Tanguy is a French black comedy of 2001 by Étienne Chatiliez.

— Freebase

Galliano

Galliano

Galliano was a London-based acid jazz group, which started in 1988. The group was the first signing to Eddie Piller and Gilles Peterson's Acid Jazz record label. The original members were Rob Gallagher, Constantine Weir, Michael Snaith and Crispin Robinson. Other important members included Valerie Etienne, who participated in the recording of all their CDs, along with other musicians such as Mick Talbot on keyboards, Crispin Taylor on drums Ernie McKone on bass guitar, Mark Vandergucht guitar and Steve Ameedee, otherwise known as Uncle Big Man. Galliano achieved the peak of its success in 1994 with The Plot Thickens which peaked at number seven in the UK album chart. Galliano provided the track used in the title sequence of Kevin Reynolds' 1997 film, One Eight Seven, starring Samuel L. Jackson. The track "Slack Hands" appears on their 1996 album 4. In 1997, Gallagher broke Galliano up, and pursued other musical projects, Two Banks of Four and Earl Zinger.

— Freebase

Sensualism

Sensualism

Sensualism is a philosophical doctrine of the theory of knowledge, according to which sensations and perception are the basic and most important form of true cognition. It may oppose abstract ideas. The basic principle of sensualism is "there is not anything in mind, which hasn't been in the sensations." The great philosophers of sensualism are: ⁕Aristotle ⁕Thomas Aquinas ⁕John Locke ⁕George Berkeley ⁕David Hume ⁕Étienne Bonnot de Condillac ⁕William James ⁕Friedrich Nietzsche

— Freebase

Valet de chambre

Valet de chambre

Valet de chambre, or varlet de chambre, was a court appointment introduced in the late Middle Ages, common from the 14th century onwards. Royal Households had many persons appointed at any time. While some valets simply waited on the patron, or looked after his clothes and other personal needs, itself potentially a powerful and lucrative position, others had more specialized functions. At the most prestigious level it could be akin to a monarch or ruler's personal secretary, as was the case of Anne de Montmorency at the court of Francis I of France. For noblemen pursuing a career as courtiers, like Étienne de Vesc, it was a common early step on the ladder to higher offices. For some this brought entry into the lucrative court business of asking for favours on behalf of clients, and passing messages to the monarch or lord heading the court. Valets might supply specialized services of various kinds to the patron, as artists, musicians, poets, scholars, librarians, doctors or apothecaries and curators of collections. Valets comprised a mixture of nobles hoping to rise in their career, and those—often of humble origin—whose specialized abilities the monarch wanted to use or reward.

— Freebase

Centriole

Centriole

A centriole is a cylinder shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi. An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material, or PCM, makes up a compound structure called a centrosome. Most centrioles are made up of nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylindrical pattern. Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets. Edouard van Beneden and Theodor Boveri made the first observation and identification of centrioles in 1883 and 1888 respectively, while the pattern of centriole replication was first worked out independently by Etienne de Harven and Joseph G. Gall circa 1950

— Freebase

Finisterre

Finisterre

Finisterre is the sixth studio album by English alternative dance band Saint Etienne, released on 30 September 2002 by Mantra Records. A double-disc deluxe edition was released on 3 May 2010 by Heavenly Records.

— Freebase

Minié rifle

Minié rifle

The Minié rifle was an important infantry weapon in the mid-19th century. A version was adopted in 1849 following the invention of the Minié ball in 1847 by the French Army captains Claude-Étienne Minié of the Chasseurs d'Orléans and Henri-Gustave Delvigne. The bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, and was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The French adopted it following difficulties encountered by the French army in Northern Africa, where their muskets were outranged by long-barreled weapons which were handcrafted by their Algerian opponents. The Minié rifle belonged to the category of rifled muskets.

— Freebase

A Good Thing

A Good Thing

"A Good Thing" is a single by the British band Saint Etienne. Taken from the album Tales from Turnpike House, it was released in the UK by Sanctuary Records October 2005. The lead track is co-written by vocalist Sarah Cracknell. Originally, the 7" single was scheduled to be a limited run of 1000 copies, but due to an error at the record label, all formats were limited to 1000 copies, seriously hindering the single's chart chances. B-side-wise, the single is a rich mix. The 7" features a co-write between the band's Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs and David Essex, who featured on the album. The first CD features a cover of the Womack & Womack track "Missing Persons Bureau". The second CD single, meanwhile, features two tracks written for the band's film, What Have You Done Today Mervyn Day?. "Book Norton" is written and sung by sometimes bandmate Debsy Wykes while "Quiet Essex" is written by Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs. Only the second single, and third release overall for Sanctuary, this was to be the band's last release for the label.

— Freebase

Dianium

Dianium

Dianium was the proposed name for a new element found by the mineralogist and poet Wolfgang Franz von Kobell in 1860. The name derived from the Roman goddess Diana. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite and niobite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. Following the rediscovery of niobium in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, Friedrich Wöhler, Heinrich Rose, R. Hermann and Kobell analysed the minerals tantalite and columbite to better understand the chemistry of niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum hindered preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. Rose discovered pelopium in 1846, while Hermann announced the discovery of ilmenium in 1847. In 1860 Kobell published the results on the tantalite from a quarry near Kimito a village in Finland and columbite from Bodenmais a village in Germany. He concluded that the element he found was different from tantalum, niobium, pelopium and ilmenium. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

— Freebase

Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre, Viscount Cambronne, was a General of the French Empire. He fought during the wars of the Revolution and the Napoleonic Era. He was wounded at the Battle of Waterloo.

— Freebase

Iniencephaly

Iniencephaly

Iniencephaly, a term derived from the Greek word “inion” for nape of the neck, is a rare type of cephalic disorder that was first described by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1836. Those afflicted with the disorder all share 3 common characteristics: a defect to the occipital bone, spina bifida of the cervical vertebrae and retroflexion of the head on the cervical spine. Stillbirth is the most common outcome, with a few rare examples of live birth, after which death almost invariably occurs within a short time.

— Freebase

Ilmenium

Ilmenium

Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847. During the analysis of the mineral samarskite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples of the metals and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present, were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac Although it had been proven that ilmenium is only a mixture of niobium and tantalum, Hermann continued publishing articles on ilmenium for several years.

— Freebase

Internal combustion engine

Internal combustion engine

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. The ICE is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in some kind of boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats.

— Freebase

Down syndrome

Down syndrome

Down syndrome or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans. It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability and physical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics. The average IQ of young adults with Down syndrome is around 50, whereas young adults without the condition typically have an IQ of 100. A large proportion of individuals with Down syndrome have a severe degree of intellectual disability. Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866. The condition was clinically described earlier by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Edouard Seguin in 1844. Down syndrome was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Dr. Jérôme Lejeune in 1959. Down syndrome can be identified in a newborn by direct observation or in a fetus by prenatal screening. Pregnancies with this diagnosis are often terminated. The CDC estimates that about one of every 691 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome.

— Freebase

Mime artist

Mime artist

A mime artist is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would typically be referred to as a mummer. Miming is to be distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a seamless character in a film or sketch. The performance of pantomime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece; the name is taken from a single masked dancer called Pantomimus, although performances were not necessarily silent. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and later dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that we have come to know in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface. Jacques Copeau, strongly influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors. Étienne Decroux, a pupil of his, was highly influenced by this and started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime and developed corporeal mime into a highly sculptural form, taking it outside of the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed significantly to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods.

— Freebase

Kennedia coccinea

Kennedia coccinea

Kennedia coccinea is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a low growing trailing shrub or climber which has twining rust-coloured branchlets with rounded leaflets that are about 1.5 cm long and occur in threes. Orange red or scarlet pea flowers are produced in clusters between August and November in its native range. The species was formally described in 1804 by French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat in Jardin de la Malmaison. Two varieties were described in Paxton's Magazine of Botany in 1835, namely var. elegans and var. coccinea. Three further varieties were transferred from the genus Zichya in 1923 by Czech botanist Karel Domin, namely var. molly, var. sericea and var. villosa. Currently, three subspecies are recognised: ⁕K. coccinea Vent. subsp. coccinea ⁕K. coccinea subsp. calcaria Lally ⁕K. coccinea subsp. esotera Lally

— Freebase

Pelopium

Pelopium

Pelopium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist Heinrich Rose in 1845. The name derived from the Greek king and later god Pelops. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac This confusion arose from the minimal observed differences between tantalum and niobium. Both tantalum and niobium react with chlorine and traces of oxygen, including atmospheric concentrations, with niobium forming two compounds: the white volatile niobium pentachloride and the non-volatile niobium oxychloride. The claimed new elements pelopium, ilmenium and dianium were in fact identical to niobium or mixtures of niobium and tantalum.

— Freebase

Cyclopia

Cyclopia

Cyclopia, better known by the common name Honeybush, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, of the subfamily Faboideae. The description was published by Étienne Pierre Ventenat in 1808. The name Ibbetsonia, published two years later, is regarded as a synonym of this genus; John Sims had commemorated the physiologist Agnes Ibbetson with this name. Another common name is 'Heuningbos' in Afrikaans.

— Freebase

Sphygmograph

Sphygmograph

The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

— Freebase

Assay office

Assay office

Assay offices are institutions set up to assay precious metals, in order to protect consumers. Upon successful completion of an assay, the assay offices typically stamp a hallmark, punze, or poinçon on the item to certify its metallurgical content. Hallmarking first appeared in France, with the Goldsmiths' Statute of 1260 promulgated under Etienne Boileau, Provost of Paris, for King Louis IX.

— Freebase

Robert Garnier

Robert Garnier

Robert Garnier was a French tragic poet. He published his first work while still a law-student at Toulouse, where he won a prize in the Académie des Jeux Floraux. It was a collection of lyrical pieces, now lost, entitled Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier. After some legal practice at the Parisian bar, he became conseiller du roi au siege présidial and sénéchaussé of Maine, his native district, and later lieutenant-général criminel. His friend Lacroix du Maine says that he enjoyed a great reputation as an orator. He was a distinguished magistrate, of considerable weight in his native province, who gave his leisure to literature, and whose merits as a poet were fully recognized by his own generation. In his early plays he was a close follower of the school of dramatists who were inspired by the study of Seneca. In these productions there is little that is strictly dramatic except the form. A tragedy was a series of rhetorical speeches relieved by a lyric chorus. His pieces in this manner are Porcie, Cornélie and Hippolyte. In Porcie the deaths of Cassius, Brutus and Portia are each the subject of an eloquent recital, but the action is confined to the death of the nurse, who alone is allowed to die on the stage. His next group of tragedies Marc-Antoine, La Troade, Antigone shows an advance on the theatre of Étienne Jodelle and Jacques Grévin, and on his own early plays, in so much that the rhetorical element is accompanied by abundance of action, though this is accomplished by the plan of joining together two virtually independent pieces in the same way. In 1592 The Countess of Pembroke wrote The Tragedy of Antonie, an English version of Garnier's play.

— Freebase

Vernis Martin

Vernis Martin

In French interior design, vernis Martin is a type of imitation lacquer named for the French brothers Guillaume and Etienne-Simon Martin. It imitated Chinese lacquer and European subjects and was applied to a wide variety of items, from furniture to coaches. It is said to have been made by heating oil and copal and then adding Venetian turpentine.

— Freebase

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé, whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic. He was a major French symbolist poet, and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as Dadaism, Surrealism, and Futurism.

— Freebase

Étienne de Silhouette

Étienne de Silhouette

Étienne de Silhouette was a French Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.

— Freebase

Spring Affair

Spring Affair

"Spring Affair" is a song by Donna Summer from her 1976 album Four Seasons of Love. The song tells of the beginning of a new relationship. At the time of its release, Summer had already started to make her name as the leading female disco singer by releasing frankly sexual songs that were considerable in length. In its entirety "Spring Affair" lasted over eight minutes, though it was edited down for its release as a single. "Spring Affair" was sampled extensively on "Super Disco" by Alex Gopher and Étienne de Crécy from Super Discount.

— Freebase

Orlan

Orlan

Orlan is a French artist, born May 30, 1947 in Saint-Étienne, Loire. She adopted the name Orlan in 1971, which she always writes in capital letters : "ORLAN". She lives and works in Los Angeles, New York, and Paris. She was invited to be a scholar in residence at the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, for the 2006-2007 academic year. She sits on the board of administrators for the Palais de Tokyo in Paris, and is a professor at the École nationale supérieure d'arts de Cergy-Pontoise. Although Orlan is best known for her work with plastic surgery in the early to mid-1990s, she has not limited her work to a particular medium.

— Freebase

CHRC

CHRC

CHRC was a French language Canadian radio station located in Quebec City, Quebec. Known as Québec 800, the station had a news/talk/sports format. Owned and operated by the Quebec Remparts QMJHL franchise, it broadcast on 800 kHz with a power of 50,000 watts as a class B station from a site near the Chaudière River near Saint-Étienne-de-Lauzon in Lévis, using a very directional antenna with the same directional pattern day and night to protect various other stations on the same frequency, including CJAD in Montreal. The station's studios were located at Colisée Pepsi in Quebec City. It was previously part of the Radiomédia/Corus Québec network, which operated across Quebec. On August 9, 2007, Corus announced a deal to sell the station to a group of local businessmen, namely Michel Cadrin, Jacques Tanguay and Patrick Roy, owners of the Remparts. The new owners plan on converting the station to a primarily sports-based format. This application was approved by the CRTC on June 26, 2008. CHRC's alumni include former Premier of Quebec René Lévesque, who was a substitute announcer for CHRC during 1941 and 1942. CHRC announced it would cease operations at the end of the month of September 2012, at the same time discontinuing the last AM radio service from Quebec City. Sports broadcast rights are slated to be transferred to CJMF-FM. CHRC fell silent late in the evening of September 30, 2012. Before leaving the air at 6:06 p.m., the station's final words broadcast were farewell messages from their staff. Parties interested in acquiring 800 includes the Tietolman-Tétrault-Pancholy Media group and Bell Media Radio.

— Freebase

Community of practice

Community of practice

A community of practice is, according to cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger, a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. The group can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally. CoPs exist in offline, for example, a lunch room at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located. They form a “virtual community of practice” when they collaborate online, such as within discussion boards and newsgroups, or a ‘‘mobile community of practice’’ when members communicate with one another via mobile phones and participate in community work on the go. Communities of practice are not new phenomena: this type of learning practice has existed for as long as people have been learning and sharing their experiences through storytelling.

— Freebase

Blanchet

Blanchet

The Blanchet family were French harpsichord-makers from the late-17th century to the mid-19th century, by which time they had become piano makers. Nicolas Blanchet I was born in Reims and by 1686 was living in Paris, where he spent the rest of his life. He became a master instrument-maker in 1689. There was an earlier instrument maker of the same name who worked in Paris in the early 17th century, but it is not known whether the two were related. François-Étienne Blanchet I was the second son of Nicholas Blanchet I and followed him in his craft, becoming a full partner in 1722. He lived his life in Paris, as did all his descendants. He married Elisabeth Gobin in 1727 and they had two children. François Couperin owned a large harpsichord by Blanchet; instruments made by the Blanchet family were of a high quality, much in demand and sold for high prices. Like the Goermans family, the Blanchet family made many ravalements of 17th-century Flemish instruments, especially those of the Ruckers family. Ruckers harpsichords were highly prized in France at that time to such an extent that in some 'Ruckers' instruments only the soundboard was original, or nothing at all.

— Freebase

baud

baud

[simplified from its technical meaning] n. Bits per second. Hence kilobaud or Kbaud, thousands of bits per second. The technical meaning is level transitions per second; this coincides with bps only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop bits. Most hackers are aware of these nuances but blithely ignore them.Historical note: baud was originally a unit of telegraph signalling speed, set at one pulse per second. It was proposed at the November, 1926 conference of the Comité Consultatif International Des Communications Télégraphiques as an improvement on the then standard practice of referring to line speeds in terms of words per minute, and named for Jean Maurice Emile Baudot (1845-1903), a French engineer who did a lot of pioneering work in early teleprinters.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Contrary

Contrary

Contrary was a character from Malibu Comics' Ultraverse. She was created by Gerard Jones and Martin Egeland and first appeared in the series Freex, though she was better known as the founder of Ultraforce. Though it has never been truly confirmed, it is heavily implied in Freex that the nurse nicknamed "Wetware Mary" was the same woman who would eventually become Contrary. Both were humans who had access to the advanced technology of the Fire People, and both manipulated people in various ways for their own agendas.

— Freebase

Broken rhyme

Broken rhyme

Broken rhyme, also called Split rhyme, is a form of rhyme. It is produced by dividing a word at the line break of a poem to make a rhyme with the end word of another line. Gerard Manley Hopkins' poem The Windhover, for example, divides the word "kingdom" at the end of the first line to rhyme with the word "wing" ending the fourth line. Hopkins is rare in using the device in serious poems. More commonly, the device is used in comic or playful poetry, as in the sixth stanza of Edward Lear's "How Pleasant to Know Mr. Lear" or in Elizabeth Bishop's "Pink Dog."

— Freebase

Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage

Bon Voyage is a French film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau, released 16 April 2003. The film was a critical success due in part to its tight interweaving of various genres, including spy, romance, World War II, and comedy. The film features the first reteaming of stars Isabelle Adjani and Gérard Depardieu since 1988's Camille Claudel.

— Freebase

Befriended

Befriended

Befriended is the sixth full-length studio album by American alternative rock band The Innocence Mission. The album was released on 25 August 2003 in the United Kingdom and Ireland by Agenda and on 2 September 2003 in the United States and Canada by Badman Recording Co.. The lyrics to the track "No Storms Come" are adapted from the poem "Heaven-Haven," written by poet Gerard Manley Hopkins.

— Freebase

Green Card

Green Card

Green Card is a 1990 romantic comedy film written, produced, directed by Peter Weir and starring Gérard Depardieu and Andie MacDowell. The screenplay focuses on an American woman who enters into a marriage of convenience with a Frenchman so he can obtain a green card and remain in the United States. Depardieu won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. The film won the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.

— Freebase

CQ

CQ

CQ is a 2001 film written and directed by Roman Coppola. It was screened out of competition at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. It is a homage to 1960s European spy/sci-fi spoofs like Barbarella and Danger: Diabolik and the documentary spoof David Holzman's Diary. The cinematography is done by Robert D. Yeoman. The film stars Jeremy Davies, Jason Schwartzman, Giancarlo Giannini, Gérard Depardieu, Billy Zane, and Angela Lindvall. John Phillip Law also appears. The film features an original soundtrack by French electronic band Mellow, which was released on Emperor Norton Records. CQ was released by United Artists. The title "CQ" is revealed to be code for "Seek You", in line with the movie's theme of seeking and finding love.

— Freebase

Bryn

Bryn

Bryn is a component ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, in Greater Manchester, England. It is part of the larger town of Ashton-in-Makerfield and is geographically indistinguishable from it. It forms a separate local council ward. Served by Bryn railway station, Bryn is home to the Three Sisters Recreation Area which has been created from three large spoil tips which remain from Bryn's role in Lancashire's coal mining past. The Three Sisters Recreation Area is also the site of the Three Sisters Race Circuit, which provides race driving instruction and plays host to kart racing events and motorcycle road race meetings at clubman level. Bryn Hall dates from the fourteenth century but has been the seat of the Gerard family since the thirteenth century or earlier. It was a "safe house" for the English Roman Catholic martyr and saint Edmund Arrowsmith and is reputed to be the burial place of his remains. The Unitarian Park Lane Chapel in Wigan Road was built in 1697, though its congregation was founded in 1662. It is the oldest Non-conformist chapel and congregation in the whole district. By the nineteenth century Park Lane was only one of nine non-conformist chapels in the area.

— Freebase

Bunsen

Bunsen

Bunsen is a lunar crater that lies near the northwestern limb of the Moon. It is located to the west of the Oceanus Procellarum and the crater von Braun. To the southeast is the crater Lavoisier, and to the northeast lies Gerard. Northwest of Bunsen, on the far side of the Moon, is McLaughlin. Due to its position this crater appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth, and its visibility is affected by libration. This crater has become considerably worn and eroded by subsequent impacts, leaving a formation that has been described as disintegrated. The most intact portion of the rim is along the northeastern side. There is a smaller, crater-like formation intruding into the southeastern rim. Within the crater, the floor is pitted by tiny impacts, and has a rille system of criss-crossing clefts near the northern and southern rims. There is a low ridge near the southwest corner of the interior.

— Freebase

Thomas Tallis

Thomas Tallis

Thomas Tallis was an English composer who occupies a primary place in anthologies of English church music, and is considered one of England's greatest early composers. He is honoured for his original voice in English musicianship. No contemporary portrait of Tallis survives: the earliest, painted by Gerard van der Gucht, dates from 150 years after Tallis died, and there is no certainty that it is a likeness. In a rare copy of his signature that exists [in block letters], the composer spelled his last name "Tallys."

— Freebase

Repulsion

Repulsion

Repulsion is a 1965 British psychological horror film directed by Roman Polanski, based on a scenario by Gérard Brach and Roman Polanski. It was Polanski's first English language film, and was shot in London, making it his first feature made outside Poland. The cast includes Catherine Deneuve, Ian Hendry, John Fraser and Yvonne Furneaux.

— Freebase

Barocco

Barocco

Barocco is a 1976 French romantic thriller film, directed by André Téchiné. The film stars Isabelle Adjani, Gérard Depardieu and Marie-France Pisier. Identity, redemption and resurrection are the themes of the film. The plot follows a young woman who convinces her boxer boyfriend to accept a bribe to tell a lie that discredits a local politician. When the boyfriend is murdered, she is racked with guilt until she meets the killer and plans to remake him into the image of her slain lover. The film won three César Awards: Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Cinematography and Best Music. The film had a total of 678,734 admissions in France.

— Freebase

Brethren of the Common Life

Brethren of the Common Life

The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ. Without taking up irrevocable vows, the Brethren banded together in communities, giving up their worldly goods to live chaste and strictly regulated lives in common houses, devoting every waking hour to attending divine service, reading and preaching of sermons, labouring productively, and taking meals in common that were accompanied by the reading aloud of Scripture: "judged from the ascetic discipline and intention of this life, it had few features which distinguished it from life in a monastery", observes Hans Baron.

— Freebase

Colutea

Colutea

Colutea is a genus of about 25 species of deciduous flowering shrubs in the legume family Fabaceae, growing from 2–5 m tall, native to southern Europe, north Africa and southwest Asia. The leaves are pinnate and light green to glaucous grey-green. The flowers are yellow to orange, pea-shaped and produced in racemes throughout the summer. These are followed by the attractive inflated seed pods which change from pale green to red or copper in colour. Colutea arborescens, known as Bladder Senna— John Gerard cautioned, however, that they are not true senna, "though we have followed others in giving it to name Bastard Sena, which name is very unproper to it"— is indigenous to the Mediterranean; it has yellow flowers. It has a height and spread of up to 5 m. Other species include Colutea orientalis, with grey leaves and coppery flowers.

— Freebase

Cliché

Cliché

A cliché or cliche is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning, or effect, and even, to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology, the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage. The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea that is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. Typically pejorative, "clichés" are not always false or inaccurate; a cliché may or may not be true. Some are stereotypes, but some are simply truisms and facts. Clichés often are employed for comic effect, typically in fiction. Most phrases now considered clichéd originally were regarded as striking, but have lost their force through overuse. In this connection, David Mason and John Frederick Nims cite a particularly harsh judgement by Salvador Dalí: "The first man to compare the cheeks of a young woman to a rose was obviously a poet; the first to repeat it was possibly an idiot." Ironically, in making this statement, Dalí was appropriating the words of French poet Gérard de Nerval: "The first man who compared woman to a rose was a poet, the second, an imbecile."

— Freebase

Clematis

Clematis

Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. Their garden hybrids have been popular among gardeners, beginning with Clematis × jackmanii, a garden standby since 1862; more hybrid cultivars are being produced constantly. They are mainly of Chinese and Japanese origin. Most species are known as clematis in English, while some are also known as traveller's joy, a name invented for the sole British native, C. vitalba, by the herbalist John Gerard; virgin's bower for C. viticella; old man's beard, applied to several with prominent seedheads; and leather flower or vase vine for the North American Clematis viorna.

— Freebase

Coq

Coq

In computer science, Coq is an interactive theorem prover. It allows the expression of mathematical assertions, mechanically checks proofs of these assertions, helps to find formal proofs, and extracts a certified program from the constructive proof of its formal specification. Coq works within the theory of the calculus of inductive constructions, a derivative of the calculus of constructions. Coq is not an automated theorem prover but includes automatic theorem proving tactics and various decision procedures. Coq implements a dependently typed functional programming language. It is developed in France, in the PI.R2 team of the PPS laboratory, jointly operated by INRIA, École Polytechnique, Paris-Sud 11 University, Paris Diderot University and CNRS. There was also formerly a group at École Normale Supérieure de Lyon. The project manager of Coq is Hugo Herbelin. Coq is implemented in OCaml. The word coq means "rooster" in French, and stems from a tradition of naming French research development tools with animal names. It is also a reference to Thierry Coquand, who developed the aforementioned calculus of constructions along with Gérard Huet. Also, at first it was simply called Coc, the acronym of calculus of construction.

— Freebase

Anastatica

Anastatica

Anastatica is a monotypic genus with the type species Anastatica hierochuntica. The genus is a member of the family Brassicaceae, in the division Magnoliophyta of the class Magnoliopsida. The plant is a small gray annual herb that rarely grows above 15 centimetres high, and bears minute white flowers. It is a tumbleweed and a resurrection plant. The most commonly used common name in English may be rose of Jericho; other common names include dinosaur plant, Jericho rose, Mary's flower, Mary's hand, Palestinian tumbleweed, resurrection plant, St. Mary's flower, true rose of Jericho, and wheel. About the name "rose of Jericho", the 16th century herbalist John Gerard is said to have remarked The coiner of the name spoiled it in the mint; for of all plants that have been written of not any are more unlike unto the rose. This species is not to be confused with Selaginella lepidophylla, also known as rose of Jericho and false rose of Jericho.

— Freebase

Timeline

Timeline

Timeline is a 2003 science fiction adventure film directed by Richard Donner, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. A team of present-day archaeologists are sent back in time to rescue their professor from medieval France in the middle of a battle. It stars Paul Walker, Frances O'Connor, Gerard Butler, Billy Connolly, David Thewlis and Anna Friel among others. Jerry Goldsmith composed the original score, which would have been his last before his death in 2004, but it was replaced with a new score by Brian Tyler, after the first cut was re-edited and Goldsmith's increasing health problems did not allow him to continue. The film was poorly received by critics and fans of the book and was a box office failure.

— Freebase

Dianthus barbatus

Dianthus barbatus

Dianthus barbatus is a species of Dianthus native to southern Europe and parts of Asia which has become a popular ornamental garden plant. It is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant growing to 30–75 cm tall, with flowers in a dense cluster of up to 30 at the top of the stems. Each flower is 2–3 cm diameter with five petals displaying serrated edges. Wild plants produce red flowers with a white base, but colours in cultivars range from white, pink, red, and purple or with variegated patterns. The exact origin of its English common name is unknown, but first appears in 1596 in botanist John Gerard's garden catalog. The flowers are edible and may have medicinal properties. Sweet william attracts bees, birds, and butterflies.

— Freebase

Mike Tyson

Mike Tyson

Michael Gerard "Mike" Tyson is a retired American professional boxer. Tyson is a former undisputed heavyweight champion of the world and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win the WBC, WBA and IBF heavyweight titles at 20 years, 4 months, and 22 days old. Tyson won his first 19 professional bouts by knockout, 12 of them in the first round. He won the WBC title in 1986 after defeating Trevor Berbick by a TKO in the second round. In 1987, Tyson added the WBA and IBF titles after defeating James Smith and Tony Tucker. He was the first heavyweight boxer to simultaneously hold the WBA, WBC and IBF titles, and the only heavyweight to successively unify them. In 1988, Tyson became the lineal champion when he knocked out Michael Spinks after 91 seconds. Tyson successfully defended the world heavyweight championship nine times, including victories over Larry Holmes and Frank Bruno. In 1990, he lost his titles to underdog James "Buster" Douglas, by a knockout in round 10. Attempting to regain the titles, he defeated Donovan Ruddock twice in 1991, but he pulled out of a fight with undisputed heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield due to injury. In 1992, Tyson was convicted of raping Desiree Washington and sentenced to six years in prison but was released after serving three years. After his release, he engaged in a series of comeback fights. In 1996, he won the WBC and WBA titles after defeating Frank Bruno and Bruce Seldon by knockout. After being stripped of the WBC title, Tyson lost his WBA crown to Evander Holyfield in November 1996 by an 11th round TKO. Their 1997 rematch ended when Tyson was disqualified for biting Holyfield's ear.

— Freebase

Metatextuality

Metatextuality

Metatextuality is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text. This concept is related to Gérard Genette's concept of transtextuality in which a text changes or expands on the content of another text.

— Freebase

Elissa

Elissa

Elissar Zakaria Khoury is a Lebanese singer. She is known for her collaborations with well-known Arab and international artists, notably Ragheb Alama, Cheb Mami, Fadl Shaker, Chris DeBurgh and Gérard Ferrer. Born to a Lebanese father (Zakaria Khoury) and a Syrian mother (Youmna Suud), her debut was in 1992 in Studio El Fan, a popular music competition where she won a silver medal. Her debut album in 1999 was Baddi Doub on EMI followed by W'akherta Ma'ak and Ayshalak. In 2004 she signed with the major pan-Arab label Rotana Records, with Ahla Donya being the debut on the new label, followed by Bastanak, Ayami Beek and Tsadaq Bmein. Elissa's 8th studio album As'ad Wahda was released on June 25, 2012.

— Freebase

Silkworm

Silkworm

Silkworm was an indie rock band active from 1987 to 2005. The members were Tim Midgett, Joel RL Phelps, Andy Cohen, and Michael Dahlquist. Phelps left the band in 1994. Matt Kadane of Bedhead and The New Year played keyboards on Italian Platinum and It'll Be Cool. Dahlquist was killed in July 2005 when his car was rammed from behind by a car whose driver intended to commit suicide. Midgett and Cohen went on to form Bottomless Pit. A feature length documentary, "Couldn't You Wait? The Story of Silkworm", was released in February 2013, featuring interviews with Jeff Tweedy, Steve Albini, Stephen Malkmus, Gerard Cosloy, Clint Conley and other notable admirers. It is currently available streaming and as a DRM free download from their official website. A remastered and expanded 2x12" + CD edition of the third Silkworm album "Libertine" including the group's "Marco Collins Sessions" and two additional tracks will be issued by the label Comedy Minus One in the fall of 2013.

— Freebase

Chanel

Chanel

Chanel S.A. is a French privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gerard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel. Chanel S.A. is a high fashion brand that specializes in haute couture and ready-to-wear clothes, luxury goods and fashion accessories. In her youth, Gabrielle Chanel gained the nickname Coco from her time as a chanteuse. As a fashion designer, Coco Chanel catered to women’s taste for elegance in dress, with blouses and suits, trousers and dresses, and jewelery of simple design, that replaced the opulent, over-designed, and constrictive clothes and accessories of 19th-century fashion. The Chanel product brands have been personified by fashion models and actresses, including Inès de la Fressange, Catherine Deneuve, Carole Bouquet, Vanessa Paradis, Nicole Kidman, Anna Mouglalis, Lucía Hiriart, Hope Portocarrero, Audrey Tautou, Keira Knightley and Marilyn Monroe, who epitomize the independent, self-confident Chanel Girl. Historically, the House of Chanel is most famous for the stylistically versatile “little black dress”, the perfume No. 5 de Chanel, and the Chanel Suit. Chanel’s use of jersey fabric produced garments that were comfortable and affordable. Chanel revolutionized fashion — high fashion and everyday fashion — by replacing structured-silhouettes, based upon the corset and the bodice, with garments that were functional and flattering to the woman’s figure.

— Freebase

Davies

Davies

Davies is a crater on Mars located at 46°N 0°E on the fringe of Acidalia Planitia near Arabia Terra. It is approximately 49 km in diameter. It was named in honor of Merton Davies, a pioneer in the cartography of planetary bodies. An employee of the Rand Corporation, he assisted NASA in mapping Mars with colleagues Gérard de Vaucouleurs and Harold Masursky and defined the prime meridian of Mars as passing through the crater Airy-0. Davies lies on the prime meridian, appropriate because Davies was principally responsible for its delineation. ⁕ Davies Crater, as seen by MTO's CTX.

— Freebase

Nereid

Nereid

Nereid is the third-largest moon of Neptune. It has a highly eccentric orbit. It was the second moon of Neptune to be discovered, by Gerard Kuiper in 1949.

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Boole

Boole

Boole is a lunar crater that lies along the northwestern limb of the Moon, to the northwest of the crater Gerard. At this location it is viewed nearly from the side, and is very oblong in shape due to foreshortening. The crater formation is nearly circular, however, with a wide inner wall that has been worn and rounded due to subsequent impacts. It is named after George Boole. To the north of Boole is the crater Cremona, and to the southwest are Paneth and Smoluchowski. The eroded and somewhat distorted satellite crater Boole E is attached to the southern rim, forming a saddle-shaped valley between the two formations. The interior floor of Boole is relatively flat, and marked only by tiny craterlets. There is a small craterlet on the floor next to the southwest rim, and a tiny crater along the western inner wall. The surface along the western face of Boole is pock-marked by a multitude of small craterlets that run in a northerly direction towards Brianchon. A sequence of these impacts forms a short catena, or crater chain, near the western rim of Boole.

— Freebase

Chartist

Chartist

Chartist is a bi-monthly democratic socialist magazine which has been published in Britain since the 1970s. The magazine's editorial policy is firmly aligned with what was once termed the soft left of the Labour Party, supporting such causes as the Grassroots Alliance slate in NEC elections and the Save The Labour Party initiative. Its readership is not confined, however, to any one wing of the party, there being no left/right divide on many of the topics – such as electoral reform – written about in the magazine. Chartist defines its policy as being "to promote debate amongst people active in radical politics about the contemporary relevance of democratic socialism across the spectrum of politics, economics, science, philosophy, art, interpersonal relations – in short, the whole realm of social life". The current editor is Mike Davis and the magazine's producer is David Floyd. Other members of the Editorial Board are Paul Anderson, Anna Bluston, Duncan Bowie, Peter Chalk, Martin Cook, Don Flynn, Roger Gillham, Peter Kenyon, Gerard Killoran, Peter Latham, Frank Lee, Charmain Moran, John Morgan, Nick Parrott, Pete Smith, Rosamund Stock, John Sunderland, and Chris Wearmouth. Regular outside contributors to the magazine include Ann Black, Bernard Crick, and Denis MacShane.

— Freebase

Focalization

Focalization

Focalization is a term coined by the French narrative theorist Gerard Genette. It refers to the perspective through which a narrative is presented. For example, a narrative where all information presented reflects the subjective perception of that information by a certain character is said to be internally focalized. An omniscient narrator corresponds to zero focalization. External focalization - camera eye. A novel in which no simple rules restrict the transition between different focalizations could be said to be unfocalized, but specific relationships between basic types of focalization constitute more complex focalization strategies; for example, a novel could provide external focalization alternating with internal focalizations through three different characters, where the second character is never focalized except after the first, and three other characters are never focalized at all. The specific domain of literary theory which deals with focalization is narratology, and it concerns not only distinctions between subjective and objective focalizations but various gradations between them, such as free indirect discourse, style indirect libre, or quasi-direct discourse. Narratologists tend to have a difficult time agreeing on the exact definitions of categories in their field; hence its dynamic nature.

— Freebase

Fraticelli

Fraticelli

The Fraticelli were medieval Roman Catholic groups that could trace their origins to the Friars Minor, but which developed into a separate entity. The Fraticelli were declared heretical by the Church in 1296 by Boniface VIII. Other figures included Michael of Cesena and Peter Olivi. The Fraticelli were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status. They were thus forced into open revolt against the whole authority of the Church. The name Fraticelli is used for various heretical sects, which appeared in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, principally in Italy, that separated from the Franciscan Order on account of the disputes concerning poverty. The Apostolics are excluded from the category, because admission to the Order of St. Francis was expressly denied to their founder, Gerard Segarelli. They had no connection to the Franciscans, in fact desiring to exterminate them. It is therefore necessary to differentiate the various groups of Fraticelli, although the one term may be applied to all.

— Freebase

Gerard

Gerard

Gerard is a Japanese progressive rock band. The current members are : ⁕Toshio Egawa : keyboards ⁕Kenichi Fujimoto : drums ⁕Atsushi Hasegawa : bass

— Freebase

Varve

Varve

A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock. The word 'varve' is derived from the Swedish word varv whose meanings and connotations include 'revolution', 'in layers', and 'circle'. The term first appeared as Hvarfig lera on the first map produced by the Geological Survey of Sweden in 1862. Initially, varve was used to describe the separate components of annual layers in glacial lake sediments, but at the 1910 Geological Congress, the Swedish geologist Gerard De Geer proposed a new formal definition where varve described the whole of any annual sedimentary layer. More recently introduced terms such as 'annually laminated' are synonymous with varve. Of the many rhythmites found in the geological record, varves are one of the most important and illuminating to studies of past climate change. Varves are amongst the smallest-scale events recognised in stratigraphy. Varves form only in fresh or brackish water, because the high levels of salt in normal sea water coagulates the clay into coarse grains. Indeed, clay flocculation occurs at high ionic strength due to the collapse of the clay electrical double layer which decreases the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged clay particles.

— Freebase

Codename

Codename

Codename was a short-lived British television series produced by the BBC in 1970. An espionage thriller series, Codename was based around a secret organisation, MI17, being run from a residential hall at Cambridge University. The programme, lasting for one series of thirteen episodes, was produced by Gerard Glaister and starred Clifford Evans, Alexandra Bastedo, Anthony Valentine and Brian Peck. It was preceded by a one-off pilot play, with a different cast. The leads were well known from other series when this series was originally transmitted, Valentine from Callan, Bastedo from The Champions and Evans from The Power Game, and the first episode featured on the cover of the Radio Times. However, the show failed to capture the public imagination, and no further series were made. No episodes survive in the BBC archive, though there is a recording of the pilot.

— Freebase

Kinome

Kinome

In molecular biology, the kinome of an organism is the set of protein kinases in its genome. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation reactions and fall into several groups and families, e.g., those that phosphorylate the amino acids serine and threonine, those that phosphorylate tyrosine and some that can phosphorylate both, such as the MAP2K and GSK families. The term was first used in 2002 by Gerard Manning and colleagues in twin papers analyzing the 518 human protein kinases and the evolution of protein kinases throughout eukaryotes. Other kinomes have been determined for rice, several fungi, nematodes, and insects, sea urchins, Dictyostelium discoideum, and the process of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the primary sequence of kinases shows substantial divergence between unrelated eukaryotes, variation in the motifs that are actually phosphorylated by eukaryotic kinases is much smaller. As kinases are a major drug target and a major control point in cell behavior, the kinome has also been the target of large scale functional genomics with RNAi screens and of drug discovery efforts, especially in cancer therapeutics. In animals, the kinome includes kinases that phosphorylate only tyrosine, those that act on serine or threonine, and a few classes, such as GSK3 and MAP2K that can act on both. It was long believed that serine/threonine kinases played different metabolic roles than tyrosine kinases, the former being used mainly for inducing conformational changes versus the latter being used to create structural "handles" on proteins that to enable binding by an SH2 domain. However, recent research has shown that there are specialized protein domains that bind to phosphorylated serine and threonine residues, such as BRCA and FHA domains.

— Freebase

Texas ratio

Texas ratio

The Texas ratio is a measure of a bank's credit troubles. The higher the Texas ratio, the more severe the credit troubles. Developed by Gerard Cassidy and others at RBC Capital Markets, it is calculated by dividing the value of the lender's non-performing assets by the sum of its tangible common equity capital and loan loss reserves. In analyzing Texas banks during the early 1980s recession, Cassidy noted that banks tended to fail when this ratio reached 1:1, or 100%. He noted a similar pattern among New England banks during the recession of the early 1990s.

— Freebase

Riverman

Riverman

Riverman was a French Thoroughbred racehorse. Foaled in Kentucky, he was bred by Harry F. Guggenheim of the prominent American Guggenheim family. Riverman was from the mare River Lady and sired by Guggenheim's stallion Never Bend, a grandson of the extremely important sire, Nearco. Purchased by French perfume magnate Pierre Wertheimer, head of the House of Chanel, the colt raced under the colors of his wife, Germaine. Trained by Alec Head, Riverman was sent to the track in 1971 where he won the Prix Yacowlef and finished second in the Critérium de Maisons-Laffitte. The following year, he won the Group II Prix Jean Prat plus two Group One races, the Prix d'Ispahan and the Poule d'Essai des Poulains. Sent to race in England, he notably ran third to Brigadier Gerard in July's King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes and second to him in October's Champion Stakes.

— Freebase

Philips

Philips

Koninklijke Philips N.V. is a Dutch multinational engineering and electronics conglomerate headquartered in Amsterdam. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik. It is one of the largest electronics companies in the world and employs around 122,000 people across more than 60 countries. Philips is organized into three main divisions: Philips Consumer Lifestyle, Philips Healthcare and Philips Lighting. As of 2012 Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world measured by applicable revenues. In 2013, the company sold the bulk of its remaining consumer electronics operations to Funai Electric Co. Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a constituent of the AEX index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.

— Freebase

Informetrics

Informetrics

Informetrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, informetrics encompasses the fields of ⁕scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ⁕webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ⁕cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ⁕bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information. The term informetrics was coined by Nacke in 1979. In the western world, 20th century's Informetrics is mostly based on Lotka's law, named after Alfred J. Lotka, Zipf's law named after George Kingsley Zipf, Bradford's law named after Samuel C. Bradford and on the work of Derek J. de Solla Price, Gerard Salton, Leo Egghe, Ronald Rousseau, Tibor Braun, Olle Persson, Peter Ingwersen, Manfred Bonitz and Eugene Garfield . Quantitative analysis of bibliographic data was pioneered by Robert K. Merton with an article later titled Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England and originally published by Merton in 1938.

— Freebase

Mel Gibson

Mel Gibson

Mel Colm-Cille Gerard Gibson AO is an American actor, film director, producer and screenwriter. He was born in Peekskill, New York, moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia, when he was 12 years old, and later studied acting at the Australian National Institute of Dramatic Art. After appearing as an action hero during the 1980s, Gibson went on to found Icon Entertainment, a Production Company which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called, "an alternative to the studio system." In 1995, Gibson produced, directed, and stared in the Academy Award-winning Braveheart. In 2004, he directed and produced The Passion of the Christ, a globally successful film depicting the last hours in the life of Jesus Christ.

— Freebase

Gérard Depardieu

Gérard Depardieu

Gérard Xavier Marcel Depardieu is a French actor, film-maker, businessman and vineyard owner. He is one of the most prolific character actors in film history, having completed approximately 170 movies since 1967. He has twice won the César Award for Best Actor as well as the Golden Globe award for Best Actor in Green Card. After he garnered huge critical acclaim for the title role in Cyrano de Bergerac, which landed him a nomination for an Academy Award, Depardieu acted in many big budget Hollywood movies. He is a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, Chevalier of the Ordre national du Mérite. He was granted Russian citizenship on 3 January 2013 by Russian President Vladimir Putin.

— Freebase

Quarter tone

Quarter tone

A quarter tone, is a pitch halfway between the usual notes of a chromatic scale, an interval about half as wide as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. Many composers are known for having written music including quarter tones or the quarter tone scale, first proposed by 19th-century music theorist Mikha'il Mishaqah, including: Pierre Boulez, Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alberto Ginastera, Gérard Grisey, Alois Hába, Ljubica Marić, Charles Ives, Tristan Murail, Krzysztof Penderecki, Giacinto Scelsi, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Tui St. George Tucker, Ivan Alexandrovich Wyschnegradsky, and Iannis Xenakis.

— Freebase

Phrenitis

Phrenitis

The term phrenitis was employed in ancient Greece by Hippocrates and his followers. It refers to acute inflammation of mind and body, not in a theoretical but in a descriptive sense. Its presumed seat was never anatomically or conceptually well determined. The diagnosis was used during the Middle Ages: a mental confusion or continuous delirium with fever. Phrenitis means an inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain, attended with acute fever and delirium. Symptoms vary widely in severity, from short-lived, relatively slight effects of headache, drowsiness, and fever to paralysis, coma, and death. The ancient phrenitis concept was used until the 19th century. After that time the concept was replaced by the word delirium. By their epigonic character the detailed descriptions of phrenitis by Gerard van Swieten mark only the end of an uncritical use of the term. The epoch-making work of Morgagni, based on clinical-anatomical observations, provides a definitive insight into the location of the condition and into many pathologic features. Pinel is the last author who mentions phrenitis in a classification of diseases. Phrenitis is no longer in scientific use. Nowadays meningitis or encephalitis are diagnosed. Relating to phrenitis: suffering from frenzy; delirious; mad; frantic; frenetic.

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William the Silent

William the Silent

William I, Prince of Orange, also widely known as William the Silent, or simply William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard in Delft four years later.

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The Expert

The Expert

The Expert is a British television series produced by the BBC between 1968 and 1976. The series starred Marius Goring as Dr. John Hardy, a pathologist working for the Home Office and was essentially a police procedural drama, with Hardy bringing his forensic knowledge to solve various cases. The Expert was created and produced by Gerard Glaister. The series was also one of the first BBC dramas to be made in colour, and throughout its four series had numerous high quality guest appearances by actors such as John Carson, Peter Copley, Rachel Kempson, Peter Vaughan, Clive Swift, Geoffrey Palmer, Peter Barkworth, Jean Marsh, Ray Brooks, George Sewell, Anthony Valentine, Bernard Lee, Lee Montague, Geoffrey Bayldon, Mike Pratt, Edward Fox, André Morell, Brian Blessed, Nigel Stock, Philip Madoc and Warren Clarke.

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Esterel

Esterel

Esterel is a synchronous programming language for the development of complex reactive systems. The imperative programming style of Esterel allows the simple expression of parallelism and preemption. As a consequence, it is very well suited for control-dominated model designs. The development of the language started in the early 1980s, and was mainly carried out by a team of Ecole des Mines de Paris and INRIA led by Gérard Berry. Current compilers take Esterel programs and generate C code or hardware implementations. The language is still under development, with several compilers out. The commercial version of Esterel is the development environment Esterel Studio. The company that commercialize it has initiated a normalization process with the IEEE. The Esterel v7 Reference Manual Version v7 30 – initial IEEE standardization proposal is publicly available.

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Nathalie...

Nathalie...

Nathalie... is a 2003 French drama film directed by Anne Fontaine, and starring Fanny Ardant, Emmanuelle Béart, and Gérard Depardieu.

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Philadelphus

Philadelphus

Philadelphus, is a genus of about 60 species of shrubs from 1 to 6 m tall, native to North America, Central America, Asia and in southeast Europe. They are named "mock-orange" in reference to their flowers, which in wild species look somewhat similar to those of oranges and lemons at first glance, and smell of orange flowers and jasmine. But Philadelphus is a basal asterid, not closely related to Jasminum, and among the eudicots quite distant indeed from Citrus. An entirely misleading name for Philadelphus that is sometimes encountered is syringa; this properly refers to the lilacs, which are fairly close relatives of jasmine. The connection of the two shrubs lies in their introduction from Ottoman gardens to European ones, effected at the same time by the Holy Roman Emperor's ambassador to the Sublime Porte, Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, who returned to Vienna in 1562. The two shrubs appear together in John Gerard's Herball, as "Blew Pipe" and "White Pipe Tree", for the wood of both is pithy and easily hollowed out. Philadelphus is named after an ancient Greek king of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

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Inscape

Inscape

Inscape is a concept derived by Gerard Manley Hopkins from the ideas of the medieval philosopher Duns Scotus. [Hopkins] felt that everything in the universe was characterized by what he called inscape, the distinctive design that constitutes individual identity. This identity is not static but dynamic. Each being in the universe 'selves,' that is, enacts its identity. And the human being, the most highly selved, the most individually distinctive being in the universe, recognizes the inscape of other beings in an act that Hopkins calls instress, the apprehension of an object in an intense thrust of energy toward it that enables one to realize specific distinctiveness. Ultimately, the instress of inscape leads one to Christ, for the individual identity of any object is the stamp of divine creation on it. This is related to a logocentric theology and the Imago Dei. A logocentric theology of creation is based on correlation of the Genesis account and John 1. Since all creation is by the Word human identity in God's image is grounded in God's speech and no two creation words are ever spoken alike.* This idea is reflected by J. R. R. Tolkien who compares the Creator to a perfect prism and creation to the refraction of perfect light. Tolkien writes,

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Danza

Danza

Danza is a musical genre that originated in Ponce, a city in southern Puerto Rico. It is a popular turn-of-the-twentieth-century ballroom dance genre slightly similar to the waltz. Both the danza and its cousin the contradanza are sequence dances, performed to a pattern, usually of squares, to music that was instrumental. Neither the contradanza nor the danza were sung genres; this is a contrast to, for example, the habanera, which was a sung genre. There is some dispute as to whether the danza was in any sense a different dance from the contradanza, or whether is was just a simplification of the name. Through the first part of the 19th century the dance and its music became steadily more creolized. The music and the dance is creolized because composers were consciously trying to integrate African and European ideas because many of the people themselves were creoles, that is, born in the Caribbean; accepting their islands as their true and only homeland. Some well-known composers of danzas are Manuel Gregorio Tavárez, "The Father of Puerto Rican Danza", and Juan Morel Campos, considered by many to have raised the genre to its highest level. Others are Cuban Ignacio Cervantes, and Curaçaoan Jan Gerard Palm.

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Sprung rhythm

Sprung rhythm

Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech. It is constructed from feet in which the first syllable is stressed and may be followed by a variable number of unstressed syllables. The British poet Gerard Manley Hopkins claimed to have discovered this previously unnamed poetic rhythm in the natural patterns of English in folk songs, spoken poetry, Shakespeare, Milton, et al. He used diacritical marks on syllables to indicate which should be drawn out and which uttered quickly. Some critics believe he merely coined a name for poems with mixed, irregular feet, like free verse. However, while sprung rhythm allows for an indeterminate number of syllables to a foot, Hopkins was very careful to keep the number of feet he had per line consistent across each individual work, a trait that free verse does not share. Sprung rhythm may be classed as a form of accentual verse, due to its being stress-timed, rather than syllable-timed, and while sprung rhythm did not become a popular literary form, Hopkins's advocacy did assist in a revival of accentual verse more generally.

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Rockets

Rockets

Rockets were a French space rock band that formed in Paris in 1974. Some of the former members had played together since 1970 in a local band called Crystal. In their most successful era the line-up comprised vocalist Christian Le Bartz, bassist and vocalist "Little" Gérard L'Her, guitarist and keyboardist Alain Maratrat, drummer and percussionist Alain Groetzinger, and keyboardist Fabrice Quagliotti. The band went through a number of name changes, being known as the Rocket Men and Rok-Etz, among others. In the year 2000 Fabrice Quagliotti decided to reform the band, but with a totally different line-up. This brought to an anomalous situation, as far as none of the former members agreed to hold a reunion. In fact, the last former member to leave the band was Alain Maratrat, in 1992.

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Tess

Tess

Tess is a 1979 romance film directed by Roman Polanski, an adaptation of Thomas Hardy's 1891 novel Tess of the d'Urbervilles. It tells the story of a strong-willed, young peasant girl who finds out she has title connections by way of her old aristocratic surname and who is raped by her wealthy cousin, whose right to the family title may not be as strong as he claims. The screenplay was by Gérard Brach, John Brownjohn, and Roman Polanski. The film won three Academy Awards and was nominated for three more.

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Gerardia

Gerardia

Gerardia L. is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae. It was once used as the generic name for the genus Agalinis, but based on the rules of the ICBN it is an illegitimate later homonym of Gerardia L. that is now unavailable for use Agalinis. The genus is named for the English herbalist John Gerard. Stenandrium is still preferred because of its widespread and historical use.

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Swietenia

Swietenia

Swietenia is a genus of trees in the chinaberry family, Meliaceae. It occurs natively in the Neotropics, from southern Florida, the Caribbean, Mexico and Central America south to Bolivia. The genus is named for Dutch-Austrian physician Gerard van Swieten.

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Zunk

Zunk

Zunk was an early version of a digital image editor. It was written in 1983 by Gerard Holzmann in the Bell Labs Unix group and inspired by the vismon program. It displayed 48x48 bitmap faces on the jerq bitmap terminal which had been designed by Bart Locanthi and Rob Pike. Due to the large number of options it had, Zunk also became known as the "swiss army knife" of image editing. It later became the pico image editor, as documented in a first book on the digital darkroom from 1988 — now out of print, but viewable online at http://spinroot.com/pico ⁕Beyond Photography – The Digital Darkroom, Prentice Hall, 1988. ISBN 0-13-074410-7

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Gerard P. Kuiper

Gerard P. Kuiper

Gerard Peter Kuiper, Netherlands; died December 24, 1973 in Mexico City, was a Netherlands-born American astronomer after whom the Kuiper belt was named.

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Gerard Manley Hopkins

Gerard Manley Hopkins

Gerard Manley Hopkins was an English poet, Roman Catholic convert, and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets. His experimental explorations in prosody and his use of imagery established him as a daring innovator in a period of largely traditional verse.

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Rheingold

Rheingold

Rheingold was an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse best known as the winner of France's most prestigious race, the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. A descendant of the extremely important sire Nearco through both his sire and his dam, Rheingold showed promise racing at age two when he finished second in the 1971 Champagne and Dewhurst Stakes. He was bred by Dr. James Russell at Bansha Castle, County Tipperary in Ireland. In 1972, Rheingold was beaten a short head by Roberto in the Epsom Derby. He then won the Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud against older horses and finished fourth in the inaugural Benson & Hedges Gold Cup in which Roberto beat the celebrated Brigadier Gerard. The following year, Rheingold finished second in the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes to the great French filly, Dahlia. He won his second straight Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud under jockey Yves Saint-Martin then in the autumn defeated the future French Horse Racing Hall of Fame filly Allez France to win the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe under Lester Piggott, who was winning the race for the first time. Rheingold was retired after the 1973 racing season and stood at stud in Ireland from 1974 to 1979. Among his progeny, he was the sire of two-time Ascot Gold Cup winner, Gildoran and Noir et Or whose wins included the Grade I Grand Prix Prince Rose and Prix du Conseil de Paris.

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Kuiper

Kuiper

Kuiper is a small lunar impact crater in a relatively featureless part of the Mare Cognitum. It is a circular, cup-shaped feature with only some minor wear. This crater was previously identified as Bonpland E before being renamed by the IAU. The lava-flooded crater Bonpland lies to the east at the edge of the Mare Cognitum. To the east-southeast of Kuiper crater is the crash landing site of the Ranger 7 probe, the first American spacecraft to photograph the Moon. Gerard Kuiper was the Project Scientist for the Ranger program, and this feature was named for him after he died in 1973.

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Pirates

Pirates

Pirates is a 1986 Franco-Tunisian adventure comedy film written by Gérard Brach, John Brownjohn, and Roman Polanski and directed by Polanski. It was screened out of competition at the 1986 Cannes Film Festival.

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Zetten

Zetten

Zetten is a village in the Overbetuwe municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands. The village is located in the Betuwe. This is also the base of the youth-clinic Ottho Gerard Heldringstichting, which was quite famous in the Netherlands.

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Cynghanedd

Cynghanedd

In Welsh language poetry, cynghanedd is the basic concept of sound-arrangement within one line, using stress, alliteration and rhyme. The various forms of cynghanedd show up in the definitions of all formal Welsh verse forms, such as the awdl and cerdd dafod. Though of ancient origin, cynghanedd and variations of it are still used today by many Welsh-language poets. A number of poets have experimented with using cynghanedd in English-language verse, for instance Gerard Manley Hopkins. Some of Dylan Thomas' work is also influenced by cynghanedd.

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Brouwer fixed-point theorem

Brouwer fixed-point theorem

Brouwer's fixed-point theorem is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named after Luitzen Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function f with certain properties mapping a compact convex set into itself there is a point x0 such that f = x0. The simplest form of Brouwer's theorem is for continuous functions f from a disk D to itself. A more general form is for continuous functions from a convex compact subset K of Euclidean space to itself. Among hundreds of fixed-point theorems, Brouwer's is particularly well known, due in part to its use across numerous fields of mathematics. In its original field, this result is one of the key theorems characterizing the topology of Euclidean spaces, along with the Jordan curve theorem, the hairy ball theorem and the Borsuk–Ulam theorem. This gives it a place among the fundamental theorems of topology. The theorem is also used for proving deep results about differential equations and is covered in most introductory courses on differential geometry. It appears in unlikely fields such as game theory. In economics, Brouwer's fixed-point theorem and its extension, the Kakutani fixed-point theorem, play a central role in the proof of existence of general equilibrium in market economies as developed in the 1950s by economics Nobel prize winners Gérard Debreu and Kenneth Arrow.

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John Braine

John Braine

John Gerard Braine was an English novelist. Braine is usually associated with the Angry Young Men movement.

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John Bruton

John Bruton

John Gerard Bruton is an Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 1994 to 1997. A minister under two taoisigh, Liam Cosgrave and Garret FitzGerald, Bruton held a number of the top posts in Irish government, including Minister for Finance, and Minister for Industry, Trade, Commerce and Tourism. He became leader of Fine Gael in 1990 and served as Taoiseach from 1994 until 1997, leading the Rainbow Coalition government of Fine Gael–Labour Party–Democratic Left. Bruton was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a TD for Meath in 1969, and served continuously until his retirement from domestic politics in 2004. He served as the Ambassador of the European Union to the United States from 2004–2009, and is a former Vice-President of the European People's Party.

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Complete market

Complete market

In economics, a complete market is one in which the complete set of possible gambles on future states-of-the-world can be constructed with existing assets without friction. Every agent is able to exchange every good, directly or indirectly, with every other agent without transaction costs. Here goods are state-contingent; that is, a good includes the time and state of the world in which it is consumed. So for instance, an umbrella tomorrow if it rains is a distinct good from an umbrella tomorrow if it is clear. The study of complete markets is central to state-preference theory. The theory can be traced to the work of Kenneth Arrow, Gérard Debreu, Arrow & Debreu and Lionel McKenzie. Arrow and Debreu were awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, largely for their work in developing the theory of complete markets and applying it to the problem of general equilibrium. A state of the world is a complete specification of the values of all relevant variables over the relevant time horizon. A state-contingent claim, or state claim, is a contract whose future payoffs depend on future states of the world. For example, suppose you can bet on the outcome of a coin toss. If you guess the outcome correctly, you will win one dollar, and otherwise you will lose one dollar. A bet on heads is a state claim, with payoff of one dollar if heads is the outcome, and payoff of negative one dollar if tails is the outcome. "Heads" and "tails" are the states of the world in this example. A state-contingent claim can be represented as a payoff vector with one element for each state of the world, e.g.. So a bet on heads can be represented as and a bet on tails can be represented as. Notice that by placing one bet on heads and one bet on tails, you have a state-contingent claim of; that is, the payoff is the same regardless of which state of the world occurs.

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Social influence

Social influence

Social influence occurs when one's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. In 1958, Harvard psychologist, Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. ⁕Compliance is when people appear to agree with others, but actually keep their dissenting opinions private. ⁕Identification is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity. ⁕Internalization is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately. Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right, and our need to be liked. Informational influence is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. In terms of Kelman's typology, normative influence leads to public compliance, whereas informational influence leads to private acceptance.

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Sociocracy

Sociocracy

Sociocracy is a system of governance, using consent-based decision making among equivalent individuals and an organizational structure based on cybernetic principles. The most recent implementation of sociocracy by Gerard Endenburg, also known as Circular Organizing, was developed as a new tool for governance of private enterprise, but has been adopted in many different kinds of organizations including public, private, non-profit and community organizations as well as professional associations.

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Khatun

Khatun

Khatun is a female title of nobility and alternative to male "khan" prominently used in the First Turkic Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. It is equivalent to "queen" or "empress" approximately. Before the advent of Islam in Central Asia, Khatun was the title of the Queen of Bukhara. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam: Khatun [is] a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the T'u-chüeh and subsequent Turkish rulers. the Khatun in the Kazakh language, usually refers the married women, still many Kazakh people commonly call their wife as katyn or katun in this modern time. This word not only used in Kazakh language, but also one of the common word in all other Turkic speaking nations such as Turkish, Uzbek, Uighur, Tatar and Kirghiz etc. British Orientalist Gerard Clauson considers "xa:tun" as borrowed from Sogdian "xwat'yn", in Sogdian xwat'y and "xwat'yn"; it is the precise wife'; it is the precise meaning of "xat:un" in the early period; cf. Pers.

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The Wake

The Wake

The Wake are a British post-punk and later indie pop band, founded in Glasgow in 1981 by Gerard "Caesar" McInulty, Steven Allen and Joe Donnelly, who was later replaced by Bobby Gillespie, who was subsequently replaced by Alex Macpherson. Steven's sister Carolyn Allen soon joined, and remained in the band thereafter.

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Tigon

Tigon

A tigon or tiglon is a hybrid cross between a male tiger and a lioness. Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species. The tigon is not currently as common as the converse hybrid, the liger; however, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Gerard Iles wrote that he had been able to obtain three tigons, but he had never seen a liger. The tigon's genome includes genetic components of both parents. Tigons can exhibit visible characteristics from both parents: they can have both spots from the mother and stripes from the father. Any mane that a male tigon may have will appear shorter and less noticeable than a lion's mane and is closer in type to the ruff of a male tiger. It is a common misconception that tigons are smaller than lions or tigers. They do not exceed the size of their parent species because they inherit growth-inhibitory genes from the lioness mother, but they do not exhibit any kind of dwarfism or miniaturization; they often weigh around 180 kilograms.

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1900

1900

1900 is a 1976 Italian epic film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, starring Robert De Niro, Gérard Depardieu, Dominique Sanda, Donald Sutherland, Alida Valli, and Burt Lancaster. Set in Bertolucci's ancestral region of Emilia, the film chronicles the lives of two men during the political turmoils that took place in Italy in the first half of the 20th century. The film was screened at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival, but was not entered into the main competition.

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Lézat

Lézat

Lézat is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Cuve

Cuve

Cuve is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Hundred Days

Hundred Days

The Hundred Days, sometimes known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign and the Neapolitan War. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the King. Napoleon returned while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. On 13 March, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw, and on 25 March, five days after his arrival in Paris, Austria, Prussia, Russia and the United Kingdom, members of the Seventh Coalition, bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule. This set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.

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Count

Count

Count or Countess is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning "companion", and later "companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor". The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl. Alternative names for the "Count" rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as Graf in Germany and Hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era.

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Franche-Comté

Franche-Comté

Franche-Comté the former "Free County" of Burgundy, as distinct from the neighbouring Duchy, is an administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and Territoire de Belfort and has a population of 1,168,208. The principal cities are the capital Besançon, Belfort, and Montbéliard. Other important cities are Dole, Vesoul, Arbois, and Lons-le-Saunier.

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Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville was a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean.

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History of Burgundy

History of Burgundy

The History of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans, and in the 4th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people possibly originating in Bornholm, who settled there and established their own kingdom. However, Agathias identifies Burgunds and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs. This Burgundian kingdom was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks who continued the kingdom of Burgundy under their own rule. Later, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté, literally meaning free county. The situation is complicated by the fact that at different times and under different geopolitical circumstances, many different entities have gone by the name of ‘Burgundy’. Historian Norman Davies has commented that "[f]ew subjects in European history have created more havoc than that summarized by the phrase ‘all the Burgundies’." In 1862, James Bryce compiled a list of ten such entities, a list which Davies himself extends to fifteen, ranging from the first Burgundian kingdom founded by Gunther in the fifth century, to the modern French région of Bourgogne.

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County

County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes in certain modern nations. Its etymology derives from the Old French term, conté or cunté and could denote a jurisdiction in mainland Europe, under the sovereignty of a count or a viscount. The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, Gau, etc.. When the Normans conquered England, they brought the term with them. The Saxons had already established the regions that became the Historic counties of England calling them shires. The Vikings introduced the term earl to the British Isles. Thus, "earl" and "earldom" were taken as equivalent to the continental use of "count" and "county". So, the later-imported term became a synonym for the native English word scir or, in Modern English, shire. Since a shire was an administrative division of the kingdom, the term "county" evolved to designate an administrative division of national government in most modern uses.

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Sochaux

Sochaux

Sochaux is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Concierge

Concierge

A concierge is an employee of an apartment building, hotel or office building who serves guests with duties similar to those of a butler. The position can also be maintained by a security officer over the graveyard shift. A similar position, known as the portero, exists in Spanish-speaking regions. The term "concierge" evolved from the French Comte Des Cierges, The Keeper of the Candles, who tended to visiting nobles in castles of the medieval era. In medieval times, the concierge was an officer of the King who was charged with executing justice, with the help of his bailiffs. Later on in the 18th Century, The Concierge was a high official of the kingdom, appointed by the king to maintain order and oversee the police and prisoner records. In 19th century and early 20th century apartment buildings, particularly in Paris, the concierge often had a small apartment on the ground floor, called la loge, and was able to monitor all comings and goings. However, such settings are now extremely rare; most concierges in small or middle-sized buildings have been replaced by the part-time services of door-staff. Some larger apartment buildings or groups of buildings retain the use of a concierge. The concierge may, for instance, keep the mail of absented dwellers; be entrusted with the apartment keys to deal with emergencies when residents are absent, provide information to residents and guests, provide access control, enforce rules, and act as a go-between for residents and management when management is not on-site.

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Légna

Légna

Légna is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Brie

Brie

Brie is a historic region of France most famous for its dairy products, especially Brie cheese. It was once divided into three sections ruled by different feudal lords: the western Brie française, corresponding roughly to the modern department of Seine-et-Marne in the Île-de-France region; the eastern Brie champenoise, forming a portion of the modern department of Marne in the historic region of Champagne; and the northern Brie pouilleuse, forming part of the modern department of Aisne in Picardy. The Brie forms a plateau with few eminences, varying in altitude between 300 and 500 feet in the west, and between 500 and 650 feet in the east. Its scenery is varied by forests of some size—the chief being the Forêt de Senart, the Forêt de Crécy, and the Forêt d'Armainvilliers. The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes; the subsoil is limestone. The Marne and its tributaries the Grand Morin and the Petit Morin are the chief rivers, but the region is not abundantly watered and the rainfall is only between 20 and 24 inches. Main towns: ⁕Brie-Comte-Robert ⁕Château-Thierry

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Levier

Levier

Levier is a French Commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Scye

Scye

Scye is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Marast

Marast

Marast is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Yorktown

Yorktown

Yorktown is a census-designated place in York County, Virginia, United States. It is the county seat of York County, one of the eight original shires formed in colonial Virginia in 1682. The CDP's population was 195 as of the 2010 census, while the county's population was 66,134 in the 2011 census estimate. The town is most famous as the site of the siege and subsequent surrender of General Cornwallis to General George Washington, and the French Fleet during the American Revolutionary War on October 19, 1781. Although the war would last for another year, this British defeat at Yorktown effectively ended the war. Yorktown also figured prominently in the American Civil War, serving as a major port to supply both northern and southern towns, depending upon who held Yorktown at the time. Today, Yorktown is part of an important national resource known as the Historic Triangle of Yorktown, Jamestown and Williamsburg, and is the eastern terminus of the Colonial Parkway. Yorktown is also the eastern terminus of the TransAmerica Trail, a bicycle touring route created by the Adventure Cycling Association. One of Yorktowns historic sister cities is Zweibrücken in Germany. In the time of the American War of Independence, a German Regt called the Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment was commanded by Comte Christian de Forbach and was one of the four regiments that arrived at Newport with Rochambeau in 1780 and went on to participate in the Battle of Yorktown on the side of the Americans in 1781. Since that time Yorktown is in very close friendship to the German city of Zweibrücken.

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Doubs

Doubs

Doubs is a department in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.

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Electoral district

Electoral district

An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté. Each federal electoral districts returns one Member of Parliament to the Canadian House of Commons; each provincial or territorial electoral district returns one representative — called, depending on the province or territory, Member of the Legislative Assembly, Member of the National Assembly, Member of Provincial Parliament or Member of the House of Assembly — to the provincial or territorial legislature. While electoral districts in Canada are now exclusively single-member districts, in the past, multiple-member districts were used at both the federal and provincial levels. Alberta had a few districts in its history that returned from two up to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. British Columbia had a mix of multiple-member districts in Vancouver and single-member districts elsewhere until the 1991 election, and Prince Edward Island had dual-member districts until the 1996 election.

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Porcelaine

Porcelaine

The Porcelaine is a breed of dog originating from France. It is believed to be the oldest of the French scent hounds. Its alternate name is the Chien de Franche-Comté, named after a French region bordering Switzerland. This caused some debate over the dog's origin, but it has been decided that it is a French dog.

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Bournonite

Bournonite

Bournonite is a sulfosalt mineral species, a sulfantimonite of lead and copper with the formula PbCuSbS3. It was first mentioned by Philip Rashleigh in 1797 as an ore of antimony and was more completely described in 1804 by French crystallographer and mineralogist Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon, after whom it was named. The name given by Bournon himself was endellione, since used in the form endellionite, after the locality in Cornwall where the mineral was first found. The crystals are orthorhombic, and are generally tabular in habit owing to the predominance of the basal pinacoid; numerous smooth bright faces are often developed on the edges and corners of the crystals. Usually, however, the crystals are twinned, the twin-plane being a face of the prism; the angle between the faces of this prism being nearly a right angIe, the twinning gives rise to cruciform groups and when it is often repeated the group has the appearance of a cog-wheel, hence the name Rdelerz of the Kapnik miners. The repeated twinning gives rise to twin-lamellae, which may be detected on the fractured surfaces, even of the massive material. It is a mineral in medium temperature hydrothermal vein deposits. It commonly occurs with galena, tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, stibnite, zinkenite, siderite, quartz, rhodochrosite, dolomite and barite.

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Vanne

Vanne

Vanne is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Bertrand de Molleville

Bertrand de Molleville

Comte Antoine François Bertrand de Molleville was a French politician. He was considered a fiery partisan of royalty, and surnamed the enfant terrible of the monarchy. He was first conseiller to the Parlement de Toulouse in 1766, then maîtres des requêtes in 1774 and finally Intendant de Bretagne, in 1784. Bertrand de Molleville was then charged in 1788 with the difficult task of dissolving the Parliament of Brittany. Favourable to the gathering of the estates general in 1789, he advised Louis XVI after the dissolution of the Assemblée. Made ministre de la Marine et des Colonies from 1790 to 1792, he organised the mass emigration of officers. Due to numerous denunciations, he retired from his functions and became chief of the royal secret police. Before and after the 10 August 1792, he tried to organise an escape for the king, but he was eventually forced to resolve to flee to England himself. Despite his dedication and his friendship for, he was one of his most untalented servants.

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Doctrinaires

Doctrinaires

Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. Headed by Royer-Collard, these liberal royalists were in favor of a constitutional monarchy but with a heavily restricted census suffrage — Louis XVIII, who had been restored to the throne, had granted a Charter to the French with a Chamber of Peers and a Chamber of deputies elected under tight electoral laws. The Doctrinaires first obtained in 1816 the co-operation of Louis XVIII, who had been frightened by the violence of the Ultra-royalists in the Chambre introuvable of 1815. The Ultras, however, quickly came back to government, headed by the comte de Villèle. The Doctrinaires were then in the opposition, although they remained quite close to the government, especially to Decazes who assumed some governmental offices. Closer to a reflexion circle than to a political party, the Doctrinaires were opposed on their left by the Republicans and the "Utopian Socialists" and on their right by the Ultras.

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Delle

Delle

Delle is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France. Delle is the last French town on the railway line from Belfort to Berne, in Switzerland. Visitors to Delle can travel there by bus from Belfort, timetables can be found at: www.optymo.fr There is a Swiss Federal Railways station in Delle for trains to Delemont.

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Caquelon

Caquelon

A Caquelon is a cooking vessel of stoneware, ceramic, enamelled cast iron, or porcelain for the preparation of fondue. The word is from a Swiss French term originating in the 18th century derived from the Swiss German word Kakel meaning an earthenware casserole. The term is in common use throughout Switzerland, and in the Franche-Comté and Provence regions of France. The bottom of a caquelon requires a thickness sufficient to prevent burning of the melted cheese when the vessel is placed over a spirit burner at the table. Nevertheless, an encrusted layer of cheese forms on the bottom called the Grossmutter in German, La Religieuse in French, which is released when the fondue has been consumed and is shared between the diners.

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Boulot

Boulot

Boulot is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, officially Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry, was a French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of France's highest literary awards and also won the U.S. National Book Award. He is best remembered for his novella The Little Prince and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind, Sand and Stars and Night Flight. Saint-Exupéry was a successful commercial pilot before World War II, working airmail routes in Europe, Africa and South America. At the outbreak of war, he joined the French Air Force, flying reconnaissance missions until France's armistice with Germany in 1940. After being demobilised from the French Air Force, he travelled to the United States to persuade its government to enter the war against Nazi Germany. Following a 27-month hiatus in North America, during which he wrote three of his most important works, he joined the Free French Air Force in North Africa, although he was far past the maximum age for such pilots and in declining health. He disappeared over the Mediterranean on his last assigned reconnaissance mission in July 1944, and is believed to have died at that time.

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Lawe

Lawe

The Lawe is a river of northern France, right tributary of the Lys. Its source is near Magnicourt-en-Comte. It flows generally northeast through Houdain, Bruay-la-Buissière, Béthune and Lestrem. It flows into the Lys in La Gorgue.

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Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists".

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Moval

Moval

Moval is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France.

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Peintre

Peintre

Peintre is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Onay

Onay

Onay is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is located 12 km south east of Gray, 60 km east of Dijon and 40 km north west of Besançon, on the route D177. Onay is within the prefecture of Vesoul and the sub-prefecture of Lure.

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Laire

Laire

Laire is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Cordonnet

Cordonnet

Cordonnet is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Anthropomorpha

Anthropomorpha

Anthropomorpha is a defunct taxon which contained the manlike, or anthropoid, apes. The order was established by Carl Linnaeus in the first edition of his book Systema Naturae for genera Homo, Simia and Bradypus. In the 1758 edition of the same book, Linnaeus discarded this name and began to use the word Primates, which has replaced Anthropomorpha completely. The name is no longer considered valid, as the animals that were included within Anthropomorpha are now believed to belong to multiple clades. For example, two-toed sloths were included within Anthropomorpha, but are now considered to be in the family Megalonychidae, which is not closely related to the primates. The taxon Anthropomorpha was originally proposed by Carolus Linnaeus, although Linnaeus' archenemy, the Comte de Buffon, correctly rejected the combination of sloths and humans within the same order.

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Gobelin

Gobelin

Gobelin was the name of a family of dyers, who in all probability came originally from Reims, and who in the middle of the 15th century established themselves in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. The first head of the firm was named Jehan. He discovered a peculiar kind of scarlet dyestuff, and he expended so much money on his establishment that it was named by the common people la folie Gobelin. To the dye-works there was added in the 16th century a manufactory of tapestry. The family's wealth increased so rapidly that in the third or fourth generation some of them forsook their trade and purchased titles of nobility. More than one of their number held offices of state, among others Balthasar, who became successively treasurer general of artillery, treasurer extraordinary of war, councillor secretary of the king, chancellor of the exchequer, councillor of state and president of the chamber of accounts, and who in 1601 received from Henry IV the lands and lordship of Brie-Comte-Robert. He died in 1603. The name of the Gobelins as dyers cannot be found later than the end of the 17th century. In 1662 the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and transformed into a general upholstery manufactory, the Gobelins manufactory.

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Laportea

Laportea

Laportea is a genus of plants in the family Urticaceae. They are herbaceous, either annual or perennial. Like many plants of the Urticaceae, they have stinging hairs, and have stinging and non-stinging hairs on the same plant. The genus contains 22 species, including: ⁕Laportea aestuans Chew. - West Indian woodnettle ⁕Laportea canadensis Weddell. - Canadian woodnettle ⁕Laportea cuneata Chew. - Weedy woodnettle ⁕Laportea cuspidata ⁕Laportea interrupta Chew. - Hawaiian woodnettle ⁕Laportea pterostigma Weddell. - Poisonous woodnettle ⁕Laportea urentissima Gagnep. The genus was named after the French naturalist François Louis de la Porte, comte de Castelnau.

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Colonne

Colonne

Colonne is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Supt

Supt

Supt is a commune in the Jura department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Rogna

Rogna

Rogna is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Chancey

Chancey

Chancey is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Fresse

Fresse

Fresse is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Mouchard

Mouchard

Mouchard is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Vitreux

Vitreux

Vitreux is a commune in the Jura department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Rans

Rans

Rans is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Adolphe

Adolphe

Adolphe is a classic French novel by Benjamin Constant, first published in 1816. It tells the story of an alienated young man, Adolphe, who falls in love with an older woman, Ellénore, the Polish mistress of the Comte de P***. Their illicit relationship serves to isolate them from their friends and from society at large. The book eschews all conventional descriptions of exteriors for the sake of detailed accounts of feelings and states of mind. Constant began the novel on 30 October 1806, and completed it some time before 1810. While still working on it he read drafts to individual acquaintances and to small audiences, and after its first publication in London and Paris in June 1816 it went through three further editions: in July 1816, July 1824 in Paris, and in 1828. Many variants appear, mostly alterations to Constant's somewhat archaic spelling and punctuation.

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Orgelet

Orgelet

Orgelet is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte, Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. She had also an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut.

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Joseph Bonaparte

Joseph Bonaparte

Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.

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Frais

Frais

Frais is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France.

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Chemin, Jura

Chemin, Jura

Chemin is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Écuelle

Écuelle

Écuelle is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Pairie

Pairie

The French word pairie is the equivalent of the English word peerage, in the sense of an individual title carrying the rank of Pair, which derives from the Latin par 'equal', and signifies the members of an exclusive body of noblemen and prelates, considered to be the highest social order -not taking in account the dynasty- and even in a sense the 'equals' of the Monarch as he is seen as their primus inter pares. Peerages attached to fiefs were transmissible or inheritable with the fief, and these fiefs are often designated as pairie-duché for duchies and pairie-comté for countships. The main uses of the word are in reference to: ⁕Peerage of France in the Middle Ages and the Ancien Régime. Although abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, it reappeared after the Revolution. In 1830, hereditary peerage was abolished, but life-time peerage continued to exist until it was definitively abolished in 1848. ⁕Peerage imported into the Holy Land during the Crusades. In the kingdom of Jerusalem, the only crusader state ranking as equal in title to such kingdoms as France and England, there also was a peerage on the French model, using the French language.

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Lods

Lods

Lods is a commune in the Doubs département in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Courlans

Courlans

Courlans is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Brans

Brans

Brans is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Mouthe

Mouthe

Mouthe is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Brères

Brères

Brères is a commune in the Doubs department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Pleure

Pleure

Pleure is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Choux

Choux

Choux is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Velet

Velet

Velet is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Contes, Alpes-Maritimes

Contes, Alpes-Maritimes

Contes is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in south-eastern France. Its inhabitants are Contois. Because the village sounds like the French word comte, the aristocratic title count, it called itself Point Libre during the revolutionary period.

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Corre

Corre

Corre is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Senay

Senay

Senay is a village and a hamlet of Présilly commune in the Jura département, in the French region of Franche-Comté. Senay has maximum 8 houses out of which almost half are occupied by same family who own the land around this Hamlet. Nearest commercial area is Canton of Orgelet. Présilly is well known for its vestiges of a castle dating from the 11th and 14th centuries where every summer open air theatrical shows are organized in the summer. There is an industrial zone between Senay and Orgelet where famous manufacturers like Verchere Plastiques

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Cras

Cras

Cras is a district of Besançon located to the east of the city. Its name comes from the Franche-Comté "Cra" which means "crow".

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Comte George Raphaël Béthenod de Montbressieux

Comte George Raphaël Béthenod de Montbressieux

"Raph" was the racing pseudonym of Comte George Raphaël Béthenod de Montbressieux, a French-Argentine racing driver. He was sometimes listed using his mother's name, "de las Casas".

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Briod

Briod

Briod is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Siege of Savannah

Siege of Savannah

The Siege of Savannah or the Second Battle of Savannah was an encounter of the American Revolutionary War in 1779. The year before, the city of Savannah, Georgia, had been captured by a British expeditionary corps under Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell. The siege itself consisted of a joint Franco-American attempt to retake Savannah from September 16 to October 18, 1779. On October 9 a major assault against the British siege works failed. During the attack, Polish nobleman, Kazimierz Pułaski, fighting on the American side, was mortally wounded. With the failure of the so-called joint American-French attack, the siege failed, and the British remained in control of Savannah until July 1782, near the end of the war. In 1779, more than 500 Haitian volunteers from Saint-Domingue, Haiti under the command of Comte d'Estaing, fought alongside American colonial troops against the British in the Siege of Savannah, one of the most significant foreign contributions to the American Revolutionary War.

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Social progress

Social progress

Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures. This may happen as a result of direct human action, as in social enterprise or through social activism, or as a natural part of sociocultural evolution. The concept of social progress was introduced in the early 19th century social theories, especially those of social evolutionists like Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. It was present in the Enlightenment's philosophies of history. As a goal, social progress has been advocated by varying realms of political ideologies with different theories on how it is to be achieved, ranging from socialists on the left to fascists on the right.

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Alain Robbe-Grillet

Alain Robbe-Grillet

Alain Robbe-Grillet was a French writer and filmmaker. He was, along with Nathalie Sarraute, Michel Butor and Claude Simon, one of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman trend. Alain Robbe-Grillet was elected a member of the Académie française on March 25, 2004, succeeding Maurice Rheims at seat No. 32. He was married to Catherine Robbe-Grillet.

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Lucille Ball

Lucille Ball

Lucille Désirée Ball was an American comedienne, model, film and television actress and studio executive. She was star of the sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy and Life with Lucy, and was one of the most popular and influential stars in the United States during her lifetime. Ball had one of Hollywood's longest careers, especially on television. Her film career spanned the 1930s and 1940s, and she became a television star during the 1950s. She continued making films in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1962, Ball became the first woman to run a major television studio, Desilu, which produced many successful and popular television series. Ball was nominated for an Emmy Award thirteen times, and won four times. In 1977, Ball was among the first recipients of the Women in Film Crystal Award. She was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1979, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986, and the Governors Award from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in 1989. In 1929, Ball landed work as a model and later began her performing career on Broadway using the stage name "Diane Belmont". She assumed many small movie roles in the 1930s as a contract player for RKO Radio Pictures. Ball was dubbed the "Queen of the Bs". In 1951, Ball was instrumental in the creation of the television series I Love Lucy. The show co-starred her then-husband, Desi Arnaz, as Ricky Ricardo, Vivian Vance as Ethel Mertz, and William Frawley as Fred Mertz. The Mertzes were the Ricardos' landlords and friends. The show ended in 1957 after 180 episodes. The cast remained intact for a series of one-hour specials from 1957 to 1960 as part of The Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse. Its original network title was The Ford Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show for the first season, and The Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse Presents The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show for the following seasons. Later reruns were titled the more familiar Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, which was a perennial summer favorite on CBS through 1967. The specials emphasized guest stars such as Ann Sothern, Rudy Vallee, Tallulah Bankhead, Fred MacMurray and June Haver, Betty Grable and Harry James, Fernando Lamas, Maurice Chevalier, Danny Thomas and his Make Room for Daddy co-stars, Red Skelton, Paul Douglas, Ida Lupino and Howard Duff, Milton Berle, Robert Cummings, and, in the final episode, "Lucy Meets the Moustache", Ernie Kovacs and Edie Adams. Ball went on to star in two more successful television series: The Lucy Show, which ran on CBS from 1962 to 1968, and Here's Lucy from 1968 to 1974. Her last attempt at a television series was a 1986 show called Life with Lucy – which failed after 8 episodes aired, although 13 were produced.

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Raynaud's phenomenon

Raynaud's phenomenon

In medicine, Raynaud's phenomenon is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas. This condition may also cause nails to become brittle with longitudinal ridges. Named after French physician Maurice Raynaud, the phenomenon is believed to be the result of vasospasms that decrease blood supply to the respective regions. Stress and cold are classic triggers of the phenomenon. Raynaud's phenomenon includes Raynaud's disease where the phenomenon is idiopathic, and Raynaud's syndrome, where it is caused by some other instigating factor, most commonly connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Measurement of hand-temperature gradients is one tool used to distinguish between the primary and secondary forms. In extreme cases, the secondary form can progress to necrosis or gangrene of the fingertips. Raynaud's phenomenon is an exaggeration of vasomotor responses to cold or emotional stress. More specifically, it is a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system causing extreme vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels, leading to tissue hypoxia. Chronic, recurrent cases of Raynaud phenomenon can result in atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscle. In rare cases it can cause ulceration and ischemic gangrene.

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Lawrence of Arabia

Lawrence of Arabia

Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British-American epic adventure drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. It was directed by David Lean and produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company, Horizon Pictures, with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson. The film stars Peter O'Toole in the title role. It is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of cinema. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre and the Super Panavision 70 cinematography by Freddie Young are also highly acclaimed. The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in Arabia during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council. Its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with the personal violence inherent in war, his personal identity, and his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army and his newfound comrades within the Arabian desert tribes.

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Klippel–Feil syndrome

Klippel–Feil syndrome

Klippel–Feil syndrome is a rare disease, initially reported in 1912 by Maurice Klippel and André Feil from France, characterized by the congenital fusion of any 2 of the 7 cervical vertebrae. The syndrome occurs in a heterogeneous group of patients unified only by the presence of a congenital defect in the formation or segmentation of the cervical spine. Klippel–Feil syndrome can be identified by shortness of the neck. Those with the syndrome have a very low hairline and the ability of the neck to move is limited.

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Karnaugh map

Karnaugh map

The Karnaugh map, also known as the K-map, is a method to simplify boolean algebra expressions. Maurice Karnaugh introduced it in 1953 as a refinement of Edward Veitch's 1952 Veitch diagram. The Karnaugh map reduces the need for extensive calculations by taking advantage of humans' pattern-recognition capability. It also permits the rapid identification and elimination of potential race conditions. The required boolean results are transferred from a truth table onto a two-dimensional grid where the cells are ordered in Gray code, and each cell represents one combination of input conditions. Optimal groups of 1s or 0s are identified, which represent the terms of a canonical form of the logic in the original truth table. These terms can be used to write a minimal boolean expression representing the required logic. Karnaugh maps are used to simplify real-world logic requirements so that they can be implemented using a minimum number of physical logic gates. A sum-of-products expression can always be implemented using AND gates feeding into an OR gate, and a product-of-sums expression leads to OR gates feeding an AND gate. Karnaugh maps can also be used to simplify logic expressions in software design. Boolean conditions, as used for example in conditional statements, can get very complicated, which makes the code difficult to read and to maintain. Once minimised, canonical sum-of-products and product-of-sums expressions can be implemented directly using AND and OR logic operators.

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Pillow Talk

Pillow Talk

Pillow Talk is a 1959 romantic comedy film directed by Michael Gordon. It features Rock Hudson, Doris Day, Tony Randall, Thelma Ritter and Nick Adams. The film was written by Russell Rouse, Maurice Richlin, Stanley Shapiro and Clarence Greene. The film won the Academy Award for Best Writing, and was nominated for Best Actress in a Leading Role, Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color and Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture. This is the first of three movies in which Day, Hudson and Randall starred together, the other two being Lover Come Back and Send Me No Flowers. Upon its release, Pillow Talk brought in a then staggering domestic box-office gross of $18,750,000 and gave Rock Hudson's career a comeback after the failure of A Farewell to Arms earlier that year. In 2009, it was entered into the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant and preserved.

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Liberal education

Liberal education

A Liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a free human being. It is based on the medieval concept of the liberal arts or, more commonly now, the liberalism of the Age of Enlightenment. It has been described as "a philosophy of education that empowers individuals with broad knowledge and transferable skills, and a stronger sense of values, ethics, and civic engagement ... characterised by challenging encounters with important issues, and more a way of studying than a specific course or field of study" by the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Usually global and pluralistic in scope, it can include a general education curriculum which provides broad exposure to multiple disciplines and learning strategies in addition to in-depth study in at least one academic area. Liberal education was advocated in the 19th century by thinkers such as John Henry Newman and F.D. Maurice. Sir Wilfred Griffin Eady defined Liberal Education as being education for its own sake and personal enrichment, with the teaching of values. The decline of liberal education is often attributed to mobilization during the Second World War. The premium and emphasis placed upon mathematics, science, and technical training caused the loss of its prominent position in higher education studies. However, it became central to much undergraduate education in the United States in the mid-20th century, being conspicuous in the movement for 'general education'.

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Delaware Bay

Delaware Bay

Delaware Bay is a major estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States whose fresh water mixes for many miles with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. It is 782 square miles in area. The bay is bordered by the State of New Jersey and the State of Delaware. It was the first site classified in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. The pair of Delaware Capes that denote the outermost boundary of the Bay with the Atlantic are Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The Cape May-Lewes Ferry crosses the Delaware Bay from Cape May, New Jersey, to Lewes, Delaware. Management of ports along the bay is the responsibility of the Delaware River and Bay Authority. The shores of the bay are largely composed of salt marshes and mud flats, with only small communities inhabiting the shore of the lower bay. Besides the Delaware, it is fed by numerous smaller streams. The rivers on the Delaware side include: the Christina River, the Appoquinimink River, the Leipsic River, the Smyrna River, the St. Jones River, and the Murderkill River. Rivers on the New Jersey side include the Salem River, Cohansey River, and the Maurice River. Several of the rivers hold protected status for the unique salt marsh wetlands along the shore of the bay. The bay serves as a breeding ground for many aquatic species, including horseshoe crabs. The bay is also a prime oystering ground. The Delaware Bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on May 20, 1992.

— Freebase

Aubade

Aubade

An aubade is a morning love song, or a song or poem about lovers separating at dawn. It has also been defined as "a song or instrumental composition concerning, accompanying, or evoking daybreak". In the strictest sense of the term, an aubade is a song from a door or window to a sleeping woman. Aubades are generally conflated with what are strictly called albas, which are exemplified by a dialogue between parting lovers, a refrain with the word alba, and a watchman warning the lovers of the approaching dawn. Aubades were in the repertory of troubadours in Europe in the Middle Ages. An early English example is in Book III of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. The love poetry of the 16th century dealt mostly with unsatisfied love, so the aubade was not a major genre in Elizabethan lyric. The aubade gained in popularity again with the advent of the metaphysical fashion; John Donne's poem "The Sunne Rising" is an example of the aubade in English; aubades were written from time to time into the 18th and 19th century. In the 20th century, the focus of the aubade shifted from the genre's original specialized courtly love context into the more abstract theme of a human parting at daybreak. In this reformulated context several notable aubades were published in the 20th century, such as "Aubade" by Philip Larkin. French composers of the turn of the 20th century wrote a number of aubades. In 1883, the French composer Emmanuel Chabrier composed an "Aubade" for piano solo, inspired by a four-month visit to Spain. Maurice Ravel included a Spain-inspired aubade entitled Alborada del gracioso in his 1906 piano suite Miroirs. The composer Francis Poulenc later wrote a piece titled Aubade; it premiered in 1929.

— Freebase

Synthetism

Synthetism

Synthetism is a term used by post-Impressionist artists like Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Louis Anquetin to distinguish their work from Impressionism. Earlier, Synthetism has been connected to the term Cloisonnism, and later to Symbolism. The term is derived from the French verb synthétiser. Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard, Louis Anquetin, and others pioneered the style during the late 1880s and early 1890s. Synthetist artists aimed to synthesize three features: ⁕The outward appearance of natural forms. ⁕The artist’s feelings about their subject. ⁕The purity of the aesthetic considerations of line, colour and form. In 1890, Maurice Denis summarized the goals for synthetism as, The term was first used in 1877 to distinguish between scientific and naturalistic impressionism, and in 1889 when Gauguin and Emile Schuffenecker organized an Exposition de peintures du groupe impressioniste et synthétiste in the Café Volpini at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. The confusing title has been mistakenly associated with impressionism. Synthetism emphasized two-dimensional flat patterns, thus differing from impressionist art and theory.

— Freebase


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