Definitions containing côte d'or
We've found 97 definitions:
an extension of a gable that serves as a bell cote
— Princeton's WordNet
a former province of southeastern France; now administered with Cote d'Azur
— Princeton's WordNet
a pen, coop, or like shelter for small domestic animals, as for sheep or pigeons; a cote
— Webster Dictionary
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.
— U.S. National Library of Medicine
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
— U.S. National Library of Medicine
Diabo is a town and commune in Côte d'Ivoire.
Broma is a town and commune in Côte d'Ivoire.
Pleuro is a town and commune in Côte d'Ivoire.
Waté is a town and commune in Côte d'Ivoire.
Kasséré is a town and commune in Côte d'Ivoire.
Kavak is a district of Samsun Province of Turkey. Kavak is located 51 km away from Samsun. It has 600 m height from the sea level. The mayor is Şerif Ün. Kavak is located on the high way of Samsun-Ankara which brings it economical and social advantage. The most important economical income of Kavak is chicken farms. The famous Turkish wrestler, Yasar Dogu was born in Kavak. One of the most famous people of Kavak is Ali KIVRAK. He participated almost all wars in the Turkish Independence War as an infantry soldier. Cukurbuk village, especially Cote district, is popular with its nice agricultural products, like apple, cherry and corn. Cote district has also lots of chicken farms. KIVRAK family is the founder of Cote district. Mustafa KIVRAK and Fikret KIVRAK are the most popular chicken farm owners. Ismet KIVRAK who was retired from Turkish Air Force was also born in Cote district.
Côte Saint-Luc is a mostly residential town in Quebec, Canada, located on the Island of Montreal.
Bole is a small town and is the capital of Bole, a district in the Northern Region of Ghana. It is connected by road to the town of Sawla and the village of Bamboi, and Bouna, Côte d'Ivoire. Bole is host to a number of refugees from the civil war in neighboring Côte d'Ivoire. Bole is home to the Bole District Hospital and post office. The current president of Ghana John Dramani Mahama is from this town.
Binges is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Léry is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Talant is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Cléry is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Bèze is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Puits is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Bévy is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Musigny is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Burgundy is a region of central France. Burgundy includes the following four departements: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Yonne and Nièvre
Montrachet is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée and Grand Cru vineyard for white wine from Chardonnay in the Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is situated across the border between the two communes of Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet and produces what many consider to be the greatest dry white wine in the world. It is surrounded by four other Grand Cru vineyards all having "Montrachet" as part of their names. Montrachet itself is generally considered superior to its four Grand Cru neighbours, as reflected in its higher price. Montrachet is located in the south of the Côte de Beaune, which is the southern half of the Côte d'Or, which in turn is the most important of the several wine producing subregions of Burgundy. The Montrachet vineyard is almost equally divided between Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet. The wine from the Chassagne side is usually known as Le Montrachet while the wine from the Puligny side is known as Montrachet.
Cavaillon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Mornas is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Faucon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Sault is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Monteux is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Puget is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Bouaké is the second largest city in Côte d'Ivoire, with a population of 775,300. It is the main urban settlement of the Bouaké Department with a population exceeding 1.2 million, in the Vallée du Bandama Region. The city is located in the central part of Côte d'Ivoire about 50 kilometres northeast of Lake Kossou, the country's largest lake, some 350 kilometres north of Abidjan on the Abidjan-Niger Railway and about 100 kilometres northeast of Yamoussoukro, the capital of Côte d'Ivoire. Bouaké is a centre for the Baoulé people and is known for its crafts. The economy is based on the cotton industry. The city largely grew from the 1970s after the construction of the power station at Kossou Lake flooded land to the west of the city. Bouaké is known for its large carnival and market and for the St Michael's Cathedral. The city has a large airport located north-west of the city with a 3,300 metres runway. Manchester City F.C defender Kolo Touré and his brothers Yaya Touré and Ibrahim Touré were born in Bouaké.
Tallard is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Annot is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France in the region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.
The District of Yamoussoukro is the official political capital and administrative capital city of Côte d'Ivoire, while the economic capital of the country is Abidjan. As of 2010, it was estimated to have 242,744 inhabitants. Located 240 kilometres north-west of Abidjan, the administrative center on the coast, upon rolling hills and plains, the municipality covers 3,500 square kilometres and is coterminous with the department of the same name. The department and municipality are split into four sub-prefectures: Attiégouakro, Didiévi, Tié-diékro and the Commune of Yamoussoukro. In total, the district contains 169 settlements. In 1998, the city had about 155,803 inhabitants. It is the fourth most populous city in Côte d'Ivoire, after Abidjan, Bouaké, and Daloa. The current governor of the district is Augustin Thiam. Yamoussoukro is pronounced "Yam-So-Kro" by Ivorians. It's possible to hear "Ya-Mu-So-Kro"; the second "U" is silent.
Alpes-Maritimes is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France. The inhabitants of the department are called Maralpins, but are usually referred as Azuréens
Lacs is one of the 19 regions of Côte d'Ivoire. The region's capital is Yamoussoukro. Covering 8,940 km², its population is 597,500. The region is divided into three departments: Tiébissou, Toumodi, and Yamoussoukro.
Tabou Department is one of the departments of Côte d'Ivoire. It is one of four departments in Bas-Sassandra Region. It is served by Tabou Airport.
Menton is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Situated on the French Riviera, along the Franco-Italian border, it is nicknamed la perle de la France.
The Abron or Bono are an Akan people of West Africa. They speak the Abron language. In the late sixteenth century, the Abron founded the Gyaaman kingdom as extension of Bono state in what is now Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.
Bouches-du-Rhône is a department in the south of France named after the mouth of the Rhône River. It is the most populous department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Its INSEE and postal code is 13.
|French West Africa|
French West Africa
French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan, French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Upper Volta, Dahomey and Niger. The capital of the federation was Dakar. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960.
Vallauris is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It is located in the metropolitan area of Sophia-Antipolis, and is today effectively an extension of the town of Antibes, bordering it on its west side.
The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and the Italian regions of Piedmont and Liguria. They are the southernmost part of the Alps.
Antibes is a resort town in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. It lies on the Mediterranean in the Côte d'Azur, located between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is within the commune of Antibes. The Sophia-Antipolis technology park is northwest of Antibes.
Fromager is one of the 19 regions of Côte d'Ivoire. The region's capital is Gagnoa. Covering 6,900 km², its population is 679,900. The region is divided into two departments: Gagnoa and Oumé. Fromager is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal latitude and longitude.
Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins. Like most AOC wines they are not labeled varietally. Whites from the region, which make up only 1% of its production, are made mostly with Chardonnay grapes though Aligoté is also permitted until 2024. Beaujolais tends to be a very light-bodied red wine, with relatively high amounts of acidity. In some vintages, Beaujolais produces more wine than the Burgundy wine regions of Chablis, Côte d'Or, Côte Chalonnaise and Mâconnais put together. The wine takes its name from the historical Beaujolais province and wine producing region. It is located north of Lyon, and covers parts of the north of the Rhône département and parts of the south of the Saône-et-Loire département. While administratively considered part of the Burgundy wine region, the climate is closer to the Rhône and the wine is unique enough to be considered separately from Burgundy and Rhône. The region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, uniquely emphasized the use of carbonic maceration, and more recently for the popular Beaujolais nouveau.
The Lobi are an ethnic group that originated in what is today Ghana. Starting around 1770 many of the Lobi migrated into southern Burkina Faso and later into Côte d'Ivoire. Currently the group consists of around 160,000 people. Lobiri is the name of the language spoken by the Lobi people.
Lagunes is one of the 19 regions of Côte d'Ivoire. The region's capital is Abidjan. Covering 14,200 km², its population is 4,210,200. The region is divided into six departments: Abidjan, Alépé, Dabou, Grand Lahou, Jacqueville and Tiassalé. Lagunes is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal latitude and longitude.
Beaune is the wine capital of Burgundy in the Côte d'Or department in eastern France. It is located between Paris and Geneva. Beaune is one of the key wine centres in France and the annual wine auction of the Hospices de Beaune is the primary wine auction in France. The town is surrounded by some of the world's most famous wine villages, while the facilities and cellars of many producers, large and small, are situated in Beaune itself. With a rich historical and architectural heritage, Beaune is considered the "Capital of Burgundy wines". It is an ancient and historic town on a plain by the hills of the Côte d'Or, with features remaining from the pre-Roman and Roman eras, through the medieval and renaissance periods and up to recent history and modern times. Beaune is a walled city, with about half of the battlements, ramparts, and the moat, having survived and in good condition, and the central "old town" is extensive. Historically Beaune is intimately connected with the Dukes of Burgundy. Landmarks in Beaune include the Halles, the Hospices, the Beffroi, and Notre Dame. There is a comprehensive "traditional" shopping area clustered around the central square with a focus on gourmet food, fashion, and wine, while large supermarkets, business parks, etc., are situated on the outskirts of town.
Aix-en-Provence, or simply Aix, is a city-commune in south of France, some 30 km north of Marseille. It is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the département of Bouches-du-Rhône, of which it is a subprefecture. The population of Aix is approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains.
Callas is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. On a hill top very close to some of France's best wine growers' vineyards this ancient town looms over the valley below. It's a 45 minute drive from more famous coastal resort towns such as Frejus and Saint Raphael and is only 75 minutes by car away from Nice.
Languedoc-Roussillon is one of the 27 regions of France. It comprises five departments, and borders the other French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, and Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. It is the southernmost region of France.
Reflets is the second album by the French singer Shy'm, following 2006 Mes fantaisies. A more mature album than Shy'm's début, Reflets experimented more with electronic music. The album was released in September 2008 and débuted at #4 in France, but failed to match the success of Mes fantaisies. Three singles were taken from the album, including #2 hit "Si tu savais". The album was written and produced by longtime Shy'm collaborators Cyril Kamar and Louis Côté.
The Ouche is a river in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France. It is a right tributary of the Saône, which it joins in Échenon. Its source is in Lusigny-sur-Ouche. The Ouche flows through the following towns: Bligny-sur-Ouche, La Bussière-sur-Ouche, Fleurey-sur-Ouche, Velars-sur-Ouche, Dijon, Longvic and Varanges. Part of the Canal de Bourgogne runs through the Ouche valley.
The Saddle-billed Stork is a large wading bird in the stork family, Ciconiidae. It is a widespread species which is a resident breeder in sub-Saharan Africa from Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya south to South Africa, and in The Gambia, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire and Chad in west Africa. This is a close relative of the widespread Asian Black-necked Stork, the only other member of the genus Ephippiorhynchus.
Buisson is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Buisson is a small, wine-producing, Knights Templar village, dating back at least as far as the 12th century, and linked since its beginning to the nearby village of Villedieu, with which it produces its principal crop, Côtes-du-Rhône wine, which is sold from their joint winery, le Cellier du Templier.
The Côte d'Azur, often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from the Italian border in the east to Saint-Tropez, Hyères, Toulon or Cassis in the west. This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. With the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century, it became the playground and vacation spot of British, Russian, and other aristocrats, such as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, when he was Prince of Wales. In the summer, it also played home to many members of the Rothschild family. In the first half of the 20th century it was frequented by artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham and Aldous Huxley, as well as wealthy Americans and Europeans. After World War II it became a popular tourist destination and convention site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Officially, the Côte d'Azur is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents, although estimates of the number of non-French nationals living in the area are often much higher.
KOLA is a commercial classic hits music radio station in San Bernardino, California, broadcasting to the Riverside-San Bernardino, California, area on 99.9 FM. KOLA was founded by Fred Cote, first owner and general manager. 99.9 FM originally signed on in 1959 as KFMW, with transmitter located on Box Springs Mountain southeast of Riverside, and "studios" in the Mission Inn in downtown Riverside. KFMW used an early Ampex automation system that was famous for ending one musical offering in the middle while starting another. Fred Coté bought the station sometime in 1968, and changed the call sign to KOLA and switched from KFMW's MOR/beautiful music format to an early Top 40 rock format, then something new in FM. Today the station broadcasts an oldies format, playing music from the 1960s and 70s. The only news of note about KOLA happened back around 1970, when its Harris transmitter was stolen by some local kids as a prank. KOLA's always-marginal signal was even worse for a number of days while on a rented temporary transmitter that was maybe capable of 5 KW. The original transmitter was recovered by the Riverside County Sheriff's Department and was returned to service. KOLA continues to broadcast from the same tower at the same 29,500 watts on its original license from 1959 as KFMW.
Snow Job was a Canadian television sitcom airing on the CTV network. The series, which ran from 1983 to 1985, was set in a ski lodge in the Laurentian mountains in Quebec. The series was co-produced by Champlain Productions and CFCF-TV. The show's cast included Jack Creley, Rummy Bishop, Richard Rebiere, Liliane Clune, Joanne Cote, and Gabe Cohen. Guest stars included Jack Duffy, Bruce Gray, Wayne Gretzky, Peter Keleghan, Richard Simmons, Dale Hayes and Ruth Buzzi.
Royan is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department, along the Atlantic Ocean, in southwestern France. A seaside resort, Royan is in the heart of an urban area estimated at 38,638 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth-largest conurbation in the department, after La Rochelle, Saintes and Rochefort. Capital of the "Côte de beauté", the city is located at the mouth of the Gironde Estuary, the largest estuary in Europe. Royan has five sandy beaches, a marina and a fishing port.
A caponier is a type of fortification structure. The word originates from the French word "caponnière" - which strictly means capon-cote i.e. chickenhouse. The fire coming from the feature sweeps along the bottom of the attendant ditch that constricts the movement of storming infantrymen to an enfilade alignment of greatest exposure and so prevents the enemy from establishing itself there. In some types of bastioned fortifications, the caponier served only as a covered means of access to the outworks, with the bastion-trace allowing for the defence of the ditch by fire from the main parapets.
The Dyula are a Mande ethnic group inhabiting several West African countries, including the Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Guinea-Bissau. Characterized as a highly successful merchant caste, Dyula migrants began establishing trading communities across the region in the fourteenth century. Since business was often conducted under non-Muslim rulers, the Dyula developed a set of theological principles for Muslim minorities in non-Muslim societies. Their unique contribution of long-distance commerce, Islamic scholarship and religious tolerance were significant factors to the peaceful expansion of Islam in West Africa.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny, affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux, was the first President of Côte d'Ivoire. Originally a village chief, he worked as a doctor, an administrator of a plantation, and a union leader, before being elected to the French Parliament and serving in a number of ministerial positions in the French government. From the 1940s until his death, he played a leading role in the decolonization of Africa and in his country's politics. Under Houphouët-Boigny's politically moderate leadership, Côte d'Ivoire prospered economically. This success, uncommon in poverty-ridden West Africa, became known as the "Ivorian miracle" and was due to a combination of sound planning, the maintenance of strong ties with the West, and development of the country's significant coffee and cocoa industries. However, the exploitation of the agricultural sector caused difficulties in 1980, after a sharp drop in the prices of coffee and cocoa. Throughout his presidency, Houphouët-Boigny maintained a close relationship with France, a policy known as Françafrique, and he built a close friendship with Jacques Foccart, the chief adviser on African policy in the de Gaulle and Pompidou governments. He aided the conspirators who ousted Kwame Nkrumah from power in 1966, took part in the coup against Mathieu Kérékou in 1977, and was suspected of involvement in the 1987 coup that removed Thomas Sankara from power in Burkina Faso. Houphouët-Boigny maintained an ardently anti-communist foreign policy, which resulted in, among other things, severing diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1969 and reestablishing them in February 1986, refusing to recognise the People's Republic of China until 1983, and providing assistance to UNITA, a United States-supported, anti-communist rebel movement in Angola.
The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the southeast. The peninsula includes the region of Labrador, which is part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the regions of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, Côte-Nord, and Nord-du-Québec, which are in the province of Quebec. It has an area of 1,400,000 km², and a population of about 150,000.
Rolle is a municipality in the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It was the seat of the district of Rolle until 2006, when it became part of the district of Nyon. It is located on the northwestern shore of Lake Geneva between Nyon and Lausanne. Rolle is approximately 30 kilometers northeast of Geneva in the La Côte wine-growing region, and commands spectacular views of the high Alps. Rolle is also the birthplace of Frédéric-César de la Harpe, who was the tutor of Alexander I of Russia and was largely responsible for the independence of the Canton of Vaud from the Bernese.
Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gallic tribes allied with the Aedui, and after Julius Caesar's conquest a Roman town in Gaul. There have been archeological excavations since the time of Napoléon III in Alise-Sainte-Reine in Côte d'Or near Dijon, which have claimed that the historical Alesia is located there. New discoveries are constantly being made about this Gallo-Roman settlement on the plateau of Mont-Auxois. As a result of the latest excavation, a find was presented to the museum there with the inscription: IN ALISIIA, which finally dispelled the doubts of some archaeologists on the town's identity.
Bayonne is a city and commune in southwestern France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. It belongs to both vernacular cultural regions of Basque Country and Gascony. Together with nearby Anglet, Biarritz, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, and several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 178,965 inhabitants at the 1999 census, 40,078 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper. The communes of Bayonne, Biarritz, and Anglet have joined into an intercommunal entity called the Agglomération Côte Basque-Adour.
Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is a town in La Côte-de-Beaupré Regional County Municipality, Quebec, Canada, along the Saint Lawrence River, 35 kilometers north-east of the Quebec City. The population was 2,803 according to the Canada 2006 Census. The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is located in the town. Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré stands in a rolling agricultural country, with the foothills of the Laurentian Mountains in the background. The first church was built by sailors who would often become ship-wrecked off Ile-Oeuf on their way to Quebec City. Saint Anne is the patron saint of sailors.
Fayence is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Fayence is one of a series of "perched villages" overlooking the plain between the southern Alps and the Esterel massif, which borders the sea between Cannes and Saint-Raphaël. Fayence is a charming old Provençal village popular with tourists. The village is located on the road to Mons, which later on joins the Route Napoléon. Some high-standing resorts have settled nearby the village in the recent years: the Domaine de Terre Blanche at Tourrettes, Var and Domaine de Fayence attracting a foreign clientele. The aerodrome of Fayence-Tourettes was one of the most active in Europe.
Philippe Fragione better known by his stage name Akhenaton is a French rapper and producer of French hip hop. He has also worked under the aliases Chill, AKH, Sentenza, and Spectre. He became famous as a member of the group IAM, and has since made a number of records, both with IAM and as a solo artist. Akhenaton has also worked as a producer, producing songs for several French rappers and groups such as Passi, Stomy Bugsy, Chiens de Paille, Fonky Family, Freeman, La Brigade, Le 3ème Œil, etc. He is the creator of the record label Côté Obscur, the publishing house La Cosca, and the vinyl record label 361.
Marseille, known in antiquity as Massilia or Massalia, is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 853,000 within its administrative limits on a land area of 240.62 km². The urban area and metropolitan area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of around 1.6 million. Located on the southeast coast of France, Marseille is France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and largest commercial port. Marseille is the capital of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, as well as the capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department. Its inhabitants are called Marseillais in French and Marselhés in Occitan.
Eozoön canadense is a pseudofossil. John William Dawson described the banded structures of coarsely crystalline calcite and serpentine as a gigantic Foraminifera, making it the oldest known fossil. It was found in Precambrian metamorphosed limestone of Canada, at Côte St. Pierre near Grenville in 1863. It was later found in several other localities. Dawson called it "one of the brightest gems in the scientific crown of the Geological Survey of Canada". In 1894, it was shown that the place where it was found was associated with metamorphism. Similar Eozoön structures were subsequently found in metamorphosed limestone blocks erupted from Mt. Vesuvius, where high-temperature physical and chemical processes were responsible for their formation.
|French ship Foudre|
French ship Foudre
The Foudre was an amphibious assault ship of the French Navy, the twelfth vessel to bear the name, and lead ship of the Foudre-class landing platform docks. She presently serves in the Chilean Navy under then name Sargento Aldea. She served during the war in Yugoslavia, and has been the central element of Operation Licorne in Côte d'Ivoire. On 17 January 2009, one of the Foudre's helicopters crashed off the coast of Gabon, killing eight French military personnel. In October 2011 it was announced that Chile and France had finalized negotiations for sale of Foudre to Chile for around USD80 million. She was transferred to Chile on 23 December 2011 and renamed Sargento Aldea.
Bla, population 15,000, is a small town in Mali's Ségou Region, located 85 kilometers south of Ségou along Mali's main highway. Bla serves as a central location for NGO activity in the region and is a crossroads for transportation going northeast to Mopti and Gao, as well as south to Sikasso, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire. Bla is also the main town for the Djonka, a sub-group of the Bamana. Bla was established as an outpost by Biton Mamary Coulibaly during the expansion of the Ségou Empire around the first half of the 18th century. The verb "ka bila" means to "leave behind" in Bamana, thus Bla's name relates to the town's original function, a supply outpost where the Bamana Empire's military left arms and grain for later use.
Deauville is a commune in the Calvados département in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France. With its race course, harbour, international film festival, marinas, conference centre, villas, Grand Casino and sumptuous hotels, Deauville is regarded as the "queen of the Norman beaches" and one of the most prestigious seaside resorts in all of France. The closest seaside resort, when coming from Paris, the city and the nearby region of the Côte Fleurie has long been home to French high society's seaside houses and is often referred to as the Parisian riviera. Since the 19th century, the town of Deauville has been a fashionable holiday resort for the international upper class. Deauville is also a desirable family resort for the wealthy. In France, it is known perhaps above all for its role in Proust's In Search of Lost Time.
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhone River on the west to the Italian border on the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the south. It largely corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, and includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name. It was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity, particularly in the interior of the region.
Saint-Tropez is a Provençal town, 104 km to the east of Marseille, in the Var department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France. It is also the principal town in the canton of Saint-Tropez. Saint-Tropez is located on the French Riviera. It was a military stronghold and an unassuming fishing village until the beginning of the 20th century. It was the first town on this coast to be liberated during World War II. After the war, it became an internationally-known seaside resort, renowned principally because of the influx of artists of the French New Wave in cinema and the Yé-yé movement in music. It later became a resort for the European and American jet set and a goal for tourists in search of a little Provençal authenticity and an occasional celebrity sighting. The inhabitants of Saint-Tropez are called Tropéziens, and the town is familiarly called St-Trop.
Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department in the former province of Provence. The Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people, making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with 559,421 inhabitants, the ninth largest in France. Toulon is the fourth-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille, Nice and Montpellier. Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, and electronic equipment. The military port of Toulon is the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean coast, home of the French Navy aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle and her battle group. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon.
The Var is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Provence in southeastern France. It takes its name from the river Var, which used to flow along its eastern boundary, but the boundary was moved in 1860. The Var is bordered on the east by the department of Alpes-Maritimes; to the west by Bouches-du-Rhône to the north of the Verdon River by the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and to the south by the Mediterranean Sea. Toulon is the largest city and administrative capital of the Var. Other important towns in the Var include Fréjus, Saint-Raphaël, Draguignan, Brignoles, Hyères and La Seyne-sur-Mer. The Var is known for the harbour of Toulon, the main port of the French Navy; for its seaside resorts, the most famous of which is Saint-Tropez; for some fine examples of Romanesque and medieval architecture, such as the Le Thoronet Abbey and Fréjus Cathedral; and for its wines, particularly the wines of Bandol.
Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic coast on the English Channel, and is the most-visited location in its region after the Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 59th largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring. Boulogne was founded during the Roman occupation of France, and as Portus Itius, was used for trade and conquest of Great Britain. After a period of Germanic presence following the collapse of the Empire, Boulogne was at the centre of an eponymous county of the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages, and was occupied by the Kingdom of England numerous times due to conflict between the two nations. The city's 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre, Nausicaa.
'off broadway usa' is an American rock band founded by Paul Darrow, Cliff Johnson, Paul McDermott, John Pazdan and Dan Santercola in 1977 in Oak Park, Illinois. After several line-up changes including the addition of songwriter/guitarist John Ivan, the bands debut album On was released by Atlantic Records in 1979. The album reached No. 101 on the Billboard 200 and spawned the single "Stay in Time", which reached No. 51 on the Billboard Hot 100. Off Broadway released a follow-up album, Quick Turns, on Atlantic in 1980 and continued touring for three years before breaking up in 1983. The band is currently composed of original album guitarist and songwriter John Ivan, Brian Cote, Sal Monaco and Scott Licina. They began touring in 2012 in celebration of the 35th anniversary of the band, and have recorded and released a new single "All Messed Up And Ready To Go" with a full length release of new material to follow.
French Guinea was a French colonial possession in West Africa. Its borders, while changed over time, were in 1958 those of the independent nation of Guinea. French Guinea was established in 1891, taking the same borders as the previous colony of Rivières du Sud. Prior to 1882, the coastal portions of French Guinea were part of the French colony of Senegal. In 1891, Rivières du Sud was placed under the colonial lieutenant governor at Dakar, who had authority over the French coastal regions east to Porto-Novo. In 1894 Rivières du Sud, Coted'Ivoire and Dahomey were separated into 'independent' colonies, with Rivières du Sud being renamed the Colony of French Guinea. In 1895, French Guinea was made a dependent colony, and its Governor then became a Lieutenant Governor to a Governor-General in Dakar. In 1904, this was formalised into the Afrique Occidentale Française. French Guinea, along with Senegal, Dahomey, Cote-d'Ivoire and Upper Senegal and Niger each were ruled by a lieutenant governor, under the Governor General in Dakar.
A sty or pigsty is a small-scale outdoor enclosure for raising domestic pigs. It is sometimes referred to as a hog pen, hog parlor, pigpen, pig parlor, or pig-cote. Pigsties are generally fenced areas of bare dirt and/or mud. Both "sty" and "pigpen" are used as derogatory descriptions of dirty, messy areas. There are three contributing reasons that pigs, generally clean animals, create such a living environment: ⁕Pigs are voracious eaters and will eat all the plants in the enclosure until there is nothing left to control erosion. ⁕The pig is a rooting animal and will dig for food in the enclosure, further disturbing the soil. ⁕Pigs do not regulate temperature by sweating which means that they must be provided with water or mud in which they can control their own body temperature. A large-scale enclosure for raising pigs is generally called a hog lot. Unlike a sty which would be found on a mixed farm, a hog lot is usually a dedicated facility.
Chambertin is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot noir as the main grape variety. Chambertin is located within the commune of Gevrey-Chambertin, and it is situated approximately in the centre of a group of nine Grand Cru vineyards all having "Chambertin" as part of their name. The other eight vineyards, which all are separate AOCs, have hyphenated names where Chambertin appears together with something else, such as Chapelle-Chambertin. Chambertin itself is situated above the Route des Grands Crus. It borders on Chambertin-Clos de Bèze in the north, Griotte-Chambertin and Charmes-Chambertin in the east and the Latricières-Chambertin in the south. The AOC was created in 1937. Of the surrounding vineyards, wines from Chambertin-Clos de Bèze may also be sold under the Chambertin AOC. However, Chambertin-Clos de Bèze has a very good reputation on its own, so this is not widely practiced. The other seven "hyphenated Chambertin" Grand Cru vineyards do not have this right to use the Chambertin AOC.
The Nzema are an Akan people numbering about 328,700 people of whom 262,000 live in southwestern Ghana and 66,700 live in the southeast of Côte d'Ivoire.In Ghana the Nzema area is divided into two electoral districts of Nzema East District and Nzema West which is also referred to as Jomoro District of Ghana. Their language is also known as Nzima or Appolo. The Nzema are mostly farmers. According to their traditional calendar, days are ordered in cycles of seven, and these in turn follow each other in a three-week cycle. A religious kundum festival is held annually all over the Ahanta-Nzema area, starting in the easternmost part of Ahanta and advancing southwestward. Among other things, this festival is the main occasion on which the satirical avudewene songs are performed by young men. Lineage among the Nzema is matrilineal. The Area was part of the Empire of Denkyira and later Ashanti. The pan-Africanist Kwame Nkrumah was an Nzema. The European trained philosopher of the eighteenth century, Anton Wilhelm Amo, was of the Nzema people.
Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is a fragrant fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow colour similar to a lemon. Genetic research into the ancestral origins of extant citrus cultivars found bergamot orange to be a likely hybrid of Citrus limetta and Citrus aurantium. Citrus bergamot is commercially grown in southern Calabria, southern Italy, where more than 80 percent are produced. It is also grown in southern France and in Côte d'Ivoire for the essential oil and in Antalya in southern Turkey for its marmalade. The fruit is not grown for juice consumption. The word bergamot is etymologically derived from bergomotta in Italian, origining from Bergamo, a town in Italy; earlier references exist indicating derivation from Turkish beg-armudi "prince's pear" or "prince of pears. Citrus bergamia is a small tree which blossoms during the winter. The juice tastes less sour than lemon, but more bitter than grapefruit. The distinctive aroma of bergamot is most commonly known for its use in Earl Grey tea. The juice of the fruit has also been used in Calabrian indigenous medicine to treat malaria, and its essential oil is popular in aromatherapy applications.
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick in Canada, the U.S. state of Maine, the Acadiana region of the U.S. state of Louisiana, and by various communities elsewhere. Other speakers of French, who often speak it as a second language, are distributed throughout many parts of the world, the largest numbers of whom reside in Francophone Africa. In Africa, French is most commonly spoken in Gabon, Mauritius, Algeria, Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. French is estimated as having 110 million native speakers and 190 million more second language speakers. French is a descendant of the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, as are languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Lombard, Catalan, Sicilian and Sardinian. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian.
Honeywell International, Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments. Honeywell is a Fortune 100 company, in 2012 it was listed as 77th in the Fortune 500 America's ranking. Honeywell has a global workforce of approximately 130,000, of whom approximately 58,000 are employed in the United States. The company is headquartered in Morristown, New Jersey. Its current chief executive officer is David M. Cote. The company and its corporate predecessors were part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index from December 7, 1925, until February 9, 2008. The current "Honeywell International Inc." is the product of a merger in which Honeywell Inc. was acquired by the much larger AlliedSignal in 1999. The company headquarters were consolidated to AlliedSignal's headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey; however the combined company chose the name "Honeywell" because of its superior brand recognition. Honeywell has many brands that commercial and retail consumers may recognize. Some of the most recognizable products are its line of home thermostats and Garrett turbochargers.
Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria that existed from 30 May 1967 to 15 January 1970, taking its name from the Bight of Biafra. The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. The creation of the new country was among the causes of the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War. Land of the Rising Sun was chosen for Biafra's national anthem, and the state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania and Zambia. Other nations which did not give official recognition but which did provide support and assistance to Biafra included Israel, France, Portugal, Rhodesia, South Africa and the Vatican City. Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, Caritas International, MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services. After two-and-a-half years of war, during which a million civilians had died in fighting and from famine, Biafran forces agreed to a ceasefire with the Nigerian Federal Military Government, and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria.
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse. The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km². Located on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille. The city is called Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. Nice is the capital of the Alpes Maritimes département and the second biggest city of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory. Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. For years it was a dominion of Savoy, then became part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to Piedmont-Sardinia until its reannexation by France in 1860.
The ackee, also known as achee, akee apple or akee is a member of the Sapindaceae, native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. It is related to the lychee and the longan, and is an evergreen tree that grows about 10 metres tall, with a short trunk and a dense crown. The leaves are pinnate, leathery, compound, 15–30 centimetres long, with 6–10 elliptical obovate-oblong leaflets. Each leaflet is 8–12 centimetres long and 5–8 centimetres broad. The flowers are unisexual and fragrant. They have five petals, are greenish-white and bloom during warm months. The fruit is pear-shaped. When it ripens, it turns from green to a bright red to yellow-orange, and splits open to reveal three large, shiny black seeds, surrounded by soft, creamy or spongy, white to yellow flesh—arilli. The fruit typically weighs 100–200 grams. The scientific name honours Captain William Bligh who took the fruit from Jamaica to the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, England in 1793 and introduced it to science. The common name is derived from the West African Akye fufo. The term ackee originated from the Akan language.
WINY is a heritage radio station that transmits in AM stereo on 1350 kHz and is owned by Osbrey Broadcasting Company. It operates during the daytime with 5,000 watts of power, and at 79 watts nighttime. Its studios and transmitter are located in Putnam, Connecticut. WINY first signed on the air on May 3, 1953 under the call letters WPCT. The station was financed by three French Canadian businessmen from Central Falls, Rhode Island: named Goyette, Albert Lanthier, and Rene Cote. The station was managed by Daniel Hyland with an original announcing staff of Dick Alarie, Ed Read, and Frank Carroll. The call letters were changed to WINY in September 1960 when the station was purchased by the Herbert C. Rice family and the Winny Broadcasting Company. The call letters were changed to represent the station's new mascot, "Winny, The Community Gal," who was a counterpart to the mascot at sister station WILI, "Willie, The Community Man." The family combined the operations of the two stations into Nutmeg Broadcasting Company, which would go on to own a total of five radio stations throughout Connecticut, including WTNY Southington, WLIS Old Saybrook and WILI-FM Willimantic. WINY changed hands in 1990 to the Gerardi Broadcasting Corporation, and once more in 2001 to the current owners, the Osbrey Broadcasting Company.
Dijon is a city in eastern France, and is the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region. Dijon began as a Roman settlement called Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. The province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power and one of the great European centres of art, learning and science. Population: 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area. Dijon's churches include Dijon Cathedral. The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian, Gothic and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green, yellow and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon holds an International and Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France. Dijon is also home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo. Dijon is famous for Dijon mustard which originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.
Axim is a town, district and kingdom on the coast of Ghana. It lies 64 kilometers west of the port city of Takoradi, south of the highway leading to the Côte d'Ivoire border, in the Western Region to the west of Cape Three Points. Axim has a prominent seaside fort, Fort Santo Antonio, built by the Portuguese in 1515 and between 1642 and 1872 expanded and altered by the Dutch, who were in possession during that period. The fort, now property of the Ghanaian state is currently in the custody of the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board and is open to the public. Off-shore there are some picturesque islands, including one with a lighthouse. The town is divided into two parts: Upper Axim and Lower Axim. The fort lies roughly on the division between the two parts, but closest to the centre of Upper Axim. Here, several large mansions of lumber-trading magnates and other businessmen remain from the British colonial period. Axim is ruled by two traditional omanhenes or chiefs and a political District Chief Executive of the Nzema East Municipality. The economy relies mainly on Axim's fishing fleet, but the area also has two tourist beach resorts as well as coconut and rubber plantations. The scenic and fertile terrain features many palm trees. Local artisanal miners pan for gold in streams inland from Axim. Axim has a transport station, two major bank branches, and some rural banks.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea, is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea, it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. It has a population of 10,057,975 and an area of 246,000 square kilometres. Forming a crescent as it curves from its western border on the Atlantic Ocean toward the east and the south, it shares its northern border with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and its southern border with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. The sources of the Niger River, Gambia River, and Senegal River are all found in the Guinea Highlands. Conakry is Guinea's capital, largest city, and economic centre. Other major cities in the country include Kankan, Nzérékoré, Kindia, Labe, Guéckédou, Mamou and Boke. Guinea's 10 million people belong to twenty-four ethnic groups. The largest and most prominent groups are the Fula, Mandingo, and Susu. It is a predominantly Islamic country, with Muslims representing about 85 percent of the population. Christians, mostly Roman Catholic, make up about 10 percent of the population, and are mainly found in the southern region. French is the official language of Guinea, and is the main language of communication in schools, government administration, the media, and the country's security forces. More than twenty four indigenous languages are also spoken, of which the most common are Fula, Susu and Maninka. Fula is widely used in the Fouta Djallon region in central Guinea, Maninka in Eastern Guinea, and Susu in the coastal region of northwestern Guinea.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country in West Africa bordered by Sierra Leone to its west, Guinea to its north and Côte d'Ivoire to its east. It covers an area of 111,369 km² and is home to about 3.7 million people. English is the official language and over thirty indigenous languages are also spoken within the country. Its coastline is composed mostly of mangroves, while its more sparsely populated inland consists of forests opening onto a plateau of drier grasslands. The climate is hot and equatorial, with significant rainfall during the May–October rainy season and harsh harmattan winds the remainder of the year. The country possesses about forty percent of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest. Along with Ethiopia, Liberia is one of only two modern countries in Sub-Saharan Africa without roots in the European colonization of Africa. Beginning in 1820, the region was colonized by blacks from the United States, most of whom were freed slaves. These immigrants established a new country with the help of the American Colonization Society, a private organization which believed that former slaves would have greater freedom and equality in Africa. African captives freed from slave ships were also sent there instead of being repatriated to their countries of origin. In 1847, this new country became the Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that of the United States and naming its capital city Monrovia after James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States and a prominent supporter of the colonization. The colonists, known as Americo-Liberians, led the political and economic sectors of the country.
The Mfantsefo or Fante are an Akan people. This ethnic group is mainly gathered in the south-western coastal region of Ghana, with some also in Côte d'Ivoire. Their main city is Cape Coast, Ghana. They are one of the Akan peoples, along with the "'Asantefo'" or Ashantis, the Akuapem, the Akyem, the Guam, and others. Despite the rapid growth of the Ashanti Empire in historic times, the Fante have always retained their state to this day. Currently, they number about 2.5 million, the second largest grouping of Akan peoples. Inheritance and succession to public office among the Fanti are determined mostly by matrilineal descent, as is common among most Akan peoples. When the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century, the Fante prevented them from venturing inland and leased properties for Portuguese trading missions. But when the Portuguese objected to Fante rules and regulations the Fante expelled them. Thenceforth the Dutch arrived, followed by the English, soon to be British. The Fante served as middlemen in the commerce between the interior and British and Dutch traders on the coast. In the early 18th century, the Fante Confederacy was formed, with the aim of establishing themselves as a nation to be taken seriously by their European counterparts. So in 1844 a bond was written between the Fante, on behalf of the Gold Coast, and the British, allowing the Gold Coast to gain independence without war one hundred years later. Several Ashanti-Fante wars followed. On one occasion, the Fante were aided by the British, who, however, destroyed the strong Fante confederation established between 1868 and 1872, believing it a threat to their hegemony on the coast.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 square kilometres with a population of 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, Mali covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France, and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.