Definitions containing fĂ rster, ernst
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Ernst Mach, Austrian physicist 1838 - 1916.
Ernst is a fictional character, a mutant in the Marvel Comics Universe. Her first appearance as Ernst was in New X-Men vol. 1 #135.
|karl wilhelm siemens|
Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens
engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)
— Princeton's WordNet
Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens
engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)
— Princeton's WordNet
|sir charles william siemens|
Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens
engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)
— Princeton's WordNet
Max Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism.
|The Elephant Celebes|
The Elephant Celebes
The Elephant Celebes is a 1921 painting by the German Dadaist and surrealist Max Ernst. It is among the most famous of Ernst's early surrealist works and "undoubtedly the first masterpiece of Surrealist painting in the De Chirico tradition." It combines the vivid, dreamlike atmosphere of Surrealism with the collage aspects of Dada.
Coutts & Co. is a private bank and wealth manager. It is one of the worldâs oldest banks and is wholly owned by the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. RBS acquired Coutts when it bought NatWest in 2000. Coutts then acquired Zurich-based Bank von Ernst & Cie in 2003 and in 2008, Coutts Bank von Ernst and other Coutts International subsidiaries became RBS Coutts Bank. These traded as RBS Coutts International to align them with the parent RBS Group until 2011, when RBS Coutts was renamed Coutts & Co. Limited. Headquartered in London, Coutts is the wealth division of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, with clients from over 40 offices in financial centres in the UK, Switzerland, the Middle East and Asia.
|Ernst Boris Chain|
Ernst Boris Chain
Sir Ernst Boris Chain, FRS was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin.
Allobarbital, also known as allobarbitone and branded as Cibalgine or Dial-Ciba, is a barbiturate derivative invented in 1912 by Ernst Preiswerk and Ernst Grether working for CIBA. It was used primarily as an anticonvulsant although it has now largely been replaced by newer drugs with improved safety profiles. Other uses for allobarbital included as an adjutant to boost the activity of analgesic drugs, and use in the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. Allobarbital was never particularly widely used compared to better known barbiturates such as phenobarbital and secobarbital, although it saw more use in some European countries such as Bulgaria and Slovakia, and is still used in for example Poland, but only as compound.
Rhizopogonaceae are a family of fungi in the order Boletales. The family, first named and described by botanists Ernst Albert GĂ€umann and Carroll William Dodge in 1928, contains 3 genera and 152 species.
Karl Hermann Amandus Schwarz was a German mathematician, known for his work in complex analysis. He was born in Hermsdorf, Silesia and died in Berlin. He was married to Marie Kummer, a daughter of the mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer and his wife Ottilie, nĂ©e Mendelssohn. They had six children. Schwarz originally studied chemistry in Berlin but Kummer and WeierstraĂ persuaded him to change to Mathematics. Between 1867 and 1869 he worked in Halle, then in ZĂŒrich. From 1875 he worked at GĂ¶ttingen University, dealing with the subjects of function theory, differential geometry and the calculus of variations. His works include Bestimmung einer speziellen MinimalflĂ€che, which was crowned by the Berlin Academy in 1867 and printed in 1871, and Gesammelte mathematische Abhandlungen. In 1892 he became a member of the Berlin Academy of Science and a professor at the University of Berlin, where his students included LipĂłt FejĂ©r, Paul Koebe and Ernst Zermelo. He died in Berlin.
An amplidyne is an electromechanical amplifier invented during World War II by Ernst Alexanderson. It is usually an AC motor driving a DC generator with modifications to increase the power gain available. A small electrical signal can control the position of a large motor using this approach.
|Ernst Werner von Siemens|
Ernst Werner von Siemens
Ernst Werner Siemens, von Siemens since 1888, was a German inventor and industrialist. Siemens' name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He was also the founder of the electrical and telecommunications company Siemens.
Leopold Kronecker was a German mathematician who worked on number theory and algebra. He criticized Cantor's work on set theory, and was quoted by Weber as having said, "God made natural numbers; all else is the work of man". Kronecker was a student and lifelong friend of Ernst Kummer.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he was a major influence on logical positivism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein's relativity.
German author and traveller, born in Hamburg; when 21 he emigrated to New York, and for six years led a wandering life in different parts of America, working the while now at one occupation now at another, a narrative of which he published on his return to Germany; in 1849 he undertook a journey round the world which occupied him three years; in 1860-61 he crossed S. America; in 1862 he was in Africa with Duke Ernst of Gotha, and in 1863 in Central America; his many writings, descriptive of these countries, exhibit a fresh and graphic style, and have had a wide popularity; he is the author also of several thrilling stories (1816-1872).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Ernst Cassirer was a German philosopher. Trained within the Neo-Kantian Marburg School, he initially followed his mentor Hermann Cohen in attempting to supply an idealistic philosophy of science; after Cohen's death, he developed a theory of symbolism, and used it to expand phenomenology of knowledge into a more general philosophy of culture. He is one of the leading 20th century advocates of philosophical idealism.
Arsthinol is an antiprotozoal agent. It was synthesized for the first time in 1949 by Ernst A.H. Friedheim by complexation of acetarsol with 2,3-dimercaptopropanol and has been demonstrated to be effective against amoebiasis and yaws. It was marketed few years latter by Endo Products. Among trivalent organoarsenicals, arthinol was considered as very well tolerated. In 2006 it was studied for its antileukemic activity.
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr. was an American writer. He is widely known for the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath, East of Eden and the novella Of Mice and Men. As the author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books, and five collections of short stories, Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962.
Drip painting is a form of abstract art in which paint is dripped or poured onto the canvas. This style of action painting was experimented with in the first half of the twentieth century by such artists as Francis Picabia, Andre Masson and Max Ernst, who employed drip painting in his works The Bewildered Planet, and Young Man Intrigued by the Flight of a Non-Euclidean Fly. Ernst used the novel means of painting Lissajous figures by swinging a punctured bucket of paint over a horizontal canvas. Drip painting was however to find particular expression in the work of the mid-twentieth century artists Janet Sobel and Jackson Pollock. Pollock found drip painting to his liking; later using the technique almost exclusively, he would make use of such unconventional tools as sticks, hardened brushes and even basting syringes to create large and energetic abstract works. Pollock used house paint to create his signature drips. House paint was less viscous than traditional tubes of oil paint, and Pollock thus created his large compositions horizontally to prevent his paint from running. His gestural lines create a unified overall pattern that allows the eye to travel from one of the canvases to the other and back again.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after being nominated by Albert Einstein, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle," involving spin theory, underpinning the structure of matter and the whole of chemistry.
Leica Camera AG, a German optics company, manufactures Leica cameras. The predecessor of the company, formerly known as Ernst Leitz GmbH, is now three companies: Leica Camera AG, Leica Geosystems AG, and Leica Microsystems GmbH, which manufacture cameras, geosurvey equipment, and microscopes, respectively. Leica Microsystems AG owns the Leica brand and licences the sister companies to use it.
Feuersnot, Op. 50, is a Singgedicht or opera in one act by Richard Strauss. The German libretto was written by Ernst von Wolzogen, based on J. Ketel's report "Das erloschene Feuer zu Audenaerde" in the Oudenaarde Gazette, Leipzig, 1843. It was Strauss' second opera. Thematically, the opera has been interpreted as a parody of Richard Wagner's idea of "redemption through love", with the character of Kunrad representing Strauss himself.
Muhlenbergia is a genus of grass in the Poaceae family. It is named in honour of the American amateur botanist Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg. There are around 155 species. Many are known by the common name muhly. The greatest number are native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, but there are also native species in Central and South America and southeast Asia. A few are native to Canada.
Ernst Lubitsch was a German American actor, screenwriter, producer and film director. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director; as his prestige grew, his films were promoted as having "the Lubitsch touch." In 1947 he received an Honorary Academy Award for his distinguished contributions to the art of the motion picture, and he was nominated three times for Best Director.
Tektology is a term used by Alexander Bogdanov to describe a discipline that consisted of unifying all social, biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships and by seeking the organizational principles that underlie all systems. Tectology is now regarded as a precursor of systems theory and related aspects of synergetics. The word "tectology" was developed by Ernst Haeckel, but Bogdanov used it for a different purpose.
Reissner's membrane is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear. It separates scala media from scala vestibuli. Together with the basilar membrane it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with endolymph, which is important for the function of the organ of Corti. It primarily functions as a diffusion barrier, allowing nutrients to travel from the perilymph to the endolymph of the membranous labyrinth. Histologically, the membrane is composed of two layers of flattened epithelium, separated by a basal lamina. Its structure suggests that its function is transport of fluid and electrolytes. Reissner's membrane is named after German anatomist Ernst Reissner.
Sir Alexander Fleming, FRSE, FRS, FRCS was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. In 1999, Time magazine named Fleming one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating:
Heimia is a genus of flowering plants in the loosestrife family, Lythraceae. It contains two or three species of closely related shrubs commonly known as sun opener or shrubby yellowcrest. They are native to the Americas, from northern Argentina north to the southernmost United States. The leaves are 2â5 cm long and 1 cm broad, entire, and variably arranged alternate, opposite or whorled on the stems. All species produce five-petaled yellow flowers. The plants have a history of medicinal use in a variety of American cultures. Several pharmacologically active alkaloids have been detected in the plants. The generic names honours German physician Ernst Ludwig Heim.
Caenogenesis is the introduction during embryonic development of characters or structure not present in the earlier evolutionary history of the strain or species, as opposed to palingenesis. Notable examples include the addition of the placenta in mammals. Caenogenesis constitutes a violation to Ernst Haeckel's biogenetic law and was explained by Haeckel as adaptation to the peculiar conditions of the organism's individual development. Other authorities, such as Wilhelm His, Sr., on the contrary saw embryonic differences as precursors to adult differences.
ValueClick is a Westlake Village, CA-based online advertising company, which provides online advertising campaigns and programs for advertisers and advertising agency customers in the United States and internationally. ValueClickâs customers include advertisers, advertising agencies, and traffic distribution partners. The company was founded in 1998 and is based in Westlake Village, California. In July 2000, ValueClick's founder, Brian Coryat was named Entrepreneur of the Year for E-Commerce by Ernst and Young. This was the first year that E-Commerce became a category.
|Ernst Ludwig Kirchner|
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die BrĂŒcke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis and in 1937 over 600 of his works were sold or destroyed. In 1938 he committed suicide by gunshot.
Ludwigite is a magnesium-iron borate mineral: Mg2FeBO5. Ludwigite typically occurs in magnesian iron skarn and other high temperature contact metamorphic deposits. It occurs in association with magnetite, forsterite, clinohumite and the borates vonsenite and szaibelyite. It forma a solid solution series with the iron-iron borate mineral vonsenite. It was first described in 1874 for an occurrence in Ocna de Fier, Banat Mountains, Caras-Severin, Romania and named for Ernst Ludwig, an Austrian chemist at the University of Vienna.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einsteinâs theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics.
Headquartered in Salt Lake City, UT, Interbank FX, LLC (IBFX) is a provider of online Forex trading services, offering individual traders, money managers and institutional customers proprietary technology, tools and education to trade spot foreign currency online.Unlike other offĂÂexchange retail foreign currency brokers, IBFX has distinguished itself among industry leaders with its unique multi bank liquidity feed, proprietary tools and services, and remarkable focus on customer care. This has led to longerĂÂterm relationships and to numerous awards and industry accolades, including Best Online FX Provider, Best Foreign Exchange Broker, Best Chairman, Ernst and Young Entrepreneur of the Year, and Inc 500.IBFX serves more than 35,000 clients from more than 140 countries around the world and has supported a trading volume in excess of US$80 billion in a single month. The company is regulated as a member of the National Futures Association and is also registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission as a Futures Commission Merchant.
Schwergewicht, oder Die Ehre der Nation is a burleske Operette with text and music by Ernst Krenek, his opus 55 and the third of his 1928 one-acters. This satirical skit was provoked by the German ambassador's comment that sports heroes --and not artists-- were the true ambassadors of nations, and the title character Ochsenschwanz is a reference to the boxer Max Schmeling. Like Jonny spielt auf, it makes frequent allusions to jazz, both in its use of percussion and banjo and in its "Tempo di Blues". There is even a nod to Mendelssohn's Wedding March.
LGB is the standard acronym for Lehmann Gross Bahn - the "Lehmann Big Railway" in German. Made by Ernst Paul Lehmann Patentwerk in Nuremberg, Germany, since 1968 and by MĂ€rklin since 2007, it is the most popular garden railway model in Europe, although there are also many models of U.S. and Canadian prototypes. LGB caused a revival of garden model railroading in the United States when it was introduced. LGB is sold in North America through Walthers, who took over from Ernst Paul Lehmann's subsidiary, LGB of America, when MĂ€rklin bought the LGB assets. Most of the European prototypes were manufactured in Germany, while much of the North American rolling stock was made in China. LGB trains are responsible for introducing "G" scale to model railroading. The scale ratio used by LGB is 1:22.5, although other G-scale manufacturers produce products that range from 1:20 to 1:32, and for the most part, all use the same track and are compatible with one another. Though they can all run on the same track, models representing narrow-gauge versions of trains or locomotives would not normally be run together with models of larger full-scale vehicles. To fit the same standard track the latter must be built using different scales. To illustrate the point, 1:22.5 scale passengers and/or train crew are somewhat oversized when displayed in close proximity with 1:32 models. Though the models may be physically compatible, many people choose a style or era to fit their desires and pick one ratio to model all of their trains.
The theory of cellularization, also known as Ciliate-acoel theory, is one of the theories explaining the origin of the metazoans. It was first based on Ernst Haeckel's assumption that the earliest animals derived from ciliate protozoans. Haeckel later abandoned this idea which is revived by Hadzi in 1953. According to the theory, a multinucleated unicellular ciliate ancestor would give rise to organisms similar to modern turbellarian flatworms by cellularization of the external layer. Recent molecular and morphologic data add increasing evidence against this view, and the alternative colonial theory, also proposed by Haeckel in the 1870s is gaining widespread acceptance.
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network. It is the world's second largest professional services network, as measured by 2013 revenues, and is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young and KPMG. PwC is a network of firms in 157 countries with more than 184,000 people. It had total revenues of $32.1 billion in FY 2013, of which $14.8 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $8.2 billion by its Tax practice and $9.2 billion by its Advisory practice. The firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. The trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding. As of 2012 PwC United States is the fifth-largest privately owned organization in the United States.
|Trouble in Paradise|
Trouble in Paradise
Trouble in Paradise is a 1932 American pre-Code romantic comedy film directed by Ernst Lubitsch and starring Miriam Hopkins, Kay Francis, and Herbert Marshall. Based on the 1931 play The Honest Finder by Hungarian playwright AladĂĄr LĂĄszlĂł, the film is about a gentleman thief and a lady pickpocket who join forces to con a beautiful perfume company owner. In 1932, the film received a National Board of Review award as one of the top ten films of the year. In 1991, Trouble in Paradise was selected for preservation by the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
SPECTRE is a fictional global terrorist organisation featured in the James Bond novels by Ian Fleming, the films based on those novels, and James Bond video games. Led by evil genius and supervillain Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the supranational organisation first formally appeared in the novel Thunderball and in the movie Dr. No. SPECTRE is not aligned to any nation or political ideology, enabling the later Bond books and Bond films to be regarded as apolitical. SPECTRE began in the novels as a small group of criminals but became a vast international organisation with its own SPECTRE Island training base in the films, to replace the Soviet SMERSH.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 and named it after Ruthenia, the Latin word for Rus'. Ruthenium usually occurs as a minor component of platinum ores and its annual production is only about 20 tonnes. Most ruthenium is used for wear-resistant electrical contacts and the production of thick-film resistors. A minor application of ruthenium is its use in some platinum alloys.
TicketLeap is an online ticket sales and event marketing company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Founded in 2003 by Wharton graduate Christopher Stanchak, TicketLeap differentiates itself from large ticket vendors by catering its e-ticketing services to small companies and events, as well as larger events. The company started out as just Chris and his mother Connie as the first employee, but has since expanded across the United States, and now Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom. CEO, Chris Stanchak, was nominated as a finalist for the 2011 Greater Philadelphia Region Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of The Year Award in May, 2011. In July 2012, TicketLeap was recognized as one of the â2012 Hottest Pennsylvania Companiesâ by Lead411.
Leo Strauss was a GermanâAmerican political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy. He was born in Germany to Jewish parents and later emigrated to the United States. He spent most of his career as a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he taught several generations of students and published fifteen books. Originally trained in the neo-Kantian tradition with Ernst Cassirer and immersed in the work of the phenomenologists Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, Strauss later focused his research on the Greek texts of Plato and Aristotle, retracing their interpretation through medieval Islamic and Jewish philosophy and encouraging the application of those ideas to contemporary political theory.
In three years, CREOpoint.com has become the invitation-only social network for commercial real estate decision makers worldwide. Over one hundred thousand members and visitors from over 50 countries have come to CREOpoint to access industry intelligence and compare notes with their peers in one of 13 languages. Because we have built CREOpoint into the online community for the CRE industry, companies look to us as the real experts in community development and industry-focused social media marketing solutions. This has led to the development of our CREObuzz consulting business. Thanks to our proven DNA in social media and data aggregation in CRE, we also help industry leaders like BNP Paribas, CBRE, Cush Man & Wakefield, GE Capital Real Estate, KPMG and Ernst & Young with reputation risk management, competitive intelligence, and influencer engagement.You could also benefit from CREOpoint alliances including ARGUS Software, BOMA, Business Immo, Commercial Property Executive, CoreNet, DailyRE TV, Euromoney, ERM, EuropaProperty, IFMA, IREM, MIPIM, NAIOP, Property Week, Real Capital Analytics, REIDIN, RICS, SIOR, the Appraisal Institute, the Real Estate Roundtable, the Urban Land Institute and the .
Dysteleology is the philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design. The term "dysteleology" is a modern word invented and popularized by Ernst Haeckel. Dysteleology is an aggressive, yet optimistic, form of science-oriented atheism originally perhaps associated with Haeckel and his followers, but now perhaps more associated with the type of atheism of Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, or Christopher Hitchens. Western philosophy since Copernicus has been increasingly dysteleological. Unlike traditional philosophical and religious perspectives, modern philosophical naturalism sees existence as having no inherent goal. Philosophical schools that have rejected dysteleology include German idealism, Integral theory, and some adherents to the Anthropic principle.
Downfall is a 2004 war film directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, depicting the final ten days of Adolf Hitler's reign of Nazi Germany in 1945. The film's screenplay was written by Bernd Eichinger, and based upon the books Inside Hitler's Bunker, by historian Joachim Fest; Until the Final Hour, the memoirs of Traudl Junge, one of Hitler's secretaries; Albert Speer's memoirs, Inside the Third Reich; Hitler's Last Days: An EyeâWitness Account, by Gerhardt Boldt; Das Notlazarett Unter Der Reichskanzlei: Ein Arzt Erlebt Hitlers Ende in Berlin by Doctor Ernst-GĂŒnther Schenck; and, Siegfried Knappe's memoirs, Soldat: Reflections of a German Soldier, 1936â1949. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
Advertising columns or morris columns are cylindrical outdoor sidewalk structures with a characteristic style that are used for advertising and other purposes. They are common in the city of Berlin, Germany, where the first 100 columns were installed in 1855. Advertising columns were invented by the German printer Ernst LitfaĂ in 1854. Therefore it is known as LitfaĂsĂ€ule in Germany, and can be found all over the country there. In France, the columns are named Morris after Gabriel Morris, a printer, who held the concession for advertising in 1868. They were originally built by La SociĂ©tĂ© FermiĂšre des Colonnes Morris. Today, they are mostly built and maintained today by the JCDecaux company, which purchased the original company in 1986.
A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid with one or more sialic acids linked on the sugar chain. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of gangliosides anionic at pH 7, which distinguishes them from globosides. The name ganglioside was first applied by the German scientist Ernst Klenk in 1942 to lipids newly isolated from ganglion cells of the brain. More than 60 gangliosides are known, which differ from each other mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events, and appears to concentrate in lipid rafts. Recently, gangliosides have been found to be highly important molecules in immunology. Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders.
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation or hybridization barriers are a collection of mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes that prevent the members of two different species that cross or mate from producing offspring, or which ensure that any offspring that may be produced is not fertile. These barriers maintain the integrity of a species over time, reducing or directly impeding gene flow between individuals of different species, allowing the conservation of each speciesâ characteristics. The mechanisms of reproductive isolation have been classified in a number of ways. Zoologist Ernst Mayr classified the mechanisms of reproductive isolation in two broad categories: those that act before fertilization and those that act after. These have also been termed pre-zygotic and post-zygotic mechanisms. The different mechanisms of reproductive isolation are genetically controlled and it has been demonstrated experimentally that they can evolve in species whose geographic distribution overlaps or as the result of adaptive divergence that accompanies allopatric speciation.
Vasaloppet is an annual long distance cross-country ski race held on the first Sunday of March in northwestern Dalarna, Sweden between the village of SĂ€len and town of Mora. It is the oldest, the longest, and the biggest cross-country ski race in the world. In the 80th race, held on 7 March 2004, some 15,500 skiers competed in the main event. More than 40,000 participated in one of the seven different races held during the first week of March. The race was first run in 1922, inspired by a run by King Gustav Vasa in 1520. The winner of the first race was Ernst Alm from NorsjĂ¶, 22 years old, who is also the youngest ever winner of the race. Vasaloppet is one of the races in the long distance cup Ski Classics.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 and directed it until his death in 1980. The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory." According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."
The uncanny valley is a hypothesis in the field of human aesthetics which holds that when human features look and move almost, but not perfectly, like natural human beings, it causes a response of revulsion among human observers. Examples can be found in the fields of robotics, 3D computer animation, and in medical fields such as burn reconstruction, infectious diseases, neurological conditions, and plastic surgery. The "valley" refers to the dip in a graph of the comfort level of humans as subjects move toward a healthy, natural human likeness described in a function of a subject's aesthetic acceptability. The term was coined by the robotics professor Masahiro Mori as Bukimi no Tani GenshĆ in 1970. The hypothesis has been linked to Ernst Jentsch's concept of the "uncanny" identified in a 1906 essay, "On the Psychology of the Uncanny". Jentsch's conception was elaborated by Sigmund Freud in a 1919 essay entitled "The Uncanny".
The siemens is the unit of electric conductance and electric admittance in the International System of Units. Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to the reciprocal of one ohm, and is also referred to as the mho. The 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures approved the addition of the siemens as a derived unit in 1971. The unit is named after Ernst Werner von Siemens. As with every SI unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case; the lower-case "s" is the symbol for the second. When an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lower case letter, except where any word would be capitalized. In English, the same form siemens is used both for the singular and plural.
The Pianet is a type of electro-mechanical piano built by the Hohner company of Trossingen, West Germany from the late 1950s to the early 1980s. The designer of the early Pianet models was Ernst Zacharias, basing the mechanism closely on a 1920s design by Lloyd Loar. The Pianet was a variant of the earlier reed-based Hohner electric piano the Cembalet which, like the Pianet, was intended for home use. Hohner offered both keyboards in their range until the early 1970s. The Pianet production consisted of two distinctly different mechanism groups with characteristically different sound. The first group, lasting from introduction to 1977, had ground stainless steel reeds, a pick-up using variable capacitance, and leather faced activation pads. The second group from 1977 until the end of production used rolled spring-steel reeds, electro-magnetic pick-ups, and moulded silicone rubber activation pads.
Neo-expressionism is a style of modern painting and sculpture that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. Related to American Lyrical Abstraction of the 60s and 70s, Bay Area Figurative School of the 50s and 60s, the continuation of Abstract Expressionism, New Image Painting and precedents in Pop painting, it developed as a reaction against the conceptual art and minimal art of the 1970s. Neo-expressionists returned to portraying recognizable objects, such as the human body, in a rough and violently emotional way using vivid colours and banal colour harmonies. Overtly inspired by the so-called German Expressionist painters--Emil Nolde, Max Beckmann, George Grosz, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner--and other expressionist artists such as James Ensor and Edvard Munch. Neo-expressionists were sometimes called Neue Wilden. The style emerged internationally and was viewed by many critics such as Achille Bonito Oliva and Donald Kuspit as a revival of traditional themes of self-expression in European art after decades of American dominance. The social and economic value of the movement was hotly debated.
An ebullioscope is an instrument for measuring the boiling point of a liquid. This can be used for determining the alcoholic strength of a mixture, or for determining the molecular weight of a non-volatile solute based on the boiling-point elevation. The procedure is known as ebullioscopy. The first ebullioscope was invented in 1838 by Brossard-Vidal, and was used for measuring alcoholic content. The advantage of this method was that the boiling point is relatively insensitive to other components such as sugars. Older alcoholimeters were based on measuring the density, which is more sensitive to the presence of other solutes. A later version was built by the French chemist FranĂ§ois-Marie Raoult, but the difficulty to determine the exact temperature was overcome by the invention of the Beckmann thermometer by Ernst Otto Beckmann in 1887. This improvement made the ebullioscope a standard apparatus to determine the molecular weight of substances in solution by using the ebullioscopic constant of the solvent.
Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms without a nucleus, such as bacteria. The taxon Monera was first proposed as a phylum by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Subsequently, the taxon was elevated to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by Ădouard Chatton. The last commonly accepted mega-classification with the taxon Monera was the five-kingdom classification system established by Robert Whittaker in 1969. Under the three-domain system of taxonomy, which was introduced by Carl Woese in 1977 and reflects the evolutionary history of life, the organisms found in kingdom Monera have been divided into two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. Furthermore the taxon Monera is paraphyletic. The term "moneran" is the informal name of members of this group and is still sometimes used to denote a member of either domain. Despite the fact that most bacteria were classified under Monera, the bacterial phylum Cyanobacteria was not initially classified under Monera, but under Plantae because of the ability of its members to photosynthesise.
Structure is a fundamental, tangible or intangible notion referring to the recognition, observation, nature, and permanence of patterns and relationships of entities. This notion may itself be an object, such as a built structure, or an attribute, such as the structure of society. From a child's verbal description of a snowflake, to the detailed scientific analysis of the properties of magnetic fields, the concept of structure is now often an essential foundation of nearly every mode of inquiry and discovery in science, philosophy, and art. In early 20th-century and earlier thought, form often plays a role comparable to that of structure in contemporary thought. The neo-Kantianism of Ernst Cassirer is sometimes regarded as a precursor of the later shift to structuralism and poststructuralism. The description of structure implicitly offers an account of what a system is made of: a configuration of items, a collection of inter-related components or services. A structure may be a hierarchy, a network featuring many-to-many links, or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space.
The telson is the last division of the body of a crustacean. It is not considered a true segment because it does not arise in the embryo from teloblast areas as do real segments. It never carries any appendages, but a forked "tail" called the caudal furca is often present. Together with the uropods, the telson forms the tail fan of lobsters, shrimp and other decapods. These are used as a paddle in the caridoid escape reaction, whereby an alarmed animal rapidly flexes its tail, causing it to dart backwards. Krill can reach speeds of over 60 cm per second by this means. The trigger time to optical stimulus is, in spite of the low temperatures, only 55 milliseconds. The same term telson is widely used for the caudal spine of Chelicerata. The chelicerate telson can be clearly seen in a number of fossil species and in extant animals. Some authorities, like Karl-Ernst Lauterbach, have urged that the usage of this word in this context be discouraged.
Arginine is an Î±-amino acid. It was first isolated in 1886. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids. At the level of molecular genetics, in the structure of the messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA, CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG, are the triplets of nucleotide bases or codons that code for arginine during protein synthesis. In mammals, arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them. There are some conditions that put an increased demand on the body for the synthesis of L-arginine, including surgical or other trauma, sepsis and burns. Arginine was first isolated from a lupin seedling extract in 1886 by the Swiss chemist Ernst Schultze. In general, most people do not need to take arginine supplements because the body usually produces enough.
Euglena is a genus of unicellular flagellate protists. It is the best known and most widely studied member of the phylum Euglenozoa, a diverse group containing some 44 genera and at least 800 species. Species of Euglena are found in fresh and salt waters. They are often abundant in quiet, inland waters, where they may bloom in numbers sufficient to color the surface of ponds and ditches green or red. The species Euglena gracilis, has been used extensively in the laboratory as a model organism. Most species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. However, they can also take nourishment heterotrophically, like animals. Since Euglena have features of both animals and plants, early taxonomists, working within the Linnaean two-kingdom system of biological classification, found them difficult to classify. Indeed, it was the question of where to put such "unclassifiable" creatures that prompted Ernst Haeckel to add a third kingdom to the Animale and Vegetabile of Linnaeus: the Kingdom Protista.
VVV was a magazine devoted to the dissemination of Surrealism published in New York City from 1942 through 1944. Only four issues of VVV were published. However, it provided an outlet for European Surrealist artists, who were displaced from their home countries by World War II, to communicate with American artists. VVV was the product of leading Surrealists. The magazine was edited by David Hare in collaboration with Marcel Duchamp, AndrĂ© Breton, and Max Ernst. VVV's editorial board also enlisted a number of associated thinkers and artists, including AimĂ© CĂ©saire, Philip Lamantia, and Robert Motherwell. Each edition focused on "poetry, plastic arts, anthropology, sociology, psychology," and was lavishly illustrated by Surrealist artists, including Giorgio de Chirico, Roberto Matta and Yves Tanguy. The magazine was experimental in format, as well as, in content. VVV included fold-out pages, sheets of different sizes and paper stock, and bold typography and color. The second magazine featured a "readymade" by Duchamp as the back cover which was a cutout female figure "imprisoned" by a piece of actual chicken wire.
In fluid mechanics, Mach number is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local speed of sound. where Mach number varies by the composition of the surrounding medium and also by local conditions, especially temperature and pressure. The Mach number can be used to determine if a flow can be treated as an incompressible flow. If M < 0.2â0.3 and the flow is steady and isothermal, compressibility effects will be small and a simplified incompressible flow model can be used. The Mach number is named after Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, a designation proposed by aeronautical engineer Jakob Ackeret. Because the Mach number is often viewed as a dimensionless quantity rather than a unit of measure, with Mach, the number comes after the unit; the second Mach number is "Mach 2" instead of "2 Mach". This is somewhat reminiscent of the early modern ocean sounding unit "mark", which was also unit-first, and may have influenced the use of the term Mach. In the decade preceding faster-than-sound human flight, aeronautical engineers referred to the speed of sound as Mach's number, never "Mach 1."
Ernst Ingmar Bergman was a Swedish director, writer and producer for film, stage and television. Described by Woody Allen as "probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera," he is recognized as one of the most accomplished and influential film directors of all time. He directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over one hundred and seventy plays. Among his company of actors were Harriet Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar BjĂ¶rnstrand, Bibi Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in the landscape of Sweden. His major subjects were death, illness, faith, betrayal, bleakness and insanity. Bergman was active for more than six decades. In 1976, his career was seriously threatened as the result of a botched criminal investigation for alleged income tax evasion. Outraged, Bergman suspended a number of pending productions, closed his studios, and went into self-imposed exile in West Germany for eight years.
In the foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox, discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that the naive set theory created by Georg Cantor leads to a contradiction. The same paradox had been discovered a year before by Ernst Zermelo but he did not publish the idea, which remained known only to Hilbert, Husserl and other members of the University of GĂ¶ttingen. According to naive set theory, any definable collection is a set. Let R be the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. If R is not a member of itself, then its definition dictates that it must contain itself, and if it contains itself, then it contradicts its own definition as the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. This contradiction is Russell's paradox. Symbolically: In 1908, two ways of avoiding the paradox were proposed, Russell's type theory and the Zermelo set theory, the first constructed axiomatic set theory. Zermelo's axioms went well beyond Frege's axioms of extensionality and unlimited set abstraction, and evolved into the now-canonical ZermeloâFraenkel set theory.
The Anarch is a metaphysical ideal figure of a sovereign individual, conceived by Ernst JĂŒnger in his novel Eumeswil. JĂŒnger was greatly influenced by individualist anarchist Max Stirner. Indeed, the Anarch starts out from Stirner's conception of the unique, a man who forms a bond around something concrete rather than ideal, but it is then developed in subtle but critical ways beyond Stirner's concept. The concept is developed through the actions and reflections of Manuel Venator, the protagonist of Eumeswil. Here are few of the countless quotes in Eumeswil regarding the anarch: The term "anarch" had been used for two years by students at Reed College in Portland, Oregon to designate the official representative of their living units. The position of Anarch rotated every two weeks, and the new Anarch was selected by the drawing of cards from the deck. The Anarch was presumed to be all-powerful during his term of office; in practice, it generally meant that one might get listened to slightly more often. This is an instance of independent invention of the term, which was not pursued at the time.
Decalcomania, from the French dĂ©calcomanie, is a decorative technique by which engravings and prints may be transferred to pottery or other materials. It was invented in England about 1750 and imported into the United States at least as early as 1865. Its invention has been attributed to Simon FranĂ§ois Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England and perfected the process, which he called "decalquer". The first known use of the French term dĂ©calcomanie, in Mary Elizabeth Braddon's Eleanor's Victory, was followed by the English decalcomania in an 1865 trade show catalog; it was popularized during the ceramic transfer craze of the mid-1870s. Today the shortened version is "Decal". The surrealist Oscar DomĂnguez took up the technique in 1936, using gouache spread thinly on a sheet of paper or other surface, which is then pressed onto another surface such as a canvas. Dominguez used black gouache, though colours later made their appearance. German artist Max Ernst also practiced decalcomania, as did Hans Bellmer and Remedios Varo.
The Northern Alliance is a far right, white supremacist organization based in London, Ontario, Canada. The group started in 1997, and has been involved in a number of public controversies. The group's leading members include Jason Ouwendyk, Tyler Chilcott, Dave Ruud, and Tomas Szymanski. The number of members in the group is not known. The Northern Alliance was founded with the help of Raphael Bergmann, an associate of holocaust denier Ernst ZĂŒndel, who has said former Heritage Front leader Wolfgang Droege was a mentor. Bergmann addressed two gatherings of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1990s, and reportedly organized racialist rock concerts in London during the same period. Bergmann claims that he started the Northern Alliance as a "discussion group", and that its members met on an informal basis. Others have questioned this claim and have suggested that the group existed as a more formal organization from its earliest days. Members of the Northern Alliance have met to discuss subjects such as immigration, racism and the Ontario Human Rights Commission, from a racialist and Euro-centric perspective. Many of the group's members appear to have been racist skinheads.
Therapeutic touch, known by some as Non-Contact Therapeutic Touch, is an energy therapy which practitioners claim promotes healing and reduces pain and anxiety. Therapeutic TouchTM is a registered trademark in Canada for the "[s]tructured and standardized healing practice performed by practitioners trained to be sensitive to the receiver's energy field that surrounds the body;...no touching is required." Practitioners of therapeutic touch state that by placing their hands on, or near, a patient, they are able to detect and manipulate the patient's energy field. One highly cited study, designed by a then-nine-year-old Emily Rosa and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that practitioners of therapeutic touch could not detect the presence or absence of a hand placed a few inches above theirs when their vision was obstructed. Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst concluded in their 2008 book Trick or Treatment that "the energy field was probably nothing more than a figment in the imaginations of the healers." The American Cancer Society has noted, "Available scientific evidence does not support any claims that TT can cure cancer or other diseases."
|Ernst Heinrich Weber|
Ernst Heinrich Weber
Ernst Heinrich Weber was a German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Weber studied medicine at Wittenberg University. In 1818 he was appointed Associate Professor of comparative anatomy at Leipzig University, where he was made a Fellow Professor of anatomy and physiology in 1821. In the 1820s or 1830s Weber began studying the tactile senses, the two-point threshold and weight perception. He published his early work in 1834 in Latin, and published this together with later work in 1846 in German. He found that weight discrimination was much finer with active lifting than when the weights were placed on supported hands. He also found that the just-noticeable difference of the change in the magnitude of a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus, rather than being an absolute value. Gustav Fechner named this Weber's Law. Fechner explored this relation further in the 1850s and, integrating over Weber's proportional jnds, argued for a logarithmic relation between physical and psychological magnitudes. This new law became known as Fechner's Law, or the Weber-Fechner Law, and formed the basis of Fechner's new science of psychophysics.
The Nehru jacket is a hip-length tailored coat for men or women, with a mandarin collar, and with its front modeled on the South Asian achkan or sherwani, an apparel worn by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. However, unlike the achkan, which falls somewhere below the knees of the wearer, the Nehru jacket is not only shorter, but also, in all respects other than the collar, resembles the suit jacket. Nehru, notably, never wore the Nehru jacket himself. The apparel was created in India in the 1940s as Band Gale Ka Coat and has been popular on the Indian subcontinent since, especially as the top half of a suit worn on formal occasions. It began to be marketed as the Nehru jacket in the West in the mid-1960s; it was briefly popular there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, its popularity spurred by growing awareness of foreign cultures, by the minimalism of the Mod lifestyle, and, in particular, by the Monkees and the Beatles, who popularized the garment. Several villains in the James Bond series of films, including Dr. No, Ernst Blofeld and Karl Stromberg, appear wearing a Nehru jacket.
A practical superlens, super lens or perfect lens, could significantly advance the field of optics and optical engineering. The principles governing the behavior of the superlens reveals resolution capabilities that go substantially beyond ordinary microscopes. As Ernst Abbe reported in 1873, the lens of a camera or microscope is incapable of capturing some very fine details of any given image. The super lens, on the other hand, is intended to capture these fine details. Consequently, conventional lens limitation has inhibited progress in certain areas of the biological sciences. This is because a virus or DNA molecule is out of visual range with the highest powered microscopes. Also, this limitation inhibits seeing the minute processes of cellular proteins moving alongside microtubules of a living cell in their natural environments. Additionally, computer chips and the interrelated microelectronics are manufactured to smaller and smaller scales. This requires specialized optical equipment, which is also limited because these use the conventional lens. Hence, the principles governing a super lens show that it has potential for imaging a DNA molecule and cellular protein processes, or aiding in the manufacture of even smaller computer chips and microelectronics.
Gemen was an immediate, sovereign lordship of the Holy Roman Empire, in the Lower Rhine region. Since Gemen had a vote in the Imperial Diet it was also an Imperial Estate. It was centered on Gemen, a small town and castle in the present municipality of Borken, western North Rhine-Westphalia. Gemen is first mentioned in 962. In 1282 Gemen becomes a fief of the Counts of Cleves. The Lords of Gemen became extinct in 1492, and Gemen passed to Counts of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg through the heiress Cordula of Gemen, to form County of Schaumburg and Gemen. In 1640, the immediate lordship of Gemen passed for two centuries to the Counts of Limburg Stirum. In a partition in 1644, Gemen passed to the line of Limburg Stirum Gemen, then in 1782, with extinction of Gemen branch of the House of Limburg Stirum, Gemen was inherited by the line of Limburg Stirum Iller-Aichheim. When Ferdinand IV of Limburg Stirum died at the age of 15 in 1800, the line Limburg-Styrum-Styrum failed to inherit Gemen, which then passed to the barons of Boyneburg-BĂ¶melberg for 6 years, until the mediatisation of 1806. â1640-1644 - Herman Otto I, count of Limburg and Bronckhorst, Sovereign Lord zu Gemen; â1644-1657 - Adolf Ernst, count of Limburg Stirum, Sovereign Lord zu Gemen, second son of the above;
In biology, heterochrony is defined as a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape. There are two main components, namely the onset and offset of a particular process, and the rate at which the process operates. A developmental process in one species can only be described as heterochronic in relation to the same process in another species, considered the basal or ancestral state, which operates with different onset and/or offset times, and/or at different rates. The concept was first introduced by Ernst Haeckel in 1875. An example can best illustrate the three dimensions of heterochrony. âIf a developmental process, such as the growth of a tail in the embryo of "species A", starts earlier and ends earlier than that of "species B", but the rate of growth is the same for both, the final result may basically be the same, although the tail of species A develops earlier than the one of species B. The earlier exhibits predisplacement, and the later species exhibits postdisplacement. âIf the rate of growth is increased, and the time between the start and end of development is decreased proportionally, the tail will end up the same size. The species with faster growth exhibits acceleration, and the species with slower exhibits neoteny.
|Alben W. Barkley|
Alben W. Barkley
Alben William Barkley was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served in both houses of Congress and as the 35th Vice President of the United States from 1949 to 1953. In 1905, he was elected county attorney for McCracken County, Kentucky. He was chosen county judge in 1909 and U.S. Representative from Kentucky's First District in 1912. As a Representative, he was a liberal Democrat, supporting President Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom domestic agenda and foreign policy. Endorsing Prohibition and denouncing parimutuel betting, Barkley narrowly lost the 1923 Democratic gubernatorial primary to fellow Representative J. Campbell Cantrill. In 1926, he unseated Republican Senator Richard P. Ernst. In the Senate, he supported the New Deal approach to addressing the Great Depression and was elected to succeed Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson upon Robinson's death in 1937. During his 1938 re-election bid, his opponent A. B. "Happy" Chandler accused him of using Works Progress Administration employees to campaign for him; Barkley claimed Chandler used state employees in the same way. Neither candidate was charged with any wrongdoing, but in 1939, Congress passed the Hatch Act, making it illegal for federal employees to campaign for political candidates.
The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was created in the 18th century, disappeared during World War II, and was recreated in 2003. Before it was lost, the Amber Room was sometimes dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" due to its singular beauty. Construction of the Amber Room began in 1701 to 1711 in Prussia. The room was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas SchlĂŒter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram in the service of the Prussian king worked on it until 1707, then work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig. The amber cabinet remained in Berlin City Palace until 1716 when it was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia it was expanded and after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was finished in 1755 and restored in 1830. The Amber Room was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany and brought to KĂ¶nigsberg. Knowledge of its whereabouts was lost in the chaos at the end of the war.
|Axiom of choice|
Axiom of choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that "the product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty". More explicitly, it states that for every indexed family of nonempty sets there exists an indexed family of elements such that for every . The axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the well-ordering theorem. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of bins, each containing at least one object, it is possible to make a selection of exactly one object from each bin. In many cases such a selection can be made without invoking the axiom of choice; this is in particular the case if the number of bins is finite, or if a selection rule is available: a distinguishing property that happens to hold for exactly one object in each bin. To give an informal example, for any collection of pairs of shoes, one can pick out the left shoe from each pair to obtain an appropriate selection, but for an infinite collection of pairs of socks, such a selection can be obtained only by invoking the axiom of choice.
Punctuated equilibrium is a hypothesis in evolutionary biology which proposes that most species will exhibit little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history, remaining in an extended state called stasis. When significant evolutionary change occurs, the hypothesis proposes that it is generally restricted to rare and rapid events of branching speciation called cladogenesis. Cladogenesis is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another. Punctuated equilibrium is commonly contrasted against the theory of phyletic gradualism, which states that evolution generally occurs uniformly and by the steady and gradual transformation of whole lineages. In this view, evolution is seen as generally smooth and continuous. In 1972, paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould published a landmark paper developing this theory and called it punctuated equilibria. Their paper built upon Ernst Mayr's theory of geographic speciation, I. Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis, as well as their own empirical research. Eldredge and Gould proposed that the degree of gradualism commonly attributed to Charles Darwin is virtually nonexistent in the fossil record, and that stasis dominates the history of most fossil species.
Cryptocoryne is a genus of about 50-60 species of aquatic monocot plants from the family Araceae. The genus is naturally distributed in tropical regions of Asia and New Guinea. The typical habitats of Cryptocoryne are mostly streams and rivers with not too rapidly flowing water, in the lowland forest. They also live in seasonally inundated forest pools or on river banks submerged only at high water. Although the proper scientific name of the genus is Cryptocoryne, they are commonly referred to as crypts. The English name "water trumpet" refers to their inflorescence, a spadix enclosed by a spathe, which resembles a trumpet. The first Cryptocoryne species was described in 1779 as Arum spirale by Retzius. The genus was described by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer in 1828. However, the scientific classification of Cryptocoryne species is very complicated and there are different opinions about it. Lagenandra is another genus closely related to the genus Cryptocoryne. The two can be easily told apart since the leaves of Cryptocoryne species exhibit convolute vernation whereas Lagenandra species exhibit involute vernation. The name Cryptocoryne is derived from the Greek crypto, hidden, and koryne, meaning club. The common name refers to the shape of its inflorescence, which is typical of the arum family.
Chromocene, formally known as bischromium, is a chemical compound with the condensed structural formula [Cr(C5H5)2]. Each molecule contains an atom of chromium bound between two planar systems of five carbon atoms known as cyclopentadienyl rings in a sandwich arrangement, which is the reason its formula is often abbreviated as Cp2Cr. It is an organometallic compound as it has covalent chromiumâcarbon bonds. Chromocene is structurally similar to ferrocene, the prototype for the metallocene class of compounds; however, as it has only 16 valence electrons, it does not follow the 18-electron rule. It is a paramagnetic compound and also highly reducing, both consequences of its low valence electron count. Like structurally related metallocenes, chromocene readily sublimes in a vacuum and is soluble in non-polar organic solvents. Ernst Otto Fischer, who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on sandwich compounds, was the first to report a synthesis for chromocene. One simple method of preparation involves the reaction of chromium chloride with sodium cyclopentadienide: Such syntheses are typically conducted in THF; decamethylchromocene, Cr[C5(CH3)5]2, can be prepared analogously from LiC5(CH3)5. Chromocene can also be prepared from chromium chloride in a redox process:
Stockinger is an Austrian-made police television drama, with fourteen 45-minute episodes first aired from 1996 to 1997. The series is a spin-off from the popular Austrian television drama Inspector Rex, and focuses on Ernst Stockinger, one of the original members of the Homicide division or in German, Mordkommission. Stockinger leaves the series to return to Salzburg where his wife has inherited a dental practice from her late father . He is appointed a Bezirksinspektor at the Landes Gendarmerie, sharing an office with District Inspector Antonella Simoni. Unlike the members of the team in 'Rex', who appear to be self-directed and are seldom seen to answer to senior management, Stockinger reports to Dr Brunner, a philosophising bureaucratic senior police inspector. Stockinger is portrayed as a clumsy, almost Inspector Clouseau-like character, driving a clapped-out 1973 VW Variant, but single-minded when following up clues. The series was first broadcast in Australia in February 2008 on SBS television. SBS was responsible for the English subtitles therefore bringing the series to a wider audience than simply those with a knowledge of the German language. SBS also provided the English subtitles for all the Inspector Rex series. The series has since been released in two parts on DVD.
Tarquin is a chamber opera by Ernst Krenek to an English libretto by Emmet Lavery. Written in 1940, it is Krenek's only unpublished opera, though a premiere in German translation took place in 1950 in Cologne. Krenek, who was in Switzerland at the time of the Anschluss, escaped to exile in the USA and a teaching position at Vassar College, where Lavery was a newspaper editor in neighboring Poughkeepsie. The piece was designed for college workshops and used six instruments but the twelve-tone music still proved beyond the reach of potential performers; only two scenes were given at Vassar on 13 May 1941. If the title character in Der Diktator and Agamemnon in Leben des Orest were inspired by Benito Mussolini, Tarquin's title character can be seen as a caricature of Adolf Hitler as well as a modern incarnation of his namesake Sextus Tarquinius. Lucretia's counterpart is the devout Corinna. A prologue set in 1925 shows them as students, he the protegee of the Archbishop and still using his real name, Marius. The action resumes in an indefinite near future, when Tarquin has made himself dictator and Corinna has ties to a clandestine radio station. He is brought back to God only after tragedy has engulfed them both.
Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as a biological kingdom formally called the Protista, and included mostly unicellular organisms that did not fit into the other kingdoms. Molecular information has been used to redefine this group in modern taxonomy as diverse and often distantly related phyla. The group of protists is now considered to mean diverse phyla that are not closely related through evolution and have different life cycles, trophic levels, modes of locomotion, and cellular structures. Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, the protists do not have much in common. They are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues, and this simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants. The term protista was first used by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Protists were traditionally subdivided into several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the unicellular "animal-like" protozoa, the "plant-like" protophyta, and the "fungus-like" slime molds and water molds. These traditional subdivisions, largely based on superficial commonalities, have been replaced by classifications based on phylogenetics. However, the older terms are still used as informal names to describe the morphology and ecology of various protists.
Bathybius haeckelii was a substance that British biologist Thomas Henry Huxley discovered and initially believed to be a form of primordial matter, a source of all organic life. He later admitted his mistake when it proved to be just the product of a chemical process. In 1868 Huxley studied an old sample of mud from the Atlantic seafloor taken in 1857. When he first examined it, he had found only protozoan cells and placed the sample into a jar of alcohol to preserve it. Now he noticed that the sample contained an albuminous slime that appeared to be criss-crossed with veins. Huxley thought he had discovered a new organic substance and named it Bathybius haeckelii, in honor of German philosopher Ernst Haeckel. Haeckel had theorized about Urschleim, a protoplasm from which all life had originated. Huxley thought Bathybius could be that protoplasm, a missing link between inorganic matter and organic life. Huxley published a description of Bathybius and also wrote to Haeckel to tell him about it. Haeckel was impressed and flattered and procured a sample for himself. In the next edition of his textbook The History of Creation Haeckel suggested that the substance was constantly coming into being at the bottom of the sea. Huxley did not agree but speculated that Bathybius formed a continuous mat of living protoplasm that covered the whole ocean floor.
|Carl Maria von Weber|
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der FreischĂŒtz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. Der FreischĂŒtz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to a hitherto-unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures. This interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune that was not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the KonzertstĂŒck in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin, Liszt and Mendelssohn. The KonzertstĂŒck provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, and was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were later orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was later set for piano and orchestra by Liszt.
In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Mach's principle is the name given by Einstein to an imprecise hypothesis often credited to the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. The idea is that the local motion of a rotating reference frame is determined by the large scale distribution of matter, as exemplified by this anecdote: You are standing in a field looking at the stars. Your arms are resting freely at your side, and you see that the distant stars are not moving. Now start spinning. The stars are whirling around you and your arms are pulled away from your body. Why should your arms be pulled away when the stars are whirling? Why should they be dangling freely when the stars don't move? Mach's principle says that this is not a coincidenceâthat there is a physical law that relates the motion of the distant stars to the local inertial frame. If you see all the stars whirling around you, Mach suggests that there is some physical law which would make it so you would feel a centrifugal force. There are a number of rival formulations of the principle. It is often stated in vague ways, like "mass out there influences inertia here". A very general statement of Mach's principle is "Local physical laws are determined by the large-scale structure of the universe."
Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm FurtwĂ€ngler was a German conductor and composer. He is considered to have been one of the greatest symphonic and operatic conductors of the 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s, FurtwĂ€ngler was one of the leading conductors in Europe. He became the principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic in 1922 and principal conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. He was also a major guest conductor of other leading orchestras including the Vienna Philharmonic. He was the leading conductor who remained in Germany during the Second World War and, although not an adherent to the Nazi regime, this decision caused controversy for the rest of his life. The extent to which his presence lent prestige to the Third Reich is still debated. FurtwĂ€ngler's interpretive art is well documented in commercial and off-air recordings and this has led to him being revered by countless musicians, critics and record collectors since his death. FurtwĂ€ngler's conducting style is often contrasted to that of his older contemporary Arturo Toscanini, whose work during this period is also widely documented. Like Toscanini, FurtwĂ€ngler was a major influence on many later conductors, and his name is often mentioned when discussing their interpretive styles. However, unlike Toscanini, FurtwĂ€ngler sought a weighty, less rhythmically strict, more bass-oriented orchestral sound, with more conspicuous use of tempo inflections, not indicated in the printed score.
Appropriate technology is an ideological movement originally articulated as "intermediate technology" by the economist Dr. Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher in his influential work, Small is Beautiful. Though the nuances of appropriate technology vary between fields and applications, it is generally recognized as encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally controlled. Both Schumacher and many modern-day proponents of appropriate technology also emphasize the technology as people-centered. Appropriate technology is most commonly discussed in its relationship to economic development and as an alternative to transfers of capital-intensive technology from industrialized nations to developing countries. However, appropriate technology movements can be found in both developing and developed countries. In developed countries, the appropriate technology movement grew out of the energy crisis of the 1970s and focuses mainly on environmental and sustainability issues. Appropriate technology has been used to address issues in a wide range of fields. Well-known examples of appropriate technology applications include: bike- and hand-powered water pumps, the universal nut sheller, self-contained solar-powered light bulbs and streetlights, and passive solar building designs. Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet. OSAT has been proposed as a new model of enabling innovation for sustainable development.
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. It was first fully outlined by Ernst Mayr in 1942, using existing theoretical work by those such as Sewall Wright. As a result of the loss of genetic variation, the new population may be distinctively different, both genetically and phenotypically, from the parent population from which it is derived. In extreme cases, the founder effect is thought to lead to the speciation and subsequent evolution of new species. In the figure shown, the original population has nearly equal numbers of blue and red individuals. The three smaller founder populations show that one or the other color may predominate, due to random sampling of the original population. A population bottleneck may also cause a founder effect even though it is not strictly a new population. The founder effect occurs when a small number of migrants that are not genetically representative of the population from which they came establish in a new area. In addition to founder effects, the new population is often a very small population and so shows increased sensitivity to genetic drift, an increase in inbreeding, and relatively low genetic variation. This can be observed in the limited gene pool of Iceland, Faroe Islands, Easter Islanders and those native to Pitcairn Island. Another example is the legendarily high deaf population of Martha's Vineyard, which resulted in the development of Martha's Vineyard Sign Language.
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, organisms have with each other, and with their abiotic environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution, amount, number of organisms, as well as competition between them within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, and the variety of organisms is called biodiversity. Biodiversity, which refers to the varieties of species, genes, and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology and Earth science. The word "ecology" was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology transformed into a more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts on adaptation and natural selection became cornerstones of modern ecological theory. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history, or environmental science. It is closely related to evolutionary biology, genetics, and ethology. An understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function is an important focus area in ecological studies. Ecologists seek to explain:
Annihilationism is a Christian belief that apart from salvation the final punishment of human beings results in their total destruction rather than their everlasting torment. It is directly related to the doctrine of conditional immortality, the idea that a human soul is not immortal unless it is given eternal life. Annihilationism asserts that God will eventually destroy or annihilate the wicked, leaving only the righteous to live on in immortality. Some annihilationists believe the wicked will be punished for their sins in the Lake of Fire before being annihilated, others that hell is a false doctrine of pagan origin. It stands in contrast to the traditional and long standing view of eternal torment, and the view that everyone will be saved. The belief is a minority view, although it has appeared throughout Christian history. Since 1800 the alternative interpretation of hell as annihilation seems to have prevailed even among many of the more conservative theologians. It experienced a resurgence in the 1980s when several prominent theologians including John Stott were prepared to argue that it could be held sincerely as a legitimate interpretation of biblical texts, by those who give supreme authority to Scripture. Earlier in the 20th century, some theologians at the University of Cambridge including Basil Atkinson supported the belief. 20th century English theologians who favour annihilation include Bishop Charles Gore, William Temple, 98th Archbishop of Canterbury; Oliver Chase Quick, Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Ulrich Ernst Simon, and G. B. Caird.
Spinosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to lower Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 97 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species S. maroccanus has been recovered from Morocco. Spinosaurus may be the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Estimates published in 2005 and 2007 suggest that it was 12.6 to 18 metres in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes in weight. The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow like that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is thought to have eaten fish; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian. The distinctive spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1.65 meters long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump. Multiple functions have been put forward for this structure, including thermoregulation and display.
Art history has historically been understood as the academic study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and style. This includes the "major" arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as the "minor" arts of ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. As a term, art history encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to works of art and architecture. Aspects of the discipline overlap. As the art historian Ernst Gombrich once observed, "the field of art history [is] much like Caesar's Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not necessarily hostile tribes: the connoisseurs, the critics, and the academic art historians". As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory or "philosophy of art", which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art. One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions: How did the artist come to create the work?, Who were the patrons?, Who were his or her teachers?, Who was the audience?, Who were his or her disciples?, What historical forces shaped the artist's oeuvre, and How did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic, political, and social events? It is, however, questionable whether many questions of this kind can be answered satisfactorily without also considering basic questions about the nature of art. Unfortunately the current disciplinary gap between art history and the philosophy of art often hinders this.