Definitions containing gérôme, léon
We've found 213 definitions:
A city in Castile and Leon
a native or natives of Leon
— Webster Dictionary
, a feminine form of Leo through Leon.
of or pertaining to Leon, in Spain
— Webster Dictionary
an advocate of the communist doctrines of Leon Trotsky
the form of communism advocated by Leon Trotsky; calls for immediate worldwide revolution by the proletariat
— Princeton's WordNet
Leon's Furniture Limited Meubles Léon Limité in Quebec is a Canadian furniture superstore which first opened its store in 1909 in Welland, Ontario. The controlling interest in the company is owned by the Leon family, while some shares are traded publicly on the Toronto Stock Exchange. It has consistently ranked among the top furniture chains in Canada. The company has Leon's stores in all provinces, except British Columbia.
Ferdinand I, Ferdinand the Great
king of Castile and Leon who achieved control of the Moorish kings of Saragossa and Seville and Toledo (1016-1065)
— Princeton's WordNet
|ferdinand the great|
Ferdinand I, Ferdinand the Great
king of Castile and Leon who achieved control of the Moorish kings of Saragossa and Seville and Toledo (1016-1065)
— Princeton's WordNet
The political philosophy named after Leon Trotsky that is characterized by the theory of permanent revolution and the theory of the vanguard party.
|Ponce de Leon|
Ponce de Leon
Ponce de Leon is a town in Holmes County, Florida, United States. The population was 457 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 462.According to Ponce de Leon town Census 2010 results, the population of the area was approximately 598 people. From 2000 to 2010, the Ponce de Leon town population growth percentage was 30.9%.
|Province of Zamora|
Province of Zamora
Zamora is a Spanish province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. The present-day province of Zamora province was one of three provinces formed from the former Kingdom of León in 1833, when Spain was re-organised into 49 provinces. It is bordered by the provinces of Ourense, León, Valladolid, and Salamanca, and by Portugal. Of the 195,665 people in the province, nearly a third live in the capital, Zamora. This province has 250 municipalities.
Léon Samoilovitch Bakst was a Russian painter and scene- and costume designer. He was a member of the Sergei Diaghilev circle and the Ballets Russes, for which he designed exotic, richly coloured sets and costumes. Born as Lev Samoilovich Rosenberg, he was also known as Leon Nikolayevich Bakst.
"With an eye for a more youthful market, award-winning director Ben Leon brings guys in sneakers to the screen for a ride through the San Francisco streets and the places guys hang out. With a completely original score, Leon brings a variety of hot young men together in ecstasy." From the press notes, courtesy of Raging Stallion.
a group of islands in the S. Pacific Ocean, known also as the Viti Islands; they lie between 15°-22° S. lat. and 176° E.-178° W. long., and are a dependency of Britain; sighted by Tasman in 1643, though first discovered, properly speaking, by Cook in 1773, came first into prominence in 1858, when the sovereignty was offered to England and declined, but in 1874 were taken over and made a crown colony; they number over 200 islands, of which Viti Leon and Vanua Leon are by far the largest; Suva is the capital; sugar, cotton, vanilla, tea, and coffee are cultivated, besides fruit.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|TIFFS TREATS HOLDINGS|
TIFFS TREATS HOLDINGS
Tiff's Treats was started in January of 1999 by two University of Texas sophomores, Leon and Tiffany. Originally run only at night for students, we started as small as you can get with $20, a cell phone, and Leon's college apartment oven. One year later we expanded by renting the back kitchen space of a restaurant on the Drag. In 2003, that location moved to its now home in a converted house on MLK & Nueces St. Since then we have opened 11 more locations throughout Austin, Dallas, and Houston.We started simple, and our mission is still simple. We sell classic cookies, made from scratch, right out of the oven. The cookies are hand-delivered warm and fresh straight to you. Or, you can order a gift and have it hand-delivered to someone else. You can also place a pick up order and those cookies will be ready for you, hot out of the oven, when you get here. We strive to be the best in the world at what we do and promise to provide you with the best quality of product and service. We want to bring people happiness so we make every effort to give you the best service possible each time you order.
León Felipe Camino Galicia was an anti-fascist Spanish poet.
Amusic is the record label of East Asia Record Production Co., Ltd. which was formed by businessman Peter Lam and singer Leon Lai on 28 July 2004 with the aim of developing artist with potential and strength to produce music with quality and diversity so as to reward music lovers. Its sister company is East Asia Record Group Co., Ltd. The first artist to be signed by the company is Leon Lai and the first album, "Dawn" was released by the company in 2004. On December 20, 2005, Amusic released a Christmas compilation album consisting of songs of Leon Lai, Janice Vidal, Charles Ying, Jill Vidal and Chapman To. The album purpose is to promote Jill and let the people to know more about her. At the same time, Leon participate in the vocals of Chapman R&B style song "Joy till dawn". In November 2006, Amusic caused a stir when it announced it would release 4 new albums on the same day, November 21. The albums were by Leon Lai, Janice Vidal, her twin sister Jill Vidal, and Chapman To.
Léon Gambetta was a French statesman prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.
|Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance|
Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance
Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance is a book by Anthony Grafton.
Léon Daudet was a French journalist, writer, an active monarchist, and a member of the Académie Goncourt.
Léon Jouhaux was a French trade union leader who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951.
Phantasma is the second studio album by Trance artist Leon Bolier, released on August 30, 2010.
|Almansur, Abu Mohammed|
Almansur, Abu Mohammed
a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century, had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain, when he was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre in 948.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Mathilda is a fictional character from the 1994 crime drama film Léon: The Professional.
Marquez is a city in Leon County, Texas, United States. The population was 263 at the 2010 census.
Sisa is a 1951 film written by Teodorico C. Santos and directed by Gerardo de Leon.
Sword dances are recorded throughout world history. There are various traditions of solo and mock-battle sword dances from China, England, Greece, India, Japan, Korea, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Scotland. Sword-dance forms have remained quite popular in Kathiawar region in India since ancient times. The Rajput Sword Dance and the Mer Dandiya depict battle. The dances often are thrilling depictions of bravery in former battles. In other regions such as the Himalayas, popular dances, such as the Choliya from the Kumaon region of India and the khukri dances from Nepal are also prominent, while all known linked sword dances are from Europe. Female sword dancing was not widespread in the Middle East. Men in Egypt performed a dance called el ard, a martial dance involving upraised swords, but women were not widely known to use swords as props during their dancing in public. However, paintings and engravings by French artist Jean-Léon Gérôme show sword dancers balancing sabers on their heads. Sword dancing is widespread in Iran, Pakistan-India, and Turkey. Raks al sayf evolved out of sword fighting between men, in both Egypt and Turkey. There was even a time when sword dancing was banned by the sultan during Ottoman rule, as it was believed that dancers, who took swords from soldiers and pretended to "kill" them at the end of the performances, collected the swords to begin a resistance against the army. These swords were never returned. A Word on Sword Dancing by Jheri St James
André Léon Blum was a French politician, usually identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
Leona is a city in Leon County, Texas, United States. The population was 175 at the 2010 census.
The municipality of Boñar is located in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2010 census, the municipality has a population of 2,085 inhabitants with almost all of the residents living in the main town of Boñar. In addition to Boñar, the municipality includes the villages of Adrados, Barrio de las Ollas, Las Bodas, Cerecedo, Llama de Colle, Felechas, Grandoso, Orones, Oville, Poblado del Pantano, Rucayo, Valdecastillo, Valdehuesa, La Vega de Boñar, Veneros, Vozmediano, and Voznuevo. Most surrounding villages in the municipality of Boñar have between 10 and 30 permanent residents. A few larger villages may have as many as 250 villagers.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain, the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. With a metropolitan population of 228,881 in 2012 according to the National Institute of Statistics, Salamanca is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid, and ahead of Leon and Burgos. It is the most important university city in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students, generating a diverse environment. It is situated approximately 200 km west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, which was founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca.
Béjar is a town and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It lies 72 km had a population of 15,016 as of 2007.
Puertas is a municipality located in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 91 inhabitants.
Agallas is a village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon.
Villaflores is a municipality located in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 402 inhabitants.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain. Its the capital of Segovia Province.
Léon Walras was a French mathematical economist. He formulated the marginal theory of value and pioneered the development of general equilibrium theory.
one of the chief commercial ports in Spain, in Andalusia; founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B.C.; called Gades by the Romans; at the NW. extremity of the Isle of Leon, and separated from the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges; it is 7 m. from Xeres and 50 m. from Gibraltar, and carries on a large export trade.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Bats is a 1999 horror film, directed by Louis Morneau and produced by Destination Films. The film stars Lou Diamond Phillips, Dina Meyer, Bob Gunton and Leon.
Arthur Leon Burns is a retired discus thrower from the United States. He finished in fifth place at the 1984 Summer Olympics, just behind his medal winning compatriots Mac Wilkins and John Powell.
Codorniz is a municipality located in the province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 453 inhabitants.
Nepas is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 81 inhabitants.
Encinas is a municipality located in the province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 68 inhabitants.
Viñas is a municipality located in the province of Zamora, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 259 inhabitants.
Canales is a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2006 census, the municipality has a population of 57 inhabitants.
Morille is a municipality located in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 213 inhabitants.
Rello is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 33 inhabitants.
Leon Marcus Uris was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. His two bestselling books were Exodus and Trinity.
Jewett is a city in Leon County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,167 at the 2010 census. Jewett is the birthplace of Fritz Von Erich and Romus Burgin.
Peque is a village and municipality in the province of Zamora, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It has a population of approximately 200 inhabitants.
An eponym is a person or thing, whether real or fictional, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named. For example, Léon Theremin is the eponym of the theremin; Louis Braille is the eponym of the Braille word system created by him for use by the blind. Eponyms are aspects of etymology. A synonym of "eponym" is namegiver. Someone who is referred to with the adjective eponymous is the eponym of something. An example is: "Léon Theremin, known as the eponymous inventor of the theremin." An etiological myth can be a "reverse eponym" in the sense that a legendary character is invented in order to explain a term, such as the nymph Pirene, who according to myth was turned into Pirene's Fountain.
Tejado is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 185 inhabitants, and 7 squirrels.
|Fountain of Youth|
Fountain of Youth
The Fountain of Youth is a legendary spring that supposedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks or bathes in its waters. Tales of such a fountain have been recounted across the world for thousands of years, appearing in writings by Herodotus, the Alexander romance, and the stories of Prester John. Stories of similar waters were also evidently prominent among the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean during the Age of Exploration, who spoke of the restorative powers of the water in the mythical land of Bimini. The legend became particularly prominent in the 16th century, when it became attached to the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, first Governor of Puerto Rico. According to an apocryphal combination of New World and Eurasian elements, Ponce de León was searching for the Fountain of Youth when he traveled to what is now Florida in 1513.
"Beauty Queen" is the second song from Roxy Music's second album, For Your Pleasure. The lyrics refer to Ferry's girlfriend, Valerie Leon, one-time UK beauty queen, B-movie actress and model working in the Newcastle area, circa 1973.
|On the Track|
On the Track
On the Track is Leon Redbone's debut album, released on Warner Bros. Records in 1975 and reissued on CD in 1988. It peaked at #87 on the Billboard Pop Albums charts. The collection of songs features cover art by Chuck Jones.
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 81,522 in 2011.
Caleruega is a small town and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain. It is part of the Province of Burgos. The town is a few miles south of the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos.
|Province of Ávila|
Province of Ávila
Ávila is a province of central-western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered on the south by the provinces of Toledo and Cáceres, on the west by Salamanca, on the north by Valladolid, and on the east by Segovia and Madrid. Ávila has a population of 165,138. Its capital is Ávila.
The Bernoullis were a patrician family of merchants and scholars, originally from Antwerp, who settled in Basel, Switzerland. The name is sometimes misspelled Bernou-ill-i and mispronounced accordingly. Leon Bernoulli was a doctor in Antwerp, which at that time was in the Spanish Netherlands. He died in 1561 and in 1570 his son, Jacob, emigrated to Frankfurt am Main to escape from the Spanish persecution of the Huguenots. Jacob’s grandson, a spice trader also named Jacob, moved in 1620 to Basel, Switzerland, and was granted Swiss citizenship. His son Niklaus, Leon’s great-great-grandson, married Margarethe Schönauer. Niklaus had three sons: ⁕Jacob Bernoulli Mathematician after whom Bernoulli numbers are named. ⁕Nicolaus Bernoulli Painter and alderman of Basel. ⁕Johann Bernoulli Mathematician and early adopter of infinitesimal calculus. In addition to those mentioned above, the Bernoulli family produced many notable artists and scientists, in particular a number of famous mathematicians in the 18th century: ⁕Nicolaus I Bernoulli Mathematician.
Simplified is a Simply Red album released in 2005. It features new, rearranged recordings of the band's older songs, and four new songs: "Perfect Love" and an alternate version, "My Perfect Love", a cover of Leon Russell's "A Song for You", and "Smile".
Artis Leon Ivey Jr., better known by the stage name Coolio, is an American musician, rapper, actor, and record producer. He is best known for the song "Gangsta's Paradise", and the theme song for Kenan & Kel, a Nickelodeon show from 1996 to 2000.
|Knock on Wood|
Knock on Wood
Knock on Wood is a 1954 comedy starring Danny Kaye and Mai Zetterling. Other actors in the film include Torin Thatcher, David Burns, and Leon Askin. The film was written and directed by Melvin Frank and Norman Panama, with songs by Kaye's wife, Sylvia Fine.
An écorché is a figure drawn, painted, or sculpted showing the muscles of the body without skin. Renaissance architect and theorist, Leon Battista Alberti recommended that when painters intend to depict a nude, they should first arrange the muscles and bones, then depict the overlying skin.
Regards is a French news magazine. Created in 1932 as a Communist title, it is primarily known for photojournalism, and pre-dated other pictorial magazines such as Life and Paris-Match. Regards was a periodical which launched photojournalism in the years before World War II. Leon Moussinac, critic and film theorist, a friend of Leon Delluc, runs the magazine. Robert Capa and Henri Cartier-Bresson are core photographers. The magazine stopped publication in 1962, and then reappeared in 1995, under the leadership of the communist Henri Malberg. In 2000, it again reorganized under new management, trying to return to the original concept, of investigation of the world through photojournalism, surveys and contributions of intellectuals. According to the magazine's website, its modern readership is mainly composed of intellectuals and actors involved in social and political life. After a second bankruptcy in October 2003, employees decided to create a "Scop" or Cooperative. Roger Martelli and Clementine Autain ensure the direction of writing, and Remi Duat is the editor in chief.
Charly is a 1968 American film directed by Ralph Nelson. The drama stars Cliff Robertson, Claire Bloom, Lilia Skala, Leon Janney and Dick Van Patten and tells the story of a intellectually disabled bakery worker who is the subject of an experiment to increase human intelligence. Stirling Silliphant adapted the movie from the novel Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes.
Ulmus serotina Sarg., the September Elm, is an American species uncommon beyond Tennessee; only very locally distributed through Illinois, Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Alabama and Georgia, growing predominantly on limestone bluffs and along streams to elevations of 400 m. The tree is also endemic to Nuevo León in Mexico.
Pertinent was an Australian monthly periodical edited by Leon Batt. Contributors included Ian Mudie, Kylie Tennant, William Hart-Smith, the artist Rosaleen Norton and the poet Gavin Greenlees, Dulcie Deamer, Yvonne Webb, George Farwell, Marjorie Quinn, Marien Dreyer, and Robert Crossland Started in 1940 the magazine ceased publication in 1947.
Unstoppable is the sixth full-length release from The Planet Smashers. Because both Leon Kingstone and J.O. Begin left after Mighty was recorded, Unstoppable features an entirely new horn section: Neil "Lonestar" Johnson and Andrew Lattoni. It also features cameos from Big D & The Kids Table and Bedouin Soundclash.
Leon N Cooper is an American physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, who with John Bardeen and John Robert Schrieffer, developed the BCS theory of superconductivity. He is also the namesake of the Cooper pair and co-developer of the BCM theory of synaptic plasticity.
Cornus florida is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southern Ontario, Illinois, and eastern Kansas, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas, with a disjunct population in Nuevo León and Veracruz in eastern Mexico.
|Juan Ponce de León|
Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. He became the first Governor of Puerto Rico by appointment of the Spanish crown. He led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named. He is associated with the legend of the Fountain of Youth, reputed to be in Florida.
Isaac Deutscher was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II. He is best known as a biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. His three-volume biography of Trotsky, in particular, was highly influential among the British New Left.
the Wise, or the Astronomer, king of Castile and Leon, celebrated as an astronomer and a philosopher; after various successes over the Moors, first one son and then another rose against him and drove him from the throne; died of chagrin at Seville two years later. His fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables, and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine, and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice." It was a saying of his, "old wood to burn, old books to read, old wine to drink, and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Lucero Hogaza León, better known as Lucero, is a Mexican singer and actress. She has sold over 27 million albums worldwide. She has sung songs in Spanish, Portuguese and English. She started her career at the age of 10 as Lucerito. She was married with the singer Manuel Mijares, with whom she has two children.
Piñero is a 2001 biopic about the troubled life of Nuyorican poet and playwright Miguel Piñero, starring Benjamin Bratt as the titular character. It was written and directed by the Cuban filmmaker, Leon Ichaso. It premiered at the Montreal Film Festival on 31 August 2001. It then received a limited theatrical release in the United States on 13 December 2001.
Castile is a Spanish historical region of vague borders, which is the result of a gradual merge of the Kingdom of Castile with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain when united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre. In modern-day Spain, it is usually considered to comprise a part of the autonomous community of Castile and León in the north-west, and Castile–La Mancha and Madrid in the center and the central-south-west of the country, sometimes including Cantabria and La Rioja in the north as well, for historical reasons. However, there are different versions about the exact boundaries of Castile, and since it lacks modern day official recognition, it has no official borders. It was traditionally divided between Old Castile, which from 1833 was Cantabria, La Rioja and the eastern half of Castile and León and New Castile, which was Castile–La Mancha and the Community of Madrid. Modern Spanish monarchs are numbered according to the system of Castile. Castile's name is thought to mean "land of castles", in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. The Spanish word for castle is actually castillo.
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. The composite order volutes are larger, however, and the composite order also has echinus molding with egg-and-dart ornamentation between the volutes. The column of the composite order is ten diameters high. Until the Renaissance, the composite was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was considered as a late Roman form of the Corinthian order. The Arch of Titus, in the forum in Rome, built in 82 AD, is considered the first example of a Composite order. The Composite order, due to its delicate appearance, was deemed by the Renaissance to be suitable for the building of churches dedicated to The Virgin Mary or other female saints. Sebastiano Serlio, published his famous book I sette libri d'architettura in 1537 in which he was the second to mention the Composite order as its own order and not just as an evolution of the Corinthian order as previously suggested by Leon Battista Alberti. In fact Leon Battista Alberti in his De re aedificatoria mentions the composite order calling it "Italic". Bramante used the Composite order in the second order of the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace, Rome. For the first order the Ionic order was used.
Ushant, or Ile d'Ouessant is an island at the south-western end of the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of metropolitan France. It belongs to Brittany and is in the traditional region of Bro-Leon. Administratively, Ushant is a commune in the Finistère department. It is the only place in Brittany with a separate name in English.
"Creative" was released in November 2008 as the third single from Leon Jackson's debut album Right Now. To promote the track Jackson appeared on the official BBC Children in Need 2008 show performing the song as a "exclusive" as this was the first time Jackson had performed the track. The song went onto debut at #94 on the UK Singles Charts.
Cornus sericea, syn. C. stolonifera, Swida sericea, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east. Other names include red willow, redstem dogwood, redtwig dogwood, red-rood, American dogwood, creek dogwood, and western dogwood.
Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois was a French statesman. His ideas influenced the Radical Party regarding a wide range of issues. He promoted progressive taxation such as progressive income taxes and social insurance schemes, along with economic equality, expanded educational opportunities, and cooperatives. In foreign policy, he called for a strong League of Nations, and the maintenance of peace through compulsory arbitration, controlled disarmament, economic sanctions, and perhaps an international military force.
Leontopodium is a genus of plants in the daisy family, which includes edelweiss, a well-known plant from the mountains of Europe. The term edelweiss can, more rarely, refer to other members of the genus. The genus contains about 30 species, native to Europe and Asia. The fuzzy and somewhat stocky "petals" could be thought of as somewhat resembling lions' paws —hence the genus name combining léōn and pódion.
Old Castile is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander, Burgos, Logroño, Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid, Palencia. Its origins are in the historic Castile that was formed in the 9th century in the zone now comprised by Cantabria, Álava, and Burgos. In the 18th century, Charles III of Spain assigned to the so-called kingdom of Castilla la Vieja the provinces of Burgos, Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid, and Palencia. The royal decree of 30 November 1833, the reform of Javier de Burgos, established the basis for the division of Spain into provinces that, with a few modifications, continues down to the present day. Another royal decree, on 30 November 1855, divided Spain into 49 provinces, and assigned the provinces of Valladolid and Palencia to the Kingdom of León, leaving to Castilla la Vieja only Santander, Burgos, Logroño, Soria, Segovia, and Ávila. Although there were further reform efforts in the 19th century, this division is reflected in the encyclopedias, geographies, and textbooks from the mid-19th century until it was supreseded in the second half of the 20th century. For example, early editions of Enciclopedia Espasa, of the Encyclopædia Britannica and the popular student encyclopedia Álvarez all follow this division of provinces into Castilla la Vieja and León.
The memristor was originally envisioned in 1971 by circuit theorist Leon Chua as a missing non-linear passive two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. Leon Chua has more recently argued that the memristor definition could be generalized to cover all forms of 2-terminal non-volatile memory devices based on resistance switching effects although some experimental evidence contradicts this claim since a non-passive "nanobattery" effect is observable in resistance switching memory. Chua has also argued that the memristor is the oldest known circuit element with its effects predating the resistor, capacitor and inductor. The memristor is currently under development by various teams including Hewlett-Packard, SK Hynix, and HRL Laboratories. When current flows in one direction through a memristor, the electrical resistance increases; and when current flows in the opposite direction, the resistance decreases. When the current is stopped, the memristor retains the last resistance that it had, and when the flow of charge starts again, the resistance of the circuit will be what it was when it was last active. The memristor device described by HP is said to have a regime of operation with an approximately linear charge-resistance relationship as long as the time-integral of the current stays within certain bounds.
A political revolution, in the Trotskyist theory, is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. The revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848 are often cited as political revolutions. Political Revolutions are contrasted with social revolutions in which old property relations are overturned. Leon Trotsky's book, The Revolution Betrayed, is the most widely cited development of the theory.
The Ebro or Ebre is one of the most important rivers in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the biggest river by discharge volume in Spain. The Ebro flows through the following cities: ⁕Reinosa in Cantabria ⁕Frías and Miranda de Ebro in Castile and León ⁕Haro, Logroño, Calahorra, and Alfaro in La Rioja ⁕Tudela in Navarre ⁕Alagón, Utebo, Zaragoza, and Caspe in Aragon ⁕Flix, Móra d'Ebre, Benifallet, Tivenys, Xerta, Aldover, Tortosa, and Amposta in Catalonia
The muon neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has the symbol ν μ and no net electric charge. Together with the muon it forms the second generation of leptons, hence its name muon neutrino. It was first hypothesized in the early 1940s by several people, and was discovered in 1962 by Leon Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger. The discovery was rewarded with the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics.
The Upsilon meson is a flavorless meson formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. It was discovered by the E288 collaboration, headed by Leon Lederman, at Fermilab in 1977, and was the first particle containing a bottom quark to be discovered because it is the lightest that can be produced without additional massive particles. It has a lifetime of 1.21×10^−20 s and a mass about 9.46 GeV/c².
Rueda is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the Community of Castile and León. It comprises 72 municipalities, of which 53 are in the province of Valladolid, 17 are in the north of the province of Segovia, and 2 are in the north of the province of Ávila. It is known primarily for its fine white wines based on the verdejo grape.
Static is a fictional comic book superhero appearing in books published by DC Comics. Created by writers Dwayne McDuffie and Robert L. Washington III, and artist John Paul Leon, Static first appeared in Static #1, one of the titles published by Milestone Comics, an imprint of DC Comics. After the closing of Milestone Comics, Static became part of DC's mainstream universe of characters, and a member of the Teen Titans.
Zamarra is a municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. It is located 100 kilometres from the city of Salamanca and as of 2003 has a population of 68 people. The municipality covers an area of 47.88 km². The village lies 778 metres above sea level. The post code is 37591. The municipality has a hamlet Villarejo, which has 25 people. List of municipalities in Salamanca
The Zohar is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah and scriptural interpretations as well as material on Mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology. The Zohar contains a discussion of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God," and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash, which elaborates on the Torah. The Zohar is mostly written in what has been described as an exalted, eccentric style of Aramaic, which was the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period, was the original language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and is the main language of the Talmud. The Zohar first appeared in Spain in the 13th century, and was published by a Jewish writer named Moses de Leon. De Leon ascribed the work to Shimon bar Yochai, a rabbi of the 2nd century during the Roman persecution who, according to Jewish legend, hid in a cave for thirteen years studying the Torah and was inspired by the Prophet Elijah to write the Zohar. This accords with the traditional claim by adherents that Kabbalah is the concealed part of the Oral Torah.
The Texas Tortoise, is one of four species of tortoise that are native to North America. Its range extends from southern Texas southward into the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. The epithet berlandieri is in honor of the Belgian naturalist Jean Louis Berlandier, who worked for the Mexican government on one of the first biological surveys of Texas. As such, some sources refer to it as Berlandier's Tortoise.
The Foucault pendulum, or Foucault's pendulum, named after the French physicist Léon Foucault, is a simple device conceived as an experiment to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. While it had long been known that the Earth rotated, the introduction of the Foucault pendulum in 1851 was the first simple proof of the rotation in an easy-to-see experiment. Today, Foucault pendulums are popular displays in science museums and universities.
Disraeli is a 1929 American historical film directed by Alfred E. Green, released by Warner Brothers, and adapted by Julien Josephson and De Leon Anthony from the 1911 play Disraeli by Louis N. Parker. The film stars George Arliss as British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His performance won him the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. The story revolves around the British plan to buy the Suez Canal and the efforts of two spies to stop it.
|Léon: The Professional|
Léon: The Professional
Léon: The Professional is a 1994 English-language French thriller film written and directed by Luc Besson. The film stars Jean Reno as the titular mob hitman; Gary Oldman as corrupt DEA agent Norman Stansfield; a young Natalie Portman, in her feature film debut, as Mathilda, a 12-year-old girl who is taken in by the hitman after her family is murdered; and Danny Aiello as Tony, the mobster who gives the hitman his assignments.
Lema was a 'blue plan' front-company of the Civil Cooperation Bureau established in Johannesburg with offices in Parktown by ex-policeman Leon André Maree. The company's name was derived from the first two letters of its founder's name and surname. It exported electronic appliances, computers, pocket calculators, and watches from South Africa to other African countries. Lema was funded with at least R40 000 by the South African Defence Force.
Kinky is a five-member band from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, formed in 1998 as part of the Avanzada Regia musical movement and consisting of Gilberto Cerezo, Ulises Lozano, Carlos Chairez, Omar Góngora, and Cesar Pliego. The band's music is heavily influenced by Latin music, rock, dance, and techno. Although a majority of songs are sung in Spanish, some songs contain English lyrics. Since the release of their studio album, Kinky have been signed with Sonic360 Records.
Foucault is a small lunar impact crater that lies along the southern edge of Mare Frigoris, to the southeast of the crater Harpalus. In the rugged terrain to the south of Foucault is Sharp. The outer perimeter of Foucault forms a somewhat irregular circle, with slight outward bulges to the south and northeast. The inner wall of the rim is not notably terraced, and slopes down directly to the uneven floor. It is named after physicist Léon Foucault, most famous for the Foucault pendulum.
The Dominickers were a small biracial or triracial ethnic group that was once centered in the Florida Panhandle county of Holmes, in a corner of the southern part of the county west of the Choctawhatchee River, near the town of Ponce de Leon. The group was classified in 1950 as one of the "reputed Indian-White-Negro racial isolates of the Eastern United States" by the United States Census Bureau. Few facts are known about their origins, and little has been published about this group.
Boccaccio, or the Prince of Palermo is an operetta in three acts by Franz von Suppé to a German libretto by Camillo Walzel and Richard Genée, based on the play by Jean-François-Antoine Bayard, Adolphe de Leuven, Léon Lévy Brunswick and Arthur de Beauplan, based in turn on the Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio. The opera was first performed at the Carltheater, Vienna, February 1, 1879. An English translation was done by Oscar Weil and Gustav Hinrichs ca. 1883.
In condensed matter physics, a Cooper pair or BCS pair is two electrons that are bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper. Cooper showed that an arbitrarily small attraction between electrons in a metal can cause a paired state of electrons to have a lower energy than the Fermi energy, which implies that the pair is bound. In conventional superconductors, this attraction is due to the electron–phonon interaction. The Cooper pair state is responsible for superconductivity, as described in the BCS theory developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer for which they shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. Although Cooper pairing is a quantum effect, the reason for the pairing can be seen from a simplified classical explanation. An electron in a metal normally behaves as a free particle. The electron is repelled from other electrons due to their negative charge, but it also attracts the positive ions that make up the rigid lattice of the metal. This attraction distorts the ion lattice, moving the ions slightly toward the electron, increasing the positive charge density of the lattice in the vicinity. This positive charge can attract other electrons. At long distances this attraction between electrons due to the displaced ions can overcome the electrons' repulsion due to their negative charge, and cause them to pair up. The rigorous quantum mechanical explanation shows that the effect is due to electron–phonon interactions.−3¹
Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 400 km south of the U.S. state of Texas, and 90 km west of Monterrey, Nuevo León. As of the 2005 census, Saltillo had a population of 725,095 people. 823,098 people reside within the metropolitan area, making it the 19th biggest metro area in the country. The metro area comprises the municipalities of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, and Arteaga.
The Trinity River is a 710-mile long river that is the longest river that flows entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. It rises in extreme north Texas, a few miles south of the Red River. The headwaters are separated by the high bluffs on the south side of the Red River. Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in 1687, called the stream the "River of Canoes". The name "Trinity" came three years later in 1690 from Alonso De León, who called the stream the "La Santísima Trinidad".
Sweety is a Mandopop band from Taiwan, a duo consisting of Esther Liu and Joanne Tseng. As of 2006, Sweety has released three studio albums and two soundtracks. The duo was formed in 2003 when Esther and Joanne were only 14 years old. Both members of the band are also actresses. Esther Liu starred as the lead actress in, respectively, Green Forest, My Home with Leon Jay Williams and Ethan Juan and The Magicians of Love in which Joanne was the Lead actress.
Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area. The municipality of Guadalupe, which lies adjacent to the east side of Monterrey, also borders the municipalities of San Nicolás de los Garza, Apodaca, Pesquería, and Juárez. Covering a territory of 151.3 km², it is located at 25°41′N 100°16′W / 25.683°N 100.267°W, at an altitude of 500 meters above sea level. As of the 2005 census its official population was 691,434 in the city and 691,931 in the entire municipality. It is the second-largest city and municipality in the state. The municipality has an area of 151.3 km². The city was founded on January 4, 1716, but the land was inhabited long before that. When Monterrey was founded in 1596, the land, which was populated by various indigenous tribes, was ceded to Diego de Montemayor, the founder of Monterrey, but he did not make use of the land. In 1627, the land was turned into large plantations, where sugar cane and corn was raised. The owner of the land during around the time of the turn of the 18th century was named Capitán Nicolás Ochoa de Elejalde, but the land was taken from him by the Spanish government and converted into a mission in February, 1715. In 1756, the city was renamed the "Pueblo de la Nueva Tlaxcala de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Horcasitas". On March 5, 1825, the city was declared a municipality of Nuevo León and categorized as a villa, even though for many years it continued to be called the "Villa de Guadalupe".
Onís is a municipality and a parish in the Autonomous Community of the Principality of Asturias, Spain. The municipality is bordered on the north by Llanes, on the south by the province of León, to the east by Cabrales and to the west by Cangas de Onís. The area of the municipality is 75 km², being more of a third of its territory in the Picos de Europa National Park. The population is dispersed over various population centers, being its capital de Benia de Onís. In 2007, the population is of 920 inhabitants, increasing remarkably during holiday times. The source of the Güeña River, main affluent of the Sella River, is lowest point of the municipality with 175 m. Part of the Picos de Europa, the Pico de Verdilluenga is the highest point of the municipality with 2,129 m.
Legrandite is a rare zinc arsenate mineral, Zn2·. It is an uncommon secondary mineral in the oxidized zone of arsenic bearing zinc deposits and occurs rarely in granite pegmatite. Associated minerals include: adamite, paradamite, kottigite, scorodite, smithsonite, leiteite, renierite, pharmacosiderite, aurichalcite, siderite, goethite and pyrite. It has been reported from Tsumeb, Namibia; the Ojuela mine in Durango, Mexico and at Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USA. It was first described in 1934 for an occurrence in the Flor de Peña Mine, Nuevo Leon, Mexico and named after M. Legrand, a Belgian mining engineer .
|South American sea lion|
South American sea lion
The South American sea lion, also called the southern sea lion and the Patagonian sea lion, is a sea lion found on the Chilean, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Argentine and Southern Brazilian coasts. It is the only member of the genus Otaria. Its scientific name was subject to controversy, with some taxonomists referring to it as Otaria flavescens and others referring to it as Otaria byronia. The former eventually won out, although that may still be overturned. Locally, it is known by several names, most commonly lobo marino and león marino.
Gaura parviflora is a species of Gaura native to the central United States and northern Mexico, from Nebraska and Wyoming south to Durango and Nuevo Leon. It is an annual plant growing to 0.2–2 m tall, unbranched, or if branched, only below the flower spikes. The leaves are 2–20 cm long, lance-shaped, and are covered with soft hair. The flower spikes are 20–30 cm long, covered with green flower buds, which open at night or before dawn with small flowers 5 mm diameter with four pink petals.
Zinnia acerosa is a low growing perennial flowering plant that is native to the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Common names include desert zinnia, wild zinnia, white zinnia and spinyleaf zinnia. It is a popular landscape plant in the southwest due to its low water use and long bloom period. The flowers also serve as a food source for southwestern butterflies. In the United States it occurs in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas and in Mexico it is found in Sonora, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí.
Treviño is the capital of the municipality Condado de Treviño, province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. The Condado de Treviño and the geographically smaller La Puebla de Arganzón make up the enclave of Treviño. Although the enclave is part of Burgos it is surrounded by the province of Álava, part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Hence, properly speaking, the enclave of Treviño is an enclave within Álava, and an exclave of Burgos.
Vicious Cycle is the tenth studio album by Lynyrd Skynyrd, released in 2003. It was the first album by the band following the death of original bassist Leon Wilkeson, the song Mad Hatter being a tribute in memory to him. He died during recording, but does appear on two songs, "The Way" and "Lucky Man". It included the single "Red, White & Blue" which peaked at *1 on the US charts. The CD booklet contains a recount by year of events in the band's history since 1964. In the album, Kid Rock features in the bonus track, a remake of "Gimme Back My Bullets".
The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located at the end of the Florida Keys, USA, about 67 miles west of Key West, and 37 miles west of the Marquesas Keys, the closest islands. Still further west is the Tortugas Bank, which is completely submerged. The first Europeans to discover the islands were the Spanish in 1513 by explorer Juan Ponce de León. They are an unincorporated area of Monroe County, Florida, and belong to the Lower Keys Census County Division. With their surrounding waters, they constitute the Dry Tortugas National Park.
Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Its component provinces are Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by Portugal to the west. To the north it borders Castile and León; to the south, it borders Andalusia; and to the east, it borders Castile–La Mancha. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the project of the International Tagus River Natural Park. The government of Extremadura is called Junta de Extremadura.
Managua is the capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name. It is the largest city in Nicaragua in terms of population and geographic size. Located on the southwestern shore of Lake Xolotlán or Lake Managua, the city was declared the national capital in 1852. Prior to its inception as the capital city, the title had alternated between the cities of León and Granada. The city has a population of about 2,200,000, composed predominantly of mestizos and whites. Managua is the third most populous city in Central America, after Guatemala City and San Salvador respectively. Founded in 1819, the city was given the name: Leal Villa de Santiago de Managua. Its original purpose was to serve as a rural fishing village. Efforts to make Managua the capital of Nicaragua began in 1824, after the Central American nations formally attained their independence from Spain. Managua's location between the rival cities of León and Granada made it a logical and ideal compromise site. Modern-day Managua was built in the 1850s on the site of an indigenous community. The city occupies an area on a fault. Seismologists predict that Managua will continue to experience a severe earthquake every 50 years or less. The city's economy is based mainly on trade and industry. Managua is Nicaragua's chief trading center for coffee, cotton, other crops and industry. It serves as an important industrial, commercial, political and cultural center. Its chief products include beer, coffee, matches, textiles, and shoes. Today, Managua is Nicaragua's main political, social, cultural, educational and economic hub. The city is served by the Augusto C. Sandino International Airport, the country's primary international airport and regional Brasiles Airport and Punta Huete, military airport, recently renewed.
Herem, is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. It is the total exclusion of a person from the Jewish community. It is a form of shunning, and is similar to vitandus excommunication in the Catholic Church. Cognate terms in other Semitic languages include the Arabic term ḥarām, and the Ethiopic `irm. The most famous case of a herem is that of Spinoza, the seventeenth century philosopher. Also, Leon Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev became subject of herem. Sometime in 1918, while Ukraine was under German occupation, the rabbis of Odessa pronounced herem against Trotsky, Zinoviev, and other Jewish Bolshevik leaders in the synagogue.
An anemometer is a device for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, meaning wind, and is used to describe any airspeed measurement instrument used in meteorology or aerodynamics. The first known description of an anemometer was given by Leon Battista Alberti around 1450. Anemometers can be divided into two classes: those that measure the wind's speed, and those that measure the wind's pressure; but as there is a close connection between the pressure and the speed, an anemometer designed for one will give information about both.
Négritude is a literary and ideological movement, developed by francophone black intellectuals, writers, and politicians in France in the 1930s. Its founders included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and the Guianan Léon Damas. The Negritude literally means Negro-ness. The Négritude writers found solidarity in a common black identity as a rejection of perceived French colonial racism. They believed that the shared black heritage of members of the African diaspora was the best tool in fighting against French political and intellectual hegemony and domination. They formed a realistic literary style and formulated their Marxist ideas as part of this movement.
"On Call" is a hook-free song by rock band Kings of Leon and is the third track on their 2007 album Because Of The Times. The song was also released as the first single from that album on March 26, 2007, in the United Kingdom. It had been available on the iTunes Store since February 6. Accompanied by the B-side, "My Third House", the single peaked at #18 in the UK Singles Chart, making it one of the band's most successful singles. It also reached the top 30 in Ireland and New Zealand. The song placed #3 in the 2007 Triple J Hottest 100.
|San Luis Potosí|
San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, officially Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí. It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to the northeast, Veracruz to the east, Hidalgo, Querétaro, and Guanajuato to the south and Zacatecas to the northwest. In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Ciudad Valles, Matehuala, Rioverde, and Cerritos.
Oppositions was an architectural journal produced by the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies from 1973 to 1984. Many of its articles contributed to architectural theory and many of its contributors became distinguished members in the architectural field. Contributors included: Diana Agrest, Stanford Anderson, Giorgio Ciucci, Stuart Cohen, Alan Colquhoun, Francesco Dal Co, Peter Eisenman, William Ellis, Kurt W. Forster, Kenneth Frampton, Mario Gandelsonas, Giorgio Grassi, Fred Koetter, Rem Koolhaas, Léon Krier, Mary McLeod, Rafael Moneo, Joan Ockman, Martin Pawley, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Denise Scott Brown, Jorge Silvetti, Ignasi de Solà-Morales, Manfredo Tafuri, Bernard Tschumi, Anthony Vidler, and Hajime Yatsuka.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army was the national military of the Soviet Union until 1946. Emerging from Soviet Russian, Ukrainian and other national revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1922, the Red Army was consolidated under the leadership of Leon Trotsky, and grew into one of the largest and most powerful armies in military history by the 1940s. The color connotation of "Red Army" refers to the traditional colour of the Communist movement. The Red Army is widely credited with being the decisive land force in the Allied victory in the European Theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it engaged and defeated about 75%–80% of the German armies deployed in the war. On 25 February 1946, the Red Army was renamed the Soviet Army.
Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as the Guayule, is a flowering shrub in the aster family, Asteraceae, that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It can be found in the US states of New Mexico and Texas and the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Coahuila, Chihuahua, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. The plant can be used as an alternate source of latex that is also hypoallergenic, unlike the normal Hevea rubber. In pre-Columbian times, the guayule was a secondary source of latex for rubber, the principal source being the Castilla elastica tree. The name "guayule" derives from the Nahuatl word ulli/olli, "rubber".
Brasier was the successor of the early French Richard-Brasier automobile maker that had been in business since 1902. The name of the make was simplified to Brasier when Georges Richard left in 1905 to found Unic. Before World War I, several twin, four and six-cylinder models were offered. Production was resumed in 1919 with a 3404 cc model, and from 1920 to 1926, a 2120 cc model was produced. The cars made after 1926 are known under the name of Chaigneau-Brasier. The later company closed down in 1930. Léon Théry entered a Brasier in the 1908 French Grand Prix, but surrendered after 9 laps of the 10 lap race.
Prairie dogs are burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five different species of prairie dogs are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's, Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. They are a type of ground squirrel, found in the United States, Canada and Mexico. In Mexico, prairie dogs are found primarily in the northern states, which lie at the southern end of the Great Plains: northeastern Sonora, north and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas. In the US, they range primarily to the west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They are herbivorous.
Zacatecas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas. It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Durango to the northwest, Coahuila to the north, Nayarit to the west, San Luis Potosí and Nuevo León to the east, and Jalisco, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes to the south. The state of Zacatecas is best known for its rich deposits of silver and other minerals, its colonial architecture and its importance during the Mexican revolution. Its main economic activities are mining, agriculture and tourism.
Saving Grace is an American television crime drama series which premiered on TNT on July 23, 2007 and ran until June 21, 2010. The show stars Academy Award-winner Holly Hunter in her first television series, as well as Leon Rippy, Kenny Johnson, Laura San Giacomo, Bailey Chase, Bokeem Woodbine, Gregory Norman Cruz and Yaani King. It is set in Oklahoma City — including numerous shots of local buildings and landmarks — while much of the show was filmed in Vancouver and Los Angeles. The theme song for the show was written and performed by American rapper/musician Everlast. The series is rated TV-MA in the United States for language, sexuality, and violence.
Makiling is a world-music band based in the Philippines. They have been playing music together since December 1997. The members of Makiling met during their high school days at Philippine High School for the Arts, and decided to form Makiling back in 1997. Since then, they started accepting professional gigs locally and abroad. The music of Makiling is generally classified as world music. But the band likes to call it “Pinoy world music” for its dominant Filipino flavor mixed with influences from Indian, Celtic, Country, Oriental, Moorish, Arabic, Rock, Classical, Jazz and Latin music. The members of Makiling are Evan Britanico, Diwa de Leon, David Sicam, Otto Hernandez, and Wed Lodriga.
The jaguarundi, also called eyra cat, is a small-sized wild cat native to Central and South America. In 2002, the IUCN classified the jaguarundi as 'Least Concern', although they considered it likely that no conservation units beyond the megareserves of the Amazon basin could sustain long-term viable populations. It is probably extinct in Texas. Its presence in Uruguay is uncertain. In some Spanish-speaking countries, the jaguarundi is also called gato colorado, gato moro, león brenero, onza, tigrillo, and leoncillo. The Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation of its common English and Portuguese name is IPA. It is also called gato-mourisco, eirá, gato-preto, and maracajá-preto in Portuguese. Jaguarundi comes from Old Tupi yawaum'di.
Rex, also known at the Rexist Party or Rexism was a Catholic-fascist political party which existed between 1930 and 1944 in Belgium, claiming to be a "Right-wing Revolution". The party ran across the country, but was most popular in French-speaking Wallonia, It was founded in by a Walloon journalist, Léon Degrelle. The name was derived from the Roman Catholic social teachings concerning Christus Rex, which was also the title of a conservative Catholic journal and publishing company. Rex experienced reasonable success at the 1936 election in the region of Wallonia, but was never a mass movement and was on the decline by 1938. During the German occupation of Belgium in the Second World War, Rex was closely associated with collaboration.
Asturias, officially the Principality of Asturias, is an autonomous community of Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias, and contains nearly all of the territory that was part of the Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages. The autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by Castile and León to the south, by Galicia to the west, and by the Bay of Biscay to the north. The most important cities are the communal capital, Oviedo, the seaport and largest city Gijón, and the industrial town of Avilés. Other popular municipalities include Cangas de Onís, Cangas del Narcea, Gozón, Grado, Langreo, Llanera,Laviana, Lena, Llanes, Mieres, Siero, Valdés, Vegadeo and Villaviciosa. Asturias is also home to the Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre and the Prince of Asturias Awards.
John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory. The transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, allowing the Information Age to occur, and made possible the development of almost every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers to missiles. Bardeen's developments in superconductivity, which won him his second Nobel, are used in magnetic resonance imaging. In 1990, John Bardeen appeared on LIFE Magazine's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century."
Peugeot is a French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the concern's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Leon Serpollet in 1889; this was followed in 1890 by an internal combustion car with a Panhard-Daimler engine. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot in 1896 founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot. The Peugeot company and family is originally from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot Museum there. It also sponsors the Sochaux football club, founded in 1928 by a member of the Peugeot family.
|Benjamin Franklin Bridge|
Benjamin Franklin Bridge
The Benjamin Franklin Bridge — known informally as the Ben Franklin Bridge and originally named the Delaware River Bridge — is a suspension bridge across the Delaware River connecting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Camden, New Jersey. Owned and operated by the Delaware River Port Authority, it is one of four primary vehicular bridges between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, along with the Betsy Ross, Walt Whitman, and Tacony-Palmyra Bridges. The chief engineer of the bridge was Polish-born Ralph Modjeski, its design engineer was Leon Moisseiff, and the supervising architect was Paul Philippe Cret. At its completion on July 1, 1926, its 1,750-foot span made it the world's longest suspension bridge span, a distinction it would hold until the opening of the Ambassador Bridge in 1929.
The Universidad Station is a station on Line 2 of the Monterrey Metro. It is located in the Alfonso Reyes Avenue. This station is next to the campus of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, and it sees heavy traffic of students on a daily basis. The station is also the nearest to the Estadio Universitario, the home venue of the UANL Tigres. It is accessible for people with disabilities. This station's logo represents the flame and atoms that appear in the logo of the UANL. This station was inaugurated on October 31, 2007, as part of the first stage of the Line 2 expansion. It served as the Line 2 terminus until stage 2 of the Line 2 expansion was completed on October 1, 2008, when Sendero Station took its place as the northern terminus of the line.
Orujo is a pomace brandy from northern Spain. It is a transparent spirit with an alcohol content over 50%. Its name comes from the expression "aguardiente de orujo". It is a popular beverage in northwest Spain, especially Galicia, where it is called aguardente or caña, and is an element of collective identity. It is also known in Asturias, Castile and León, and Cantabria, where it has become an artisanal craft for some families who after making wine for themselves distil the pomace in a little pot still. Many high-quality distilled spirits have appeared in the last twenty years, including some origin appellations. These are obtained from quality grapes and produced according to the highest standards and are replacing the traditional home made liquor, nowadays only available in small villages.
"Use Somebody" is a song by the American alternative rock group Kings of Leon. It was the second single from the band's fourth studio album Only by the Night, released on December 8, 2008. The single received heavy airplay in Scandinavia, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, the United Kingdom and Australia, where it was number one on the Official Airplay Chart for six consecutive weeks. It was a huge success in the U.S., where it topped multiple airplay formats and reached number four on the Hot 100 and number one on the Pop Songs chart. The song received positive reviews and won the Grammy Award for Record of the Year, Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal and Best Rock Song and was also nominated for Song of the Year.
The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert, and an ecoregion designation, that straddles the U.S.-Mexico border in the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau, bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, and overlaying northern portions of the east range, the Sierra Madre Oriental. On the U.S. side it occupies the valleys and basins of central and southern New Mexico, Texas west of the Pecos River and southeastern Arizona; south of the border, it covers the northern half of the Mexican state of Chihuahua, most of Coahuila, north-east portion of Durango, extreme northern portion of Zacatecas and small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km², it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northeastern Mexico. Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres stretch of the Mexico-United States border, adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande. With an area of 151,563 square kilometres, it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities. In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants. The capital of Coahuila is Saltillo, and its largest city is Torreón. Coahuila also includes the cities of Monclova, Piedras Negras, and Ciudad Acuña.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English. Caracas is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 910 m above sea level. The valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2200 m high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila; to the south there are more hills and mountains. El Distrito Metropolitano de Caracas includes the Distrito Capital and four other municipalities in Miranda State: Chacao, Baruta, Sucre, and El Hatillo. The Distrito Capital had a population of 1,943,901 as of 2011, while that of Area Metropolitana de Caracas was estimated at 3,055,000 as of.
Foucault's Pendulum is a novel by Italian writer and philosopher Umberto Eco. It was first published in 1988; the translation into English by William Weaver appeared a year later. Foucault's Pendulum is divided into ten segments represented by the ten Sefiroth. The novel is full of esoteric references to the Kabbalah, alchemy and conspiracy theory, so many that critic and novelist Anthony Burgess suggested that it needed an index. The title of the book refers to an actual pendulum designed by the French physicist Léon Foucault to demonstrate the rotation of the earth, which has symbolic significance within the novel. Although some believe it refers to the philosopher Michel Foucault noting Eco's friendship with the French philosopher, the author "specifically rejects any intentional reference to Michel Foucault" — and this is regarded as one of his subtle literary jokes.
Disconfirmed expectancy is a psychological term for what is commonly known as a failed prophecy. It leads to a form of cognitive dissonance. Disconfirmed expectancy was illustrated by Leon Festinger in the 1956 book When Prophecy Fails. This book gave an inside account of belief persistence in members of a UFO doomsday cult, and documented the increased proselytization they exhibited after the leader's "end of the world" prophecy failed to come true. The prediction of the Earth's destruction, supposedly sent by aliens to the leader of the group, became a disconfirmed expectancy that caused dissonance between the cognitions, "the world is going to end" and "the world did not end." Although some members abandoned the group when the prophecy failed, most of the members lessened their dissonance by accepting a new belief: that the planet was spared because of the faith of the group.
Leon Festinger was an American social psychologist, perhaps best known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory. His theories and research are credited with repudiating the previously dominant behaviorist view of social psychology by demonstrating the inadequacy of stimulus-response conditioning accounts of human behavior. Festinger is also credited with advancing the use of laboratory experimentation in social psychology, although he simultaneously stressed the importance of studying real-life situations, a principle he perhaps most famously practiced when personally infiltrating a doomsday cult. He is also known in social network theory for the proximity effect. Festinger studied psychology under Kurt Lewin, an important figure in modern social psychology, at the University of Iowa, graduating in 1941. However, he did not develop an interest in social psychology until after joining the faculty at Lewin’s Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945. Despite his preeminence in social psychology, Festinger turned to visual perception research in 1964 and then archaeology and history in 1979 until his death in 1989.
Sanare is a major city and the seat of government in the municipality of Andrés Eloy Blanco in Lara State, Venezuela. Andrés Eloy Blanco is further subdivided into three parishes: Pio Tamayo, Yacambú, and La Quebrada Honda del Guache. Sanare was founded in 1620 by the friar Dominico Melchor Ponce de Leon following the orders of the governor Don Francisco de la Hoz Berrio [disputed statement]. Sanare experiences a sub-humid climate, with an average of 1,680 mm of rainfall annually and an average yearly temperature of 68°F. Sanare is situated at 1,357 m above sea level. Sanare has a population of 39,052, with a population density of 55.90 inhabitants/km². Approximately 45.9% of the population is less than 15 years old. The local economy is driven by agriculture. The most significant crop is coffee. Other crops include potatoes, black beans, corn, and strawberries.
|I Want You|
I Want You
"I Want You" is a song written by songwriters Leon Ware and Arthur "T-Boy" Ross and recorded and released as a single by singer Marvin Gaye. Released as a single in 1976 on the Tamla label, the song introduced a change in musical styles for Gaye, who before then had been recording songs with a funk edge. Songs such as this gave him a disco audience thanks to Ware, who produced the song alongside Gaye. The song also stood to be one of Marvin's most popular singles during his later Motown period followed by his sabbatical following the release of 1973's Let's Get It On. The song eventually reached number fifteen on the Billboard Hot 100 and number one on the Hot Selling Soul Singles chart. It also became a disco hit, reaching number ten on the Disco Singles Chart alongside "After the Dance".
Caso is a municipality in the Spanish Principality of Asturias. It shares a boundary to the North with Piloña; to the East with Ponga; to the South with León and to the West with Sobrescobio and Laviana. Most of the inhabitants of Caso live in the Nalón Valley, on which the largest town is the capital El Campu. The town is divided in two neighbourhoods: L'Arrobiu and El Barru. The municipalities of Caso and Sobrescobio together constitute the Redes Natural Park, designated by the UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve. The Natural Monument of the Cueva Deboyu is also located in Caso. Caso is famous for its landscape, European beech forests, wood handcraft and its Casín cheese. In the past, most of Caso's people worked in coal mining and livestock farming. Nowadays, tourism has become one of the more important activities in Caso, but farming is still the most relevant. The Dam of Tanes provides electric energy and drinking water to the central part of Asturias.
Galicia is an autonomous community in northwest Spain, with the official status of a nationality. It comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Bay of Biscay to the north. It had a population of 2,778,913 in 2012, and has a total area of 29,574 km². Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, Cortegada, and—the largest and the most populated one—Arousa Island. The area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic period, and it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic peoples living north of the Douro river during the last millennium BC, in a region largely coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro Culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, being turned into a Roman province in the 3rd century of our era. In 410 the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga which was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585. In 711 the Arabs invaded the Iberian peninsula, taking the Visigoth kingdom, but soon in 740 Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was occasionally ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and later to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and personality. From the 13th century on the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adelantado Maior, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galicia from the last years of the 15th century. The Governor also presided the Real Audiencia del Reino de Galicia, a Royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia, institution which was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries grew the demand for self-government and for the recognition of the personality of Galicia, demand which led to the frustrated Statute of Autonomy of 1936, and to the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, currently in force.
Pentonville is an area of north-central London in the London Borough of Islington, centred on the Pentonville Road. The area is named after Henry Penton, who developed a number of streets in the 1770s in what was open countryside adjacent to the New Road. Pentonville was part of the ancient parish of Clerkenwell, and was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury by the London Government Act 1899. It has been part of the London Borough of Islington since 1965. Nearby places include Islington, St. Pancras and Finsbury. The closest tube station is Angel. Pentonville is the birthplace of John Stuart Mill and Forbes Benignus Winslow, the noted psychiatrist. In 1902 Vladimir Lenin and his wife lived just off Pentonville Rd, and it was at this time that he first met his fellow exile Leon Trotsky. Pentonville is not the location of HM Prison Pentonville, which is located on Caledonian Road, some distance north in Barnsbury.
Calenture is the fourth studio album by Australian rock group The Triffids, it was released in November 1987 and saw them explore themes of insanity, deception and rootlessness—the title refers to a fever suffered by sailors during long hot voyages. It reached No. 32 on the Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart. In November 1987, it reached No. 24 on the Swedish Albums Chart, in May 1988 it peaked at No. 25 on the New Zealand Albums Chart. The album spawned three singles, "Bury Me Deep in Love", "Trick of the Light" and "Holy Water". The latter track was recorded with American producer Craig Leon. In 2007 Calenture was re-released as a 2× CD with five bonus tracks on the first disc and twelve tracks on the second disc, mostly rehearsal or studio demos of the original album tracks. In February it appeared on the Belgium Albums Chart Top 60.
Outlaw country is a subgenre of country music, most popular during the late 1960s and the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the outlaw movement or simply outlaw music. The focus of the movement has been on "outlaws", such as Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings, Merle Haggard, David Allan Coe and his Eli Radish Band, Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, Leon Russell, Hank Williams Jr., Townes Van Zandt, Billy Joe Shaver and Hank Williams III. The reason for the movement has been attributed to a reaction to the Nashville sound, developed by record producers like Chet Atkins who softened the raw honky tonk sound that was predominant in the music of performers like Jimmie Rodgers, and his successors such as Hank Williams, George Jones and Lefty Frizzell. According to Aaron Fox, "the fundamental opposition between law-and-order authoritarianism and the image of 'outlaw' authenticity... has structured country's discourse of masculinity since the days of Jimmie Rodgers."
Tamaulipas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico. It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest and Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas. The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place where". As yet, there is no scholarly agreement on the meaning of holipa, but "high hills" is a common interpretation. Another explanation of the state name is Ta ma ho'lipam. In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, and Tampico.
|Luca della Robbia|
Luca della Robbia
Luca della Robbia was an Italian sculptor from Florence, noted for his terra-cotta roundels. Luca Della Robbia developed a pottery glaze that made his creations more durable in the outdoors and thus suitable for use on the exterior of buildings. His work is noted for its charm rather than the drama of the work of some of his contemporaries. Two of his famous works are The Nativity, circa 1460 and Madonna and Child, circa 1475. He is the first of a dynasty of important pottery artists: Andrea della Robbia and Giovanni della Robbia. Della Robbia was praised by his compatriot Leon Battista Alberti for genius comparable to that of the sculptors Donatello and Lorenzo Ghiberti, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, and the painter Masaccio. By ranking him with contemporary artists of this stature, Alberti reminds us of the interest and strength of Luca's work in marble and bronze, as well as in the terra-cottas always associated with his name.
Lophophora williamsii is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. It is known by many English common names including cactus pudding, devil's-root, diabolic-root, divine cactus, dry-whiskey, dumpling cactus, Indian-dope, mescal-buttons, turnip cactus, whiskey cactus, and white-mule. The Spanish common name is peyote. Native North Americans are likely to have used peyote for at least 5,500 years. It is native to southwestern Texas and Mexico. It is found primarily in the Chihuahuan desert and in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi among scrub, especially where there is limestone. Known for its psychoactive properties when ingested, peyote is used worldwide as an entheogen and supplement to various transcendence practices, including meditation, psychonautics, and psychedelic psychotherapy. Peyote has a long history of ritualistic and medicinal use by indigenous Americans. It flowers from March through May, and sometimes as late as September. The flowers are pink, with thigmotactic anthers.
The theremin, originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox is an early electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact from the player. It is named after the westernized name of its Russian inventor, Léon Theremin, who patented the device in 1928. The controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas which sense the position of the player's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude with the other, so it can be played without being touched. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker. The theremin was used in movie soundtracks such as Miklós Rózsa's for Spellbound and The Lost Weekend and Bernard Herrmann's for The Day the Earth Stood Still and as the theme tune for the ITV drama Midsomer Murders. This has led to its association with a very eerie sound. Theremins are also used in concert music and in popular music genres such as rock. Psychedelic rock bands in particular, such as Hawkwind, have often used the theremin in their work.
Texas is the second most populous and the second-largest of the 50 states in the United States of America, and the largest state in the 48 contiguous United States. Geographically located in the South Central part of the country, Texas shares an international border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to the south, and borders the U.S. states of New Mexico to the west, Oklahoma to the north, Arkansas to the northeast and Louisiana to the east. Texas has an area of 268,820 square miles, and a growing population of 26.1 million residents. Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the United States, while San Antonio is the second largest in the state and seventh largest in the United States. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest United States metropolitan areas, respectively. Other major cities include El Paso and Austin—the state capital. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify Texas as a former independent republic and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal today.
In heraldry, purpure is a tincture, more or less the equivalent of the colour "purple", and is one of the five main or most usually used colours. It may be portrayed in engravings by a series of parallel lines at a 45-degree angle running from upper right to lower left from the point of view of an observer, or else indicated by the abbreviation purp. Purpure has existed since the earliest periods, for example in the purpure lion of the arms of León; at that time, it was painted in a greyer shade. However, it has never been as common as the other colours, and this has led to some controversy as to whether it should be counted among the five common colours. In French heraldry, the colour is usually excluded from the common colours as well as considered "ambiguous", and Finnish heraldry restricts its use to certain additaments. There is at least one instance of it being blazoned as "Imperial Purple". Purpure is said to represent the following: ⁕Of jewels, the amethyst ⁕Of heavenly bodies, Mercury ⁕
The Zoque are an indigenous people of Mexico; they speak variants of the Zoque languages. This group consists of 41,609 people, according to the 2000 census. They live mainly in the northerly sector of Chiapas state, principally in the municipios and towns of Amatán, Copainalá, Chapultenango, Francisco León, Ixhuatán, Ixtacomitán, Jitotol, Ocotepec, Ostuacán, Pantepec, Rayón, Totolapa, Tapilula, Tecpatán, Acala, Blanca rosa, and Ocozocoautla. They also live in the northern part of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in the state of Oaxaca, including the Selva Zoque. Their language is also called Zoque, and has several branches and dialects. The Zoque are related to the Mixe. They follow the Roman Catholic religion. In the pre-Hispanic period, the Zoque lived throughout Chiapas, and as far away as the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and parts of the state of Tabasco. They are believed to be descendants of the Olmec who emigrated to Chiapas and Oaxaca. They had a good social and commercial relationship with the Mexica, which contributed to the economic prosperity of their culture in Chiapas. In 1494 they were invaded and defeated by the Aztecs, during the reign of Ahuizotl, and forced to pay tribute.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau. It has about 180,000 inhabitants in the actual city and another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512. It has many historic landmarks, of particular importance; the Cathedral of Burgos, Las Huelgas Reales Monastery and the Cartuja of Miraflores. A large number of churches, palaces and other buildings from the medieval age remain. The city is surrounded by the Fuentes Blancas and the Paseo de la Isla parks. Castilian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat El Cid Campeador is a significant historical figure in the city, as he was born a couple of miles north of Burgos and was raised and educated here. The city forms the principal crossroad of northern Spain along the Camino de Santiago, which runs parallel to the River Arlanzón.
Sharashka was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system. Etymologically, the word sharashka is derived from a Russian slang expression sharashkina kontora, an ironic, derogatory term to denote a poorly organized, impromptu, or bluffing organization. Official name was ОКБ that is Опытное конструкторское бюро that can be translated as "Experimental Design Bureau". The scientists and engineers at a sharashka were prisoners picked from various camps and prisons and assigned to work on scientific and technological problems for the state. Living conditions were usually much better than in an average taiga camp, especially bearing in mind the absence of hard labor. The results of the research in sharashkas were usually published under the names of prominent Soviet scientists without credit given to the real authors, whose names frequently have been forgotten. Some of the brilliant scientists and engineers imprisoned in sharashkas were released during and after World War II, continuing independent careers and becoming world-famous, such as Léon Theremin.
|Getting to Know You|
Getting to Know You
"Getting to Know You" is a show tune from the 1951 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I. It was first sung by Gertrude Lawrence in the original Broadway production and later by Marni Nixon who dubbed for Deborah Kerr in the 1956 film adaptation. In this show, Anna sings the song as she strikes up a warm and affectionate relationship with the children and the wives of the King of Siam. This song is one of the few cases during the Rodgers and Hammerstein partnership when Rodgers re-used a melody he had written for an earlier show and then discarded. In this case the melody was a tune he wrote for South Pacific, called "Suddenly Lucky", which he originally intended for the character of Nellie to sing but replaced it with the song " a Wonderful Guy". Mary Martin, the star of South Pacific, who had proposed that Rodgers should cast Yul Brynner as the King, reminded Rodgers of this tune, and so Hammerstein wrote new lyrics to it.James Taylor covered the song off of the children's music compilation called For Our Children. Popular versions on record include James Taylor, Dinah Shore, Sharon, Lois & Bram, Bing Crosby, Andy Williams, and Nancy Wilson. Leon Redbone sang the song in ads for the Chevrolet Geo.
|Around the Bend|
Around the Bend
Around the Bend is a 2004 road movie written and directed by Jordan Roberts. The film is inspired by the relationship between Roberts and the absentee, criminally insane, substance-abusing father he barely knew, Robert Stone Jordan, a self-styled indie film director/producer in his later years. In the 1970s Bob Jordan toured with Leon Russell for a film project that he thoroughly bungled due to his drug-induced manic behavior. In the 1990s he produced and directed one of the first digitally captured film experiments based on the characters in Alice in Wonderland, often known as "Through the Looking Glass". His last known film project, "Meth" filmed in and around Palmdale/Lancaster CA involved a film "completion fund" scam where he ran off with the Sony Camera equipment loaned to him and the money he had collected from several investors. Upon returning to CA, he eventually died awaiting a liver transplant in 2001, without ever contacting his sons. Christopher Walken bore an uncanny resemblance to Robert Jordan both in the physical and in his ability to appear menacing and unpredictable.
Al-Andalus, also known as the Moorish Iberia or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim state in parts of what are today Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, Andorra, and France. The name more generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims, at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly in wars with Christian kingdoms. Following the Muslim conquest of Hispania, Al-Andalus was divided into five administrative units, corresponding roughly to modern Andalusia, Galicia and Portugal, Castile and León, Aragon and Catalonia, and Septimania. As a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I; the Emirate of Córdoba; the Caliphate of Córdoba; and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa kingdoms. Rule under these kingdoms saw a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians, although non-Muslims were systematically discriminated against as dhimmis and at times martyred. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in both the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later in 1922 become the chief constituent of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a mass organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. Bolshevik revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky commonly used the terms "Bolshevism" and "Bolshevist" after his exile from the Soviet Union to differentiate between what he saw as true Leninism and the state and party as they existed under Joseph Stalin's leadership.
Guanajuato, officially Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato. The largest city in the state is León. It is located in the North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Jalisco to the west, Zacatecas to the northwest, San Luis Potosí to the north, Querétaro to the east and Michoacán to the south. It covers an area of 30,608 km². Guanajuato is located between the arid north of the country and the lusher south, and it is geographically part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Mexican Plateau and the Sierra Madre Oriental. It was initially settled by the Spanish in the 1520s due to mineral deposits found around the now capital city of Guanajuato, but areas such as the Bajío region also became important for agriculture and livestock. Mining and agriculture have been the traditional mainstays of the state's economy, but today, about 30% of the state's GDP is accounted for by industry, which includes metals, automobiles, leather goods, processed foods and more.
Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith", was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries. It is a modification of Gothic spatial concepts and an eclectic blend of Mudéjar, Flamboyant Gothic and Lombard decorative components, and Renaissance elements of Tuscan origin. Examples of this syncretism are the inclusion of shields and pinnacles on facades, columns built in the Renaissance neoclassical manner, and facades divided into three parts. It reached its peak during the reign of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, especially in Salamanca, but also flourished in other cities of the Iberian Peninsula as León and Burgos and in the territory of New Spain, which is now Mexico. Plataresque has been considered down to current times a Renaissance style by many scholars. To others, it is its own style, and sometimes receives the designation of Protorenaissance. Some even call it First Renaissance in a refusal to consider it as a style in itself, but to distinguish it from non-Spanish Renaissance works.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky identified as an orthodox Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, and supported founding a vanguard party of the working-class. His politics differed sharply from those of Stalinism, as he opposed the idea of Socialism in One Country. Trotsky still supported proletarian internationalism, and an authentic dictatorship of the proletariat based on working-class self-emancipation and mass democracy. He believed that a bureaucracy developed under Stalin after Lenin's death. Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky were close both ideologically and personally during the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, and some call Trotsky its "co-leader". However, Lenin criticized Trotsky's ideas and intra-Party political habits. Trotsky was the paramount leader of the Soviet Red Army in the direct aftermath of the Revolutionary period. Trotsky originally opposed some aspects of Leninism. Later, he concluded that unity between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks was impossible, and joined the Bolsheviks. Trotsky played a leading role with Lenin in the revolution. Assessing Trotsky, Lenin wrote, "Trotsky long ago said that unification is impossible. Trotsky understood this and from that time on there has been no better Bolshevik."
Deinstitutionalisation is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability. Deinstitutionalisation works in two ways: the first focuses on reducing the population size of mental institutions by releasing patients, shortening stays, and reducing both admissions and readmission rates; the second focuses on reforming mental hospitals' institutional processes so as to reduce or eliminate reinforcement of dependency, hopelessness, learned helplessness, and other maladaptive behaviours. According to psychiatrist Leon Eisenberg, deinstitutionalisation has been an overall benefit for most psychiatric patients, though many have been left homeless and without care. The deinstitutionalisation movement was initiated by three factors: ⁕A socio-political movement for community mental health services and open hospitals; ⁕The advent of psychotropic drugs able to manage psychotic episodes; ⁕A ﬁnancial imperative to shift costs from state to federal budgets. According to American psychiatrist Loren Mosher, most deinstitutionalization in the USA took place after 1972, as a result of the availability of SSI, long after the antipsychotic drugs were used universally in state hospitals.
George Eastman was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world's first film-makers Eadward Muybridge and Louis Le Prince, and a few years later by their followers Léon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Lumière Brothers, and Georges Méliès. He was a major philanthropist, establishing the Eastman School of Music, and schools of dentistry and medicine at the University of Rochester and in London; contributing to RIT and the construction of MIT's second campus on the Charles River; and donating to Tuskegee and Hampton universities. In addition, he provided funds for clinics in London and other European cities to serve low-income residents. In the last few years of his life Eastman suffered with chronic pain and reduced functionality due to a spine illness. On March 14, 1932 Eastman shot himself in the heart, leaving a note which read, "To my friends: my work is done. Why wait?" The George Eastman House, now operated as the International Museum of Photography and Film, has been designated a National Historic Landmark.
Cantabria is a Spanish historical community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community, on the south by Castile and León, on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea. Cantabria belongs to Green Spain, the name given to the strip of land between the Bay of Biscay and the Cantabrian Mountains, so called because of its particularly lush vegetation, due to the wet and moderate oceanic climate. The climate is strongly influenced by Atlantic Ocean winds trapped by the mountains; the average precipitation is about 1,200 mm. Cantabria is the richest region in the world for archaeological sites from the Upper Paleolithic period, although the first signs of human occupation date from Lower Paleolithic. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The modern Province of Cantabria was constituted on 28 July 1778. The Organic Law of the Autonomy Statute of Cantabria was approved on 30 December 1981, giving the region its own institutions of self-government.
Cleopatra is a 1963 British-American-Swiss epic drama film directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. The screenplay was adapted by Sidney Buchman, Ben Hecht, Ranald MacDougall, and Mankiewicz from a book by Carlo Maria Franzero. The film starred Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, Rex Harrison, Roddy McDowall, and Martin Landau. The music score was by Alex North. It was photographed in 70 mm Todd-AO by Leon Shamroy and an uncredited Jack Hildyard. Cleopatra chronicles the struggles of Cleopatra VII, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperialist ambitions of Rome. In all of cinema history, Cleopatra is one of the most expensive films ever made. It received mixed reviews from critics, although critics and audiences alike generally praised Taylor and Burton's performances. It was the highest grossing film of 1963, earning US $26 million, yet made a loss due to its cost of $44 million, making it the only film ever to be the highest grossing film of the year yet to run at a loss; for this, the film has been considered a moderate box office failure. The film later won four Academy Awards, and was nominated for five more, including Best Picture.
Hermandad, literally "brotherhood" in Spanish, was a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, which became characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. As medieval kings of León, Castile and Aragon were often unable to maintain public peace, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against bandits and other rural criminals, as well as against the lawless nobility or mobilized to support a claimant to the crown. These organizations were individually temporary, but became a long standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims, a major source of regional income, against robber knights. With the countryside virtually everywhere effectively in the hands of nobles, throughout the High Middle Ages such brotherhoods were frequently formed by leagues of towns to protect the roads connecting them. The hermandades were occasionally co-opted for dynastic purposes. They acted to some extent like the Fehmic courts of Germany. Among the most powerful was the league of northern Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las Marismas: Toledo, Talavera, and Villa Real.
|William Stanley Jevons|
William Stanley Jevons
William Stanley Jevons, LL.D., M.A., F.R.S. was a British economist and logician. Irving Fisher described his book The Theory of Political Economy as beginning the mathematical method in economics. It made the case that economics as a science concerned with quantities is necessarily mathematical. In so doing, it expounded upon the "final" utility theory of value. Jevons' work, along with similar discoveries made by Carl Menger in Vienna and by Léon Walras in Switzerland, marked the opening of a new period in the history of economic thought. Jevons' contribution to the marginal revolution in economics in the late 19th century established his reputation as a leading political economist and logician of the time. Jevons broke off his studies of the natural sciences in London in 1854 to work as an assayer in Sydney, where he acquired an interest in political economy. Returning to the UK in 1859, he published General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy in 1862, outlining the marginal utility theory of value, and A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold in 1863. For Jevons, the utility or value to a consumer of an additional unit of a product is inversely related to the number of units of that product he already owns, at least beyond some critical quantity.
Coccidioides is a genus of dimorphic ascomycete, cause of Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley Fever, an infectious fungal disease confined to the western hemisphere and endemic in American deserts. The host acquires the disease via respiratory inhalation of spores disseminated in their natural habitat. The causative agents of coccidioidomycosis are Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Coccidioidomycosis is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. 60% of infections as determined by serologic conversion are asymptomatic. The most common clinical syndrome in the other 40% of infected patients is an acute respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, and pleuritic pain. Skin manifestations, such as erythema nodosum, are also common with Coccidioides infection. Coccidioides infection can cause a severe and difficult to-treat meningitis in AIDS patients, other immunocompromised patients, and occasionally immunocompetent hosts. Infection can occasionally cause acute respiratory distress syndrome and fatal multilobar pneumonia. The risk of symptomatic infection increases with age. The most important endemic areas in the U. S. are found in Southern California and Southern Arizona, and in Mexico, in the states of Sonora, Nuevo León, Coahuila and Baja California where it resides in soil.
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. He was called El Cid by the Moors and El Campeador by Christians. He is the national hero of Spain. Born a member of the minor nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of the Spanish Emperor Ferdinand the Great and served in the household of Prince Sancho. He rose to become commander and the royal standard-bearer of Castile upon Sancho's ascension in 1065. He went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sancho's brothers, the rulers of the kingdoms of Leon and Galicia as well as against the Muslim kingdoms in Andalusia. He became famous for his military prowess in these campaigns and helped enlarge Castilian territory at the expense of the Muslims while driving Sancho's brothers from their thrones. This, however, ended up putting him in a difficult position when, in 1072, Sancho died suddenly without issue, leaving his brother, Alfonso, as his only heir and ruler of the reunified empire. Although El Cid continued to serve the crown in the person of Alfonso, who was now Emperor of Spain, he lost his status in court and was held in suspicion. Finally, in 1081, he was ordered into exile.
Moralina is a municipality located in the province of Zamora, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 346 inhabitants. It's 42 km away from the city of Zamora. The village belongs to the Sayago county or comarca, and participates in the association Sayagua, which supplies the water and the recycling system in the whole county, as the municipies are too small and weak to maintain this kind of services by themselves. The dominating landform in the area is the peneplain, with some streams eroding the surface in their path to the arribe, the canyon located at the east of the municipality. There are two old dehesas called "Trabanquina" and "Requejo". Both, as many in this county, were sold to the municipalities between the 18th 19th centuries, and distributed among the inhabitants. That has desfigured the characteristics of both dehesas, changing the type of holding from a large estate to a small holding. The economy is based in agriculture and husbandry. Within last few years rural tourism has provided a new and hopeful source of income since the surrounding areas were declared as a natural reserve, called Parque Natural Arribes del Duero. This declaration was justified by the high ecological value of the river Duero canyons.
The American bison, also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds, became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and has made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Their historical range roughly comprised a triangle between the Great Bear Lake in Canada's far northwest, south to the Mexican states of Durango and Nuevo León, and east to the Atlantic Seaboard of the United States from New York to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida. Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the plains bison, smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, and the wood bison —the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the plains bison consists of a northern and a southern subspecies, bringing the total to three. However, this is generally not supported. The wood bison is one of the largest wild species of bovid in the world, surpassed by only the Asian gaur and wild Asian water buffalo. It is the largest extant land animal in North America.
Tallahassee is the capital of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Leon County, and is the 128th largest city in the United States. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida, then the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2010, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 181,376, and the Tallahassee metropolitan area is 375,371 as of 2012. Tallahassee is home to several colleges and universities, notably Florida State University and Florida A&M University. Others include Tallahassee Community College and branches of Saint Leo University, Thomas University, Keiser University, Barry University, Flagler College, and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Tallahassee is a center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Panhandle and is served by Tallahassee Regional Airport. With one of the fastest growing manufacturing and high tech economies in Florida, its major private employers include a General Dynamics Land Systems manufacturing facility, the Municipal Code Corporation, which specializes in the publication of municipal and county legal references; and a number of national law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce. It is recognized as a regional center for scientific research, and is home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, the largest and highest-powered magnet research laboratory in the world.
|David Alfaro Siqueiros|
David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco. Along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco, he established "Mexican Muralism." He was a Stalinist and member of the Mexican Communist Party who participated in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Leon Trotsky in May 1940. His surname was Alfaro; like another eminent 20th century painter, Pablo Ruíz y Picasso. Siqueiros went by his mother's surname. It was long believed that he was born in Camargo, Chihuahua, but in 2003 it was proven that he had actually been born in Chihuahua's capital city but grew up in Irapuato, Guanajuato, at least from the age of six. The discovery of his birth certificate, made by a Mexican art curator, was announced the following year by art critic Raquel Tibol, who was renowned as the leading authority on Mexican Muralism and who had been a close acquaintance of Siqueiros. Siqueiros switched his given name to "David" after his first wife took to calling him it admiringly, in allusion to Michelangelo's, David. Another factual confusion is the year of his birth. He was born in 1896 but many sources state 1898 or 1899.
DMZ was a first-wave American punk rock band from Boston, Massachusetts, strongly influenced by 1960s garage rock. In early 1976, Jeff Conolly stole the lead vocalist position in the nascent band by out-performing their singer at one of the band's practices. Along with his vocals he brought two things the band lacked: keyboards and original songs. Just over one year later, in April 1977, the band went into the recording studio with Craig Leon. Four songs from that session were released by Bomp! on a 7" vinyl EP. DMZ was signed by Sire Records and went to New York to record their debut album, produced by Flo & Eddie. It was released in 1978 without much success and by the end of the year the group had splintered. Guitarists J. J. Rassler and Preston Wayne left to start the Odds, and Conolly, bassist Rick Coraccio and drummer Paul Murphy formed Lyres. DMZ has re-formed periodically; a 1993 set appears on the Live at the Rat album. Early drummer David Robinson left DMZ to join The Cars. Bassist Mike Lewis later joined the Lyres for a couple of years and later recorded with The A-Bones and Yo La Tengo.
Among canon of classical orders of classical architecture, the Tuscan order's place is due to the influence of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio, who meticulously described the five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generalii di Architettura... sopra le cinque maniere degli edifici.... Though Fra Giocondo had attempted a first illustration of a Tuscan capital in his printed edition of Vitruvius, he showed the capital with an egg and dart enrichment that belonged to the Ionic order. The "most rustic" Tuscan order of Serlio was later carefully delineated by Andrea Palladio. From the perspective of these writers, the Tuscan order was an older primitive Italic architectural form, predating the Greek Doric and Ionic, associated by Serlio with the practice of rustication and the architectural practice of Tuscany. Giorgio Vasari made a valid argument for this claim by reference to il Cronaca's graduated rustication on the facade of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. Like all architectural theory of the Renaissance, precedents for a Tuscan order were sought for in Vitruvius, who does not include it among the three canonic orders, but peripherally, in his discussion of the Etruscan temple. Later Roman practice ignored the Tuscan order, and so did Leon Battista Alberti in De re aedificatoria.
Spiritism or Spiritist Doctrine is a system of explanation of phenomena having in common the general belief in the survival of a spirit after death. In a stricter sense, Spiritism is a doctrine founded upon the existence, manifestations and teachings of the spirits. Compiled in the 19th century by the French educator Allan Kardec, Spiritism soon spread to other countries, having today 35 representative countries in the International Spiritist Council. Brazil is the country where the most significant number of adherents can be found. The term Spiritism was established by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail to specify the teachings encoded by it, adopting the pseudonym Allan Kardec. The encoding of spiritism is present: The Spirits' Book; The Mediums' Book; The Gospel According to Spiritism; Heaven and Hell; The Genesis According to Spiritism. In the publication of the book "What is Spiritism", the encoder defines spiritism as "a science that deals with the nature, origin and destination of spirits, and of their relations with the corporeal world." The first appearance of the term occurred in French literature with the publication of the The Spirits' Book. In this book, Kardec sought to distinguish spiritualism and spiritism. Spiritualism is a name common to various religions, philosophies or other names, refers to the opposite of materialism. Spiritism is a spiritualist philosophy, also understood as a doctrine of scientific-philosophical-religious-oriented moral improvement of the human being.
Leon Trotsky was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army. Trotsky was initially a supporter of the Menshevik Internationalists faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He joined the Bolsheviks immediately prior to the 1917 October Revolution, and eventually became a leader within the Party. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army as People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs. He was a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo. After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was successively removed from power in 1927, expelled from the Communist Party, and finally deported from the Soviet Union in 1929. As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile in Mexico to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. An early advocate of Red Army intervention against European fascism, in the late 1930s, Trotsky opposed Stalin's non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler. He was assassinated on Stalin's orders in Mexico, by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born Soviet agent in August 1940.
Aragon is a modern autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a nationality of Spain. Aragon's northern province of Huesca borders France and is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees. Within Spain, the community is flanked by Catalonia on the east, Valencia and Castile–La Mancha to the south, and Castile and León, La Rioja, and Navarre to the west. Covering an area of 47,719 km², the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the Aneto, the highest mountain in the Pyrenees. As of 2012, the population was 1,349,467, with more than half of the autonomous community's people living in Zaragoza, its capital city. The economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €33,252 billion which represents 5% of Spain national GDP and is currently 5th in per capita production behind Catalonia, Navarre, Madrid and Basque Country.
The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of −¹⁄3 e. Although all quarks are described in a similar way by the quantum chromodynamics, the bottom quark's large bare mass, combined with low values of the CKM matrix elements Vub and Vcb, gives it a distinctive signature that makes it relatively easy to identify experimentally. Because three generations of quark are required for CP violation, mesons containing the bottom quark are the easiest particles to use to investigate the phenomenon; such experiments are being performed at the BaBar and Belle experiments. The bottom quark is also notable because it is a product in almost all top quark decays, and would be a frequent decay product for the Higgs boson if it is sufficiently light. The bottom quark was theorized in 1973 by physicists Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa to explain CP violation. The name "bottom" was introduced in 1975 by Haim Harari. The bottom quark was discovered in 1977 by the Fermilab E288 experiment team led by Leon M. Lederman, when collisions produced bottomonium. Kobayashi and Maskawa won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for their explanation of CP-violation. On its discovery, there were efforts to name the bottom quark "beauty", but "bottom" became the predominant usage.−12−13−10−8
Monterrey, is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. It is Mexico's richest city, and the world's 63rd richest, with an economy that had a 2008 GDP of USD $102 billion. Monterrey is one of Mexico's most developed cities, with the highest per capita income in the nation, and is regarded as a highly developed city. Rich in history and culture, Monterrey is often regarded as the most "Americanized" city in the entire country, even above the cities along the U.S-Mexico border. As an important industrial and business center, the city is also home to an array of Mexican companies, including Pemex, Lanix Electronics, CEMEX, Vitro, Zonda Telecom, Mercedes-Benz Mexico, OXXO, Mastretta, BMW de Mexico, Mabe, Grupo Bimbo, DINA S.A., Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Nuevoleonés capital and Grupo ALFA. Monterrey is also home to international companies such as Sony, Toshiba, Carrier, Whirlpool, Samsung, Toyota, Daewoo, Ericsson, Nokia, Dell, Boeing, HTC, General Electric, Gamesa, LG, SAS Institute, Grundfos, and Teleperformance, among others. The city is considered a Beta World City.
The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. Previously, tracings had been obtained of the sound-producing vibratory motions of tuning forks and other objects by physical contact with them, but not of actual sound waves as they propagated through air or other media. Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857. It transcribed sound waves as undulations or other deviations in a line traced on smoke-blackened paper or glass. Intended solely as a laboratory instrument for the study of acoustics, it could be used to visually study and measure the amplitude envelopes and waveforms of speech and other sounds, or to determine the frequency of a given musical pitch by comparison with a simultaneously recorded reference frequency. Apparently, it did not occur to anyone before the 1870s that the recordings, called phonautograms, contained enough information about the sound that they could, in theory, be used to recreate it. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, direct physical playback was impossible in any case. Several phonautograms recorded before 1861 were successfully played as sound in 2008 by optically scanning them and using a computer to process the scans into digital audio files.
A lucid dream is any dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming. The phenomenon had also been referred to by Greek philosopher Aristotle who had observed: "often when one is asleep, there is something in consciousness which declares that what then presents itself is but a dream". One of the earliest references to personal experiences with lucid dreaming was by Marie-Jean-Léon, Marquis d'Hervey de Saint Denys. The person most widely acknowledged as having coined the term is Dutch psychiatrist and writer Frederik van Eeden. In a lucid dream, the dreamer has greater chances to exert some degree of control over their participation within the dream or be able to manipulate their imaginary experiences in the dream environment. Lucid dreams can be realistic and vivid. It is shown that there are higher amounts of beta-1 frequency band experienced by lucid dreamers, hence there is an increased amount of activity in the parietal lobes making lucid dreaming a conscious process. Skeptics of the phenomenon suggest that it is not a state of sleep, but of brief wakefulness. Others point out that there is no way to prove the truth of lucid dreaming other than to ask the dreamer. Lucid dreaming has been researched scientifically, with test subjects performing pre-determined physical responses while experiencing a lucid dream.
The Rio Grande is a river that flows from southwestern Colorado in the United States to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is the fourth or fifth longest river system in North America. The river serves as a natural border between the U.S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. A very short stretch of the river serves as the boundary between the U.S. states of Texas and New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy water consumption of farms and cities along the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the river's mouth, the heavily irrigated Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region. The Rio Grande is one of 19 Great Waters recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition. The Rio Grande's watershed covers 182,200 square miles. Many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grande's basin, and these are sometimes included in the river basin's total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles.
Periclase occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks. It is a cubic form of magnesium oxide. It was first described in 1840 and named from the Greek περικλάω in allusion to its cleavage. The type locality is Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy. The old term for the mineral is magnesia. Stones from the Magnesia region in ancient Anatolia contained both magnesium oxide and hydrated magnesium carbonate as well as iron oxides. Thus these stones, called Stones from Magnesia in antiquity, with their unusual magnetic properties were the reason the terms magnet and magnetism were coined. Periclase is usually found in marble produced by metamorphism of dolomitic limestones. It readily alters to brucite under near surface conditions. In addition to its type locality, it is reported from Predazzo, Tyrol, Austria; Carlingford, County Louth, Ireland; Broadford, Skye and the island of Muck, Scotland; León, Spain; the Bellerberg volcano, Eifel district, Germany; Nordmark and Långban, Varmland, Sweden; and Kopeysk, southern Ural Mountains, Russia. In the USA it occurs at the Crestmore quarry, Riverside County, California; Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona; Gabbs district, Nye County, Nevada. In Canada, it occurs at Oka, Quebec and in Australia, west of Cowell, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.
1. Happy Birthday, Billy:A skydiving clowns parachute malfunctions.2. My Bad:A jungle native impales one of his buddies with a spear.3. Fagabeefe:A guy says, 'fagabeefe'.4. Hollywood Spotlight:A revealing biography of the Incredible Hulk.5. Who's Nuts Now?:A squirrel with a sniper rifle.6. Sabrina the Teenage Bitch:In her new spin-off Sabrina is a condescending bitch.7. Pinocchio's Firewood:In order to keep warm, Pinocchio lies so that his nose grows and uses it as firewood.8. Chappaqua Follies:Bill Clinton hides his interns in his closet.9. Wheelchair Ride:An old guy in a wheelchair goes down a hill and flies off a cliff.10. Leon!!:Umm... You're just going to have to watch this one.11. Sabrina the Teenage Bitch (Part 2):Sabrina pretends to help her hungry cat get to his food, but then decides not to in order to be a bitch.12. Domestic Bird Squabble:A couple of Robins break up.13. Eternia News Network:Beast Man publicizes a sex tape between him and Teela.14. Inept Garbage Collector:A garbage man mistakes an occupied Port-O-John for a garbage can.15. Sabrina the Teenage Bitch (Part 3):Sabrina as a witch takes kids Halloween candy and throws it off of a bridge.16. Where's Michael?:Michael Jackson has yet another court appearance.
In computer science and mathematical logic the Turing degree or degree of unsolvability of a set of natural numbers measures the level of algorithmic unsolvability of the set. The concept of Turing degree is fundamental in computability theory, where sets of natural numbers are often regarded as decision problems; the Turing degree of a set tells how difficult it is to solve the decision problem associated with the set. That is, to determine whether an arbitrary number is in the given set. Two sets are Turing equivalent if they have the same level of unsolvability; each Turing degree is a collection of Turing equivalent sets, so that two sets are in different Turing degrees exactly when they are not Turing equivalent. Furthermore, the Turing degrees are partially ordered so that if the Turing degree of a set X is less than the Turing degree of a set Y then any procedure that correctly decides whether numbers are in Y can be effectively converted to a procedure that correctly decides whether numbers are in X. It is in this sense that the Turing degree of a set corresponds to its level of algorithmic unsolvability. The Turing degrees were introduced by Emil Leon Post, and many fundamental results were established by Stephen Cole Kleene and Post. The Turing degrees have been an area of intense research since then. Many proofs in the area make use of a proof technique known as the priority method.
ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters. The term is also loosely used to refer to text based visual art in general. ASCII art can be created with any text editor, and is often used with free-form languages. Most examples of ASCII art require a fixed-width font such as Courier for presentation. Among the oldest known examples of ASCII art are the creations by computer-art pioneer Kenneth Knowlton from around 1966, who was working for Bell Labs at the time. "Studies in Perception I" by Ken Knowlton and Leon Harmon from 1966 shows some examples of their early ASCII art. One of the main reasons ASCII art was born was because early printers often lacked graphics ability and thus characters were used in place of graphic marks. Also, to mark divisions between different print jobs from different users, bulk printers often used ASCII art to print large banners, making the division easier to spot so that the results could be more easily separated by a computer operator or clerk. ASCII art was also used in early e-mail when images could not be embedded.
In modern psychology, cognitive dissonance is the discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions: ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel "disequilibrium": frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc. The phrase was coined by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When Prophecy Fails, which chronicled the followers of a UFO cult as reality clashed with their fervent belief in an impending apocalypse. Festinger subsequently published a book called A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in which he outlines the theory. Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. The theory of cognitive dissonance in social psychology proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by altering existing cognitions, adding new ones to create a consistent belief system, or alternatively by reducing the importance of any one of the dissonant elements. It is the distressing mental state that people feel when they "find themselves doing things that don't fit with what they know, or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold." A key assumption is that people want their expectations to meet reality, creating a sense of equilibrium. Likewise, another assumption is that a person will avoid situations or information sources that give rise to feelings of uneasiness, or dissonance.
André Eglevsky was a Russian-born American ballet dancer and teacher. Eglevsky was born in Moscow, but was taken to live in France when he was eight, his mother having decided that his talent as a dancer demanded that he be properly trained. He studied ballet in Nice with Maria Nevelskaya, Lubov Egorova, Mathilde Kschessinska, Alexandre Volinine, Olga Preobrajenska, and Leon Woizikowski in Paris, Nicholas Legat in London, and the School of American Ballet in New York City. At the age of fourteen he joined Colonel W. de Basil's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, and after six months was dancing leading roles in such ballets as Swan Lake, Les Sylphides, and Les Présages. In 1935 he joined Igor Youskevitch as the company's Premier Danseur, and a year later joined René Blum's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. Eglevsky travelled to the United States in 1937, and was premier danseur in George Balanchine's American Ballet until 1938. He also danced at the Radio City Music Hall and in the Broadway musical Great Lady. After becoming an American citizen, in 1939 he rejoined the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, staying there until 1942. For the following four years he danced with the Ballet Theatre, as well as dancing as a guest star with Léonide Massine's Ballet Russe Highlights in 1944 and 1945. In the late 1930s he married the ballerina Leda Anchutina. His daughter, Marina Eglevsky, is also a ballerina.
A pilaster is a slightly projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile. Rounded examples are more often called engaged columns. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall. It may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value." A pilaster appears with a capital and entablature, also in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. In contrast, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. Pilasters often appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, and are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico. These vertical elements can also be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway.
Decasyllable is a poetic meter of ten syllables used in poetic traditions of syllabic verse. In languages with a stress accent, it is the equivalent of pentameter with iambs or trochees. Decasyllable was used in epic poetry of the Southern Slavs. It has also been used as the basic structure for several poetic forms in the English language including the Decasyllabic quatrain as well as in many English sonnets Medieval French heroic epics were most often composed in 10 syllable verses, generally with a regular caesura after the fourth syllable. Use of the 10 syllable line in French poetry however was eclipsed by the 12 syllable "alexandrine" line, particularly after the 16th century. Paul Valéry's great poem "The Graveyard by the Sea" is, however, written in decasyllables. In 19th century Italian opera, this form was often employed in the libretto. Noting its use in the operas of Giuseppe Verdi, musicologist Philip Gossett describes the composer's request to the librettist for his opera Macbeth, Francesco Maria Piave, as follows: "I'd like to do a chorus as important as the one in Nabucco, but I wouldn't want it to have the same rhythm, and that's why I ask you for ottonari" [8 syllables; and then Gossett continues] “Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorate” from Nabucco, “O Signore del tetto natio” from I Lombardi, and “Si ridesti il Leon di Castiglia” from Ernani all employ the poetic meter of decasillabi.
A standstill agreement is a form of hostile takeover defense in which a target company acquires a promise from an unfriendly bidder to limit the amount of stock the bidder buys or holds in the target company. By obtaining this promise from the prospective acquirer, the target company gains more time to build up other takeover defenses. In many cases, the target company promises in exchange to buy back at a premium the prospective acquirer's stock holdings in the target. Common shareholders tend to dislike standstill agreements because they limit their potential returns from a takeover. In May 2000, Health Risk Management, Inc., a health care company, entered into a standstill agreement with Chiplease Inc., Banco Panamericano, Inc., Leon Greenblatt and Leslie Jabine, a shareholder group with approximately 14% of HRM's shares. Under this agreement, HRM permitted the shareholder group to designate one director on the HRM board and to increase its stock holdings by about 10%. In return, the shareholder group agreed to dismiss all litigation. Another type of standstill agreement occurs when two or more parties agree not to deal with other parties in a particular matter for a period of time. For example, in negotiations over a merger or acquisition, the target and prospective purchaser may each agree not to solicit or engage in acquisitions with other parties. The agreement increases the parties' incentives to invest in negotiations and due diligence respecting their own potential deal.
Cabrito is roast goat kid. It is a regional specialty of the city of Monterrey, Mexico, and the surrounding state of Nuevo Leon, based on the Jewish cuisine of the founders of the city. The name is also applied to a goat kid in Northeast Region, Brazil, especially in Sertão Nordestino, the poorest area in Brazil. The goat being about 3 months old. It is slow-cooked over a charcoal fire for about eight hours, turning it every 15-20 minutes. Cabrito is also a regional specialty of Córdoba Province in Argentina, especially the town of Quilino, which has a festival in its honour. "Chivito" differs from "cabrito" in that chivito is a slightly older animal with less tender meat. The chivito has already begun to eat solid foods, whereas the cabrito is still a suckling. In northern Mexico, cabrito is cooked in a variety of ways: ⁕Cabrito al pastor - The best-known and perhaps most popular form. The whole carcass is opened flat and impaled on a spit. The spit is then placed next to a bed of glowing embers and roasted slowly in the open air without seasonings other than the light scent it will absorb from the slow-burning charcoal. ⁕Cabrito al horno - Toasted slowly in an oven at low temperatures. A number of variants of this preparation have emerged, including some very elaborate processes that involve applying seasonings and covering the cooking meat at specific times to produce a tasty and juicy treat.
The Militant tendency, originally the Revolutionary Socialist League, was a Trotskyist entryist group within the British Labour Party based around the Militant newspaper which was first published in 1964. According to Michael Crick, its politics were influenced by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky and "virtually nobody else". In 1982, a Labour Party commission found Militant in contravention of clause II, section 3 of the party's constitution, and declared it ineligible for affiliation to the Labour Party. In 1983, the five members of the Editorial Board of the Militant newspaper were expelled from the Labour Party. At this point the group claimed internally to have about 4,300 members, a figure which may be generous. Militant played a leading role in Liverpool City Council between 1983 and 1987 when 47 councillors were banned and surcharged. From 1983, a series of moves led by the Labour Party's National Executive Committee and leader Neil Kinnock led to the expulsion of prominent members of the group, and the eventual loss of Militant's two Labour MPs. These actions ended Militant's influence, and presence, within the Party. Between 1989 and 1991 Militant led the All-Britain Anti-Poll Tax Federation's non-payment campaign against the Community Charge. In 1991, Militant decided by a large majority to abandon entryism in the Labour Party. Ted Grant, once the group's most important member, was expelled, and his breakaway minority, now known as Socialist Appeal, continued with the entryist strategy. The majority changed its name to Militant Labour, and then in 1997 to the Socialist Party.
Cape Sable, Florida, is the southernmost point of the US mainland and mainland Florida. It is located in southwestern Florida, in Monroe County, and is part of the Everglades National Park. The cape is a peninsula issuing from the southeastern part of the Florida mainland, running west and curving around to the north, reaching Ponce de Leon Bay, at the mouth of the Shark River. It forms the southern and western margins of Whitewater Bay. There are three prominent points on the cape, East Cape, which is the actual southernmost point of the Florida and United States mainland and the location of Lake Ingraham, the southernmost lake in the United States of America, Middle Cape, also known as Palm Point, and Northwest Cape. East Cape is at coordinates 25°07′02″N 81°05′17″W / 25.11722°N 81.08806°W. The cape has many lakes and some magnificent beaches. The cape is home to the Mangrove Diamondback Terrapin and the Florida Gopher Tortoise. Before Hurricane Donna reduced their range, more than 3,000 of the now-endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows used the cape. Nearly the full length of the cape facing Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico is a fine sand beach extending inland less than 100 yards. Behind the beach in the eastern and middle parts of the cape is a marl prairie, extending from Flamingo to approximately Northwest Point. Inland from the marl prairie, and over all of the northern part of the cape behind the beaches, is a complex of marshes and mangrove covered land. The largest lake on the cape is Lake Ingraham, which is long and narrow, running just behind the beach from near East Cape to past Middle Cape.
The negentropy, also negative entropy or syntropy or extropy or entaxy, of a living system is the entropy that it exports to keep its own entropy low; it lies at the intersection of entropy and life. The concept and phrase "negative entropy" were introduced by Erwin Schrödinger in his 1944 popular-science book What is Life? Later, Léon Brillouin shortened the phrase to negentropy, to express it in a more "positive" way: a living system imports negentropy and stores it. In 1974, Albert Szent-Györgyi proposed replacing the term negentropy with syntropy. That term may have originated in the 1940s with the Italian mathematician Luigi Fantappiè, who tried to construct a unified theory of biology and physics. Buckminster Fuller tried to popularize this usage, but negentropy remains common. In a note to What is Life? Schrödinger explained his use of this phrase. Indeed, negentropy has been used by biologists as the basis for purpose or direction in life, namely cooperative or moral instincts. In 2009, Mahulikar & Herwig redefined negentropy of a dynamically ordered sub-system as the specific entropy deficit of the ordered sub-system relative to its surrounding chaos. Thus, negentropy has units [J/kg-K] when defined based on specific entropy per unit mass, and [K−1] when defined based on specific entropy per unit energy. This definition enabled: i) scale-invariant thermodynamic representation of dynamic order existence, ii) formulation of physical principles exclusively for dynamic order existence and evolution, and iii) mathematical interpretation of Schrödinger's negentropy debt.
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be around 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan area is the third-largest in the European Union after London and Paris. The city spans a total of 604.3 km². The city is located on the Manzanares river in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid; this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of Spain. The current mayor is Ana Botella from the People's Party. The Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, Iberia or Repsol. Madrid is the most touristic city of Spain, the fourth-most touristic of the continent, and the seventh most visited city in the world according to Forbes. Madrid is the 10th most livable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2010 index. Madrid also ranks among the 12 greenest European cities in 2010. Madrid is currently a Candidate City for the 2020 Summer Olympics.
Valladolid is the capital city of the autonomous region of Castile and León and the Province of Valladolid in north-western Spain. It is situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three winegrowing regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales. It has a population of 311,501 people, making it Spain's 13th most populous municipality and northwestern Spain's biggest city. Its metropolitan area ranks 20th in Spain with a population of 413,605 people in 23 municipalities. Valladolid was originally settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, and later the Romans themselves. It remained a small settlement until being re-established by King Alfonso VI of Castile as a Lordship for the Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. It grew to prominence in the Middle Ages as the seat of the Court of Castile and being endowed with fairs and different institutions as a collegiate church, University, Royal Court and Chancery and the Casa de la Moneda. The Catholic Monarchs, Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married in Valladolid in 1469 and established it as the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and later of united Spain. Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid in 1506, while authors Francisco de Quevedo and Miguel de Cervantes lived and worked in the city. It was also a cultural centre in the Spanish Renaissance, although a fire in 1561 forced Phillip II to move the capital to Madrid. It briefly returned to Valladolid under Phillip III between 1601 and 1606, before returning indefinitely to Madrid. The city then declined until the arrival of the railroad in the 19th century, and with its industrialisation, already in the 20th century.
The Sapphires were an American pop ensemble from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Their sound was comparable to much of the music released on Motown in the 1960s. The group first began performing together in the early 1960s, and signed to Swan Records at the behest of producer Jerry Ross. Their first single was "Where Is Johnny Now" b/w "Your True Love", featuring Leon Huff and Thom Bell on keyboards, Bobby Eli on guitar, Bobby Martin on vibraphones, and Joe Macho on bass. The record did not chart, and for their second single, "Who Do You Love", Ross had Kenny Gamble arrange the vocals. This single hit #25 on the US Billboard Hot 100 in 1964. The follow-up single was "I Found Out Too Late", which failed to chart; despite the flagging sales, the group released a full LP that year, again with Gamble arranging vocals. A third and final single for Swan, "Gotta Be More than Friends", was released in 1964, and the group moved to ABC-Paramount late in 1964. The first two ABC singles were "Let's Break Up for a While" and "Thank You for Loving Me", but the group did not return to the charts until 1965's "Gotta Have Your Love", peaking at #33 on the Black Singles chart and #77 on the Hot 100. The single's backing vocalists were Valerie Simpson, Nick Ashford, and Melba Moore. Three further singles followed for ABC - "Evil One", "Gonna Be a Big Thing", and "Slow Fizz" - but none of them sold well, and the group split up around late 1966.
Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He held this nominal post until abolishing it in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union after establishing the position in 1941. Under Joseph Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society. He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a highly centralised command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. However, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Soviet correctional labour camps and the deportation of many others to remote areas. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, known as the Holodomor in Ukraine. Later, in a period that lasted from 1936–39, Stalin instituted a campaign against alleged enemies of his regime called the Great Purge, in which hundreds of thousands were executed. Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, and several Red Army leaders were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin.
"Bangla Desh" is a song by English musician George Harrison that was released as a non-album single in July 1971 to raise awareness for the millions of refugees from the country formerly known as East Pakistan, following the 1970 Bhola cyclone and the outbreak of the Bangladesh Liberation War. Harrison's inspiration for the song came from his friend Ravi Shankar, a Bengali Hindu, who approached Harrison for help in trying to alleviate the suffering. "Bangla Desh" has been described as "one of the most cogent social statements in music history" and helped gain international support for Bangladeshi independence by establishing the name of the fledgling nation around the world. In 2005, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan identified the song's success in personalising the Bangladesh crisis, through its emotive description of Shankar's request for help. "Bangla Desh" was pop music's first charity single, and its release took place three days before the Harrison-sponsored Concert for Bangladesh shows at New York's Madison Square Garden. The single became a top ten hit in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe, and peaked at number 23 on America's Billboard Hot 100. The recording was co-produced by Phil Spector and features contributions from Leon Russell, Jim Horn, Ringo Starr and Jim Keltner. The Los Angeles session for the song marked the start of two enduring musical associations in Harrison's solo career, with Keltner and Horn. Backed by these musicians and others, Harrison performed "Bangla Desh" at the UNICEF concerts, on 1 August 1971, as a rousing encore. In a review of the Concert for Bangladesh live album for Rolling Stone magazine, Jon Landau identified this reading as "the concert's single greatest performance by all concerned".
Florida is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd most extensive, the 4th most populous, and the 8th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state capital is Tallahassee, the largest city is Jacksonville, and the largest metropolitan area is the Miami metropolitan area. Much of Florida is a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida. Its geography is notable for a coastline, omnipresent water and the threat of hurricanes. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, encompassing approximately 1,350 miles, and is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. Some of its most iconic animals, such as the American alligator, crocodile, Florida panther and the manatee, can be found in the Everglades National Park. Since the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León – who named it La Florida upon landing there during the Easter season, Pascua Florida – Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Indians, and racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, it is distinguished by its large Hispanic community, and high population growth, as well as its increasing environmental concerns. Its economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also known for its amusement parks, the production of oranges, and the Kennedy Space Center.
A polymath, sometimes referred to as a Renaissance man, is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable. Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards. The term was first used in the seventeenth century but the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. The concept emerged from the numerous great thinkers of that era who excelled in multiple fields of the arts and science, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus, Francis Bacon and Michael Servetus. The emergence of these thinkers was attributed to the then rising notion in Renaissance Italy expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti: that "a man can do all things if he will." His concept embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism, which considered humans empowered and limitless in their capacities for development, and it led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible. The term applies to the gifted people of the Renaissance who sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge, in physical development, in social accomplishments, and in the arts, in contrast to the vast majority of people of that age, who were not well educated. This temporarily limited term entered the lexicon during the twentieth century and has been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance such as Su Song, Zhang Heng, Li Shizhen, Shen Kuo, Imhotep, Zhuge Liang, Aristotle, Avicenna, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Valéry and Isaac Newton. Terms such as polyhistor, polymath or even universal genius are sometimes employed as synonyms to the term.
Max Born was a German-British physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle. In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.
Looney Tunes is a Warner Bros. animated cartoon series. It preceded the Merrie Melodies series and is WB's first animated theatrical series. The regular Warner Bros. animation cast also became known as the "Looney Tunes". The name Looney Tunes is a variation on Silly Symphonies, the name of Walt Disney's concurrent series of music-based cartoon shorts. Looney Tunes originally showcased Warner-owned musical compositions through the adventures of cartoon characters such as Bosko and Buddy. Later Looney Tunes shorts featured popular characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Sylvester, Tweety, Marvin the Martian, Taz, Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner, Foghorn Leghorn, Yosemite Sam, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, and many others. Originally produced by Harman-Ising Pictures, Looney Tunes were produced by Leon Schlesinger Productions from 1933 to 1944. Schlesinger sold his studio to Warner Bros. in 1944, and the newly renamed Warner Bros. Cartoons continued production until 1963. Looney Tunes were outsourced to DePatie-Freleng Enterprises from 1964 to 1967, and Warner Bros. Cartoons re-assumed production for the series' final two years. From 1942 until 1969, Looney Tunes was the most popular short cartoon series in theaters, even exceeding Disney and other popular competitors. Cartoon Network reran cartoons for 12 years, from their start in 1992 until 2004. when the cartoons were removed from the schedule. In November 2009, Cartoon Network brought back reruns of Looney Tunes cartoons. After only two months, the network stopped airing the cartoons on January 1, 2010. Then, they were brought back in March 2011 showing at least 9-10 cartoons daily 3 from 6AM to 6:30AM and 11:30AM-12:30PM OR 12PM-1PM. Now they only show 3 cartoons daily from 6AM to 6:30AM. They've replaced that hour with The Looney Tunes Show and Tom and Jerry reruns.
Nevado Coropuna is the largest and highest volcano in Peru, attaining an elevation of 6,425 metres. It is located about 150 km northwest of Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru. This massive ice-covered stratovolcano complex has a summit plateau which extends over 12 x 20 km, with six separate summit cones rising above it. Three summits have over 300m of prominence, the true summit, 6425m, is at the northwest corner of the plateau. The southwest summit has an elevation of 6377m on the Peruvian IGM map but may be equal or greater in height depending on the depth of seasonal snow. A further summit with over 300m prominence is Coropuna Este 6307m. A permanent ice cap of about 130 square kilometres in area covers the summit region, extending down to roughly 5,300 metres on the north side and 4,800 metres on the south. Vertical relief on the south flank exceeds 4,000 metres over a distance of less than 15 km. The name Coropuna means "shrine on the plateau" in Quechua. Coropuna was one of the most sacred mountains in Peru, and in 1553 its temple was claimed to be the fifth most important shrine in the Inca Empire by the chronicler, Cieza de Leon. In 1982 Peruvian archaeologist José Antonio Chávez was able to briefly visit an Inca site called Achaymarca, which he felt was a likely candidate to be the temple of Coropuna. In 1989 Chávez and Johan Reinhard led an expedition to visit Achaymarca and surveyed the central ruins at 4,030 m, which was part of a complex of over 200 structures, including an Inca ceremonial platform. They also traced an Inca trail up to 5,500 m on the western slope of the mountain, where it disappeared beneath the glacier ice. Along this trail was an Inca site at 5,090 m that they named Ajocancha. In 1996 they organized another expedition which found wool and llama bones at 5,760 m, llama bones and shards at 5,947 m, and wood at 6,200 m, providing evidence of pre-Columbian ascents.