Definitions containing féuillet, octave

We've found 194 definitions:

ottava

ottava

One octave higher. Marking indicates a passage to be transposed up one octave. Abbreviation: 8va.

— Wiktionary

contra-octave

contra-octave

The octave directly below the great octave

— Wiktionary

Piccolo

Piccolo

a small, shrill flute, the pitch of which is an octave higher than the ordinary flute; an octave flute

— Webster Dictionary

Plagal

Plagal

having a scale running from the dominant to its octave; -- said of certain old church modes or tunes, as opposed to those called authentic, which ran from the tonic to its octave

— Webster Dictionary

Octave

Octave

In music, an octave or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems". It may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the first and second harmonics. The octave has occasionally been referred to as a diapason. To emphasize that it is one of the perfect intervals, the octave is designated P8. The octave above or below an indicated note is sometimes abbreviated 8va, 8va bassa, or simply 8 for the octave in the direction indicated by placing this mark above or below the staff.

— Freebase

Tenth

Tenth

the interval between any tone and the tone represented on the tenth degree of the staff above it, as between one of the scale and three of the octave above; the octave of the third

— Webster Dictionary

octavate

octavate

octave

— Wiktionary

intra-octaval

intra-octaval

Within the octave.

— Wiktionary

contrabass

contrabass, double-bass

pitched an octave below normal bass instrumental or vocal range

— Princeton's WordNet

double bass

contrabass, double-bass

pitched an octave below normal bass instrumental or vocal range

— Princeton's WordNet

double-bass

contrabass, double-bass

pitched an octave below normal bass instrumental or vocal range

— Princeton's WordNet

Diminished octave

Diminished octave

In classical music from Western culture, a diminished octave is an interval produced by narrowing a perfect octave by a chromatic semitone. As such, the two notes are denoted by the same letter but have different accidentals. For instance, the interval from C4 to C5 is a perfect octave, twelve semitones wide, and both the intervals from C♯4 to C5, and from C4 to C♭5 are diminished octaves, spanning eleven semitones. Being diminished, it is considered a dissonant interval. The diminished octave is enharmonically equivalent to the major seventh.

— Freebase

in altissimo

in altissimo

: One octave higher. 8va.

— Wiktionary

Augmented octave

Augmented octave

In modern Western tonal music theory an augmented octave is the sum of a perfect octave and an augmented unison or chromatic semitone. It is the interval between two notes, with the same note letter on staff positions an octave apart, whose alterations cause them, in ordinary equal temperament, to be thirteen semitones apart. In other words, it is a perfect octave which has been widened by a half-step, such as B♭ and B♮ or C and C♯; it is a compound augmented unison. It is the enharmonic equivalent of a minor ninth.

— Freebase

Semidiapason

Semidiapason

an imperfect octave

— Webster Dictionary

octavate

octavate

sound one octave higher or lower.

— Wiktionary

pentatonic scale

pentatonic scale

a scale having five notes per octave

— Wiktionary

treble C

treble C

the C note exactly one octave above middle C

— Wiktionary

thirteenth

thirteenth

The interval comprising an octave and a sixth.

— Wiktionary

grand C

grand C

the C note exactly one octave above high C

— Wiktionary

bass C

bass C

the C note exactly one octave below middle C

— Wiktionary

Tridiapason

Tridiapason

a triple octave, or twenty-second

— Webster Dictionary

Eighth

Eighth

the interval of an octave

— Webster Dictionary

chromatic scale

chromatic scale

A scale including all twelve semitones in an octave.

— Wiktionary

contrabass

contrabass

part or section one octave lower than bass.

— Wiktionary

multioctave

multioctave

Of or pertaining to more than one octave.

— Wiktionary

scale

scale, musical scale

(music) a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific scheme (usually within an octave)

— Princeton's WordNet

diatonic scale

diatonic scale

a scale with eight notes in an octave; all but two are separated by whole tones

— Princeton's WordNet

musical scale

scale, musical scale

(music) a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific scheme (usually within an octave)

— Princeton's WordNet

polychord

polychord

a device, attached to a keyboard, for coupling two octave notes

— Wiktionary

piccolo

piccolo

a small flute; pitched an octave above the standard flute

— Princeton's WordNet

chromatic scale

chromatic scale

a 12-note scale including all the semitones of the octave

— Princeton's WordNet

bass clarinet

bass clarinet

a large clarinet whose range is an octave below the B-flat clarinet

— Princeton's WordNet

Thirteenth

Thirteenth

the interval comprising an octave and a sixth

— Webster Dictionary

inverted

inverted

(of a chord) Having the lowest note transposed an octave higher

— Wiktionary

Diapason

Diapason

concord, as of notes an octave apart; harmony

— Webster Dictionary

hexatonic

hexatonic

Describing a mode or scale that has six pitches in an octave.

— Wiktionary

heptatonic

heptatonic

Describing a mode or scale that has seven pitches in an octave

— Wiktionary

octavated

octavated

alter to sound a pitch one octave lower than its usual range.

— Wiktionary

equal temperament

equal temperament

the division of the scale based on an octave that is divided into twelve exactly equal semitones

— Princeton's WordNet

mode

mode, musical mode

any of various fixed orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave

— Princeton's WordNet

musical mode

mode, musical mode

any of various fixed orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave

— Princeton's WordNet

diminished ninth

diminished ninth

an interval that is equivalent to an octave

— Wiktionary

twelfth

twelfth

An interval equal to an octave plus a fifth

— Wiktionary

augmented seventh

augmented seventh

an interval that is equivalent to an octave

— Wiktionary

octaval

octaval

Of, pertaining to, or relating to an octave.

— Wiktionary

octave

octave

The pitch an octave higher than a given pitch.

— Wiktionary

perfect interval

perfect interval

an interval that is either a unison, fourth, fifth, or an octave

— Wiktionary

augmented ninth

augmented ninth

an interval that is one octave wider than an augmented second

— Wiktionary

double

double

Of an instrument, sounding an octave lower.

— Wiktionary

Polychord

Polychord

an apparatus for coupling two octave notes, capable of being attached to a keyed instrument

— Webster Dictionary

piccolo

piccolo

An instrument similar to a flute, but smaller, and playing an octave higher.

— Wiktionary

inversion

inversion

The move of one pitch in an interval up or down an octave.

— Wiktionary

basset oboe

heckelphone, basset oboe

an oboe pitched an octave below the ordinary oboe

— Princeton's WordNet

heckelphone

heckelphone, basset oboe

an oboe pitched an octave below the ordinary oboe

— Princeton's WordNet

Ninth

Ninth

In music, a ninth is a compound interval consisting of an octave plus a second. Like the second, the interval of a ninth is classified as a dissonance in common practice tonality. Since a ninth is an octave larger than a second, its sonority level is considered less dense.

— Freebase

double

double

To duplicate (a part) either in unison or at the octave above or below it.

— Wiktionary

Univocal

Univocal

having unison of sound, as the octave in music. See Unison, n., 2

— Webster Dictionary

Twelfth

Twelfth

an interval comprising an octave and a fifth

— Webster Dictionary

Ninth

Ninth

an interval containing an octave and a second

— Webster Dictionary

dodecaphonist

dodecaphonist

A practicioner or proponent of dodecaphony, i.e. use of the dodecaphonic musical scale, which has twelve tones per octave

— Wiktionary

invert

invert

To move (the root note of a chord) up or down an octave, resulting in a change in pitch.

— Wiktionary

Fourteenth

Fourteenth

the octave of the seventh

— Webster Dictionary

Inversion

Inversion

said of intervals, when the lower tone is placed an octave higher, so that fifths become fourths, thirds sixths, etc

— Webster Dictionary

semitone

semitone

(UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand) The musical interval equal (exactly or approximately) to half a tone or one-twelfth of an octave

— Wiktionary

Arabic scale

Arabic scale

17 equal temperament, a tuning dividing the octave into 17 equal steps.

— Wiktionary

complement

complement

An interval which, together with the given interval, makes an octave.

— Wiktionary

Diapason

Diapason

the octave, or interval which includes all the tones of the diatonic scale

— Webster Dictionary

Loco

Loco

a direction in written or printed music to return to the proper pitch after having played an octave higher

— Webster Dictionary

heptamerede

heptamerede

An interval of pitch u00B9u2044u2083u2080u2081 that of an octave; a savart.

— Wiktionary

Utas

Utas

the eighth day after any term or feast; the octave; as, the utas of St. Michael

— Webster Dictionary

Shepard tone

Shepard tone

A superposition of sine waves, separated by an octave, whose relative amplitude may be varied to give the illusion of a rising or falling note.

— Wiktionary

italian sonnet

Petrarchan sonnet, Italian sonnet

a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

— Princeton's WordNet

petrarchan sonnet

Petrarchan sonnet, Italian sonnet

a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

— Princeton's WordNet

loco

loco

A direction in written or printed music to return to the proper pitch after having played an octave higher or lower.

— Wiktionary

utas

utas

The octave, or seventh day after a festival (i.e., the eighth day counting inclusively, in the ancient Roman way).

— Wiktionary

Triad

Triad

the common chord, consisting of a tone with its third and fifth, with or without the octave

— Webster Dictionary

contrabassoon

contrabassoon

A larger version of the bassoon sounding one octave lower, having a technique similar to the bassoon but offers more resistance in every way.

— Wiktionary

Contrafagetto

Contrafagetto

the double bassoon, an octave deeper than the bassoon

— Webster Dictionary

modal

modal

of, relating to, or composed in the musical modi by which an octave is divided, associated with emotional moods in Ancient - and in medieval ecclesiastical music

— Wiktionary

great octave

great octave

The common name for the octave that begins on the C that is two ledger lines below the staff of the bass clef

— Wiktionary

Eleventh

Eleventh

of or pertaining to the interval of the octave and the fourth

— Webster Dictionary

Celesta

Celesta

The celesta or celeste is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano, or a large wooden music box. The keys connect to hammers that strike a graduated set of metal plates suspended over wooden resonators. Four- or five-octave models usually have a pedal that sustains or dampens the sound. The three-octave instruments do not have a pedal because of their small "table-top" design. One of the best-known works that uses the celesta is Tchaikovsky's "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy" from The Nutcracker. The sound of the celesta is similar to that of the glockenspiel, but with a much softer and more subtle timbre. This quality gave the instrument its name, celeste meaning "heavenly" in French. The celesta is a transposing instrument; it sounds an octave higher than the written pitch. Its sounding range is generally considered as C3 to C7, where C3 = middle C. The original French instrument had a five-octave range, but because the lowest octave was considered somewhat unsatisfactory, it was omitted from later models. The standard French four-octave instrument is now gradually being replaced in symphony orchestras by a larger, five-octave German model. Although it is a member of the percussion family, in orchestral terms it is more properly considered as a member of the keyboard section and usually played by a keyboardist. The celesta part is normally written on two bracketed staves, called a grand staff.

— Freebase

Hypophrygian mode

Hypophrygian mode

The Hypophrygian mode, literally meaning "below Phrygian", is a musical mode or diatonic scale in medieval chant theory, the fourth mode of church music. This mode is the plagal counterpart of the authentic third mode, which was called Phrygian. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance this mode was described in two ways: the diatonic scale from B to B an octave above, divided at the mode final E; and as a mode with final E and ambitus from the A below to the C above. The note A above the final had an important melodic function. The melodic range of the ecclesiastical Hypophrygian mode therefore goes from the perfect fourth or fifth below the tonic to the perfect fifth or minor sixth above. The name Hypophrygian originates in an octave species of ancient Greek music theory. According to Aristoxenus, this octave species was originally described around the year 400 BC by the Harmonicist school of Eratocles in terms of the enharmonic genus of the tetrachord: a series of rising intervals of two quarter tones followed by a ditone, together spanning a perfect fourth. The Dorian octave species begins with this tetrachord, which is followed by a whole tone and another tetrachord to complete the octave with a pattern of ¼, ¼, 2, 1, ¼, ¼, and 2 tones. This pattern is rotated downward one degree for the Hypolydian, and one more for the Hypophrygian, for an octave species of 2, 1, ¼, ¼, 2, ¼, and ¼ tones.

— Freebase

Eleventh

Eleventh

the interval consisting of ten conjunct degrees; the interval made up of an octave and a fourth

— Webster Dictionary

Tone

Tone

a sound considered as to pitch; as, the seven tones of the octave; she has good high tones

— Webster Dictionary

Diesis

Diesis

In classical music from Western culture, a diesis is either an accidental, or a very small musical interval, usually defined as the difference between an octave and three justly tuned major thirds, equal to 128:125 or about 41.06 cents. In 12-tone equal temperament three major thirds in a row equal an octave, but three justly-tuned major thirds fall quite a bit narrow of an octave, and the diesis describes the amount by which they are short. For instance, an octave spans from C to C', and three justly tuned major thirds span from C to B♯. The difference between C-C' and C-B♯ is the diesis. Notice that this coincides with the interval between B♯ and C', also called a diminished second. The diesis is a comma. The above mentioned 128:125 comma is also known as the lesser diesis, as opposed to a wider comma known as greater diesis. As shown in the picture, in the quarter-comma meantone tuning system, the diminished second coincides with the diesis.

— Freebase

Archilute

Archilute

a large theorbo, or double-necked lute, formerly in use, having the bass strings doubled with an octave, and the higher strings with a unison

— Webster Dictionary

Diatonic

Diatonic

pertaining to the scale of eight tones, the eighth of which is the octave of the first

— Webster Dictionary

half step

half step

An interval of which there are seven in a fifth or twelve in an octave, consisting of two tones whose frequency ratio is about 1.059 or 18/17.

— Wiktionary

Complement

Complement

the interval wanting to complete the octave; -- the fourth is the complement of the fifth, the sixth of the third

— Webster Dictionary

Violone

Violone

the largest instrument of the bass-viol kind, having strings tuned an octave below those of the violoncello; the contrabasso; -- called also double bass

— Webster Dictionary

Fifteenth

Fifteenth

In music, a fifteenth or double octave, abbreviated 15ma, is the interval between one musical note and another with one-quarter the wavelength or quadruple the frequency. The fourth harmonic, it is two octaves. It is referred to as a fifteenth because, in the diatonic scale, there are 15 notes between them if one counts both ends. Two octaves do not make a sixteenth, but a fifteenth. In other contexts, the term two octaves is likely to be used. For example, if one note has a frequency of 400 Hz, the note a fifteenth above it is at 1600 Hz, and the note a fifteenth below is at 100 Hz. The ratio of frequencies of two notes a fifteenth apart is therefore 4:1.vama As the fifteenth is a multiple of octaves, the human ear tends to hear both notes as being essentially "the same", as it does the octave. Like the octave, in the Western system of music notation notes a fifteenth apart are given the same name—the name of a note an octave above A is also A. However, because of the large frequency distance between the notes, it is less likely than an octave to be judged the same pitch by non-musicians. Passages in parallel fifteenths are much less common than parallel octaves. In particular, sometimes an organist will use two stops a fifteenth away.vamambvavb

— Freebase

Equal temperament

Equal temperament

An equal temperament is a musical temperament, or a system of tuning, in which every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio. As pitch is perceived roughly as the logarithm of frequency, this means that the perceived "distance" from every note to its nearest neighbor is the same for every note in the system. In equal temperament tunings, an interval – usually the octave – is divided into a series of equal steps. For classical music, the most common tuning system is twelve-tone equal temperament, inconsistently abbreviated as 12-TET, 12TET, 12tET, 12tet, 12-ET, 12ET, or 12et, which divides the octave into 12 parts, all of which are equal on a logarithmic scale. It is usually tuned relative to a standard pitch of 440 Hz, called A440. Other equal temperaments exist, but in Western countries when people use the term equal temperament without qualification, they usually mean 12-TET. Equal temperaments may also divide some interval other than the octave, a pseudo-octave, into a whole number of equal steps. An example is an equal-tempered Bohlen–Pierce scale. To avoid ambiguity, the term equal division of the octave, or EDO is sometimes preferred. According to this naming system, 12-TET is called 12-EDO, 31-TET is called 31-EDO, and so on.

— Freebase

Ionian mode

Ionian mode

Ionian mode is the name assigned by Heinrich Glarean in 1547 to his new authentic mode on C, which uses the diatonic octave species from C to the C an octave higher, divided at G into a fourth species of perfect fifth plus a third species of perfect fourth: C D E F G + G A B C. This octave species is essentially the same as the major mode of tonal music. Church music was previously explained by theorists as being organised in eight musical modes: the scales on D, E, F, and G in the "greater perfect system" of "musica recta", each with their authentic and plagal counterparts. Glarean's twelfth mode was the plagal version of the Ionian mode, called Hypoionian, based on the same relative scale, but with the major third as its tenor, and having a melodic range from a perfect fourth below the tonic, to a perfect fifth above it.

— Freebase

diminished octave

diminished octave

A musical interval of the Western twelve-semitone system consisting of eleven semitones and spanning eight degrees of the diatonic scale. It is one semitone narrower than a perfect octave and enharmonically equivalent to a major seventh.

— Wiktionary

major seventh

major seventh

A musical interval of the Western twelve-semitone system consisting of eleven semitones and spanning seven degrees of the diatonic scale. It is one semitone wider than a minor seventh and enharmonically equivalent to a diminished octave.

— Wiktionary

minor ninth

minor ninth

A musical interval of the Western twelve-semitone system consisting of thirteen semitones and spanning eight degrees of the diatonic scale. It is one semitone narrower than a major ninth and enharmonically equivalent to an augmented octave.

— Wiktionary

Violoncello

Violoncello

a stringed instrument of music; a bass viol of four strings, or a bass violin with long, large strings, giving sounds an octave lower than the viola, or tenor or alto violin

— Webster Dictionary

augmented octave

augmented octave

A musical interval of the Western twelve-semitone system consisting of thirteen semitones and spanning eight degrees of the diatonic scale. It is one semitone wider than a perfect octave and enharmonically equivalent to a minor ninth/compound minor second.

— Wiktionary

pennywhistle

pennywhistle

A six-holed flute-like instrument with a fipple. They have approximately a two octave range (sometimes a little higher). Stereotypically, they are made out of tin, but in reality they come in all sorts of varieties, including tin, brass, nickel, cane, polymer, etc.

— Wiktionary

Authentic

Authentic

having as immediate relation to the tonic, in distinction from plagal, which has a correspondent relation to the dominant in the octave below the tonic

— Webster Dictionary

perfect octave

perfect octave

A musical interval of the Western twelve-semitone system consisting of twelve semitones and spanning eight degrees of the diatonic scale. It is enharmonically equivalent to an augmented seventh and is commonly referred to as an octave.

— Wiktionary

tempered

tempered

Pertaining to the well-tempered scale, where the twelve notes per octave of the standard keyboard are tuned in such a way that it is possible to play music in any major or minor key and it will not sound perceptibly out of tune.

— Wiktionary

Eleventh

Eleventh

In music or music theory an eleventh is the note eleven scale degrees from the root of a chord and also the interval between the root and the eleventh. The interval can be also described as a compound fourth, spanning an octave plus a fourth. Since there are only seven degrees in a diatonic scale the eleventh degree is the same as the subdominant. The eleventh is considered highly dissonant with the third. A perfect eleventh is an eleventh which spans exactly 17 semitones. It can be also described as a compound perfect fourth, spanning an octave plus a perfect fourth.

— Freebase

organ tablature

organ tablature

a shorthand system for notating organ music used mostly by the north German Baroque organ school; distinguished from musical notation by the use of letter names, octave lines and other symbols instead of notes and accidentals and by the lack of staff lines

— Wiktionary

Ottava rima

Ottava rima

Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Italian origin. Originally used for long poems on heroic themes, it later came to be popular in the writing of mock-heroic works. Its earliest known use is in the writings of Giovanni Boccaccio. The ottava rima stanza in English consists of eight iambic lines, usually iambic pentameters. Each stanza consists of three alternate rhymes and one double rhyme, following the a-b-a-b-a-b-c-c pattern. The form is similar to the older Sicilian octave, but evolved separately and is unrelated. The Sicilian octave is derived from the medieval strambotto and was a crucial step in the development of the sonnet, whereas the ottava rima is related to the canzone, a stanza form.

— Freebase

Heckelphone

Heckelphone

The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons. Introduced in 1904, it is similar to the oboe but pitched an octave lower.

— Freebase

Hypoionian mode

Hypoionian mode

The Hypoionian mode, literally meaning "below Ionian", is the name assigned by Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon to the plagal mode on C, which uses the diatonic octave species from G to the G an octave higher, divided at its final, C. This is roughly the same as playing all the white notes of a piano from G to G: G A B C | D E F G. Glarean regarded compositions with F as the final and a one-flat signature as transpositions of the Ionian or Hypoionian mode. Most of his contemporaries, however, appear to have continued considering such compositions as being in the fifth and sixth modes, which had been regarded since the beginnings of medieval modal theory as preferring B♭ over B♮ for the fourth degree above the final, F.

— Freebase

Principal

Principal

in English organs the chief open metallic stop, an octave above the open diapason. On the manual it is four feet long, on the pedal eight feet. In Germany this term corresponds to the English open diapason

— Webster Dictionary

Sonnet

Sonnet

a poem of fourteen lines, -- two stanzas, called the octave, being of four verses each, and two stanzas, called the sestet, of three verses each, the rhymes being adjusted by a particular rule

— Webster Dictionary

Petrarchan sonnet

Petrarchan sonnet

A sonnet comprising of an octave and a closing sestet, following the rhyme scheme of either abba abba cde cde or abba abba cd cd cd or abba abba cce dde or abba abba cdd cee. The first type of sonnet. Also known as Italian sonnet.

— Wiktionary

Scale

Scale

the graduated series of all the tones, ascending or descending, from the keynote to its octave; -- called also the gamut. It may be repeated through any number of octaves. See Chromatic scale, Diatonic scale, Major scale, and Minor scale, under Chromatic, Diatonic, Major, and Minor

— Webster Dictionary

Biniou

Biniou

Binioù means bagpipe in the Breton language. There are two bagpipes called binioù in Brittany: the traditional binioù kozh and the binioù bras, which was brought into Brittany from Scotland in the late 19th century. The oldest native bagpipe in Brittany is the veuze, from which the binioù kozh is thought to be derived. The binioù bras is essentially the same as the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe; sets are manufactured by Breton makers or imported from Scotland or elsewhere. The binioù kozh has a one octave scale, and is very high-pitched; it is tuned to play one octave higher than the bombard which it accompanies. More traditional forms have a single drone, while modern instruments sometimes have two. In the old days the leather used for the bag was usually from a dog's skin, but this is nowadays replaced by synthetic materials or other leathers which are easier to procure, like cow or sheep. Traditionally it is played in duet with the bombard, a double reed instrument which sounds an octave below the binioù chanter, for Breton folk dancing. The binioù bras is typically used as part of a bagad band, although it is sometimes also paired with a bombard.

— Freebase

Diatonic scale

Diatonic scale

In music theory, a diatonic scale is an eight-note, octave-repeating musical scale comprising five whole steps and two half steps for each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other. The word 'diatonic' comes from the Greek διατονικός, meaning progressing through tones. The seven pitches of any diatonic scale can be obtained using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches which form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: This property of the diatonic scales was historically relevant and possibly contributed to their worldwide diffusion because for centuries it allowed musicians to tune musical instruments easily by ear. Any sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C-D-E-F-G-A-B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Piano keyboards are designed to play natural notes, and hence diatonic scales, with their white keys. A diatonic scale can be also described as two tetrachords separated by a whole tone.

— Freebase

Major seventh

Major seventh

In classical music from Western culture, a seventh is a musical interval encompassing seven staff positions, and the major seventh is one of two commonly occurring sevenths. It is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two. The major seventh spans eleven semitones, its smaller counterpart being the minor seventh, spanning ten semitones. For example, the interval from C to B is a major seventh, as the note B lies eleven semitones above C, and there are seven staff positions from C to B. Diminished and augmented sevenths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones. The easiest way to locate and identify the major seventh is from the octave rather than the unison, and it is suggested that one sings the octave first. For example, the most commonly cited example of a melody featuring a major seventh is the tonic-octave-major seventh of the opening to " Over the Rainbow". "Not many songwriters begin a melody with a major seventh interval; perhaps that's why there are few memorable examples." The major seventh occurs most commonly built on the root of major triads, resulting in the chord type also known as major seventh chord or major-major seventh chord: including I7 and IV7 in major. "Major seven chords add jazziness to a musical passage. Alone, a major seventh interval can sound ugly."

— Freebase

Armónico

Armónico

An armónico is a guitar-like instrument. It is a hybrid between the Spanish guitar and the Cuban tres. Formally known as trilina, the armónico has seven strings, two of which form a doubled string. That's six courses, five with one string, and one with two strings. Counting from the lowest-pitched, the first three strings, E, A and D, are tuned an octave higher than the equivalent strings on a guitar with standard tuning. The fourth string, G, is doubled as well as also being an octave higher than on a guitar. The remaining two, B and E, are at the same pitch as a standard guitar. The armónico was invented by the famous Cuban composer/performer Compay Segundo who loved the instrument as it allowed him to exploit the possibilities of both the guitar and the tres.".

— Freebase

contrabassoon

contrabassoon

The contrabassoon, also known as the double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon, sounding an octave lower. Its technique is similar to its smaller cousin, with a few notable differences.

— Freebase

Sonnet

Sonnet

a form of poetical composition invented in the 13th century, consisting of 14 decasyllabic or hendecasyllabic iambic lines, rhymed according to two well-established schemes which bear the names of their two most famous exponents, Shakespeare and Petrarch. The Shakespearian sonnet consists of three four-lined stanzas of alternate rhymes clinched by a concluding couplet; the Petrarchan of two parts, an octave, the first eight lines rhymed abbaabba, and a sestet, the concluding six lines arranged variously on a three-rhyme scheme.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hypodorian mode

Hypodorian mode

The Hypodorian mode, a musical term literally meaning 'below Dorian', derives its name from a tonos or octave species of ancient Greece which, in its diatonic genus, is built from a tetrachord consisting of a semitone followed by two whole tones. The rising scale for the octave is a single tone followed by two conjoint tetrachords of this type. This is roughly the same as playing all the white notes of a piano from A to A: A | B C D E | F G A. Although this scale in medieval theory was employed in Dorian and Hypodorian, from the mid-sixteenth century and in modern music theory they came to be known as the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes. The term Hypodorian came to be used to describe the second mode of Western church music. This mode is the plagal counterpart of the authentic first mode, which was also called Dorian. The ecclesiastical Hypodorian mode was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from A to A, divided at the mode final D and composed of a lower tetrachord of tone–semitone–tone, ending on D, plus a pentachord tone–semitone–tone–tone continuing from D, and as a mode whose final was D and whose ambitus was G–B♭. In addition, the note F, corresponding to the reciting note or tenor of the second psalm tone, was regarded as an important secondary center.

— Freebase

Overblowing

Overblowing

Overblowing is a technique used while playing a wind instrument which, primarily through manipulation of the supplied air, causes the sounded pitch to jump to a higher one. Depending on the instrument, overblowing may involve a change in air pressure, in the point at which the air is directed, or in the resonance characteristics of the chamber formed by the mouth and throat of the player. In some instruments, overblowing may also involve the direct manipulation of the vibrating reed, and/or the pushing of a register key while otherwise leaving fingering unaltered. With the exception of harmonica overblowing, the pitch jump is from one vibratory mode of the reed or air column, e.g., its fundamental, to an overtone. Overblowing can be done deliberately in order to get a higher pitch, or inadvertently, resulting in the production of a note other than that intended. In simple woodwind instruments, overblowing can cause the pitch to change into a different register. For example, a player of the Irish tin whistle can play in the upper octave by blowing harder while using the same fingering as in the lower octave.

— Freebase

Sestet

Sestet

A sestet is the name given to the second division of an Italian sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines. The first documented user of this poetical form was the Italian poet, Petrarch. In the usual course the rhymes are arranged abc abc, but this is not necessary. Early Italian sonnets, and in particular those of Dante, often close with the rhyme-arrangement abc cba; but in languages where the sonority of syllables is not so great as it is in Italian, it is dangerous to leave a period of five lines between one rhyme and another. In the quatorzain, there is, properly speaking, no sestet, but a quatrain followed by a couplet, as in the case of English Sonnets. Another form of sestet has only two rhymes, ab ab I ab; as is the case in Gray's famous sonnet On the Death of Richard West. The sestet should mark the turn of emotion in the sonnet; as a rule it may be said, that the octave having been more or less objective, in the sestet reflection should make its appearance, with a tendency to the subjective manner. For example, in Matthew Arnold's The Better Part, the rough inquirer, who has had his own way in the octave, is replied to as soon as the sestet commences:

— Freebase

Harmonics

Harmonics

secondary and less distinct tones which accompany any principal, and apparently simple, tone, as the octave, the twelfth, the fifteenth, and the seventeenth. The name is also applied to the artificial tones produced by a string or column of air, when the impulse given to it suffices only to make a part of the string or column vibrate; overtones

— Webster Dictionary

Xylorimba

Xylorimba

The xylorimba is a pitched percussion instrument corresponding to a xylophone with an extended range. Like the xylophone and marimba, the xylorimba consists of a series of wooden bars laid out like a piano keyboard "with a compass sufficiently large to embrace the low-sounding bars of the marimba and the highest-sounding bars of the xylophone." "The lower notes of the xylorimba sound like a xylophone rather than a marimba on account of the bars being thicker and narrower than those of a marimba and of the different size and shape of the resonators". The usual playing range of a modern xylorimba is five octaves: from the C one octave below middle C to the C four octaves above middle C. It is a transposing instrument, since music for xylorimba is written an octave lower than it sounds, using a grand staff with both bass and treble clefs. "As the marimba-xylophone it was a popular instrument in the 1920s and 30s, particularly in vaudeville".

— Freebase

Tenoroon

Tenoroon

The tenor bassoon or, "tenoroon," is a member of the bassoon family of double reed woodwind instruments. This group also includes the more widely known bassoon and contrabassoon, along with a smaller version of the tenor bassoon, the octave bassoon.

— Freebase

Close and open harmony

Close and open harmony

Close harmony is an arrangement of the notes of chords within a narrow range, usually notes that are no more than an octave apart. It is different from open harmony or voicing in that it uses each part on the closest harmonizing note, while the open voicing uses a broader pitch array expanding the harmonic range past the octave. Close harmony or voicing can refer to both instrumental and vocal arrangements. It can follow the standard voice-leading rules of classical harmony, as in string quartets or Bach's Chorales, or proceed in parallel motion with the melody in 3rds or 6ths. Impressionist composers like Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel often used close harmony in their works and other intervals, such as 7ths, 9ths, and 11ths may be used, since the chords have 4 or more notes and the harmonies are more complex. In jazz, this influence is reflected in George Gershwin's work.

— Freebase

Microtonal music

Microtonal music

Microtonal music is music using microtones—intervals of less than an equally spaced semitone. Microtonal music can also refer to music which uses intervals not found in the Western system of 12 equal intervals to the octave.

— Freebase

Balungan

Balungan

The balungan is sometimes called the "core melody" of a Javanese gamelan composition. This corresponds to the view that gamelan music is heterophonic: the balungan is then the melody which is being elaborated. The group of instruments which play the closest to the balungan are sometimes also called the balungan, or balungan instruments. These are the saron family and the slenthem. In many pieces, they play the balungan. However, they can also elaborate on the parts in a variety of techniques. It is possible that there is no instrument playing the balungan, although many musicians claim that the balungan is still present. The term has been a source of some controversy, as various writers may define it differently. Sometimes it is identified with the melody played on the saron, but sometimes it is identified with a wider tessitura that is implied by the patterns on other instruments. This multi-octave melody is the one given in kepatihan notation, the cipher notation used for gamelan pieces. Lagu is a related term, which is used by Sumarsam and is sometimes translated as "inner melody." It can mean the multi-octave balungan, or a more implicit melody. There is no consensus on the use of either term, and they may be used differently by different writers or in different contexts.

— Freebase

Pku

Pku

The pku, alternatively spelled pzuk, is an Armenian musical instrument, similar to a clarinet. It has been called the national instrument of Armenia. The pku is a single-reed aerophone with seven holes and a one octave range with the open cone of a bull horn at one end.

— Freebase

SWIG

SWIG

SWIG is an open source software tool used to connect computer programs or libraries written in C or C++ with scripting languages such as Lua, Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby, Tcl, and other languages like C#, Java, JavaScript, Go, Modula-3, OCaml, Octave, and Scheme. Output can also be in the form of XML or Lisp S-expressions.

— Freebase

Landini cadence

Landini cadence

A Landini cadence, or under-third cadence, is a type of cadence, a technique in music composition, named after Francesco Landini, a blind Florentine organist, in honor of his extensive use of the technique. The technique was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century. In a typical Medieval cadence, a major sixth musical interval is expanded to an octave by having each note move outwards one step. In Landini's version, an escape tone in the upper voice narrows the interval briefly to a perfect fifth before the octave. There could also be an inner voice; in the example the inner voice would move from F♯ to G, in the same rhythm as the lower voice. Landini was not the first to use the cadence, and was not the last: the cadence was still in use well into the 15th century, appearing particularly frequently in the songs of Gilles Binchois and in the music of Johannes Wreede. However Landini seems to have been the first to use it consistently. The term was coined in the late 19th century by German writer A.G. Ritter, in his Zur Geschichte des Orgelspiels, Leipzig.

— Freebase

Phrygian mode

Phrygian mode

The Phrygian mode can refer to three different musical modes: the ancient Greek tonos or harmonia sometimes called Phrygian, formed on a particular set of octave species or scales; the Medieval Phrygian mode, and the modern conception of the Phrygian mode as a diatonic scale, based on the latter.

— Freebase

Pentatonic scale

Pentatonic scale

A pentatonic scale is a musical scale or mode with five notes per octave in contrast to a heptatonic scale such as the major scale and minor scale. Pentatonic scales are very common and are found all over the world. They are divided into those with semitones and those without.

— Freebase

Diminished seventh

Diminished seventh

In classical music from Western culture, a diminished seventh is an interval produced by narrowing a minor seventh by a chromatic semitone. For instance, the interval from A to G is a minor seventh, ten semitones wide, and both the intervals from A♯ to G, and from A to G♭ are diminished sevenths, spanning nine semitones. Being diminished, it is considered a dissonant interval. The diminished seventh is enharmonically equivalent to a major sixth. Its inversion is the augmented second. The diminished seventh is used quite readily in the minor key, where it is present in the harmonic minor scale between the seventh scale step and the sixth scale step in the octave above. In an equal tempered tuning, a diminished seventh is equal to nine semitones, a ratio of 29/12:1, or 900 cents. There is no standard just tuning of this interval, but one possibility, assuming the flat submediant is a perfect major third below the octave, and the leading tone to be 15:16, would lead to an interval of 128:75, about 925 cents; another interval is 216:125, which is three minor thirds. The 128:75 just diminished seventh arises in the C harmonic minor scale between B and A♭ by combining B-D, D|F, F-A♭.

— Freebase

Piccolo

Piccolo

The piccolo is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name "ottavino," the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers. Piccolos are now only manufactured in the key of C; however, they were once also available in D♭. It was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever". In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is often designated as Piccolo/Flute III or even Assistant Principal. The larger orchestras have designated this position as a Solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are often orchestrated to double the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards. The first known use of the word piccolo was in 1856, though the English were using the term already some fifteen years earlier.

— Freebase

Johnny Adams

Johnny Adams

Laten John Adams, known as Johnny Adams, was an American blues, jazz and gospel singer, known as "The Tan Canary" for the multi-octave range of his singing voice, his swooping vocal mannerisms and falsetto. His biggest hits were his versions of "Release Me" and "Reconsider Me" in the late 1960s.

— Freebase

Mixolydian mode

Mixolydian mode

Mixolydian mode may refer to one of three things: the name applied to one of the ancient Greek harmoniai or tonoi, based on a particular octave species or scale; one of the medieval church modes; a modern musical mode or diatonic scale, related to the medieval mode.

— Freebase

Lyricon

Lyricon

The Lyricon is an electronic wind instrument, the first wind controller to be constructed. Invented by Bill Bernardi, it was manufactured by a company called Computone Inc in Massachusetts. The Lyricon was available in two different designs, the first one being somewhat silver and resembling a soprano saxophone and the latter, black and resembling an alto clarinet. Using a form of additive synthesis, the player was allowed to change between types of overtones with a key switchable between fundamentals of G, Bb, C, Eb, and F and an octave range that could be switched between low, medium, or high. The instrument also had controls for glissando, portamento, and "timbre attack". The Lyricon used a bass clarinet mouthpiece, with a sprung metal sensor on the reed that detected lip pressure. Wind pressure was detected by a diaphragm, which moved and changed the light output from an LED, which was in turn sensed by a photocell to give dynamic control. Two additional re-modelled Lyricons were engineered later. First the "Wind Synthesizer Driver", which had control voltage outputs for lip pressure, wind pressure and pitch, to control the VCA and VCF and pitch of an external analog synthesizer. Then the "Lyricon II" was engineered, which included a two-oscillator synthesiser. All the Lyricons used the same saxophone style fingering system, with two octave keys above the left-hand thumb rest. The Wind Synthesizer Driver and the Lyricon II also had a transposition footswitch feature, where a foot pedal could be used to transpose the entire range up or down one octave. None of the Lyricons was engineered to use MIDI, although external MIDIfication modules were produced by JL Cooper and STEIM.

— Freebase

Pitch class

Pitch class

In music, a pitch class is a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves apart, e.g., the pitch class C consists of the Cs in all octaves. "The pitch class C stands for all possible Cs, in whatever octave position." Thus, using scientific pitch notation, the pitch class "C" is the set although there is no formal limit to this sequence on either end, only a limited number of these pitches will actually be audible to the human ear. Pitch class is important because human pitch-perception is periodic: pitches belonging to the same pitch class are perceived as having a similar "quality" or "color", a property called octave equivalence. Psychologists refer to the quality of a pitch as its "chroma". A "chroma" is an attribute of pitches, just like hue is an attribute of color. A "pitch class" is a set of all pitches sharing the same chroma, just like "the set of all white things" is the collection of all white objects. Note that in standard Western equal temperament, distinct spellings can refer to the same sounding object: B♯3, C4, and D4 all refer to the same pitch, hence share the same chroma, and therefore belong to the same pitch class; a phenomenon called enharmonic equivalence.

— Freebase

Octobass

Octobass

The octobass is an extremely large bowed string instrument constructed about 1850 in Paris by the French luthier Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume. It has three strings and is essentially a larger version of the double bass. Because of the impractically large size of its fingerboard and thickness of its strings, the strings were stopped by the use of an intricate system of hand- and foot-activated levers and pedals. The instrument was, in fact, so large that it took two musicians to play: one to bow and the other to control the "fingering", and was consequently never produced on a large scale or used much by composers. In addition to the Paris instrument, another octobass is in the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, Arizona. Berlioz writes in his Orchestration Treatise that its lowest string is tuned to C1, one octave below the lowest C of the cello. This note is the same as the lowest note of a modern double bass with a low C extension. The middle string is tuned to G1, a fifth above the lowest string. The uppermost string is tuned to C2, an octave above the instrument's lowest string. Berlioz quotes G2, a fifth above the top string, as the highest note playable on the instrument, giving it a compass of an octave and a fifth. However, Berlioz may have been mistaken because modern and surviving instruments are tuned C, G, C, with the low C string being 16.25 Hz. The modern technique of octobass playing includes the technique of fingering up to A, plus higher notes possible by extended technique. Octobass has been scored for in autographs of many composers including Hector Berlioz, Richard Strauss, Mahler, Brahms, Wagner, Tchaikovsky, and others. Recent pieces include Genesis and Four Poems by the American composer Adam Gilberti.

— Freebase

Episcia

Episcia

Episcia is a genus of 10 species belonging to the flowering plant family Gesneriaceae. The species are found in the tropical regions of Central America and South America. The species are perennial herbaceous plants characterized by a stoloniferous habit, red flowers, and frequently have marked or patterned leaves. They are grown in the tropics, and in temperate regions as houseplants, primarily for their attractive foliage. Numerous cultivars have been produced, primarily by selection and hybridization of the species E. cupreata and E. reptans. For much of the Twentieth century Episcia had a broad circumscription but since 1978 has been restricted to a much narrower one, with the genera Paradrymonia, Chrysothemis, Nautilocalyx, and Alsobia separated from it. The segregation of these genera from Episcia has been supported in recent molecular phylogenies. Episcias are sometimes called "Flame violets". Episcia contains the following species: Section Episcia ⁕Episcia andina Wiehler ⁕Episcia cupreata Hanst. ⁕Episcia duidae Feuillet ⁕Episcia lilacina Hanst. ⁕Episcia prancei Wiehler

— Freebase

Hypolydian mode

Hypolydian mode

The Hypolydian mode, literally meaning "below Lydian", is the common name for the sixth of the eight church modes of medieval music theory. The name is taken from Ptolemy of Alexandria's term for one of his seven tonoi, or transposition keys. This mode is the plagal counterpart of the authentic fifth mode. In medieval theory the Hypolydian mode was described either as the diatonic octave species from C to the C an octave higher, divided at the final F or a mode with F as final and an ambitus from the C below the final to the D above it. The third above the final, A—corresponding to the reciting tone or "tenor" of the sixth psalm tone—was regarded as having an important melodic function in this mode. The sequence of intervals was therefore divided by the final into a lower tetrachord of tone-tone-semitone, and an upper pentachord of tone-tone-tone-semitone. However, from as early as the time of Hucbald the Hypolydian mode—even more than the corresponding authentic mode, the Lydian—was characterized by the predominance of B♭ instead of B♮ as the fourth degree above the final. The melodic centering on F and A, as well as the use of B♭ instead of B♮, is illustrated in the accompanying example from the Requiem Mass introit, "Requiem aeternam".

— Freebase

Tritone

Tritone

In music theory, the tritone is strictly defined as a musical interval composed of three adjacent whole tones. For instance, the interval from F up to the B above it is a tritone as it can be decomposed into the three adjacent whole tones F–G, G–A, and A–B. According to this definition, within a diatonic scale there is only one tritone for each octave. For instance, the above-mentioned interval F–B is the only tritone which can be formed using the notes of the C-major scale. A tritone is also commonly defined as an interval spanning six semitones. According to this definition, a diatonic scale contains two tritones for each octave. For instance, the above-mentioned C-major scale contains the tritones F–B and B-F. To avoid the ambiguity created by the existence of two different definitions, a tritone which meets the strict definition, such as F–B, is sometimes called a proper tritone. In classical music, the tritone is a harmonic and melodic dissonance and is important in the study of musical harmony. "Any tendency for a tonality to emerge may be avoided by introducing a note three whole tones distant from the key note of that tonality." Contrastingly the tritone contained within the dominant seventh chord helps to establish the tonality.

— Freebase

Trombone

Trombone

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player’s vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Instead of a slide, the valve trombone has three valves like those on a trumpet. The word trombone derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone horn and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the euphonium and the orchestral horn. The most frequently encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The E♭ alto trombone became less common as tenor technique extended the upper range of that instrument, but is now enjoying a resurgence as the importance of its lighter sonority in many classical and early romantic works is appreciated. The most common variant, the tenor, is pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the B♭ tuba. Trombone music, along with music for euphonium and tuba, is typically written in concert pitch, although exceptions do occur, notably in almost all brass band music where tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument.

— Freebase

Temperament

Temperament

a system of compromises in the tuning of organs, pianofortes, and the like, whereby the tones generated with the vibrations of a ground tone are mutually modified and in part canceled, until their number reduced to the actual practicable scale of twelve tones to the octave. This scale, although in so far artificial, is yet closely suggestive of its origin in nature, and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the ear, while it has the convenience that the same twelve fixed tones answer for every key or scale, C/ becoming identical with D/, and so on

— Webster Dictionary

Petrarchan sonnet

Petrarchan sonnet

Petrarch developed the Italian sonnet pattern, which is known to this day as the Petrarchan sonnet or the Italian sonnet. Because of the structure of Italian, the rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet is more easily fulfilled in that language than in English. The original Italian sonnet form divides the poem's 14 lines into two parts, the first part being an octave and the second being a sestet.

— Freebase

Bass guitar

Bass guitar

The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, thumping, or picking. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length, and four, five, six, or eight strings. The four-string bass—by far the most common—is usually tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest pitched strings of a guitar. The bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the bass guitar is plugged into an amplifier and speaker for live performances. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While the types of basslines performed by the bassist vary widely from one style of music to another, the bassist fulfills a similar role in most types of music: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. The bass guitar is used in many styles of music including rock, metal, pop, punk rock, country, reggae, gospel, blues, and jazz. It is used as a soloing instrument in jazz, fusion, Latin, funk, and in some rock and metal styles.

— Freebase

Hilary of Poitiers

Hilary of Poitiers

Hilary of Poitiers was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church. He was sometimes referred to as the "Hammer of the Arians" and the "Athanasius of the West." His name comes from the Latin word for happy or cheerful. His optional memorial in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints is 13 January. In the past, when this date was occupied by the Octave Day of the Epiphany, his feast day was moved to 14 January.

— Freebase

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God

The Solemnity of Mary, the Holy Mother of God is a liturgical feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary honoring her divine motherhood to Jesus Christ. It is celebrated by the Catholic Church on the 1st of January, the Octave day of the Christmas season. For Roman Catholics, this day is designated as a Holy Day of Obligation. The feast was celebrated in the East before it was in the West, but by the 5th century it was celebrated in France and Spain on the Sunday before Christmas. In Rome, even before the 7th century, 1 January was used as a celebration of the Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ had come to replace the Marian feast on 1 January. This feast is still observed by the Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church. The celebration of the Feast of the Circumcision on 1 January was expanded to the entire Catholic Church in 1570 when Pope Pius V promulgated the Missal. In 1914, the feast of the "Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary" was established in Portugal, occurring on 11 October. In 1931, this feast was extended to the entire Catholic Church by Pope Pius XI and maintained on 11 October. Following the Second Vatican Council in 1974, Pope Paul VI removed the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ from the liturgical calendar, and replaced it with the feast of the "Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God." In the Extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, Catholics continue to celebrate this feast day with the old name "The Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary" on 11 October, and 1 January is the Octave Day of the Nativity of the Lord.

— Freebase

Easter Monday

Easter Monday

Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox cultures. Easter Monday in the Roman Catholic liturgical calendar is the second day of the octave of Easter Week and analogously in the Eastern Orthodox Church is the second day of Bright Week.

— Freebase

bass clarinet

bass clarinet

The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet, it is usually pitched in B♭, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B♭ clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A, also exist, but are very rare. Bass clarinets regularly perform in symphony orchestras, wind ensembles, occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular. Someone who plays a bass clarinet is called a bass clarinetist.

— Freebase

Semitone

Semitone

A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically. It is defined as the interval between two adjacent notes in a 12-tone scale. This implies that its size is exactly or approximately equal to 100 cents, a twelfth of an octave. In a 12-note approximately equally divided scale, any interval can be defined in terms of an appropriate number of semitones

— Freebase

Branle

Branle

A branle —also bransle, brangle, brawl, brawle, brall, braul, or brantle —or brainle—is a 16th-century French dance style which moves mainly from side to side, and is performed by couples in either a line or a circle. The word is derived from the French verb branler, possibly related to brander. In Italy the branle became the brando, and in Spain the bran. Brando alta regina by Cesare Negri demonstrates how widely the French and Italian dances had diverged by the beginning of the 17th century. The Branle seems to have travelled to Scotland and survived for some time as the brail, but in England it was rarely danced, and of thousands of lute pieces from England only 18 were called branle, though one called "courant" is known from continental sources as a branle. The only detailed sources for the dance steps to the French branles are Orchesography by Thoinot Arbeau and a few late examples in Beauchamp-Feuillet notation, such as Danses nouvelles presentees au Roy by Louis-Guillaume Pécour. However, Antonius de Arena briefly described the steps for the double and single branles and mentions mixed branles in his macaronic treatise Ad suos compagnones, and the dialogue of act 4, scene 2 of John Marston's The Malcontent sketches a choreography for one branle. Before 1500 the word is encountered, but only as the name of one of the steps of the basse danse. Arbeau strongly implies that the branle was a dance mainly performed by commoners.

— Freebase

Organ tablature

Organ tablature

Organ tablature is a form of musical notation used by the north German Baroque organ school, although there are also forms of organ tablature from other countries such as Italy, Spain, Poland, and England. Portions of Johann Sebastian Bach's Orgelbüchlein are written in tablature, as are a great deal of the surviving manuscripts of the organ works of Dieterich Buxtehude and other north German organ composers of the Baroque era. The first extant example of keyboard tablature, which was almost certainly for organ, was in the Robertsbridge Codex, from about 1360. Although it is English, it is closely related to the later German tablatures. An early and perhaps seminal example of these organ tablatures is found in the Buxheimer Orgelbuch, compiled in Münich in the 1460s. It reflects the work of Conrad Paumann, a blind organist, lutenist, and composer. The biggest organ tablature, as well as one of the oldest in the world, is Organ Tablature by Jan of Lublin, one of ca. 20 Polish organ tablatures created from 1520 to 1700. The feature of organ tablature that distinguishes it from modern musical notation is the absence of staves, noteheads, and key signatures. Pitches are denoted by letter names written in script, durations by flags, although in early notations durations were shown using mensural indications, and octave displacement by octave lines drawn above a letter. There was some variation in the notation of accidentals, but sometimes sharps were specified by the addition of a loop to the end of the letter. B natural and B flat were represented by h and b respectively. Naturals are not indicated, as accidentals do not carry through the entire measure as in modern notation. Key signatures are not specified; they are implied by the indicated sharps. In Renaissance works the uppermost melodic line is given in normal mensural notation on a staff, and the tablature given below each note.

— Freebase

Major scale

Major scale

The major scale or Ionian scale is one of the most commonly used scales. It is one of the diatonic scales. Like many musical scales it is made up of seven notes: the eighth duplicates the first at double its frequency so that it is called a higher octave of the same note. The simplest major scale to write is C major, the only major scale not to require sharps or flats: The major scale had a central importance in European music, particularly in the common practice period and in popular music, owing to the large number of chords that can be formed from it. In Hindustani classical music it is known as Bilaval.

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Baritone horn

Baritone horn

The baritone horn is a low-pitched brass instrument. Baritone horn is a piston valve brass instrument with a predominantly cylindrical bore like the trumpet and uses a wide-rimmed cup mouthpiece like that of its peers the trombone and euphonium, for like the trombone and the euphonium, the baritone horn is pitched in B♭ one octave below the B♭ trumpet. In the UK the baritone is frequently found in brass bands. The baritone horn in the United States is common in school and university bands, the baritones found in school inventories often being older models as the instrument over time appears to be yielding in popularity to the euphonium. A person who plays a baritone horn is a baritone player or baritonist.

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Fret

Fret

A fret is a raised element on the neck of a stringed instrument. Frets usually extend across the full width of the neck. On most modern western fretted instruments, frets are metal strips inserted into the fingerboard. On some historical instruments and non-European instruments, frets are made of pieces of string tied around the neck. Frets divide the neck into fixed segments at intervals related to a musical framework. On instruments such as guitars, each fret represents one semitone in the standard western system where one octave is divided into twelve semitones. Fret is often used as a verb, meaning simply "to press down the string behind a fret." Fretting often refers to the frets and/or their system of placement.

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Piano accordion

Piano accordion

A piano accordion is an accordion equipped with a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano or organ. Its acoustic mechanism is more that of an organ than a piano, as they are both wind instruments, but the term "piano accordion"—coined by Guido Deiro in 1910—has remained the popular nomenclature. It may be equipped with any of the available systems for the left-hand manual. In comparison to a piano keyboard, the keys are more rounded, smaller, and lighter to the touch. These go vertically down the side, pointing inward, toward the bellows, making them accessible to only one hand while handling the accordion. The bass piano accordion is a variation of a piano accordion without bass buttons and with the piano keyboard in an octave lower. They typically have around 3 octaves.

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Divine Mercy Sunday

Divine Mercy Sunday

Divine Mercy Sunday is a Roman Catholic solemnity celebrated on the Sunday after Easter, the Octave of Easter. It is originally based on the Catholic devotion to the Divine Mercy that Saint Faustina Kowalska reported as part of her encounter with Jesus, and is associated with special promises from Jesus and indulgences issued by the Church. This feast of Divine Mercy, as recorded in the diary of Saint Faustina, receives from Jesus himself the biggest promises of Grace related to the Devotion of Divine Mercy. In specific Jesus states that the soul that goes to Sacramental Confession, and receives Holy Eucharistic Communion on that day, shall obtain the total forgiveness of all sins and punishment. Additionally, the Roman Catholic Church grants a plenary indulgence with the recitation of some simple prayers.

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Aeolian mode

Aeolian mode

The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale called the natural minor scale. The word "Aeolian" in the music theory of ancient Greece was an alternative name for what Aristoxenus called the Low Lydian tonos, nine semitones higher than the lowest "position of the voice", which was called Hypodorian. In the mid-16th century, this name was given by Heinrich Glarean to his newly defined ninth mode, with the diatonic octave species of the natural notes extending one octave from A to A—corresponding to the modern natural minor scale. Up until this time, chant theory recognized eight musical modes: the relative natural scales in D, E, F and G, each with their authentic and plagal counterparts, and with the option of B-flat instead of B-natural in several modes. In 1547 Heinrich Glarean published his Dodecachordon. His premise had as its central idea the existence of twelve diatonic modes rather than eight, including a separate pair of modes each on the finals A and C. Finals on these notes, as well as on B♮, had been recognized in chant theory at least since Hucbald in the early tenth century, but they were regarded as merely transpositions from the regular finals a fifth lower. In the eleventh century Guido d'Arezzo, in chapter 8 of his Micrologus, designated these transposed finals A, B♮ and C as "affinals", and later still the term "confinal" was used in the same way. In 1525, Pietro Aaron was the first theorist to explain polyphonic modal usage in terms of the eightfold system, including these transpositions. As late as 1581, Illuminato Aiguino da Brescia published the most elaborate theory defending the eightfold system for polyphonic music against Glarean's innovations, in which he regarded the traditional plainchant modes 1 and 2 at the affinal position as a composite of species from two modes, which he described as "mixed modes." Glarean added Aeolian as the name of the new ninth mode: the relative natural mode in A with the perfect fifth as its dominant, reciting note or tenor. The tenth mode, the plagal version of the Aeolian mode, Glarean called Hypoaeolian, based on the same relative scale, but with the minor third as its tenor, and having a melodic range from a perfect fourth below the tonic to a perfect fifth above it.

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String section

String section

The string section is the largest body of the standard orchestra and consists of bowed string instruments of the violin family. It normally comprises five sections: the first violins, the second violins, the violas, the cellos, and the double basses. In discussions of the instrumentation of a musical work, the phrase "and strings" is used to indicate a string section as just defined. In music of the classical period, the cellos and double basses often play from the same music, their parts usually being notated on a single staff, with the bassist's written notes sounding one octave lower than written. An orchestra consisting solely of a string section is called a string orchestra. The term is also used to describe a group of bowed string instruments used in rock, pop, jazz and commercial music. In this context the size and composition of the string section is less standardised, and usually smaller, than a classical complement.

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Chris Cornell

Chris Cornell

Chris Cornell is an American rock musician best known as the lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist for Soundgarden and as the former lead vocalist for Audioslave. He is also known for his numerous solo works and soundtrack contributions since 1991, in addition to being the founder and frontman for Temple of the Dog, the one-off tribute band dedicated to his former roommate, Andrew Wood. Cornell is most known for his 4 octave vocal range as well as his powerful vocal belting technique. He has released three solo studio albums, Euphoria Morning, Carry On, and Scream. Cornell was ranked 4th in the list of "Heavy Metal's All-Time Top 100 Vocalists" by Hit Parader. He performed the theme song to the James Bond film Casino Royale, "You Know My Name." Cornell also released his first live solo album titled Songbook in November 2011.

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Bisector

Bisector

In diatonic set theory, a bisector divides the octave approximately in half and may be used in place of a generator to derive collections for which structure implies multiplicity is not true such as the ascending melodic minor, harmonic minor, and octatonic scales. Well formed generated collections generators and bisectors coincide, such as in the diatonic collection. The term was introduced by Jay Rahn, who considers any division between one and two thirds as approximately half and who applied the term only the equally spaced collections. Clough and Johnson both adapt the term to apply to generic scale steps. Rahn also uses aliquant bisector for bisectors which may be used to generate every note in a collection, in which case the bisector and the number of notes must be coprime. Bisectors may be used to produce the diatonic, harmonic minor, and ascending melodic minor collections.

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Imbal

Imbal

Imbal or imbalan is a technique used in Javanese gamelan. It refers to a rapid alternation of a melodic line between instruments, in a way similar to hocket in medieval music or kotekan in Balinese gamelan. In Javanese gamelan, it is used especially for the sarons and the bonangs. On the bonangs, an imbal pattern is divided between the bonang panerus and bonang barung, in the octave or so of range that both instruments have. When played on sarons, generally two of the same instrument are used. Both bonang and saron patterns generally are made of scalar passages that end on the seleh at the end of the gatra. Each key is dampened as soon as the other instrument plays, and it allows the melody to be played faster or more smoothly than is possible by a single performer. On the bonangs, an imbal passage is usually followed by a sekaran.

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August von Wassermann

August von Wassermann

August Paul von Wassermann was a German bacteriologist and hygienist. Born in Bamberg, with Jewish origins, he studied at several universities throughout Germany, receiving his medical doctorate in 1888 from the University of Strassburg. In 1890 began work under Robert Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In 1906 he became director of the division for experimental therapy and serum research at the institute, followed by a directorship of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft for the Advancement of Science in Berlin-Dahlem. Wassermann developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906, just one year after the causative organism, Spirochaeta pallida, had been identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann. The so-called "Wassermann test" allowed for early detection of the disease, and thus prevention of transmission. He attributed the development of the test to earlier findings of Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou and to a hypothesis introduced by Paul Ehrlich in his interpretation of antibody formation.

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Perfect fifth

Perfect fifth

In classical music from Western culture, a fifth is a musical interval encompassing five staff positions, and the perfect fifth is a fifth spanning seven semitones, or in meantone, four diatonic semitones and three chromatic semitones. For example, the interval from C to G is a perfect fifth, as the note G lies seven semitones above C, and there are five staff positions from C to G. Diminished and augmented fifths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones. The perfect fifth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the second and third harmonics. In a diatonic scale, the dominant note is a perfect fifth above the tonic note. The perfect fifth is more consonant, or stable, than any other interval except the unison and the octave. It occurs above the root of all major and minor chords and their extensions. Until the late 19th century, it was often referred to by one of its Greek names, diapente. Its inversion is the perfect fourth.

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Contrabass clarinet

Contrabass clarinet

The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage. Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in BB♭, sounding two octaves lower than the common B♭ soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B♭ bass clarinet. Some contrabass clarinet models have a range extending down to low E♭, while others can play down to low D or further to low C. Some early instruments were pitched in C; Arnold Schoenberg's Fünf Orchesterstücke specifies a contrabass clarinet in A, but there is no evidence of such an instrument ever having existed. The contrabass clarinet is also sometimes known by the name pedal clarinet, this term referring not to any aspect of the instrument's mechanism but to an analogy between its very low tones and the pedal tones of the trombone, or the pedal division of the organ. Subcontrabass clarinets, lower in pitch than the contrabass, have been built on only an experimental basis. The EE♭ contra-alto clarinet is sometimes referred to as the "EE♭ contrabass clarinet".

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Falsetto

Falsetto

Falsetto is the vocal register occupying the frequency range just above the modal voice register and overlapping with it by approximately one octave. It is produced by the vibration of the ligamentous edges of the vocal cords, in whole or in part. Commonly cited in the context of singing, falsetto, a characteristic of phonation by both men and women, is also one of the four main spoken vocal registers recognized by speech pathology. The term falsetto is most often used in the context of singing to refer to a type of vocal phonation that enables the singer to sing notes beyond the vocal range of the normal or modal voice. The falsetto voice—with its characteristic flute-like sound relatively free of overtones—is more limited than its modal counterpart in both dynamic variation and tone quality. However, William Vennard points out that while most people sound comparatively "breathy" or "hooty" when using falsetto production, there are in rarer cases individuals who have a much stronger falsetto sound production which has more "ring" to it.

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Double bass

Double bass

The double bass, also called the string bass, upright bass, bass fiddle, bass violin, doghouse bass, contrabass, bass viol, stand-up bass, bull fiddle or simply bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument of the violin family in the modern symphony orchestra, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2. The double bass is a standard member of the string section of the orchestra and smaller string ensembles in Western classical music. In addition, it is used in other genres such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass, tango and many types of folk music. A person who plays the double bass is usually referred to as a bassist. The contrabass violin is the version of the double-bass used in the violin octet; it is larger than the usual double bass and was originally intended to be tuned in 5ths C1-G1-D2-A2. However practical considerations have induced some players to tune it in 4ths E1-A1-D2-G2 like the usual double bass. The double bass is a transposing instrument and sounds one octave lower than notated.

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Minibond

Minibond

Minibond is a brand name for a series of structured financial notes issued in Hong Kong and Singapore under the control of Lehman Brothers. It is a misnomer to describe the Minibond as credit-linked note because of the Synthetic Collateralised Debt Obligations hidden in the three-layered structure. The term "Minibond" is also used to refer to other likewise structured Notes, namely Constellation Notes and Octave Notes, respectively issued in Hong Kong under the direction of DBS Bank and Morgan Stanley. These Notes, coupled with Minibonds and other Equity-linked Notes issued by Lehman Brothers, are sometimes officially referred to as "Lehman-related securities". For the sake of completeness, Lehman Brothers arranged 3 "Special Purpose Entities" to issue Minibond-like Notes in Hong Kong from 2002 to 2008. Minibonds are issued by Pacific International Finance Limited, and the Notes issued by the other 2 SPE are branded "ProFund Notes" and "Pyxis Notes". Unlike the Minibonds which have a three-layered structure, these latter Notes feature 2 layers of notes bundled together with prominence given exclusively to one so as to obscure the nature and importance of the other.

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Légende

Légende

Legende is a solo work for trumpet and piano, composed by George Enescu and premiered by Merri Franquin, professor of cornet at the Paris Conservatoire. It reflects the impressionistic style of Enesco's teachers Jules Massenet and Gabriel Fauré. The title is an homage to Professor Franquin. The piece reflects an important step in the evolution of the trumpet from a more archaic limited instrument, to a fully chromatic and soloistic instrument. Legende's range extends from a low A-flat to a high C, with an ossia passage that extends only to high B-flat. The piece requires extensive triple tonguing and an unspecified mute. Legende is in the key of C minor, and begins with a simple lyrical melody which reappears twice. The second time, it is played during the climax in the higher octave, and in the muted conclusion, it appears again in the original low register. In between each statement of the melody are technical passages which require extensive triple tonguing and chromatic fingering. The piano accompaniment is chordal in the lyrical passages, and virtuosic in the technical sections, matching the difficulty of the trumpet part with extensive runs and arpeggios.

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jug

jug

The jug as a musical instrument reached its height of popularity in the 1920s, when jug bands, such as Cannon's Jug Stompers were popular. The jug is an empty jug played with the mouth. With an embouchure like that used for a brass instrument, the musician holds the mouth of the jug about an inch from his or her mouth and emits a blast of sound, made by a buzzing of the lips, directly into it. The jug does not touch the musician's mouth, but serves as a resonating chamber to amplify and enrich the sound made by the musician's lips. Changes in pitch are controlled by loosening or tightening the lips. An accomplished jug player might have a two-octave range. Some players augment this sound with vocalizations, didgeridoo style, and even circular breathing. In performance, the jug sound is enhanced if the player stands with his back to a wall, which will reflect the sound towards the audience. The stovepipe is played in much the same manner, with the open-ended pipe being the resonating chamber. There is some similarity to the didgeridoo, but there is no contact between the stovepipe and the player's lips.

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Monophony

Monophony

In music, monophony is the simplest of textures, consisting of melody without accompanying harmony. This may be realized as just one note at a time, or with the same note duplicated at the octave. If an entire melody is played by two or more instruments or sung by a choir with a fixed interval between the voices or in unison, it is also said to be in monophony. Music in which all the notes sung are in unison is called monophonic. Musical texture is determined in song and music by varying components. Songs intersperse monophony, heterophony, polyphony, homophony, or monody elements throughout the melody to create atmosphere and style. Monophony may not have underlying rhythmic textures, and must consist of only a melodic line. The musics of some cultures where there is a melodic line with rhythmic accompaniment must be considered homophony. According to Ardis Butterfield, monophony "is the dominant mode of the European vernacular genres as well as of Latin song ... in polyphonic works, it remains a central compositional principle." Polyphony has two or more independent melodic voices. Monophony is one voice in music rather like a soliloquy.

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Sintir

Sintir

The sintir, also known as the Guembri, Gimbri or Hejhouj, is a three stringed skin-covered bass plucked lute used by the Gnawa people. It is approximately the size of a guitar, with a body carved from a log and covered on the playing side with camel. The camel skin has the same acoustic function as the membrane on a banjo. The neck is a simple stick with one short and two long goat strings that produce a percussive sound similar to a pizzicato cello or double bass. The goat gut strings are plucked downward with the knuckle side of the index finger and the inside of the thumb. The hollowed canoe shaped wooden body resonates a percussive tone created by knuckles slapping the camel neck top of the body while the thumb and index finger are plucking the strings.The lowest string on the sintir is a drone note and the second string, the highest in pitch, is tuned an octave higher and is never fretted. The third string is tuned a fourth above the drone. The buzzing sound often heard emanating from the sintir is caused by metal rings dangling off of a galvanized metal feather mounted on the end of the sintir's neck. The feather and rings vibrate in rhythm with the sintir.

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Thirteenth

Thirteenth

In music or music theory, a thirteenth is the interval between the sixth and first scale degrees when the sixth is transposed up an octave, creating a compound sixth, or thirteenth. The thirteenth is most commonly major Play or minor Play. A thirteenth chord is the stacking of six thirds, the last being above the 11th of an eleventh chord. Thus a thirteenth chord is a tertian chord containing the interval of a thirteenth, and is an extended chord if it includes the ninth and/or the eleventh. "The jazzy thirteenth is a very versatile chord and is used in many genres." Since 13th chords tend to become unclear or confused with other chords when inverted they are generally found in root position. For example, depending on voicing, a major triad with an added major sixth is usually called a sixth chord Play, because the sixth serves as a substitution for the major seventh, thus considered a chord tone in such context. However, Walter Piston, writing in 1952, considered that, "a true thirteenth chord, arrived at by superposition of thirds, is a rare phenomenon even in 20th-century music." This may be due to four part writing, instrument limitations, and voice leading and stylistic considerations. For example, "to make the chord more playable [on guitar], thirteenth chords often omit the fifth and the ninth."

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Accidental

Accidental

In music, an accidental is a note whose pitch is not a member of a scale or mode indicated by the most recently applied key signature. In musical notation, the sharp, flat, and natural symbols are used to mark such notes, and those symbols may themselves be called accidentals. In the measure in which it appears, an accidental sign raises or lowers the following notes from their normal pitch, ignoring sharps or flats in the key signature. A note is usually raised or lowered by a semitone, although microtonal music may use "fractional" accidental signs. One occasionally sees double sharps or flats, which raise or lower the indicated note by a whole tone. Accidentals apply within the measure and octave in which they appear, unless canceled by another accidental sign, or tied into a following measure. The modern accidental signs derive from the round and square small letter b used in Gregorian chant manuscripts to signify the two pitches of B, the only note that could be altered. The round b became the flat sign, while the square b diverged into the sharp and natural signs. Sometimes the black keys on a musical keyboard are called accidentals or sharps, and the white keys are called naturals.

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Tabor

Tabor

Tabor or tabret refers to a portable snare drum played with one hand. The word "tabor" is simply an English variant of a Latin-derived word meaning "drum" - cf. French: tambour, Italian: tamburo It has been used in the military as a marching instrument, and has been used as accompaniment in parades and processions. A tabor has a cylindrical wood shell, two skin heads tightened by rope tension, a leather strap, and an adjustable gut snare. Each tabor has a pitch range of about an octave: the larger the tabor, the lower the pitch. It is played by just one stick, which usually strikes the snare head. The tabor is suspended by a strap from the forearm, somewhere between the elbow and wrist. When played, the shell is virtually parallel with the ground. The tabor is most widely known as accompaniment for the pipe and other small flutes, and most famously as the percussive element in the "pipe and tabor" one man band configuration. Photos of this can be seen at Harms Historical Percussion's Tabor page. The tabor is beaten on the snare side. In Spain, a deep drum is used for a tabor by pipe and taborers, and in England a shallow tom tom is sometimes used, although medieval icons of pipe and tabor usually display a large shallow tabor similar in shape to a Bodhrán.

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Pink noise

Pink noise

Pink noise or ¹⁄f noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density is inversely proportional to the frequency. In pink noise, each octave carries an equal amount of noise power. The name arises from the pink appearance of visible light with this power spectrum. Within the scientific literature the term ¹⁄f noise is sometimes used a little more loosely to refer to any noise with a power spectral density of the form where f is frequency and 0 < α < 2, with exponent α usually close to 1. These ¹⁄f -like noises occur widely in nature and are a source of considerable interest in many fields. The distinction between the noises with α near 1 and those with a broad range of α approximately corresponds to a much more basic distinction. The former generally come from condensed matter systems in quasi-equilibrium, as discussed below. The latter generally correspond to wide range of non-equilibrium driven dynamical systems. The term flicker noise is sometimes used to refer to ¹⁄f noise, although this is more properly applied only to its occurrence in electronic devices due to a direct current. Mandelbrot and Van Ness proposed the name fractional noise to emphasize that the exponent of the spectrum could take non-integer values and be closely related to fractional Brownian motion, but the term is very rarely used.

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Interval

Interval

In music theory, an interval is the difference between two pitches. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord. In Western music, intervals are most commonly differences between notes of a diatonic scale. The smallest of these intervals is a semitone. Intervals smaller than a semitone are called microtones. They can be formed using the notes of various kinds of non-diatonic scales. Some of the very smallest ones are called commas, and describe small discrepancies, observed in some tuning systems, between enharmonically equivalent notes such as C♯ and D♭. Intervals can be arbitrarily small, and even imperceptible to the human ear. In scientific terms, an interval is the ratio between two sonic frequencies. For example, any two notes an octave apart have a frequency ratio of 2:1. This means that successive increments of pitch by the same interval result in an exponential increase of frequency, even though the human ear perceives this as a linear increase in pitch. For this reason, intervals are often measured in cents, a unit derived from the logarithm of the frequency ratio.

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Polychord

Polychord

In music and music theory, a bichord or polychord consists of two or more chords, one on top of the other. In shorthand they are written with the top chord above a line and the bottom chord below, for example F above C: . The use of polychords may suggest bitonality or polytonality. Harmonic parallelism may suggest bichords. Examples may be found in Igor Stravinsky's Petrushka, p. 15, and Rite of Spring, "Dance of the Adolescents". They may also be found in the song "Point of No Return" from Andrew Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera, including chords such as E♭m over Fm. In the polychords in the image above, the 1st, "might well suggest," a thirteenth chord, the 2nd may suggest a, "d minor ninth chord with upper extensions," but the octave separation of the 3rd makes the suggestion of, "two independent triads with their a m9 apart," even more likely, and the 4th is a, "split-third chord." Extended chords contain more than one triad, and so can be regarded as a type of polychord:7 For example G7 is formed from G major and D♭ major, or . The Lydian augmented scale, "has a polychord sound built in," created by superimposing the Caug and the Emaj and/or F♯dim triads that exist in the scale, this being, "a very common practice for most bop and post-bop players [such as McCoy Tyner]."

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Augmented sixth

Augmented sixth

In classical music from Western culture, an augmented sixth is an interval produced by widening a major sixth by a chromatic semitone. For instance, the interval from C to A is a major sixth, nine semitones wide, and both the intervals from C♭ to A, and from C to A♯ are augmented sixths, spanning ten semitones. Being augmented, it is considered a dissonant interval. Its inversion is the diminished third, and its enharmonic equivalent is the minor seventh. In septimal meantone temperament, it is specifically equivalent to the harmonic seventh. In the tuning system known as equal temperament the augmented sixth is equal to ten semitones and is a dissonant interval. The augmented sixth is relatively rare. Its most common occurrence is built on the lowered submediant of the prevailing key, in which position the interval assumes a natural tendency to resolve by expanding to an octave built on the dominant tonal degree. In its most common and expected resolution, the lower note of the interval moves downwards by a minor second to the dominant while the upper note, being chromatically inflected, is heard as the leading note of the dominant key, rising naturally by a minor second. It is the strong tendency to resolve in this way that properly identifies this interval as being an augmented sixth rather than its more common enharmonic equivalent: the minor seventh, which has a tendency to resolve inwardly.

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Ledger line

Ledger line

A ledger line or leger line is used in Western musical notation to notate pitches above or below the lines and spaces of the regular musical staff. A line slightly longer than the note head is drawn parallel to the staff, above or below, spaced at the same distance as the lines within the staff. Although ledger lines are found occasionally in manuscripts of plainchant and early polyphony, it was only in the early 16th century in keyboard music that their use became at all extensive. Even then printers had an aversion to ledger lines which caused difficulties in setting type, wasting space on the page and causing a messy appearance. Vocal music employed a variety of different clefs to keep the range of the part on the staff as much as possible; in keyboard notation a common way of avoiding ledger lines was the use of "open score" on four staves with different clefs. Notes more than three or four ledger lines above or below the staff are usually considered hard to read. When there are many notes in a passage requiring more than three ledger lines, it is often preferable to switch clef or use 8va notation. Some transposing instruments, such as the piccolo, double bass, guitar, and the tenor voice, transpose at the octave to avoid ledger lines.va

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Pygopodidae

Pygopodidae

The Pygopodidae are a family of squamates with reduced or absent limbs and are related to the geckos. There are at least 35 species in two subfamilies and eight genera. They have unusually long, slender, bodies, giving them a strong resemblance to snakes. Like both snakes and most geckos, they have no eyelids, but unlike snakes, they have external ear holes and flat, unforked tongues. They are native to Australia and New Guinea. Pygopods have no fore limbs at all, but they do possess vestigial hind limbs in the form of small, flattened, flaps. These may have some role in courtship and defensive behaviour, and may even aid in locomotion through vegetation. Some species are insectivorous burrowing animals, but others are adapted to moving through dense spinifex or other vegetation. Like the geckos, pygopods lay two eggs in each clutch and nest communally. Some nests have been found to have as many as 30 eggs. Also like the geckos, Pygopods have the ability to vocalise - emitting a high-pitched squeak. Snakes are incapable of vocalising. Pygopods can hear tones higher than any other reptiles. Individuals in the species Delma pax can respond to a 60-decibel sound with a frequency of 11,100 Hz, more than an octave above the highest note on a standard piano.

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Bocal

Bocal

A bocal is the mouthpiece of certain woodwind instruments. It is a curved, tapered tube, which is an integral part of certain woodwind instruments, including double reed instruments such as the bassoon, contrabassoon, English horn, and oboe d'amore, as well as the larger recorders. In the double reed instruments, the bocal connects the reed to the rest of the instrument; in the case of larger recorders, the bocal directs air from the player's mouth to the fipple. Bocals can be made from a variety of metals, including nickel silver, brass, sterling silver, or even gold, and are covered at the lower end with a cork sleeve, allowing the bocal to fit tightly in the socket at the top of the instrument. More recently, at least one maker is producing bocals made of hardwood. The reed either fits directly on to the tapered end of the bocal or is tied to a metal tube which fits to the bocal. Since the early days, the bassoon bocal invariably has had a small hole drilled in the side just above the cork to assist in overblowing at the octave. On baroque and Classical-era bassoons, this hole is very small in diameter and remains open all the time. On bassoons fitted with a "whisper" or "pianissimo" key, the hole vents through a raised "nipple" and can be closed as needed to facilitate the response in the lower register.

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Monochord

Monochord

A monochord is an ancient musical and scientific laboratory instrument. The word "monochord" comes from the Greek and means literally "one string." A misconception of the term lies within its name. Often a monochord has more than one string, most of the time two, one open string and a second string with a movable bridge. In a basic monochord, a single string is stretched over a sound box. The string is fixed at both ends while one or many movable bridges are manipulated to demonstrate mathematical relationships between sounds. With two strings you can easily demonstrate how a consonant just chord sounds. Both open strings are tuned equal and then the movable bridge is put in a mathematical position to demonstrate, for instance, the major third or the minor third. The monochord can be used to illustrate the mathematical properties of musical pitch. For example, when a monochord's string is open it vibrates at a particular frequency and produces a pitch. When the length of the string is halved, and plucked, it produces a pitch an octave higher and the string vibrates at twice the frequency of the original. Half of this length will produce a pitch two octaves higher than the original—four times the initial frequency —and so on. Standard diatonic Pythagorean tuning is easily derived starting from superparticular ratios, /n, constructed from the first four counting numbers, the tetractys, measured out on a monochord.

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Interval cycle

Interval cycle

In music, an interval cycle is a collection of pitch classes created from a sequence of the same interval class. In other words a collection of pitches by starting with a certain note and going up by a certain interval until the original note is reached. In other words, interval cycles "unfold a single recurrent interval in a series that closes with a return to the initial pitch class". See: wikt:cycle. Interval cycles are notated by George Perle using the letter "C", with an interval class integer to distinguish the interval. Thus the diminished seventh chord would be C3 and the augmented triad would be C4. A superscript may be added to distinguish between transpositions, using 0–11 to indicate the lowest pitch class in the cycle. "These interval cycles play a fundamental role in the harmonic organization of post-diatonic music and can easily be identified by naming the cycle.". Here are interval cycles C1, C2, C3, C4 and C6: Interval cycles assume the use of equal temperament and may not work in other systems such as just intonation. For example, if the C4 interval cycle used justly-tuned major thirds it would fall flat of an octave return by an interval known as the diesis. Put another way, a major third above G♯ is B♯, which is only enharmonically the same as C in systems such as equal temperament, in which the diesis has been tempered out.

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Tenor

Tenor

A tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is one of the highest of the male voice types. The tenor's vocal range lies between C3, the C one octave below middle C, and, the A above middle C. In solo work, this range extends up to, or "tenor high C." The low extreme for tenors is roughly A♭2. At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to two Fs above middle C. The term tenor is also applied to instruments, such as the tenor saxophone, to indicate their range in relation to other instruments of the same group. Within opera, the lowest note in the standard tenor repertoire is A2, but few roles fall below C3. The high extreme: a few tenor roles in the standard repertoire call for a "tenor C". Some of the few top Cs in the standard operatic repertoire are either optional or interpolated by tradition. However, the highest demanded note in the standard tenor operatic repertoire is D5. Some operatic roles for tenors require a darker timbre and fewer high notes. In the leggero repertoire the highest note is F5, therefore, very few tenors can, given the raising of pitch since its composition, have this role in their repertoire without transposition. A shift in pitch since the mid 19th century means that the few written top Cs would have in fact demanded a note at least a semitone lower than today's standard pitch.

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Alap

Alap

The alap is the opening section of a typical North Indian classical performance. It is a form of melodic improvisation that introduces and develops a raga. In dhrupad singing the alap is unmetered, improvised and unaccompanied, and started at a slow tempo. Instead of wholly free improvisation, many musicians perform alap schematically, for example by way of vistar, where the notes of the raga are introduced one at a time, so that phrases never travel further than one note above or below what has been covered before. In such cases, the first reach into a new octave can be a powerful event. In instrumental music, when a steady pulse is introduced into the alap, it is called jor; when the tempo has been greatly increased, or when the rhythmic element overtakes the melodic, it is called jhala. The jor and jhala can be seen as separate sections of the performance, or as parts of the alap; in the same way, jhala can be seen as a part of jor. Several musicologists have proposed much more complicated classifications and descriptions of alap. In the same way as traditional four-part compositions have a sthai, antara, sanchar and abhog, some treat alap with a four-part scheme using the same names. Bengali researcher Bimalakanto Raychoudhuri in his Bharatiya Sangeetkosh suggests classification both by length and by performance style, and proceeds to list thirteen stages:

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Hyperbass flute

Hyperbass flute

The hyperbass flute is the largest and lowest pitched instrument in the flute family, with tubing reaching over 8 metres in length. It is pitched in C, four octaves below the concert flute, with its lowest note being C0, one octave below the lowest C on a standard piano. At 16 Hz, this is below what is generally considered the range of human hearing. The hyperbass flute is made of PVC and wood. There appear to be wide tone holes, made from standard tee fittings, but without keys; these are covered with the palms of the hands. The first known example of the instrument was built by Francesco Romei, a Florentine craftsman, for Italian flautist Roberto Fabbriciani. Fabbriciani is the inventor and primary performer of this instrument. He calls it flauto iperbasso in Italian. Low flute specialist Peter Sheridan commissioned the first fully chromatic hyperbass flute from the Dutch maker Jelle Hogenhuis in August 2010. The instrument, though reputedly sluggish in response, plays lower than the concert piano. This prototype model is still under research with Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Hogenhuis, as the new direction of the low flute partials create numerous problems with the air stream and dilemmas for basic tone production. This said, the instrument truly is innovative in its approach to distribution of partials, as if blown in the correct manner a three to four voice chord will sound.

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Major sixth

Major sixth

In classical music from Western culture, a sixth is a musical interval encompassing six staff positions, and the major sixth is one of two commonly occurring sixths. It is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two. The major sixth spans nine semitones, its smaller counterpart being the minor sixth, spanning eight semitones. For example, the interval from C to A is a major sixth, as the note A lies nine semitones above C, and there are six staff positions from C to A. Diminished and augmented sixths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones. A commonly cited example of a melody featuring the major sixth as its opening is "My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean". The major sixth is one of consonances of common practice music, along with the unison, octave, perfect fifth, major and minor thirds, minor sixth and the perfect fourth. In the common practice period, sixths were considered interesting and dynamic consonances along with their inverses the thirds, but in medieval times they were considered dissonances unusable in a stable final sonority; however in that period they were tuned to the Pythagorean major sixth of 27/16. In just intonation, the major sixth is classed as a consonance of the 5-limit. A major sixth is also used in transposing music to E-flat instruments, like the alto clarinet, alto saxophone, E-flat tuba, trumpet and horn when in E-flat as a written C sounds like E-flat on those instruments.

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Blue Orchid

Blue Orchid

"Blue Orchid" is the first track by the American alternative rock band The White Stripes from their album Get Behind Me Satan, and the first single to be released from the album. The recorded sound is produced by playing a guitar into an Electro-Harmonix creation, the Polyphonic Octave Generator. Live, the sound is produced by a bass-rich guitar tone, used in combination with Whammy Pedal and the POG to create the heavily metallic sounding breaks of the song. The single comes in three editions, each with different additional tracks. All three covers feature two people dressed up as The White Stripes, but are noticeably different people. The first CD and the 7" feature the couple in the same order as Get Behind Me Satan, with 'Jack' on the right. The second CD version features 'Jack' on the left. In an NPR interview, Jack White referred to "Blue Orchid" as the song that saved the album. He has denied that the song relates to the ending of his relationship with Renée Zellweger. The video for "Blue Orchid" was on Yahoo!'s Top Twenty Scariest Music Videos of all Time, charting at number 13. It features Karen Elson, a model who would marry Jack White soon after the shoot. The video, which was directed by Floria Sigismondi, ends with a horse, its hooves raised in the air, about to stomp on Elson, but just before the hooves land on her, the video quickly goes black, ending.

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harmonica

harmonica

The harmonica, also French harp, blues harp, and mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in nearly every musical genre, notably in blues, American folk music, jazz, country, and rock and roll. There are many types of harmonica, including diatonic, chromatic, tremolo, octave, orchestral, and bass versions. A harmonica is played by using the mouth to direct air into and out of one or more holes along a mouthpiece. Behind the holes are chambers containing at least one reed. A harmonica reed is a flat elongated spring typically made of brass or bronze, which is secured at one end over a slot that serves as an airway. When the free end is made to vibrate by the player's air, it alternately blocks and unblocks the airway to produce sound. Reeds are pre-tuned to individual pitches. Tuning may involve changing a reed's length, the weight near its free end, or the stiffness near its fixed end. Longer, heavier and springier reeds produce deeper, lower sounds; shorter, lighter and stiffer reeds make higher-pitched sounds. If, as on most modern harmonicas, a reed is affixed above or below its slot rather than in the plane of the slot, it responds more easily to air flowing in the direction that initially would push it into the slot, i.e., as a closing reed. This difference in response to air direction makes it possible to include both a blow reed and a draw reed in the same air chamber and to play them separately without relying on flaps of plastic or leather to block the nonplaying reed.

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Clef

Clef

A clef is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. Placed on one of the lines at the beginning of the stave, it indicates the name and pitch of the notes on that line. This line serves as a reference point by which the names of the notes on any other line or space of the stave may be determined. Only one clef that references a note in a space rather than on a line has ever been used. There are three types of clef used in modern music notation: F, C, and G. Each type of clef assigns a different reference note to the line on which it is placed. Once one of these clefs has been placed on one of the lines of the stave, the other lines and spaces can be read in relation to it. The use of three different clefs makes it possible to write music for all instruments and voices, even though they may have very different tessituras. This would be difficult to do with only one clef, since the modern stave has only five lines, and the number of pitches that can be represented on the stave, even with ledger lines, is not nearly equal to the number of notes the orchestra can produce. The use of different clefs for different instruments and voices allows each part to be written comfortably on the stave with a minimum of ledger lines. To this end, the G-clef is used for high parts, the C-clef for middle parts, and the F-clef for low parts—with the important exception of transposing parts, which are written at a different pitch than they sound, often even in a different octave.

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Roy Orbison

Roy Orbison

Roy Kelton Orbison, also known by the nickname The Big O, was an American singer-songwriter, best known for his distinctive, powerful voice, complex compositions, and dark emotional ballads. Orbison grew up in Texas and began singing in a rockabilly/country and western band in high school until he was signed by Sun Records in Memphis. His greatest success came with Monument Records between 1960 and 1964, when 22 of his songs placed on the Billboard Top Forty, including "Only the Lonely", "Crying", and "Oh, Pretty Woman". His career stagnated through the 1970s, but several covers of his songs and the use of "In Dreams" in David Lynch's Blue Velvet revived his career in the 1980s. In 1988, he joined the supergroup Traveling Wilburys with George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, and Jeff Lynne and also released a new solo album. He died of a heart attack in December that year, at the zenith of his resurgence. His life was marred by tragedy, including the death of his first wife and his two eldest sons in separate accidents. Orbison was a natural baritone, but music scholars have suggested that he had a three- or four-octave range. The combination of Orbison's powerful, impassioned voice and complex musical arrangements led many critics to refer to his music as operatic, giving him the sobriquet "the Caruso of Rock". Elvis Presley and Bono have stated his voice was, respectively, the greatest and most distinctive they had ever heard. While most men in rock and roll in the 1950s and 1960s portrayed a defiant masculinity, many of Orbison's songs instead conveyed a quiet, desperate vulnerability. He was known for performing while standing still and solitary, wearing black clothes and dark sunglasses which lent an air of mystery to his persona.

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