Definitions containing cæsar, caius julius

We've found 222 definitions:

Augustus

Augustus

The Roman emperor Augustus, also called Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (63 - 14 ); heir to Julius Caesar

— Wiktionary

Augustus

Augustus

called at first Caius Octavius, ultimately Caius Julius Cæsar Octavianus, the first of the Roman Emperors or Cæsars, grand-nephew of Julius Cæsar, and his heir; joined the Republican party at Cæsar's death, became consul, formed one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus; along with Antony overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi; defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, and became master of the Roman world; was voted the title of "Augustus" by the Senate in 27 B.C.; proved a wise and beneficent ruler, and patronised the arts and letters, his reign forming a distinguished epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B.C.-A.D. 14).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gaius Caesar

Gaius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar, most commonly known as Gaius Caesar or Caius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was born between 14 August and 13 September 20 BC or according to other sources in 23 September 20 BC. Originally named Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa, when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather the Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar, of the Julian gens, his name was accordingly changed to Gaius Julius Caesar.

— Freebase

tawny-breasted tinamou

tawny-breasted tinamou

A tinamou, Nothocercus julius.

— Wiktionary

Caesarian

Caesarian

Follower of Julius Caesar.

— Wiktionary

Julian

Julian

relating to, or derived from, Julius Caesar

— Webster Dictionary

Julian

Julian

derived, via Julianus from Julius

— Wiktionary

Julian

Julian

of, or relating to Julius Caesar

— Wiktionary

cesarean

cesarean

Of or relating to Julius Caesar.

— Wiktionary

Caius

Caius

Caius, Presbyter of Rome was a Christian author who lived and wrote towards the beginning of the 3rd century. Only fragments of his works are known, which are given in the collection entitled The Ante-Nicene Fathers. However, the Muratorian fragment, an early attempt to establish the canon of the New Testament, is often attributed to Caius and is included in that collection. For the existing fragments from Caius' "Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus," we are indebted to Eusebius, who included them in his Ecclesiastical History. In one of these fragments, Caius tells Proclus, This is described by the Catholic Encyclopedia as "a very valuable evidence of the death of Sts. Peter and Paul at Rome, and the public veneration of their remains at Rome about the year 200." There is also another series of fragments Eusebius gives from a work called "Against the Heresy of Artemon," although the Ante-Nicene Fathers note says regarding the authorship only that it is "an anonymous work ascribed by some to Caius." Caius was also one of the authors to whom the "Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades" was ascribed at one time.

— Freebase

Rubicon

Rubicon

a small river which separated Italy from Cisalpine Gaul, the province alloted to Julius Caesar

— Webster Dictionary

Agnomen

Agnomen

an additional or fourth name given by the Romans, on account of some remarkable exploit or event; as, Publius Caius Scipio Africanus

— Webster Dictionary

Kay

Kay

derived from the surnames, or from a rare medieval given name ( as the Sir Kay of Arthurian legend ), Welsh Cai, Latinized as Caius, related to the modern male name Kai.

— Wiktionary

Juliana

Juliana

, Latin feminine form of Julianus, derivative of Julius.

— Wiktionary

Caesarian

Caesarian

Member of the populares faction of Julius Caesar.

— Wiktionary

Praenomen

Praenomen

the first name of a person, by which individuals of the same family were distinguished, answering to our Christian name, as Caius, Lucius, Marcus, etc

— Webster Dictionary

ides of March

ides of March

The 15th of March in the Ancient Roman calendar, on which day Julius Caesar was assassinated

— Wiktionary

Caesarian

Caesarian

Of or relating to or in the manner of Julius Caesar.

— Wiktionary

Tiberius

Tiberius

of mostly historical use, in particular, the praenomen of the second Roman emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, reigning 14-37 .

— Wiktionary

Caesarean

Caesarean

Of or relating to or in the manner of Julius Caesar or other Caesars.

— Wiktionary

Apophasis

Apophasis

a figure by which a speaker formally declines to take notice of a favorable point, but in such a manner as to produce the effect desired. [For example, see Mark Antony's oration. Shak., Julius Caesar, iii. 2.]

— Webster Dictionary

marcus junius brutus

Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus

statesman of ancient Rome who (with Cassius) led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar (85-42 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

brutus

Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus

statesman of ancient Rome who (with Cassius) led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar (85-42 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

Deify

Deify

to make a god of; to exalt to the rank of a deity; to enroll among the deities; to apotheosize; as, Julius Caesar was deified

— Webster Dictionary

cassius longinus

Cassius, Cassius Longinus, Gaius Cassius Longinus

prime mover in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar (died in 42 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

cassius

Cassius, Cassius Longinus, Gaius Cassius Longinus

prime mover in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar (died in 42 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

gaius cassius longinus

Cassius, Cassius Longinus, Gaius Cassius Longinus

prime mover in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar (died in 42 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarean

Caesarian, Caesarean

of or relating to or in the manner of Julius Caesar

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarian

Caesarian, Caesarean

of or relating to or in the manner of Julius Caesar

— Princeton's WordNet

julian

Julian

of or relating to or characteristic of Julius Caesar

— Princeton's WordNet

Marius, Caius

Marius, Caius

a celebrated Roman general, born near Arpinum, uncle by marriage to Julius Cæsar and head of the popular party, and the rival of Sulla; conquered the Teutons and the Cimbri in Gaul, and made a triumphal entry into Rome; having obtained command of the war against Mithridates, Sulla marched upon the city and drove his rival beyond the walls; having fled the city, he was discovered hiding in a marsh, cast into prison, and condemned to die; to the slave sent to execute the sentence he drew himself haughtily up and exclaimed, "Caitiff, dare you slay Caius Marius?" and the executioner fled in terror of his life and left his sword behind him; Marius was allowed to escape; finding his way to Africa, he took up his quarters at Carthage, but the Roman prætor ordered him off; "Go tell the prætor," he said to the messenger sent, "you saw Caius Marius sitting a fugitive on the ruins of Carthage"; upon this he took courage and returned to Rome, and along with Cinna made the streets of the city run with the blood of the partisans of Sulla; died suddenly (156-88 B.C.).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rubicon

Rubicon

An ancient Latin name for a small river in northern Italy which flows into the Adriatic Sea. It marked the boundary between the Roman province of Gaul and the Roman heartland. Its crossing by Julius Caesar in 49 BC began a civil war.

— Wiktionary

antony

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

marcus antonius

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

mark anthony

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

antonius

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

anthony

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

mark antony

Antony, Anthony, Mark Antony, Mark Anthony, Antonius, Marcus Antonius

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

c-section

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

abdominal delivery

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cesarian section

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cesarian

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarean delivery

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarean

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarean section

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

caesarian

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cesarean delivery

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cesarean

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cesarean section

cesarean delivery, caesarean delivery, caesarian delivery, cesarean section, cesarian section, caesarean section, caesarian section, C-section, cesarean, cesarian, caesarean, caesarian, abdominal delivery

the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)

— Princeton's WordNet

cleopatra

Cleopatra

beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt; mistress of Julius Caesar and later of Mark Antony; killed herself to avoid capture by Octavian (69-30 BC)

— Princeton's WordNet

Urus

Urus

a very large, powerful, and savage extinct bovine animal (Bos urus / primigenius) anciently abundant in Europe. It appears to have still existed in the time of Julius Caesar. It had very large horns, and was hardly capable of domestication. Called also, ur, ure, and tur

— Webster Dictionary

Würzburg

Würzburg

a Bavarian town in a valley of the Main, 70 m. SB. of Frankfort; its principal buildings are the Royal or Episcopal Palace, the cathedral, and the university, with the Julius Hospital, called after its founder, Bishop Julius, who was also founder of the university, which is attended by 1500 students, mostly medical, and has a library of 100,000 volumes; the fortress of Marienberg, overlooking the town, was till 1720 the episcopal palace.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bibulus

Bibulus

a colleague of Julius Cæsar; a mere cipher, a fainéant.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

roman republic

Roman Republic

the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC; was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar

— Princeton's WordNet

Suetonius

Suetonius

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius, was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire. His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled De Vita Caesarum. He recorded the earliest accounts of Julius Caesar's epileptic seizures. Other works by Suetonius concern the daily life of Rome, politics, oratory, and the lives of famous writers, including poets, historians, and grammarians. A few of these books have partially survived, but many have been lost.

— Freebase

Ganymedes

Ganymedes

Ganymedes was a eunuch in the court of Cleopatra VII who proved an able adversary of Julius Caesar.

— Freebase

julian calendar

Julian calendar, Old Style calendar

the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February

— Princeton's WordNet

old style calendar

Julian calendar, Old Style calendar

the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February

— Princeton's WordNet

20s

20s

This is a list of events occurring in the 20s, ordered by year. Servius Sulpicius Galba is a Roman praetor. Emperor Tiberius is forced to order an investigation and a public trial in the Roman Senate, for the murder of Germanicus. Fearing he will be found guilty, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso committed suicide. First year of Dihuang era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. Philo defines philosophy as the maidservant of theology. Revolt of the Aedui under Julius Florus and Julius Sacrovir, suppressed by Gaius Silius. Emperor Tiberius is a Roman Consul for the fourth time. The Romans create a buffer state in the territory of the Quadi in southern Slovakia. Barracks are constructed for the Praetorian Guard on the Quirinal. King Daeso of Dongbuyeo is killed in battle against the armies of Goguryeo, led by its third ruler, King Daemusin. The manufacture of pens and metal writing tools begins in Rome. It is the ninth year of the emperor Tiberius. The consuls are Decimus Haterius Agrippa and Gaius Sulpicius Galba. Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Gaius Vibius Rufinus are consuls Ex Kal. Jul. Drusus Julius Caesar receives the tribunicia potestas. Roman law replaces Celtic customs in Gaul.

— Freebase

Bandog

Bandog

The term Bandog originated around 1250-1300 in Middle England, referring to a mastiff type dog that was bound by a chain during the daytime and was released at night to guard against intruders. In 1570 Johannes Caius published a book in Latin which in 1576 was translated into English by Abraham Fleming under the name Of Englishe Dogges, in which he described Bandog as a vast, stubborn, eager dog of heavy body.

— Freebase

Guest, Edwin

Guest, Edwin

master of Caius College, Cambridge, antiquary; wrote only one book "History of English Rhythms," a work of great learning, but contributed papers of great value on the early history of England in learned journals (1800-1880).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Quintilis

Quintilis

In the ancient Roman calendar, Quintilis or Quinctilis was the month following Junius and preceding Sextilis. Quintilis is Latin for "fifth", that is, it was the fifth month in the earliest calendar attributed to Romulus, which began with Martius and had 10 months. After the calendar reform that produced a 12-month year, Quintilis became the seventh month, but retained its name. In 45 BC, Julius Caesar instituted a new calendar that corrected astronomical discrepancies in the old. After his death in 44 BC, the month of Quintilis, his birth month, was renamed Julius in his honor, hence July. Quintilis was under the guardianship of the Romans' supreme deity Jupiter, with sacrifices made particularly to Neptune and Apollo. The importance of agricultural festivals directed at the harvest gradually lost their importance, and the month became dominated in urban Imperial Rome by the Ludi Apollinares, games in honor of Apollo. Ten days of games were celebrated in honor of Julius Caesar at the end of the month.

— Freebase

Personal Magnetism

Personal Magnetism

Personal Magnetism is a 1913 American silent short film starring Sydney Ayres, Julius Frankenberg, Harry Van Meter, Jacques Jaccard, Louise Lovely, Jack Richardson and Vivian Rich.

— Freebase

Gaius Cassius Longinus

Gaius Cassius Longinus

Gaius Cassius Longinus was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.

— Freebase

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Julius Oberth was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer. He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics.

— Freebase

Jamie Campbell Bower

Jamie Campbell Bower

James Metcalfe "Jamie" Campbell Bower is an English actor, singer and former model. Bower is best known for his role as Anthony Hope in Tim Burton's Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, his role as Caius in The Twilight Saga, his role as King Arthur in the Starz original series Camelot and as the young Gellert Grindelwald in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. He will portray Jace Wayland in the upcoming The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones.

— Freebase

Orgetorix

Orgetorix

Orgetorix was a wealthy aristocrat among the Helvetii, a Celtic-speaking people residing in what is now Switzerland during the consulship of Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic.

— Freebase

Cinna

Cinna

Cinna was a cognomen that distinguished a patrician branch of the gens Cornelia, particularly in the late Roman Republic. Prominent members of this family include: ⁕Lucius Cornelius Cinna, consul four consecutive times 87–84 BC, a popularist leader allied with Gaius Marius against Sulla, and at the time of his death the father-in-law of Julius Caesar. ⁕Cornelia Cinna minor, the wife of Julius Caesar and mother of his only legitimate child. ⁕Lucius Cornelius Cinna, the son of Lucius Cornelius Cinna and a praetor; he was a conspirator against Caesar. ⁕Helvius Cinna, a poet murdered for having the same name as the assassin Cinna during the riots following Caesar's death. ⁕Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus, a conspirator against Augustus Caesar in AD 4, and the subject of Corneille's tragedy Cinna

— Freebase

20-29

20-29

This is a list of events occurring in the 20s, ordered by year. ⁕Servius Sulpicius Galba is a Roman praetor. ⁕Emperor Tiberius is forced to order an investigation and a public trial in the Roman Senate, for the murder of Germanicus. Fearing he will be found guilty, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso committed suicide. ⁕First year of Dihuang era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ⁕Philo defines philosophy as the maidservant of theology.s,nabdsgjkfjkS;J;sj;hj;h ⁕Revolt of the Aedui under Julius Florus and Julius Sacrovir, suppressed by Gaius Silius. ⁕Emperor Tiberius is a Roman Consul for the fourth time. ⁕The Romans create a buffer state in the territory of the Quadi in southern Slovakia. ⁕Barracks are constructed for the Praetorian Guard on the Quirinal. ⁕King Daeso of Dongbuyeo is killed in battle against the armies of Goguryeo, led by its third ruler, King Daemusin. ⁕The manufacture of pens and metal writing tools begins in Rome. ⁕It is the ninth year of the emperor Tiberius. ⁕The consuls are Decimus Haterius Agrippa and Gaius Sulpicius Galba. ⁕Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Gaius Vibius Rufinus are consuls Ex Kal. Jul. ⁕Drusus Julius Caesar receives the tribunicia potestas. ⁕Roman law replaces Celtic customs in Gaul.

— Freebase

Pope Julius

Pope Julius

Pope Julius, or Pope July, is a gambling card game of the 16th century for four or more players. Players included King Henry VIII. Very little is known about the game, and its existence is known to be attested only by three written sources, those being: ⁕c. 1521 - John Skelton, Speke, parrotOf Pope Julius cardys he ys chefe cardynall. ⁕1532 - anon, Privy Purse Expences of King Henry VIII Itm the laste day delived unto the kings grace whiche his grace lost at pope July game wt my lady marquess and m Weston xvj cor ⁕c. 1596 - Sir John Harington, A Treatise on Playe, in Nugae antiquae Pope Julio was a great and wary player, a great vertue in a man of his profession

— Freebase

Thomsenolite

Thomsenolite

Thomsenolite is a mineral with formula: NaCaAlF6·H2O. It is an alteration product of cryolite. It was discovered in 1868 in Ivigtut, Greenland and named for Hans Peter Jorgen Julius Thomsen.

— Freebase

Calpurnia

Calpurnia

the last wife of Julius Cæsar, daughter of the consul Piso, who, alive to the danger of conspiracy, urged Cæsar to stay at home the day he was assassinated.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Legionnaire

Legionnaire

Legionnaire is a computer game for the Atari 8-bit series created by Chris Crawford in 1982, and released through Avalon Hill. Recreating Julius Caesar's campaigns in a semi-historical setting, the player takes command of the Roman legions in real-time battles against the barbarians.

— Freebase

Paul Reuter

Paul Reuter

Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter, a German entrepreneur, pioneer of telegraphy and news reporting was a journalist and media owner, and the founder of the Reuters news agency, since 2008 part of the Thomson Reuters conglomerate.

— Freebase

Flavius Julius Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina.

— Freebase

Crispus

Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina.

— Freebase

Cambridge University

Cambridge University

contains 17 colleges: Peterhouse, founded 1257; Clare College, 1326; Pembroke, 1347; Gonville and Caius, 1348; Trinity Hall, 1350; Corpus Christi, 1352; King's, 1441; Queens', 1448; St. Catherine's, 1473; Jesus, 1496; Christ's, 1505; St John's, 1511; Magdalene, 1519; Trinity, 1546; Emmanuel, 1584; Sidney Sussex, 1598; and Downing, 1800. Each college is a corporation by itself, governed by statutes sanctioned by the crown, and capable of holding landed or other property.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Acco

Acco

Acco was a chief of the Senones in Gaul, who induced his countrymen to revolt against Julius Caesar in 53 BC. On the conclusion of the war, and after a conference at Durocortorum, Caesar had Acco tried and convicted on charges of treason. As punishment, he was flogged to death in the full sight of the other Senone leaders.

— Freebase

Ujamaa

Ujamaa

Ujamaa was the concept that formed the basis of Julius Nyerere's social and economic development policies in Tanzania after it gained independence from Britain in 1961. The term has also come to be used as one of the seven principles of the African-American celebration of Kwanzaa.

— Freebase

Rubicon

Rubicon

The Rubicon is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, about 80 kilometres long, running from the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea through the southern Emilia-Romagna region, between the towns of Rimini and Cesena. The Latin word rubico comes from the adjective "rubeus", meaning "red". The river was so named because its waters are colored red by mud deposits. It was key to protecting Rome from civil war. The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" means to pass a point of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's army's crossing of the river in 49 BC, which was considered an act of insurrection. Because the course of the river has changed much since then, it is impossible to confirm exactly where the Rubicon flowed when Caesar and his legions crossed it, even though most evidence links it to the river officially so named. The river is perhaps most known as the place where Julius Caesar uttered the famous phrase "alea iacta est" - the die is cast.

— Freebase

Dairy Queen

Dairy Queen

Dairy Queen, often abbreviated DQ, is a chain of soft serve and fast food restaurants owned by International Dairy Queen, Inc, which also owns Orange Julius and Karmelkorn. The first Dairy Queen store opened in 1940 in Joliet, Illinois. The company's corporate offices are located in Edina, Minnesota.

— Freebase

Galba

Galba

Galba, was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors.

— Freebase

July

July

the seventh month of the year, so called in honour of Julius Cæsar, who reformed the calendar, and was born in this month; it was famous as the month of the outbreak of the second Revolution of France in Paris in 1830.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Battle of Philippi

Battle of Philippi

The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian and the forces of Julius Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. The Second Triumvirate declared this civil war to avenge Julius Caesar's murder. The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred on the first week of October; Brutus faced Octavian, while Antony's forces were up against those of Cassius. At first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions' camp. But to the south, Cassius was defeated by Antony, and committed suicide after hearing a false report that Brutus had also failed. Brutus rallied Cassius' remaining troops and both sides ordered their army to retreat to their camps with their spoils, and the battle was essentially a draw, but for Cassius' suicide. A second encounter, on 23 October, finished off Brutus's forces, and he committed suicide in turn, leaving the triumvirate in control of the Roman Republic.

— Freebase

Pope Julius II

Pope Julius II

Pope Julius II, nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts—he commissioned the destruction and rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, plus Michelangelo's decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

— Freebase

Caesar

Caesar

Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".

— Freebase

80s

80s

This is a list of events occurring in the 80s, ordered by year. ⁕Emperor Titus inaugurates the Colosseum with 100 days of games. ⁕The earliest stage of Lullingstone Roman villa is built. ⁕The Roman occupation of Britain reaches the River Tyne–Solway Firth frontier area. Gnaeus Julius Agricola creates a fleet for conquest of Caledonia, he finally proves that Britannia is an island. ⁕Legio II Adiutrix is stationed at Lindum Colonia. The city is an important settlement for retired Roman legionaries. ⁕The original Roman Pantheon is destroyed in a fire, together with many other buildings. ⁕The Eifel Aqueduct is constructed to bring water 95 km from the Eifel region to Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensum. ⁕Gnaeus Julius Agricola begins his invasion of Scotland. ⁕Some 30,000 Asian tribespeople migrate from the steppes to the west with 40,000 horses and 100,000 cattle, joining with Iranian tribespeople and with Mongols from the Siberian forests to form a group that will be known in Europe as the Huns. ⁕The aeolipile, the first steam engine, is described by Hero of Alexandria. ⁕The Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles are written.

— Freebase

Gringore

Gringore

a French poet; flourished in the reigns of Louis XII. and Francis I.; was received with favour at court for political reasons, though he lashed its vices and those of the clergy; wrote satirical farces, and one especially at the instance of Louis against Pope Julius II., entitled "Le Jeu du Prince des Sots" (1476-1544).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Marcus Junius Brutus

Marcus Junius Brutus

Marcus Junius Brutus, often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but eventually returned to using his original name. He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar.

— Freebase

Artemon

Artemon

Artemon, a prominent Christian teacher in Rome, who held Adoptionist, or Nontrinitarian views. We know little about his life for certain. He is mentioned as the leader of a nontrinitarian sect at Rome in the third century. He is spoken of by Eusebius of Caesarea as the forerunner of Paul of Samosata, an opinion confirmed by the acts of a council held at Antioch in 264, which connect the two names as united in mutual communion and support. Eusebius and Theodoret describe his teaching as a denial of Christ's divinity and an assertion that he was a mere man, the falsification of Scripture, and an appeal to tradition in support of his errors. Both authors mention refutations: Eusebius an untitled work, Theodoret one known as The Little Labyrinth, which has been attributed to a Roman priest named Caius, and more recently to Hippolytus of Rome, the supposed author of the Philosophoumena.

— Freebase

Isocolon

Isocolon

Isocolon is a figure of speech in which parallelism is reinforced by members that are of the same length. A well-known example of this is Julius Caesar's "Veni, vidi, vici", which also illustrates that a common form of isocolon is tricolon, or the use of three parallel members. It is derived from the Greek ἴσος, "equal" and κῶλον, "member, clause".

— Freebase

Julian Alps

Julian Alps

The Julian Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretches from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav. They are named after Julius Caesar, who founded the municipium of Cividale del Friuli at the foot of the mountains. A large part of the Julian Alps is included in Triglav National Park.

— Freebase

Dux

Dux

Dux is Latin for leader and later for duke and its variant forms. During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.

— Freebase

Spandau

Spandau

an important town and fortress of Prussia, in Brandenburg, at the confluence of the Spree and Havel, 8 m. W. by N. of Berlin; fortifications are of the strongest and most modern kind, and in the "Julius Tower" of the powerful citadel the German war-chest of £6,000,000 is preserved; there is an arsenal and large Government cannon-foundries, powder-factories, etc.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gaul

Gaul

Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, inhabited by the Gauls, the Belgae and the Aquitani, and the Gauls of Gaul proper were speakers of the Gaulish language distinct from the Aquitanian language and the Belgic language. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia and southwestern Germania. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded by the Cimbri and the Teutons after 120 BC, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC. Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486. During this time, the Celtic culture had become amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture and the Gaulish language was likely extinct by the 6th century.

— Freebase

February

February

the second month of the year, was added along with January by Numa to the end of the original Roman year of 10 months; derived its name from a festival offered annually on the 15th day to Februus, an ancient Italian god of the nether world; was assigned its present position in the calendar by Julius Cæsar, who also introduced the intercalary day for leap-year.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Zanaki people

Zanaki people

The Zanaki are an ethnic and linguistic group from the heart of Mara Region, Tanzania, to the east of Lake Victoria. In 1987 the Zanaki population was estimated to number 62,000. The group is subdivided into the Birus and the Buturis. Julius Nyerere, the first president of Tanzania was a Zanaki and was the son of Nyerere Burito, who was chief of the Zanaki.

— Freebase

Synonymia

Synonymia

In rhetoric, Synonymia is the use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term. It is a kind of repetition that adds emotional force or intellectual clarity. Synonymia often occurs in parallel fashion. Example: ⁕The tribune Marullus taunts the Roman populace in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar for their fickleness, calling the people several different pejorative names: "You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things!"

— Freebase

Jules Pascin

Jules Pascin

Julius Mordecai Pincas, known as Pascin, Jules Pascin, or the "Prince of Montparnasse", was born in Bulgaria. During World War I, he worked in the United States. He is best known as a painter in Paris, where he was strongly identified with the Modernist movement and the artistic circles of Montparnasse. Having struggled with depression and alcoholism, he committed suicide at the age of 45.

— Freebase

Arthur Marx

Arthur Marx

Arthur Julius Marx was an American author, a former nationally ranked amateur tennis player, and son of entertainer Groucho Marx, and his first wife, Ruth Johnson. He is named after Groucho's brother Arthur "Harpo" Marx. Marx spent his early years accompanying his father around vaudeville circuits in the United States and abroad. When he was 10, the family moved to Southern California, where the Marx Brothers continued their film careers.

— Freebase

Ariovistus

Ariovistus

Ariovistus was a leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC. He and his followers took part in a war in Gaul, assisting the Arverni and Sequani to defeat their rivals the Aedui, after which they settled in large numbers in conquered Gallic territory in the Alsace region. They were defeated, however, in the Battle of Vosges and driven back over the Rhine in 58 BC by Julius Caesar.

— Freebase

Agricola

Agricola

The Agricola is a book by the Roman historian Tacitus, written c. 98, which recounts the life of his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola, an eminent Roman general. It also covers, briefly, the geography and ethnography of ancient Britain. As in the Germania, Tacitus favorably contrasts the liberty of the native Britons to the corruption and tyranny of the Empire; the book also contains eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome.

— Freebase

Gaul

Gaul

the name the ancients gave to two distinct regions, the one Cisalpine Gaul, on the Roman side of the Alps, embracing the N. of Italy, as long inhabited by Gallic tribes; and the other Transalpine Gaul, beyond the Alps from Rome, and extending from the Alps to the Pyrenees, from the ocean to the Rhine, inhabited by different races; subdued by Julius Cæsar 58-50 B.C., and divided by Augustus into four provinces.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Monolatrism

Monolatrism

Monolatrism or monolatry is the recognition of the existence of many gods, but with the consistent worship of only one deity. The term was perhaps first used by Julius Wellhausen. Monolatry is distinguished from monotheism, which asserts the existence of only one god, and henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god alone without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity.

— Freebase

Morini

Morini

The Morini were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul. They were mentioned in such classical works as the Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar. They became an established part of the Roman empire with the coastal parts of the present-day départment of Pas-de-Calais in northernmost France, bordering on the English Channel. A generation after their entry into the Roman Empire the writer Vergil described them poetically as the remotest of people.

— Freebase

Suetonius, Tranquillus

Suetonius, Tranquillus

Roman historian; practised as an advocate in Rome in the reign of Trajan; was a friend of the Younger Pliny, became private secretary to Hadrian, but was deprived of this post through an indiscretion; wrote several works, and of those extant the chief is the "Lives of the Twelve Cæsars," beginning with Julius Cæsar and ending with Domitian, a work which relates a great number of anecdotes illustrating the characters of the emperors; b. A.D. 70.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

James Mason

James Mason

James Neville Mason was an English actor. After achieving stardom in his native Great Britain, he made the transition to the United States and became one of the biggest stars in Hollywood, starring in iconic films such as The Desert Fox, A Star Is Born, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Lolita, North by Northwest, Journey to the Centre of the Earth, Bigger Than Life and Julius Caesar. He was nominated for three Academy Awards and three Golden Globes.

— Freebase

Ovile

Ovile

The Ovile was an enclosed area of the Campus Martius in Ancient Rome, used for voting. The name came from its resemblance to sheep pens. It was sometimes referred to as the Saepta. It was a wooden structure and was replaced by the larger and more ornate marble Saepta Julia after the civil wars of 49-30 BC. This later building, commissioned by Julius Caesar, was possibly sited in the same area as the original Ovile.

— Freebase

Boscovich

Boscovich

Boscovich is a lunar crater that has been almost completely eroded away by subsequent impacts. It is located to the west-northwest of the crater Julius Caesar, and to the south-southeast of the prominent Manilius. The crater floor has a low albedo, and the dark hue makes it relatively easy to recognize. The surface is crossed by the rille system designated Rimae Boscovich that extends for a diameter of 40 kilometres. The crater is named after Roger Joseph Boscovich.

— Freebase

Vardon

Vardon

Vardon is a communal village in south-central Israel north of Kiryat Gat and south of Kiryat Malakhi. It belongs to the Yoav Regional Council. It was founded in 1960 as a youth center and became a communal village in 1998. It is found at the central intersection between three large moshavim: Menuha, Nahala and Sgula. The name of the community is a loose translation for the family of Julius Rosenfeld who was a Jewish donor from the United States..

— Freebase

Rubicon

Rubicon

a famous river of Italy, associated with Julius Cæsar, now identified with the modern Fiumecino, a mountain torrent which springs out of the eastern flank of the Apennines and enters the Adriatic N. of Ariminum; marked the boundary line between Roman Italy and Cisalpine Gaul, a province administered by Cæsar; when he crossed it in 49 B.C. it was tantamount to a declaration of war against the Republic, hence the expression "to cross the Rubicon" is applied to the decisive step in any adventurous undertaking.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Suebi

Suebi

The Suebi or Suevi were a group of Germanic peoples who were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with Ariovistus' campaign, c. 58 BC; Some Suebi remained a periodic threat against the Romans on the Rhine, until, toward the end of the empire, the Alamanni, including elements of Suebi, brushed aside Roman defenses and occupied Alsace, and from there Bavaria and Switzerland. A pocket remained in Swabia, whereas migrants to Gallaecia established a kingdom there which lasted for 170 years until its integration into the Visigothic Kingdom.

— Freebase

Druids

Druids

Druids is a French film first released on 31 August 2001, directed by Jacques Dorfmann. It stars Christopher Lambert, Klaus Maria Brandauer, Inés Sastre, Bernard-Pierre Donnadieu, and Max von Sydow. The film tells the story of the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix, from his childhood through to his battle to save Gaul from Roman domination at the hands of Julius Caesar. The film culminates with the decisive Battle of Alesia. The novel The Druid King by Norman Spinrad, is a derivative work of an early version of Druids script.

— Freebase

Helvetii

Helvetii

The Helvetii were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Julius Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into four subgroups or pagi. Of these Caesar only names the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, while Poseidonios mentions the Tigurini and the Tōygenoi. They feature prominently in the Commentaries on the Gallic War, with their failed migration attempt to southwestern Gaul serving as a catalyst for Caesar's conquest of Gaul.

— Freebase

Pharsalia

Pharsalia

The Pharsalia is a Roman epic poem by the poet Lucan, telling of the civil war between Julius Caesar and the forces of the Roman Senate led by Pompey the Great. The poem's title is a reference to the Battle of Pharsalus, which occurred in 48 BC, near Pharsalus, Thessaly, in northern Greece. Caesar decisively defeated Pompey in this battle, which occupies all of the epic's seventh book. Though probably incomplete, the poem is widely considered the best epic poem of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

— Freebase

Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius, was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, On the mechanical theory of heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced virial theorem which applied to heat.

— Freebase

Sallust

Sallust

Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from a provincial plebeian family. Sallust was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines and was a popularis, opposer of the old Roman aristocracy throughout his career, and later a partisan of Julius Caesar. Sallust is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which we have Catiline's War, The Jugurthine War, and the Histories. Sallust was primarily influenced by the Greek historian Thucydides and amassed great wealth from his governorship of Africa.

— Freebase

Zeno

Zeno

Zeno, originally named Tarasis, was Byzantine Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.

— Freebase

Carni

Carni

The Carni were a tribe of the Eastern Alps in classical antiquity, settling in the mountains separating Noricum and Venetia. They are usually considered a Gaulish tribe, although some associate them with the Venetic peoples, a group closely related to but probably distinct from the Celts. Their area of settlement isn't known with precision. Strabo confines them to the mountains, while Ptolemy assigns them two cities near the Adriatic coast. They are likely eponymous of the regions of Carnia, Carniola and Carinthia. The first historical date related to the arrival of the Carni is 186 BC, when some 50,000 Carni, composed of armed men, women and children, descended towards the plains and on a hill they founded a stable defensive settlement, Akileja. The Romans forced back the Carni to the mountains, they destroyed their settlement and they founded a defensive settlement at the north-east boundaries. The new settlement was named Aquileia, after the former Celtic name Akileja. The triumvirs that founded that settlement were Publius Scipio Nasica, Caius Flaminius and Lucius Manlius Acidinus. In order to stem the Roman expansion and to acquire the fertile and more hospitable plains, the Carni tried to form alliances with the Histrian, the Giapidi, and the Taurisci Celts. As Rome, in turn, was more and more becoming aware of the impending danger coming from the Carni and as it wanted to accelerate its own expansion, it sent to the north-east the legions of consul Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, who finally defeated the Carni in the battle of 15 November 115 BC.

— Freebase

Alesia

Alesia

Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gallic tribes allied with the Aedui, and after Julius Caesar's conquest a Roman town in Gaul. There have been archeological excavations since the time of Napoléon III in Alise-Sainte-Reine in Côte d'Or near Dijon, which have claimed that the historical Alesia is located there. New discoveries are constantly being made about this Gallo-Roman settlement on the plateau of Mont-Auxois. As a result of the latest excavation, a find was presented to the museum there with the inscription: IN ALISIIA, which finally dispelled the doubts of some archaeologists on the town's identity.

— Freebase

Moebius syndrome

Moebius syndrome

Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital neurological disorder which is characterized by facial paralysis and the inability to move the eyes from side to side. Most people with Möbius syndrome are born with complete facial paralysis and cannot close their eyes or form facial expressions. Limb and chest wall abnormalities sometimes occur with the syndrome. People with Möbius syndrome have normal intelligence, although their lack of facial expression is sometimes incorrectly taken to be due to dullness or unfriendliness. It is named for Paul Julius Möbius, a neurologist who first described the syndrome in 1888.

— Freebase

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, PC CC FRSC FRS was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals". Herzberg's main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals which are difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects. Herzberg served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada from 1973 to 1980.

— Freebase

Domani

Domani

"Domani" is a 1955 song written by Ulpio Minucci with lyrics by Tony Velona. The most popular version of the song was recorded by Julius LaRosa, released by Cadence Records as catalog number 1265. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on July 13, 1955 and lasted 7 weeks on the chart, peaking at #13. The song was rendered in French - retaining the title "Domani" - by Renée Lebas; a Finnish rendering: "Huomenna", was recorded by Maynie Sirén. Another song of the same name was released by the Twilight Singers on the "Black is the Color of My True Love's Hair" EP and on Greg Dulli's 2005 album Amber Headlights.

— Freebase

Thapsus

Thapsus

Thapsus or Thapsos was an ancient city in what is modern day Tunisia. Its ruins exist at Ras Dimas near Bekalta, approximately 200 km southeast of Carthage. Originally founded by Phoenicians, it served as a marketplace on the coast of the province Byzacena in Africa Propria. Thapsus was established near a salt lake on a point of land eighty stadia from the island of Lampedusa. In 46 BC, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian King Juba with a tremendous loss of men near Thapsus. Caesar exacted a payment of 50,000 sesterces from the vanquished. Their defeat marked the end of opposition to Caesar in Africa. Thapsus then became a Roman colony.

— Freebase

Germanicus

Germanicus

Germanicus Julius Caesar, commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. His own campaigns in Germania made him famous after avenging the defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest and retrieving the legion's eagles lost during the battle. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero.

— Freebase

Regia

Regia

The Regia was a structure in Ancient Rome in the Roman Forum that originally served as the residence or one of the main headquarters of kings of Rome and later as the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Roman religion. It occupied a triangular patch of terrain between the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of Divus Julius and Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Only the foundations of Republican/Imperial Regia remain. Like the Curia it was destroyed and rebuilt several times, as far back as the Roman monarchy. Studies have found multiple layers of similar buildings with more regular features, prompting the theory that this "Republican Regia" was to have a different use.

— Freebase

Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

— Freebase

Selle

Selle

The Selle is a river of Picardie, France. Rising at Catheux, just north of Crèvecœur-le-Grand, Oise, it flows past Conty, Saleux, Salouël and Pont-de-Metz before joining the Somme River at Amiens. In many places along its course, the river widens to form or fill lakes, much appreciated by anglers and gravel extractors. Several water-powered mills can still be seen including a paper-mill at Prouzel. Brown trout thrive in the clear waters of the river. In 57 BC, the Selle was the site of the battle between Julius Caesar and the Nervians. ⁕ The watermill between Fontaine-Bonneleau and Croissy-sur-Celle ⁕ The Mill at Croissy-sur-Celle

— Freebase

Cassivellaunus

Cassivellaunus

Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. The first British person whose name is recorded, Cassivellaunus led an alliance of tribes against Roman forces, but eventually surrendered after his location was revealed to Caesar by defeated Britons. Cassivellaunus made an impact on the British consciousness. He appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouth's kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion, the Brut y Brenhinedd and the Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli Mawr. His name in Brythonic, *Kađđiwellaunos, comes from Proto-Celtic *kađđi- "passion, love, hate" + *welnamon- "leader, sovereign".

— Freebase

Atia Balba Caesonia

Atia Balba Caesonia

Atia Balba Caesonia, sometimes referred to as Atia Balba Secunda to differentiate her from her two sisters, was the daughter of Julius Caesar's sister Julia Caesaris, mother of the Emperor Augustus, step-grandmother of the Emperor Tiberius, great-grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, great-great grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, and great-great-great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero. The name Atia Balba was also borne by the other two daughters of Julia Caesaris and her husband praetor Marcus Atius Balbus. They were Atia’s older sister Atia Balba Prima, and her younger sister was Atia Balba Tertia. In former portrayals of the ancient history the mother of Augustus, Atia, was still described as the elder of two sisters.

— Freebase

Sumptuary Laws

Sumptuary Laws

passed in various lands and ages to restrict excess in dress, food, and luxuries generally; are to be found in the codes of Solon, Julius Cæsar, and other ancient rulers; Charles VI. of France restricted dinners to one soup and two other dishes; appear at various times in English statutes down to the 16th century against the use of "costly meats," furs, silks, &c., by those unable to afford them; were issued by the Scottish Parliament against the extravagance of ladies in the matter of dress to relieve "the puir gentlemen their husbands and fathers"; were repealed in England in the reign of James I.; at no time were they carefully observed.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Victor Horta

Victor Horta

Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that he is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts. The French architect Hector Guimard was deeply influenced by Horta and further spread the "whiplash" style in France and abroad. In 1932 King Albert I of Belgium conferred on Horta the title of Baron for his services to architecture. Four of the buildings he designed have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

— Freebase

Paraphasia

Paraphasia

Paraphasia is a kind of aphasia, characterized by the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak. Paraphasia is most common in patients with fluent forms of aphasia, and comes in three forms: phonological or literal, neologistic, and verbal. Paraphasias can affect metrical information, segmental information, number of syllables, or both. Some paraphasias preserve the meter without segmentation, and some do the opposite. However, most paraphasias affect both partially. The term was apparently introduced in 1877 by the German-English physician Julius Althaus in his book on Diseases of the Nervous System, in a sentence reading, "In some cases there is a perfect chorea or delirium of words, which may be called paraphasia".

— Freebase

Sterling, John

Sterling, John

a friend of Carlyle's, born at Kames Castle, Bute, son of Captain Sterling of the Times; studied at Glasgow and Cambridge; a man of brilliant parts and a liberal-minded, but of feeble health; had Julius Hare for tutor at Cambridge, and became Hare's curate at Hurstmonceaux for eight months; wrote for reviews, and projected literary enterprises, but achieved nothing; spent his later days moving from place to place hoping to prolong life; formed an acquaintanceship with Carlyle in 1832; became an intelligent disciple, and believed in him to the last; Hare edited his papers, and wrote his life as a clergyman, and Carlyle, dissatisfied, wrote another on broader lines, and by so doing immortalised his memory (1806-1843).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Julius Erving

Julius Erving

Julius Winfield Erving II, commonly known by the nickname Dr. J, is a retired American basketball player who helped launch a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and play above the rim. Erving helped legitimize the American Basketball Association, and was the best-known player in that league when it merged with the National Basketball Association after the 1975–76 season. Erving won three championships, four Most Valuable Player Awards, and three scoring titles with the ABA's Virginia Squires and New York Nets and the NBA's Philadelphia 76ers. He is the fifth-highest scorer in professional basketball history with 30,026 points. He was well known for slam dunking from the free throw line in Slam Dunk Contests and was the only player voted Most Valuable Player in both the American Basketball Association and the National Basketball Association. Erving was inducted in 1993 into the Basketball Hall of Fame and was also named to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time team. In 1994, Erving was named by Sports Illustrated as one of the 40 most important athletes of all time. In 2004, he was inducted into the Nassau County Sports Hall of Fame. Most observers consider him one of history's most talented players; he is also widely acknowledged one of the game's best dunkers. While Connie Hawkins, "Jumping" Johnny Green, Elgin Baylor, and Gus Johnson performed spectacular dunks before Erving's time, "Dr. J" brought the practice into the mainstream. His signature dunk was the "slam" dunk, since incorporated into the vernacular and basic skill set of the game in the same manner as the "cross-over" dribble and the "no look" pass. Before Julius Erving, dunking was a practice usually among big men to show their brutal strength. This was seen by many as style over substance and unsportsmanlike. Erving, however, changed that misconception and turned the dunk into the most qualitative shot in the game. The "slam dunk", as it is called, became an art form and came to help popularize the sport.

— Freebase

Myotonia congenita

Myotonia congenita

Congenital myotonia, is a genetic, neuromuscular channelopathy that affects skeletal muscles. The disease was first described by Dansih/German physician Julius Thomsen in 1876, who himself suffered from the disease. The hallmark of the disease is the failure of initiated contraction to terminate, often referred to as delayed relaxation of the muscles and rigidity. The disorder is caused by mutations in part of a gene encoding the ClC-1 Chloride channel, resulting in muscle fiber membranes to have an unusually exaggerated response to stimulation. Symptoms include delayed relaxation of the muscles after voluntary contraction, and may also include stiffness, hypertrophy, transient weakness in some mutations, pain, and cramping. In addition to humans, it is also seen in strains of goatcanines, cats and one breed of pony.

— Freebase

Eburones

Eburones

The Eburones, were a people who lived in the northeast of Gaul, near the river Meuse and the modern provinces of Belgian and Dutch Limburg, in the period immediately before this region was conquered by Rome. Though living in Gaul, they were also described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a major role in Julius Caesar's account of his "Gallic Wars", as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes - Germani living east of the Rhine amongst the Belgae. Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, the tribal name found here later, is uncertain.

— Freebase

Kalah

Kalah

Kalah, also called Kalaha or Mancala, is a game in the mancala family invented by William Julius Champion Jr in 1940. This game heavily favors the starting player, who will always win the three-seed to six-seed versions with perfect play. This game is sometimes also called "Kalahari", possibly by false etymology from the Kalahari desert in Namibia. As the most popular and commercially available variant of mancala in the West, Kalah is also sometimes referred to as Warri or Awari, although those names more properly refer to the game Oware. An electronic version of the game, called Bantumi, was included on the Nokia 3310. The handset went on to sell 126 million units making Bantumi the best selling version of the game.

— Freebase

Mark Antony

Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian and Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire.

— Freebase

Petri dish

Petri dish

A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical lidded dish that biologists use to culture cells or small moss plants. It was named after German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, who invented it when working as an assistant to Robert Koch. Glass Petri dishes can be reused by sterilization. For experiments where cross-contamination from one experiment to the next can become a problem, plastic Petri dishes are often used as disposables. Modern Petri dishes often have rings on the lids and bases, which allow them to be stacked so that they do not slide off one another. Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one plastic container to create what is called a "multi-well plate". Petri dishes are usually used to culture bacteria.

— Freebase

Wicker man

Wicker man

A wicker man was a large wicker statue of a human allegedly used by the ancient Druids for human sacrifice by burning it in effigy, according to Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. In the modern world, wicker men are used for various events. The figure has been adopted for festivals as part of some neopagan-themed ceremonies, without the human sacrifice element. Effigies of this kind have also been used as elements in performance art, as display features at rock music festivals, as thematic material in songs, and as the focal point of a cult British horror/mystery film, The Wicker Man. Much of the prominence of the wicker man in modern popular culture and the wide general awareness of the wicker man as structure and concept is attributable to this film.

— Freebase

National Gallery, London

National Gallery, London

The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the main collection is free of charge. It is the fourth most visited art museum in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, an insurance broker and patron of the arts, in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection.

— Freebase

Haast

Haast

Haast is an area in the Westland District territorial authority on the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. The Haast region covers over 2,500 km². The region is named after Julius von Haast, a Prussian-born geologist instrumental in the early geological surveys of New Zealand. The 2006 census recorded a population of 297 for the Haast statistical area, a decrease of 12 from the 2001 census. The majority of this population is located in three communities: the Haast township, Haast Junction, and Haast Beach. The main economic activities in the Haast region are farming, fishing and tourism. Lake Moeraki is 30 km to the northeast, and the Haast Pass is 63 km to the southeast by road. State Highway 6 passes through Haast Junction and just to the east of Haast township. The rarest subspecies of kiwi, the Haast tokoeka, is only found in the mountains of the Haast region.

— Freebase

Liberty pole

Liberty pole

A liberty pole is a tall wooden pole, often used as a type of flagstaff, planted in the ground, surmounted by a Phrygian cap—a cap historically worn by Ancient Rome's freed slaves. The symbol originated in the immediate aftermath of the assassination of Roman dictator Julius Caesar by a group of Rome's Senators in 44 BC. Immediately after Caesar was killed, the leaders of the assassination plot, went to meet a crowd of Romans at the Roman Forum; a Phrygian cap from a freed slave was placed atop a pole to show the Romans, that symbolized that the Roman people had been freed from the rule of Caesar, that the assassins claimed had become a tyranny because it overstepped the authority of the Senate and thus betrayed the Republic. Since then, the symbol has been used by movements in support of republicanism.

— Freebase

Pugio

Pugio

The pugio was a dagger used by Roman soldiers as a sidearm. It seems likely that the pugio was intended as an auxiliary weapon, but its exact purpose to the soldier remains unknown. Attempts to identify it as a utility knife are misguided as the form of the pugio is not suited to this purpose and in any case utility knives of a variety of sizes are common finds on Roman military sites, meaning there would be no need for a pugio to be used in this way. Officials of the empire took to wearing ornate daggers in the performance of their offices, and some would wear concealed daggers as a defense against contingencies. The dagger was a common weapon of assassination and suicide; for example, the conspirators who stabbed Julius Caesar used pugiones.

— Freebase

Piso

Piso

The Piso family of ancient Rome was a prominent plebeian branch of the gens Calpurnia, descended from Calpus the son of Numa Pompilius. with at least 50 prominent Roman family members recognized. Members are known into the 2nd century. Notable members: ⁕Gaius Calpurnius Piso ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus ⁕Gaius Calpurnius Piso ⁕Gaius Calpurnius Piso ⁕Marcus Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus - consul 61 BC ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus - consul 58 BC, father-in-law of Julius Caesar ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso, pontifex ⁕Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, consul 7 BC, was charged of being involved in the death of Germanicus ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso, augur ⁕Gaius Calpurnius Piso, senator, leader of the Pisonian conspiracy in AD 65. ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus - briefly deputy emperor of Galba for five days in 69. ⁕Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, usurper against Gallienus and Valens in 261. His existence is unclear. ⁕Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso

— Freebase

Kaiser

Kaiser

Kaiser is the German title meaning "Emperor". Like the Russian Tsar it is directly derived from the Roman Emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. Although the British monarchs styled "Emperor of India" were also called "Kaisar-i-Hind" in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek Kaisar, not the German Kaiser. In English, the term the Kaiser is usually reserved for the Emperors of the German Empire, the emperors of the Austrian Empire and those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the First World War, the term the Kaiser — especially as applied to Wilhelm II of Germany — gained considerable pejorative connotations in English-speaking countries.

— Freebase

Franz Josef

Franz Josef

Franz Josef is a small town in the West Coast region of the South Island of New Zealand. Whataroa is 32 km to the north-east, and the township of Fox Glacier is 23 km to the south-west. State Highway 6 runs through the town. The Waiho River runs from the Franz Josef Glacier to the south, through the town, and into the Tasman Sea to the north-west. The population was 330 in the 2006 Census, an increase of 9 from 2001. The town is named after the Franz Josef Glacier - itself named by Julius von Haast in honour of the Emperor of Austria Franz Josef I of Austria. The glacier's terminal face is 5 km from the town and its accessibility makes it a major tourist attraction and the reason many people visit Franz Josef. The town is located within the Westland Tai Poutini National Park.

— Freebase

Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher

In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, D would be replaced by A, E would become B, and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence. The encryption step performed by a Caesar cipher is often incorporated as part of more complex schemes, such as the Vigenère cipher, and still has modern application in the ROT13 system. As with all single alphabet substitution ciphers, the Caesar cipher is easily broken and in modern practice offers essentially no communication security.

— Freebase

Nine Worthies

Nine Worthies

The Nine Worthies are nine historical, scriptural and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry as were established in the Middle Ages. All are commonly referred to as 'Princes' in their own right, despite whatever true titles each man may have held. In French they are called Les Neuf Preux, meaning "Nine Valiants", which term gives a slightly more focused idea of the sort of moral virtue they were deemed to represent so perfectly, that of soldierly courage and generalship. The study of the life of each would thus form a good education for the aspirant to chivalric status. In Italy they are i Nove Prodi. The Nine Worthies include three good pagans: Hector, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, three good Jews: Joshua, David and Judas Maccabeus, and three good Christians: King Arthur, Charlemagne and Godfrey of Bouillon.

— Freebase

Intolleranza 1960

Intolleranza 1960

Intolleranza 1960 is a one-act opera in two parts by Luigi Nono. The Italian libretto was written by Nono from an idea by Angelo Maria Ripellino, using documentary texts and poetry by Julius Fučík, "Reportage unter dem Strang geschrieben"; Henri Alleg, "La question"; Jean-Paul Sartre's introduction to Alleg's poem; Paul Eluard's poem "La liberté;" "Our march" by Vladimir Mayakovsky; and Bertolt Brecht's "To Posterity". The plot concerns a refugee, who travels from Southern Italy looking for work. Along the way, he encounters protests, arrests and torture. He ends up in a concentration camp, where he experiences the gamut of human emotions. He reaches a river, and realises that everywhere is his home. The opera premiered on 13 April 1961 at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. It has a running time of approximately 1 hour, 15 minutes.

— Freebase

Watchtower

Watchtower

A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a regular tower in that its primary use is military, and from a turret in that it is usually a freestanding structure. Its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. In some cases, non-military towers, such as religious pagodas, may also be used as watchtowers. An example of nonmilitary watchtower in history is the one of Jerusalem. Though the Hebrews used it to keep a watch for approaching armies, the religious authorities forbade the taking of weapons up into the tower as this would require bringing weapons through the temple. Rebuilt by King Herod, that watchtower was renamed after Mark Antony, his friend who battled against Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and lost.

— Freebase

Italus

Italus

Italus or Italos was a legendary king of the Oenotrians, who were among the earliest inhabitants of Italy. In his Fabularum Liber, Gaius Julius Hyginus recorded the myth that Italus was a son of Penelope and Telegonus. According to Aristotle and Thucydides, Italus was the eponym of Italy. Aristotle relates that, according to tradition, Italus converted the Oenotrians from a pastoral society to an agricultural one and gave them various ordinances, being the first to institute their system of common meals. Writing centuries later, the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus in his Rhomaike Archaiologia, cites Antioch of Syracuse for the information that Italus was an Oenotrian by birth and relates the tradition that Italia was named after him, as well as another account that derives the name "Italia" from a word for calf, an etymology also stated by Timaeus, Varro, and Festus.

— Freebase

Ptolemaic dynasty

Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty, was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter". The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.

— Freebase

Parley

Parley

Parley is a discussion or conference, especially one between enemies over terms of a truce or other matters. For example, in Julius Caesar, the respective followers and armies of Brutus and Antony are ready for a truce. The root of the word parley is parler, which is the French verb "to speak"; specifically the conjugation parlez "you speak", whether as imperative or indicative. Beginning in the High Middle Ages with the expansion of monarchs, a parley, or "talk", was a meeting held between kings and their Chief Retainers. Parleys were part of the many changes in Europe, especially regarding governments. These meetings can be attributed to the formation of parliaments, which are derived from a similar root, parliamentum, simply meaning "talking". The internationally recognized symbol for offering parley is a black flag, particularly in the context of shipping. For example a ship at war wishing to enter parley with its attackers may raise a black flag to indicate this.

— Freebase

70s

70s

This is a list of events occurring in the 70s, ordered by year. Emperor Vespasian and his son Caesar Vespasian become Roman Consuls. Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes. Sextus Julius Frontinus is praetor of Rome. Legio II Adiutrix is created from marines of Classis Ravennatis. Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis. 14th of Xanthicos – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus surrounds the Jewish capital, with three legions on the western side and a fourth on the Mount of Olives to the east. He puts pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover and then refusing them egress. About April 21 – Titus opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem, concentrating his attack on the city's Third Wall to the northwest.

— Freebase

Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Vercingetorix came to power in 52 BC, when he raised an army and was proclaimed King at Gergovia. He soon established an alliance with other tribes and took control of their combined armies, leading them in Gaul's most significant revolt against Roman power. He won the Battle of Gergovia where 46 centurions and 700 legionaries died, and more than 6,000 were injured, resulting in the withdrawal of the Roman legions of Caesar. Eventually, Vercingetorix surrendered to the Romans after being besieged and defeated at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, after which he was imprisoned for five years. In 46 he was paraded through Rome as part of Caesar's triumph before being executed. Vercingetorix is primarily known through Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War.

— Freebase

Rudulph Evans

Rudulph Evans

Rudulph Evans, sculptor, was born in Washington, D.C., and grew up in Virginia. He studied in France at the École des Beaux-Arts; among his fellow students were Auguste Rodin and Augustus Saint-Gaudens. After returning to the United States in 1900, he maintained a studio in New York City. He moved back to Washington, D.C., in 1949. Evans designed the statue of Thomas Jefferson inside the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., in cooperation with the Japanese engineer Wado Zato. At the time the memorial was inaugurated, in 1943, due to material shortages during World War II, the statue was of plaster patinated to resemble bronze; the finished bronze, cast by the Roman Bronze Works of New York, was installed in 1949. His other noted works include the statues of Julius Sterling Morton and of William Jennings Bryan, both in the National Statuary Hall Collection of the United States Capitol. Evans also sculpted the statue of Robert E. Lee in the Virginia State Capitol.

— Freebase

Taylor, Jeremy

Taylor, Jeremy

great English divine and preacher, born at Cambridge, son of a barber; educated at Caius College; became a Fellow of All Souls', Oxford; took orders; attracted the attention of Laud; was made chaplain to the king, and appointed to the living of Uppingham; on the sequestration of his living in 1642 joined the king at Oxford, and adhered to the royal cause through the Civil War; suffered much privation, and imprisonment at times; returning to Wales, he procured the friendship and enjoyed the patronage of the Earl of Carberry, in whose mansion at Grove he wrote a number of his works; before the Restoration he received preferment in Ireland, and after that event was made bishop, first of Down and then of Dromore; his life here was far from a happy one, partly through insubordination in his diocese and partly through domestic sorrow; his works are numerous, but the principal are his "Liberty of Prophesying," "Holy Living and Holy Dying," "Life of Christ," "Ductor Dubitantium," a work on casuistry; he was a good man and a faithful, more a religious writer than a theological; his books are read more for their devotion than their divinity, and they all give evidence of luxuriance of imagination, to which the epithet "florid" has not inappropriately been applied; in Church matters he was a follower of Laud (1613-1667).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Remi

Remi

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul. The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa and Matrona, and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle. Their capital was at Durocortum the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry. During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix. A founding myth preserved or invented by Flodoard of Reims makes Remus, brother of Romulus, the eponymous founder of the Remi, having escaped their fraternal rivalry instead of dying in Latium.

— Freebase

Ptolemy

Ptolemy

the name of the Macedonian kings of Egypt, of which there were 14 in succession, of whom Ptolemy I., Soter, was a favourite general of Alexander the Great, and who ruled Egypt from 328 to 285 B.C.; Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, who ruled from 285 to 247, a patron of letters and an able administrator; Ptolemy III., Euergetes, who ruled from 247 to 222; Ptolemy IV., Philopator, who ruled from 222 to 205; Ptolemy V., Epiphanes, who ruled from 205 to 181; Ptolemy VI., Philometor, who ruled from 181 to 146; Ptolemy VII., Euergetes II., who ruled from 146 to 117; Ptolemy VIII., Soter, who ruled from 117 to 107, was driven from Alexandria, returning to it in 88, and reigning till 81; Ptolemy X., Alexander I., who ruled from 107 to 88; Ptolemy X. Alexander II., who ruled from 81 to 80; Ptolemy XI., Auletes, who ruled from 80 to 51; Ptolemy XII., who ruled from 51 to 47; Ptolemy XIII., the Infant King, who ruled from 47 to 43; Ptolemy XIV., Cesarion, the son of Julius Cæsar and Cleopatra, who ruled from 43 to 30.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Odoacer

Odoacer

Flavius Odoacer, also known as Flavius Odovacer, was a Germanic soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy. His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of Julius Nepos and, after Nepos' death in 480, of the Emperor in Constantinople. Odoacer generally used the Roman honorific patrician, granted by the Emperor Zeno, but is referred to as a king in many documents and he himself used it at least once and on another occasion it was used by the consul Basilius. Odoacer introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He had the support of the Senate at Rome and was able to distribute land to his followers without much opposition. Unrest among his warriors led to violence in 477–478, but no such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of the orthodox and trinitarian state church of the Roman Empire. Probably of Scirian descent, Odoacer was a military leader in Italy who led the revolt of Herulians, Rugians, and Scirians soldiers that deposed Romulus Augustulus on 4 September AD 476. Augustulus had been declared Western Emperor by his father, the rebellious general of the army in Italy, less than a year before, but had been unable to gain allegiance or recognition beyond central Italy. With the backing of the Roman Senate, Odoacer thenceforth ruled Italy autonomously, paying lip service to the authority of Julius Nepos, the last Western emperor and Zeno the emperor of the East. Upon Nepos' murder in 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, to punish the murderers. He did so, executing the conspirators, but within two years also conquered the region and incorporated it into his domain. When Illus, master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer’s help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer invaded Zeno’s westernmost provinces. The emperor responded first by inciting the Rugi of present Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487–488 Odoacer crossed the Danube and defeated the Rugi in their own territory. Zeno also appointed the Ostrogoth Theoderic who was menacing the borders of the Eastern Empire, to be king of Italy, turning one troublesome, nominal vassal against another. Theoderic invaded Italy in 489 and by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on March 5, 493; Theoderic invited Odoacer to a banquet of reconciliation and there killed him.

— Freebase

Battle of Pharsalus

Battle of Pharsalus

The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. The two armies confronted each other for several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much worse position than Pompey. The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 men and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army at least three times as great. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger and exhaustion. Pressured by the Senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men disguised as an ordinary citizen.

— Freebase

Menshevik

Menshevik

The Mensheviks, or sometimes called Menshevists, were a faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in 1904 after a dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, both members of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. The dispute originated at the Second Congress of that party, ostensibly over minor issues of party organization. Martov's supporters, who were in the minority in a crucial vote on the question of party membership, came to be called "Mensheviks", derived from the Russian word меньшинство, whereas Lenin's adherents were known as "Bolsheviks", from bol'shinstvo. Neither side held a consistent majority over the course of the congress. The split proved to be long-standing and had to do both with pragmatic issues based in history such as the failed revolution of 1905, and theoretical issues of class leadership, class alliances, and bourgeois democracy. While both factions believed that a "bourgeois democratic" revolution was necessary, the Mensheviks generally tended to be more moderate and were more positive towards the "mainstream" liberal opposition.

— Freebase

Pintsch gas

Pintsch gas

Pintsch gas was a compressed fuel gas derived from distilled naphtha used for illumination purposes during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was invented in 1851 by German inventor and manufacturer Julius Pintsch. Its primary use in the latter half of the 19th century was for illumination of railroad cars. In several railway accidents Pintsch gas lamps added fuel to any fire which started, for example, in the Thirsk rail crash, Quintinshill rail disaster, and the Dugald rail accident. Lamps using Pintsch gas burned brighter and longer than the existing oil lamps they replaced. These lamps could also withstand vibration and rough usage without extinguishing the light. These features made Pintsch gas a popular solution for illumination of buoys, beacons and unmanned lighthouses, which allowed these devices to have the capability to remain lit for several months without servicing. Electricity and other artificial means of lighting eventually replaced Pintsch illumination. However, it was still used in lighthouses and beacons long after it was replaced elsewhere.

— Freebase

Crookes tube

Crookes tube

A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered. Developed from the earlier Geissler tube, the Crookes tube consists of a partially evacuated glass container of various shapes, with two metal electrodes, the cathode and the anode, one at either end. When a high voltage is applied between the electrodes, cathode rays travel in straight lines from the cathode to the anode. It was used by Crookes, Johann Hittorf, Julius Plücker, Eugen Goldstein, Heinrich Hertz, Philipp Lenard and others to discover the properties of cathode rays, culminating in J.J. Thomson's 1897 identification of cathode rays as negatively charged particles, which were later named electrons. Crookes tubes are now used only for demonstrating cathode rays. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays using the Crookes tube in 1895. The term is also used for the first generation, cold cathode X-ray tubes, which evolved from the experimental Crookes tubes and were used until about 1920.

— Freebase

Son of God

Son of God

"Son of God" is a phrase which, according to most Christian denominations Trinitarian in belief, refers to the divine relationship between Jesus and God, specifically as "God the Son". To a minority of Christians, nontrinitarians, the term "Son of God", applied to Jesus in the New Testament, is accepted, while the non-biblical but less ambiguous "God the Son" is not. Throughout history, emperors have assumed titles that amount to being "a son of god", "a son of a god" or "son of Heaven". Roman Emperor Augustus referred to his relation to the deified adoptive father, Julius Caesar as "son of a god" via the term divi filius which was later also used by Domitian and is distinct from the use of Son of God in the New Testament. In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions. It is often seen as referring to his divinity, from the beginning in the Annunciation up to the Crucifixion. The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two separate occasions by God the Father as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself.

— Freebase

Foil

Foil

In fiction, a foil is a character who contrasts with another character in order to highlight particular qualities of the other character. A foil usually either differs drastically or is extremely similar but with a key difference setting them apart. The concept of a foil is also more widely applied to any comparison that is made to contrast a difference between two things. Thomas F. Gieryn places these uses of literary foils into three categories which Tamara Antoine and Pauline Metze explain as: those that emphasize the heightened contrast, those that operate by exclusion, and those that assign blame. In Pride and Prejudice, Mary's absorption in her studies places her as a foil to her sister Elizabeth Bennet's lively and distracted nature. Similarly, in Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, the character Brutus has foils in the two characters Cassius and Mark Antony. In the Harry Potter series, Draco Malfoy can be seen as a foil to the Harry Potter character; Professor Snape enables both characters "to experience the essential adventures of self-determination" but they make different choices.

— Freebase

Roman Empire

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The 500-year-old Roman Republic, which preceded it, had been destabilized through a series of civil wars. Several events marked the transition from Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator; the Battle of Actium; and the granting of the honorific Augustus to Octavian by the Roman Senate. The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest expanse during the reign of Trajan. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified and stabilized under the emperors Aurelian and Diocletian. Christians rose to power in the 4th century, during which time a system of dual rule was developed in the Latin West and Greek East. After the collapse of central government in the West in the 5th century, the eastern half continued as what would later be known as the Byzantine Empire.

— Freebase

Metamorphoses

Metamorphoses

The Metamorphoses is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus. Comprising fifteen books and over 250 myths, the poem chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework. Although meeting the criteria for an epic, the poem defies simple genre classification by its use of varying themes and tones. Ovid took inspiration from the genre of metamorphosis poetry, and some of the Metamorphoses derives from earlier treatment of the same myths; however, he diverged significantly from all of his models. Considered one of the most influential works in Western culture, the Metamorphoses has inspired such authors as Chaucer, Shakespeare, Dante and Boccaccio. Numerous episodes from the poem have been depicted in masterpieces of sculpture and painting by artists such as Titian. Although Ovid's reputation faded after the Renaissance, towards the end of the twentieth century there was a resurgence of interest in his work; today, the Metamorphoses continues to inspire and be retold through various media. The first translation of the Metamorphoses in English was by William Caxton in 1480.

— Freebase

Supermultiplet

Supermultiplet

In theoretical physics, a supermultiplet is a representation of a supersymmetry algebra. It consists of a collection of particles, called superpartners, corresponding to operators in a quantum field theory which in superspace are represented by superfields. Superfields were introduced by Abdus Salam and J. A. Strathdee in their 1974 article Supergauge Transformations. Operations on superfields and a partial classification were presented a few months later by Sergio Ferrara, Julius Wess and Bruno Zumino in Supergauge Multiplets and Superfields. The most commonly used supermultiplets are vector multiplets, linear multiplets, chiral multiplets, hypermultiplets, tensor multiplets and gravity multiplets. The highest component of a vector multiplet is a gauge boson, the highest component of a chiral or hypermultiplet is a spinor, the highest component of a gravity multiplet is a graviton. The names are defined so as to be invariant under dimensional reduction, although the organization of the fields as representations of the Lorentz group changes. Note, however, that the use of these names for the different multiplets can vary in literature. Sometimes a chiral multiplet can be referred to as a scalar multiplet. Also, in N=2 SUSY, a vector multiplet can sometimes be referred to as a chiral multiplet.

— Freebase

Acta Diurna

Acta Diurna

Acta Diurna were daily Roman official notices, a sort of daily gazette. They were carved on stone or metal and presented in message boards in public places like the Forum of Rome. They were also called simply Acta or Diurna or sometimes Acta Popidi or Acta Publica. The first form of Acta appeared around 131 BCE during the Roman Republic. Their original content included results of legal proceedings and outcomes of trials. Later the content was expanded to public notices and announcements and other noteworthy information such as prominent births, marriages and deaths. After a couple of days the notices were taken down and archived. Sometimes scribes made copies of the Acta and sent them to provincial governors for information. Later emperors used them to announce royal or senatorial decrees and events of the court. Other forms of Acta were legal, municipal and military notices. Acta Senatus were originally kept secret, until then-consul Julius Caesar made them public in 59 BC. Later rulers, however, often censored them. Publication of the Acta Diurna stopped when the seat of the emperor was moved to Constantinople.

— Freebase

Tiberius

Tiberius

Tiberius was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, great-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-great uncle of Nero. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."

— Freebase

Western Roman Empire

Western Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire was the western half of the Roman Empire, the other half being the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire. Administrative division of the sprawling Empire into a Western and Eastern half with co-emperors for each began under Diocletian in 285 and was periodically abolished and recreated for the next two centuries until final abolition by the Byzantine emperor Zeno in 480. By that time there was little effective central control left in the Western Empire. A Western Roman Empire existed intermittently in several periods between the 3rd and 5th centuries, after Diocletian's Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated with Constantine the Great and Julian the Apostate. Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. Eighty-five years later, Zeno recognized the reality of the Western Empire's reduced domain after the death of Western Emperor Julius Nepos, and ruled as sole emperor. The rise of Odoacer of the Foederati to rule over Italy in 476 was popularized by eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.

— Freebase

Tote board

Tote board

A tote board is a large numeric or alphanumeric display used to convey information, typically at a race track or at a telethon. The term "tote board" comes from the colloquialism for "totalizator", the name for the automated system which runs parimutuel betting, calculating payoff odds, displaying them, and producing tickets based on incoming bets. The first totalisator was invented by William Brownie Garden. The machine was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse in New Zealand in 1925, and the second was installed at Gloucester Park Racetrack in Western Australia in 1930. George Julius founded Automatic Totalisators Limited in 1917, which supplied the "Premier Totalisator: now including electrical components". The first totalisators installed in the United States were at Hialeah Park, Florida, in 1932, and at Arlington Park racecourse, Chicago, in 1933. The first entirely electronic totalisator was developed in 1966. Totalisators have been superseded by general purpose computers running specialised wagering software such as Autotote. In many cases beyond older systems, telethon tote boards have either been replaced by LCD displays showing totals, or scoreboards adapted to display dollar amounts.

— Freebase

Sistine Chapel

Sistine Chapel

Sistine Chapel is the best-known chapel of the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. It is famous for its architecture and its decoration that was frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and others. Under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted 1,100 m² of the chapel ceiling between 1508 and 1512. The ceiling, and especially The Last Judgment, is widely believed to be Michelangelo's crowning achievement in painting. The chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored the old Cappella Magna between 1477 and 1480. During this period a team of painters that included Pietro Perugino, Sandro Botticelli and Domenico Ghirlandaio created a series of frescoed panels depicting the life of Moses and the life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe l’oeil drapery below. These paintings were completed in 1482, and on 15 August 1483, Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

— Freebase

100s

100s

This is a list of events occurring in the 100s, ordered by year. ⁕Emperor Trajan and Sextus Julius Frontinus become Roman Consuls. ⁕Bricks become the primary building material in the Roman Empire. ⁕Pliny the Younger advances to consulship, giving his panegyric on Trajan in the process. ⁕The Roman Army reaches 300,000 soldiers. ⁕Tiberius Avidius Quietus' rule as governor of Roman Britain ends. ⁕Timgad, a Roman colonial town in North Africa is founded by Trajan. ⁕Trajan creates a policy intended to restore the former economic supremacy of Italy. ⁕Lions have become extinct in the Balkans by this date. Chief keef Bang Bang ⁕Pakores takes the throne. ⁕Paper is used by the general populace in China, starting around this year. ⁕The Kingdom of Himyarite is conquered by the Hadramaut. ⁕The Hopewell tradition begins in what is now Ohio circa this date. ⁕Teotihuacan, at the center of Mexico, reaches a population of 50,000. ⁕The Moche civilization emerges, and starts building a society in present-day Peru. ⁕In China, the wheelbarrow makes its first appearance. ⁕Main hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, is made. ⁕Appearance of the first Christian dogma and formulas regarding morality.

— Freebase

July

July

July is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with the length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honor of the Roman general, Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis. It is, on average, the warmest month in most of the Northern hemisphere and the coldest month in much of the Southern hemisphere. The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere. July starts on the same day of the week as April in a common year, and January in leap years. In a common year no other month ends on the same day as July, while in a leap year July ends on the same day of the week as January. The birthstone for July is a ruby. In the Northern Hemisphere: ⁕Dog days begin in early July, when the hot sultry weather of summer usually starts. ⁕Summer school is under way for many students in the USA. ⁕Spring lambs, born in late winter or early spring, are usually sold before July 1.

— Freebase

Calends

Calends

The calends were the first days of each month of the Roman calendar. The Romans assigned these calends to the first day of the month, signifying the start of the new moon cycle. On that day, the pontiffs would announce at the Curia Calabra the rest days for the upcoming month and the debtors had to pay off their debts that were inscribed in the kalendaria, a sort of accounts book. The date was measured forward to upcoming days such as the calends, nones or ides. Thus, while modern calendars count the number of days after the first of each month, III. Kal. Ian. would be December 30th, three days before the first of January. To find the day of the calends of the current month, one counts how many days remain in the month, and add two to that number. For example, April 22, is the 10th of the calends of May, because there are 8 days left in April, to which 2 being added, the sum is 10. Computation of the days of the month from calends can be done using the following verses: Principium mensis cujusque vocato kalendas: Sex Maius nonas, October, Julius, et Mars; Quattuor at reliqui: dabit idus quidlibet octo.

— Freebase

Donn

Donn

According to Irish mythology, Donn, or the Dark One, is the Lord of the Dead and father of Diarmuid Ua Duibhne, whom he gave to Aengus Óg to be nurtured. Donn is regarded as the father of the Irish race; a position similar to that of Dis Pater and the Gauls, as noted by Julius Caesar. Originally, Donn was the chief of the Sons of Mil, a mythological race who invaded Ireland, ousting the Tuatha Dé Danann. Donn slighted Ériu, one of the eponymous goddesses of Ireland, and he was drowned off the south-west coast of the island. A place near this spot, on a small rocky island named 'Tech nDuinn', became Donn's dwelling place as god of the dead. This house was the assembly place for the dead before they began the journey to the Otherworld. He is similar in some regards to the Hindu deity Yama. Knockfierna, County Limerick was Donn Fírinne's residence. Cnoc Fírinne takes its name from Donn, who is said to forewarn the local people of bad weather by gathering up rain clouds around him on the hill. In modern Irish, the word for the colour brown is "donn".

— Freebase

Florus

Florus

Lucius Annaeus Florus, Roman historian, lived in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. He was born in Africa. He compiled, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the closing of the temple of Janus by Augustus. The work, which is called Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum omnium annorum DCC Libri duo, is written in a bombastic and rhetorical style — a panegyric of the greatness of Rome, the life of which is divided into the periods of infancy, youth and manhood. It is often wrong in geographical and chronological details. In spite of its faults, the book was much used as a handy epitome of Roman history, in the Middle Ages and survived as a textbook into the nineteenth century. In the manuscripts the writer is variously named as Julius Florus, Lucius Anneus Florus, or simply Annaeus Florus. From certain similarities of style, he has been identified as Publius Annius Florus, poet, rhetorician and friend of Hadrian, author of a dialogue on the question of whether Virgil was an orator or poet, of which the introduction has been preserved. The most accessible modern text and translation are in the Loeb Classical Library.

— Freebase

Lethal injection

Lethal injection

Lethal injection is the practice of injecting a person with a fatal dose of drugs for the express purpose of causing the immediate death of the subject. The main application for this procedure is capital punishment, but the term may also be applied in a broad sense to euthanasia and suicide. It kills the person by first putting the person to sleep, and then stopping the breathing and heart, respectively. Lethal injection gained popularity in the late twentieth century as a form of execution intended to supplant other methods, notably electrocution, hanging, firing squad, gas chamber, and beheading, that were considered to be more painful. It is now the most common form of execution in the United States of America. The concept of lethal injection as a means of putting someone to death was first proposed on January 17, 1888, by Julius Mount Bleyer, a New York doctor who praised it as being cheaper than hanging. Bleyer's idea, however, was never used. The British Royal Commission on Capital Punishment also considered lethal injection, but eventually ruled out it after pressure from the British Medical Association.

— Freebase

Gnaeus Julius Agricola

Gnaeus Julius Agricola

Gnaeus Julius Agricola was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. Written by his son-in-law Tacitus, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae is the primary source for most of what is known about him, along with detailed archaeological evidence from northern Britain. Agricola began his military career in Britain, serving under governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. His subsequent career saw him serve in a variety of positions; he was appointed quaestor in Asia province in 64, then Plebeian Tribune in 66, and praetor in 68. He supported Vespasian during the Year of the Four Emperors, and was given a military command in Britain when the latter became emperor. When his command ended in 73, he was made patrician in Rome and appointed governor of Gallia Aquitania. He was made consul and governor of Britannia in 77. While there, he completed the conquest of what is now Wales and northern England, and led his army to the far north of Scotland, establishing forts across much of the Lowlands. He was recalled from Britain in 85 after an unusually lengthy service, and thereafter retired from military and public life.

— Freebase

Herbert Beerbohm Tree

Herbert Beerbohm Tree

Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree was an English actor and theatre manager. Tree began performing in the 1870s. By 1887, he was managing the Haymarket Theatre, winning praise for adventurous programming and lavish productions, and starring in many of its productions. In 1899, he helped fund the rebuilding, and became manager, of His Majesty's Theatre. Again, he promoted a mix of Shakespeare and classic plays with new works and adaptations of popular novels, giving them spectacular productions in this large house, and often playing leading roles. His wife, actress Helen Maud Holt, often played opposite him and assisted him with management of the theatres. Although Tree was regarded as a versatile and skilled actor, particularly in character roles, by his later years, his technique was seen as mannered and old fashioned. He founded the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in 1904 and was knighted, for his contributions to theatre, in 1909. His famous family includes his siblings, explorer Julius Beerbohm, author Constance Beerbohm and half-brother caricaturist Max Beerbohm. His daughters were Viola, an actress, Felicity and Iris, a poet; and his illegitimate children included film director Carol Reed. A grandson was the actor Oliver Reed.

— Freebase

Julian calendar

Julian calendar

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC. It took effect in 45 BC. It was the predominant calendar in most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was superseded by the Gregorian calendar. The Julian calendar has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in Table of months. A leap day is added to February every four years. The Julian year is, therefore, on average 365.25 days long. It was intended to approximate the tropical year. Although Greek astronomers had known, at least since Hipparchus, that the tropical year was a few minutes shorter than 365.25 days, the calendar did not compensate for this difference. As a result, the calendar year gained about three days every four centuries compared to observed equinox times and the seasons. This discrepancy was corrected by the Gregorian reform of 1582. The Gregorian calendar has the same months and month lengths as the Julian calendar, but inserts leap days according to a different rule. Consequently, the Julian calendar is currently 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar; for instance, 1 January in the Julian calendar is 14 January in the Gregorian.

— Freebase

With Love

With Love

"With Love" is a song recorded by American pop singer Hilary Duff. The song was written by Duff, Kara DioGuardi, Vada Nobles and Julius Diaz, and produced by Nobles and Logic for Duff's fourth studio album, Dignity. The song features heavy elements of dance music and electropop, in contrast to most of Duff's previous material, and it is a love song about a relationship in which one party appreciates criticism and advice from the other. The single was released to U.S. radio on February 20, 2007 and as a digital download on March 13, and it attracted positive comment from sources such as Billboard magazine and The New York Times. "With Love" peaked at #24 on the Billboard Hot 100 making it Duff's highest peaking single in the United States. The song is featured in the online Nexon America multiplayer dance competition game Audition Online and was used in the television commercial for it. It won in the category of Choice Music: Love Song at the 2007 Teen Choice Awards. Although, for her work on the song she received a MuchMusic Video Award, a Teen Choice Award, and was nominated for a MTV Latin America Video Music Award.

— Freebase

August

August

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with a length of 31 days. In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In common years no other month starts on the same day of the week as August, though in leap years February starts on the same day. August ends on the same day of the week as November every year. This month was originally named Sextilis in Latin, because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, when March was the first month of the year. About 700 BC it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 45 BC giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

— Freebase

Robert Oppenheimer

Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi, he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons. The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." After the war he became a chief advisor to the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission and used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and an arms race with the Soviet Union. After provoking the ire of many politicians with his outspoken opinions during the Second Red Scare, he had his security clearance revoked in a much-publicized hearing in 1954, and was effectively stripped of his direct political influence; he continued to lecture, write and work in physics. A decade later President John F. Kennedy awarded him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation.

— Freebase

Witching hour

Witching hour

With a modern literal meaning of "midnight," the term witching hour refers to the time of day when supernatural creatures such as witches, demons, and ghosts are thought to appear and to be at their most powerful and black magic to be most effective. It may be used to refer to any arbitrary time of bad luck or in which something bad has a greater likelihood to occur. One of the earliest, if not the first, appearances this term makes is in Washington Irving's short story The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Here, Irving uses "witching hour" and "witching time" interchangeably. Both terms reference midnight, and are used to conjure in readers a sense of supernatural anxiety. There is little evidence the term had any practical use prior to this; Irving may have coined the phrase after having grown up around New England and touring areas where the Salem Witch Trials took place. In several of Shakespeare's plays – specifically Macbeth and Julius Caesar – ghosts and other supernatural phenomena take place around midnight, but the term "witching hour" never appears. In the play Hamlet, we hear young Hamlet saying, "'Tis now the very witching time of night."

— Freebase

Pompey

Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. Military success in Sulla's Second Civil War led him to adopt the nickname Magnus, "the Great". He was consul three times, and celebrated three triumphs. In the mid-60 BC, Pompey joined Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius Caesar in the unofficial military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia helped secure. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire.

— Freebase

Schreibkraft

Schreibkraft

Schreibkraft is an Austrian literary magazine, which was founded in 1998 by the Literature Council of the Forum Stadtpark in Graz. The magazine prints feature articles. Since 1999 the edition schreibkraft is the publisher. Schreibkraft appears twice a year. Every issue has a specific topic. The essays and feature articles are chosen by the five editors. In addition, the magazine publishes some narrative texts and book reviews; the latter review primarily books from small publishing houses. Published authors stem from Austria, Switzerland and Germany. E.g. the following authors have published in Schreibkraft: Bettina Balàka, Moritz Baßler, Julian Blunk, Helwig Brunner, Thomas E. Brunnsteiner, Martin Büsser], Ann Cotten, Julius Deutschbauer & Gerhard Spring, Hans Durrer, Klaus Ebner, Helmut Eisendle, Bernhard Flieher, Franzobel, Harald A. Friedl, Brigitte Fuchs, Egyd Gstättner, Wolf Haas, Sonja Harter, Klaus_Händl, Christian Ide Hintze, Paulus Hochgatterer, Elfriede Jelinek, Ralf B. Korte, Christian Loidl, Friederike Mayröcker, Gisela Müller, Andreas Okopenko, Andreas R. Peternell, Claus Philipp, Peter Piller, Rosemarie Poiarkov, Wolfgang Pollanz, Birgit Pölzl, Manfred Prisching, Peter Rosei, Werner Schandor, Ferdinand Schmatz, Katja Schmid, Helmuth Schönauer, Franz Schuh, Werner Schwab, Gudrun Sommer, Enno Stahl, Christine Werner, Serjoscha Wiemer, and Christiane Zintzen.

— Freebase

Raphael, Santi

Raphael, Santi

celebrated painter, sculptor, and architect, born at Urbino, son of a painter; studied under Perugino for several years, visited Florence in 1504, and chiefly lived there till 1508, when he was called to Rome by Pope Julius II., where he spent the rest of his short life and founded a school, several of the members of which became eminent in art; he was one of the greatest of artists, and his works were numerous and varied, which included frescoes, cartoons, madonnas, portraits, easel pictures, drawings, &c., besides sculpture and architectural designs, and all within the brief period of 37 years; he had nearly finished "The Transfiguration" when he died of fever caught in the excavations of Rome; he was what might be called a learned artist, and his works were the fruits of the study of the masters that preceded him, particularly Perugino and the Florentines, and only in the end might his work be called his own; it is for this reason that modern Pre-Raphaelitism is so called, as presumed to be observant of the simple dictum of Ruskin, "Look at Nature with your own eyes, and paint only what yourselves see" (1483-1520). See Pre-Raphaelitism.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

— Freebase

70-79

70-79

This is a list of events occurring in the 70s, ordered by year. ⁕Emperor Vespasian and his son Caesar Vespasian become Roman Consuls. ⁕Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes. ⁕Sextus Julius Frontinus is praetor of Rome. Legio II Adiutrix is created from marines of Classis Ravennatis. ⁕Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis. ⁕April 14 – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus surrounds the Jewish capital, with three legions on the western side and a fourth on the Mount of Olives to the east. He puts pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover and then refusing them egress. ⁕May 10 – Titus opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem, he concentrates his attack on the city's Third Wall to the northwest. The Roman army tries to breach the wall using testudos, mantlets, siege towers, and battering rams.

— Freebase

Dumnorix

Dumnorix

Dumnorix was a chieftain of the Aedui, a Celtic tribe in Gaul in the 1st century B.C. He was strongly against alliance with the Romans, particularly Julius Caesar, who sparred with him on several occasions. Dumnorix, Orgetorix of the Helvetii and Casticus of the Sequani were said to be conspiring to establish a Gallic triumvirate to replace the existing magistracies of the Gallic peoples shortly before Caesar's governorship. To strengthen the alliance, Orgetorix gave Dumnorix his daughter in marriage. The conspiracy was discovered and put a stop to by the Helvetii. In 58 BC, the first year of Caesar's governorship, Dumnorix used his influence to persuade the Sequani to allow the Helvetii to migrate through their territory. Caesar opposed this migration militarily, and requested the Aedui, who were allies of Rome, to supply his soldiers with grain, but this was not forthcoming. Liscus, the chief magistrate or Vergobretus of the Aedui, revealed to Caesar that Dumnorix, who was very popular and influential, was responsible for the withholding of the supplies. Caesar also discovered that Dumnorix had been in command of a unit of cavalry, sent to his aid by the Aedui, whose flight had cost him a cavalry engagement. Dumnorix was spared any serious retribution at the request of his brother Diviciacus, who had good relations with Caesar and the Romans. Caesar agreed instead to place Dumnorix under surveillance.

— Freebase

Eurobond

Eurobond

A Eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued. Also called external bond; "external bonds which, strictly, are neither Eurobonds nor foreign bonds would also include: foreign currency denominated domestic bonds. . ." It can be categorised according to the currency in which it is issued. London is one of the centers of the Eurobond market, but Eurobonds may be traded throughout the world - for example in Singapore or Tokyo. Eurobonds are named after the currency they are denominated in. For example, Euroyen and Eurodollar bonds are denominated in Japanese yen and American dollars respectively. A Eurobond is normally a bearer bond, payable to the bearer. It is also free of withholding tax. The bank will pay the holder of the coupon the interest payment due. Usually, no official records are kept. The word Eurobond was originally created by Julius Strauss. The first European Eurobonds were issued in 1963 by Italian motorway network Autostrade. The $15 million six year loan was arranged by London bankers S. G. Warburg. The majority of Eurobonds are now owned in 'electronic' rather than physical form. The bonds are held and traded within one of the clearing systems. Coupons are paid electronically via the clearing systems to the holder of the Eurobond.

— Freebase

Populares

Populares

Populares were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power. They are regarded in modern scholarship as in opposition to the optimates, who are identified with the conservative interests of a senatorial elite. The populares themselves, however, were also of senatorial rank and might be patricians or noble plebeians. Populares addressed the problems of the urban plebs, particularly subsidizing a grain dole. They also garnered political support by attempts to expand citizenship to communities outside Rome and Italy. Popularist politics reached a peak under the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, who had relied on the support of the people in his rise to power. After the creation of the Second Triumvirate, the populares ceased to function as a political movement. Besides Caesar, notable populares included the Gracchi brothers, Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Publius Clodius Pulcher, and Marcus Licinius Crassus and Pompey. Both Pompey and Crassus had, however, fought on the side of Sulla during the civil war, and after the death of Crassus, Pompey eventually reverted to his position as a conservative optimas. These shifting allegiances are reminders that the designation populares refers as much to political tactics as to any perceived policy. Indeed Republican politicians 'had always been more divided on issues of style than of policy'.

— Freebase

Batgirl

Batgirl

Batgirl is the name of several fictional characters appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, depicted as female counterparts to the superhero Batman. Although the character Betty Kane was introduced into publication in 1961 by Bill Finger and Sheldon Moldoff as Bat-Girl, she is replaced by Barbara Gordon in 1967, who later came to be identified as the iconic Batgirl. Her creation came about as a joint project between DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz and the producers of the 1960s Batman television series. In order to boost ratings for the third season of Batman, the producers requested a new female character be introduced into publication that could be adapted into the television series. At Schwartz's direction, Barbara Gordon debuted in Detective Comics #359 titled, "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" by writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino. Depicted as the daughter of Gotham City police commissioner James Gordon, her civilian identity is given a doctorate in library science and she is employed as head of Gotham City Public Library, as well as later being elected to the United States Congress. As Batgirl, the character operates primarily in Gotham City, allying herself with Batman and the original Robin Dick Grayson, as well as other prominent heroes in the DC Universe.

— Freebase

Thallus

Thallus

Thallus, was an early historian who wrote in Koine Greek. Some scholars believe that his work can be interpreted as the earliest reference to the historical Jesus, and argue that it was written about 20 years after the Crucifixion. He wrote a three-volume history of the Mediterranean world from before the Trojan War to the 167th Olympiad, c. 112-109 BC. Most of his work, like the vast majority of ancient literature, perished, but not before parts of his writings were repeated by Sextus Julius Africanus in his History of the World. The works are considered important by Christian scholars because they believe them to help confirm the historicity of Jesus. Some people believe that Thallus details the crucifixion of Jesus but explains that the darkness that fell over the land at the time of Jesus' death was not a miracle as reported in the Canonical gospels, but merely an eclipse. However, this is impossible as only a lunar eclipse can occur at Passover, and lunar eclipses are not visible at mid day due to the moon being directly opposite the sun, and therefore below the horizon. An eclipse can therefore not be used to establish a pre-Markan origin for the story spoken of in the Gospel of Mark as some people claim.

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Batwoman

Batwoman

Batwoman is a fictional character, a superheroine who appears in comic books published by DC Comics. In all incarnations, Batwoman is a wealthy heiress who—inspired by the notorious superhero Batman—chooses, like him, to put her wealth and resources towards funding a war on crime in her home of Gotham City. The identity of Batwoman is shared by two heroines in mainstream DC publications; both women are named Katherine Kane, with the original Batwoman commonly referred to by her nickname Kathy and the modern incarnation going by the name Kate. Batwoman was created by Bob Kane and Sheldon Moldoff with writer Edmond Hamilton under the direction of editor Jack Schiff, as part of an ongoing effort to expand Batman's cast of supporting characters. Batwoman began appearing in DC Comics stories beginning with Detective Comics #233, in which she was introduced as a love interest for Batman in order to combat the allegations of Batman's homosexuality arising from the controversial book Seduction of the Innocent. When Julius Schwartz became editor of the Batman-related comic books in 1964, he removed non-essential characters including Batwoman, Bat-Girl, Bat-Mite, and Bat-Hound. Later, the 1985 limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths retroactively established that Batwoman had never existed, though her alter ego Kathy Kane continued to be referred to occasionally.

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Council of Trent

Council of Trent

The Council of Trent was an Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trento, Italy, then the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Trent of the Holy Roman Empire, between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods. During the pontificate of Pope Paul III, the Council fathers met for the first through eighth sessions in Trento, and for the ninth through eleventh sessions in Bologna. Under Pope Julius III, the Council met in Trento for the twelfth through sixteenth sessions, and under Pope Pius IV, the seventeenth through twenty-fifth sessions took place in Trento. The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It issued numerous reform decrees. By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes. The Council entrusted to the Pope the implementation of its work; as a result, Pope Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed in 1565; and Pope Pius V issued in 1566 the Roman Catechism, in 1568 a revised Roman Breviary, and in 1570 a revised Roman Missal. Through these the Tridentine Mass was standardized. In 1592, Pope Clement VIII issued a revised edition of the Vulgate Bible.

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Scabiosa

Scabiosa

Scabiosa is a genus in the teasel Family Dipsacaceae of flowering plants. Many of the species in this genus have common names that include the word scabious; however some plants commonly known as scabious are currently classified in related genera such as Knautia and Succisa; at least some of these were formerly placed in Scabiosa. Another common name for members of this genus is pincushion flowers. Members of this genus are native to Europe and Asia. Some species of Scabiosa, notably small scabious and Mediterranean sweet scabious have been developed into cultivars for gardeners. Scabiosa plants have many small flowers of soft lavender blue, lilac or creamy white colour borne in a single head on a tall stalk. Scabious flowers are nectar rich and attract a variety of insects including moths and butterflies such as the Six-spot Burnet. Scabiosa species are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Grey Pug. In 1782, a mysterious pale yellow scabious, called Scabiosa trenta, was described by Belsazar Hacquet, an Austrian physician, botanist, and mountaineer, in his work Plantae alpinae Carniolicae. It became a great source of inspiration for later botanists and mountaineers discovering the Julian Alps, especially Julius Kugy. The Austrian botanist Anton Kerner von Marilaun later proved Belsazar Hacquet had not found a new species, but a specimen of the already known submediterranean Cephalaria leucantha.

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Hexateuch

Hexateuch

The Hexateuch is the first six books of the Hebrew Bible. The term Hexateuch came into scholarly use from the 1870s onwards mainly as the result of work carried out by Abraham Kuenen and Julius Wellhausen. Following the work of Eichhorn, de Wette, Graf, Kuenen, Noldeke, Colenso and others, in his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels Wellhausen proposed that Joshua represented part of the northern Yahwist source, detached from JE document by the Deuteronomist and incorporated into the Deuteronomic history, with the books of Judges, Kings, and Samuel. Reasons for this unity, in addition to the presumed presence of the other documentary traditions, are taken from comparisons of the thematic concerns that underlie the narrative surface of the texts. For instance, the Book of Joshua stresses the continuity of leadership from Moses to Joshua. Furthermore the theme of Joshua, the fulfillment of God's promise to lead the Israelites to the Promised Land, complements the thematic material of the Pentateuch, which had ended with the Israelites on the border of the Promised Land ready to enter. The thesis that Joshua completes the Torah in a Hexateuch may be contrasted with the view of scholars following the older rabbinic tradition, as expressed by the compilers of the Jewish Encyclopedia, that the Pentateuch is a complete work in itself. The thesis may also be contrasted with the view put forward by Eduard Meyer that there never was any Hexateuch per se, but that the Law, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings once formed one great historic work.

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Scott Joplin

Scott Joplin

Scott Joplin was an African-American composer and pianist. Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and was later dubbed "The King of Ragtime". During his brief career, he wrote 44 original ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas. One of his first pieces, the "Maple Leaf Rag", became ragtime's first and most influential hit, and has been recognized as the archetypal rag. Joplin was born into a musical family of laborers in Northeast Texas, and developed his musical knowledge with the help of local teachers, most notably Julius Weiss. Joplin grew up in Texarkana, where he formed a vocal quartet, and taught mandolin and guitar. During the late 1880s he left his job as a laborer with the railroad, and travelled around the American South as an itinerant musician. He went to Chicago for the World's Fair of 1893, which played a major part in making ragtime a national craze by 1897. Joplin moved to Sedalia, Missouri, in 1894, and earned a living as a piano teacher, continuing to tour the South. In Sedalia, he taught future ragtime composers Arthur Marshall, Scott Hayden and Brun Campbell. Joplin began publishing music in 1895, and publication of his "Maple Leaf Rag" in 1899 brought him fame. This piece had a profound influence on subsequent writers of ragtime. It also brought the composer a steady income for life, though Joplin did not reach this level of success again and frequently had financial problems.

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Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was a proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious Reformation; but while he was critical of the abuses within the Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther and Melancthon and continued to recognise the authority of the pope. Erasmus emphasized a middle way, with a deep respect for traditional faith, piety and grace, and rejected Luther's emphasis on faith alone. Erasmus therefore remained a member of the Catholic Church all his life. In relation to clerical abuses in the Church, Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church from within. He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favour of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps.

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Druid

Druid

A druid was a member of the priestly class in Britain, Ireland, and Gaul, and possibly other parts of Celtic Europe and Galatia during the Iron Age and possibly earlier. Very little is known about the ancient druids. They left no written accounts of themselves and the only evidence is a few descriptions left by Greek, Roman and various scattered authors and artists, as well as stories created by later medieval Irish writers. While archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to the religious practices of the Iron Age people, "not one single artefact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids." Various recurring themes emerge in a number of the Greco-Roman accounts of the druids, including that they performed human sacrifice, believed in a form of reincarnation, and held a high position in Gaulish society. Next to nothing is known about their cultic practice, except for the ritual of oak and mistletoe as described by Pliny the Elder. The earliest known reference to the druids dates to 200 BCE, although the oldest actual description comes from the Roman military general Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Later Greco-Roman writers also described the druids, including Cicero, Tacitus and Pliny the Elder. Following the Roman invasion of Gaul, druidism was suppressed by the Roman government under the 1st century CE emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and it had disappeared from the written record by the 2nd century.

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Flattery

Flattery

Flattery is the act of giving excessive compliments, generally for the purpose of ingratiating oneself with the subject. Historically, flattery has been used as a standard form of discourse when addressing a king or queen. In the Renaissance, it was a common practice among writers to flatter the reigning monarch, as Edmund Spenser flattered Queen Elizabeth I in The Faerie Queene, William Shakespeare flattered King James I in Macbeth and Niccolò Machiavelli flattered Lorenzo II de' Medici, ruler of Florence and Duke of Urbino, in The Prince. Flattery is also used in pick-up lines when attempting to initiate romantic courtship. Most associations with flattery, however, are negative. Negative descriptions of flattery range at least as far back in history as The Bible. In the Divine Comedy, Dante depicts flatterers wading in human excrement, stating that their words were the equivalent of excrement, in the 8th Circle of Hell. An insincere flatterer is a stock character in many literary works. Examples include Wormtongue from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, Goneril and Regan from King Lear, and Iago from Othello. Historians and philosophers have paid attention to flattery as a problem in ethics and politics. Plutarch wrote an essay on "How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend." Julius Caesar was notorious for his flattery. In his Praise of Folly, Erasmus commended flattery because it "raises downcast spirits, comforts the sad, rouses the apathetic, stirs up the stolid, cheers the sick, restrains the headstrong, brings lovers together and keeps them united."

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Aureus

Aureus

The aureus was a gold coin of ancient Rome valued at 25 silver denarii. The aureus was regularly issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the solidus. The aureus is about the same size as the denarius, but is heavier due to the higher density of gold. Before the time of Julius Caesar the aureus was struck very infrequently, usually to make large payments from captured booty. Caesar struck the coin more frequently and standardized the weight at of a Roman pound. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 Aureus. The mass of the aureus was decreased to of a pound during the reign of Nero. After the reign of Marcus Aurelius the production of aurei decreased, and the weight was further decreased to of a pound by the time of Caracalla. During the 3rd century, gold pieces were introduced in a variety of fractions and multiples, making it hard to determine the intended denomination of a gold coin. The aureus was first introduced by Diocletian around 301 AD, struck at 60 to the Roman pound of pure gold and with an initial value equal to 1,000 denarii. However, Diocletian's solidus was struck only in small quantities, and thus had only minimal economic effect. The solidus was reintroduced by Constantine I in 312 AD, permanently replacing the aureus as the gold coin of the Roman Empire. The solidus was struck at a rate of 72 to a Roman pound of pure gold, each coin weighing twenty-four Greco-Roman carats, or about 4.5 grams of gold per coin. By this time, the solidus was worth 275,000 increasingly debased denarii.

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Augustus

Augustus

Augustus was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Born into an old, wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family, in 44 BC Augustus was adopted posthumously by his maternal great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar following Caesar's assassination. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Augustus in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

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Ferdinand Cohn

Ferdinand Cohn

Ferdinand Julius Cohn was a German biologist. He is one of the founders of modern bacteriology and microbiology. Ferdinand Cohn was born in the Jewish quarter of Breslau in the Prussian Province of Silesia. His father, Issak Cohn, was a successful merchant and manufacturer. At the age of 10 Ferdinand suffered hearing impairment. Starting at age 16 he studied botany under Heinrich Goppert at the University of Breslau. Due to Cohn's Jewish background he was prevented from taking the final degree examinations at Breslau. He then moved to the University of Berlin. At age 19 in 1847 he received a degree in botany at Berlin. He remained studying botany for another couple of years in Berlin, where he came in contact with many of the top scientists of his time. In 1849 he returned to the University of Breslau and he remained at that university for the rest of his career as a teacher and researcher. On his initial return to Breslau in his early twenties, his father had bought for him a large and expensive microscope made by Simon Plössl. This microscope, which the University of Breslau and most universities in did not have, was Ferdinanad Cohn's main research tool in the 1850s. In the 1850s he studied the growth and division of plant cells. In 1855 he produced papers on the sexuality of Sphaeroplea annulina and later Volvox globator. In the 1860s he studied plant physiology in several different aspects. From 1870 onward he mostly studied bacteria. He published over 150 research reports during his lifetime. The University of Breslau became an innovative center for plant physiology and microbiology while he was there.

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Ransom

Ransom

Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it can refer to the sum of money involved. In an early German law, a similar concept was called bad influence. Julius Caesar was captured by pirates near the island of Pharmacusa, and held until someone paid 50 talents to free him. In Europe during the Middle Ages, ransom became an important custom of chivalric warfare. An important knight, especially nobility or royalty, was worth a significant sum of money if captured, but nothing if he was killed. For this reason, the practice of ransom contributed to the development of heraldry, which allowed knights to advertise their identities, and by implication their ransom value, and made them less likely to be killed out of hand. Examples include Richard the Lion Heart and Bertrand du Guesclin. When ransom means "payment", the word comes via Old French rançon from Latin redemptio = "buying back": compare "redemption". In Judaism ransom is called kofer-nefesh. Among other uses, the word was applied to the poll tax of a half shekel to be paid by every male above twenty years at the census. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro was paid a ransom amounting to a roomful of gold by the Inca Empire before having their leader Atahualpa, his victim, executed in a ridiculous trial. The ransom payment received by Pizarro is recognized as the largest ever paid to a single individual, probably over $2 billion in today's economic markets.

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Coscinomancy

Coscinomancy

Coscinomancy is a form of divination utilising a sieve and shears, used in ancient Greece, medieval and early modern Europe and 17th century New England, to determine the guilty party in a criminal offense, find answers to questions, etc. The term comes into English via both New Latin and Medieval Latin coscinomantia, and is ultimately derived from the Ancient Greek koskinomantis a diviner using a sieve, from koskinon a sieve. The word is mention by a number of Ancient Greek writers, including Philippides, Julius Pollux, Lucianus and, most famously, Theocritus. One method of practising coscinomancy is clearly outlined in chapter xxi. of Cornelius Agrippa's Three Books of Occult Philosophy, 1533. Agrippa believed that the movement of the sieve was performed by a demon, and that the conjuration Dies, mies, jeschet, benedoefet, dowima, enitemaus actually compelled the demon to perform the task. He further notes that the words of this conjuration were understood neither by the speaker nor anyone else. The notion of a powerfully efficacious language of the spirit world is quite common in magic belief. The so-called Enochian language of the 16th century magician Edward Kelley, later revived by Aleister Crowley, is such a language. Kelley believed the Enochian words so powerful that he would communicate them to his cohort, Dr. John Dee, backwards, lest he unleash powers beyond control. This concept can also be seen in The Arabian Nights in which a sorceress takes some lake water in her hand and over it speaks "words not to be understood".

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Bona Dea

Bona Dea

Bona Dea was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in women, healing, and the protection of the Roman state and people. According to Roman literary sources, she was brought from Magna Graecia at some time during the early or middle Republic, and was given her own state cult on the Aventine Hill. Her rites allowed women the use of strong wine and blood-sacrifice, things otherwise forbidden them by Roman tradition. Men were barred from her mysteries and the possession of her true name. Given that male authors had limited knowledge of her rites and attributes, ancient speculations about her identity abound, among them that she was an aspect of Terra, Ops, the Magna Mater, or Ceres, or a Latin form of Damia. Most often, she was identified as the wife, sister or daughter of the god Faunus, thus an equivalent or aspect of the nature-goddess Fauna, who could prophesy the fates of women. The goddess had two annual festivals. One was held at her Aventine temple; the other was hosted by the wife of Rome's senior annual magistrate, for an invited group of elite matrons and female attendants. The latter festival came to scandalous prominence in 62 BC, when the politician Clodius Pulcher was tried for his intrusion on the rites, allegedly bent on the seduction of Julius Caesar's wife, whom Caesar later divorced because "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion". The rites remained a subject of male curiosity and speculation, both religious and prurient.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 6.5 million square kilometers during its height between the first and second centuries AD. In its approximately twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an aristocratic republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, Augustus, etc. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.

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Flavian dynasty

Flavian dynasty

The Flavian dynasty was a Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and AD 96, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian, and his two sons Titus and Domitian. The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian Emperor in his place. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December 20. The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign. The reign of Titus was struck by multiple natural disasters, the most severe of which was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79. The surrounding cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were completely buried under ash and lava. One year later, Rome was struck by fire and a plague. On the military front, the Flavian dynasty witnessed the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70, following the failed Jewish rebellion of 66. Substantial conquests were made in Britain under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola between 77 and 83, while Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against King Decebalus in the war against the Dacians. In addition, the Empire strengthened its border defenses by expanding the fortifications along the Limes Germanicus.

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Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich was an Austrian psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of psychoanalysts after Sigmund Freud, and one of the most radical figures in the history of psychiatry. He was the author of several influential books and essays, most notably Character Analysis, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, and The Sexual Revolution. His work on character contributed to the development of Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, and his idea of muscular armour – the expression of the personality in the way the body moves – shaped innovations such as body psychotherapy, Fritz Perls's Gestalt therapy, Alexander Lowen's bioenergetic analysis, and Arthur Janov's primal therapy. His writing influenced generations of intellectuals: during the 1968 student uprisings in Paris and Berlin, students scrawled his name on walls and threw copies of The Mass Psychology of Fascism at the police. After graduating in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1922, Reich studied neuropsychiatry under Julius Wagner-Jauregg and became deputy director of the Vienna Ambulatorium, Freud's psychoanalytic outpatient clinic. Described by Elizabeth Danto as a large man with a cantankerous style who managed to look scruffy and elegant at the same time, he tried to reconcile psychoanalysis with Marxism, arguing that neurosis is rooted in physical, sexual and socio-economic conditions, and in particular in a lack of what he called "orgastic potency." He visited patients in their homes to see how they lived, and took to the streets in a mobile clinic, promoting adolescent sexuality and the availability of contraceptives, abortion and divorce, a provocative message in Catholic Austria. He said he wanted to "attack the neurosis by its prevention rather than treatment."

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Loire

Loire

The Loire is the longest river in France. With a length of 1,012 kilometres, it drains an area of 117,054 km², which represents more than a fifth of France's land area. It is the 170th longest river in the world. It rises in the Cévennes in the département of Ardèche at 1,350 m near Mont Gerbier de Jonc, and flows for over 1,000 km north through Nevers to Orléans, then west through Tours and Nantes until it reaches the Bay of Biscay at St Nazaire. Its main tributaries include the Maine, Nièvre and the Erdre rivers on its right bank, and the Allier, Cher, Indre, Vienne, and the Sèvre Nantaise rivers from the left bank. The Loire gives its name to six départements: Loire, Haute-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, and Saône-et-Loire. The central part of the Loire Valley was added to the World Heritage Sites list of UNESCO on December 2, 2000. The banks are characterized by vineyards and chateaux in the Loire Valley. Historicity of the Loire River valley begins with the earliest Middle Palaeolithic period 40–90 ka, followed by the modern humans, succeeded by the Neolithic period of the Stone Age and the Gauls, the inhabitants in the Loire during the Iron Age, in the period between 1500 and 500 BC. Gauls made it a major naval trading route by 600 BC, establishing trade with the Greeks on the Mediterranean coast. Gallic rule ended in the valley in 56 BC with Julius Caesar winning over this territory. Christianity made entry into this valley from 3rd century AD with many saints converting the pagans. It was the time when the wineries also came to be established in the valley.

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Orson Welles

Orson Welles

George Orson Welles was an American actor, director, writer and producer who worked extensively in theater, radio and film. He is best remembered for his innovative work in all three media, most notably Caesar, a groundbreaking Broadway adaption of Julius Caesar and the debut of the Mercury Theatre; The War of the Worlds, one of the most famous broadcasts in the history of radio; and Citizen Kane, which is consistently ranked as one of the all-time greatest films. After directing a number of high-profile productions in his early twenties, including an innovative adaptation of Macbeth and The Cradle Will Rock, Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds performed for the radio drama anthology series Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was reported to have caused widespread panic when listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was occurring. Although these reports of panic were mostly false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to instant notoriety. His first film was Citizen Kane, which he co-wrote, produced, directed, and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles was always an outsider to the studio system and directed only 13 full-length films in his career. While he struggled for creative control in the face of studios, many of his films were heavily edited and others were left unreleased. His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, innovative uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots, and long takes. He has been praised as a major creative force and as "the ultimate auteur." Welles followed up Citizen Kane with other critically acclaimed films, including The Magnificent Ambersons in 1942, and Touch of Evil in 1958.

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Klaus Fuchs

Klaus Fuchs

Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who in 1950 was convicted of supplying information from the American, British and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after the Second World War. While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fuchs was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first nuclear weapons and later the early models of the hydrogen bomb. The son of a Lutheran pastor, Fuchs attended the University of Leipzig, where his father was a professor of theology, and became involved in student politics, joining the student branch of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, and the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the SPD's paramilitary organisation. He was expelled from the SPD in 1932, and joined the Communist Party of Germany. He went into hiding after the Reichstag fire, and fled to England, where he received his PhD from the University of Bristol under the supervision of Nevill Mott, and his DSc from the University of Edinburgh, where he worked as an assistant to Max Born. After the Second World War broke out in Europe, he was interned on the Isle of Man, and later in Canada. After he returned to Britain in 1941, he became an assistant to Rudolf Peierls, working on "Tube Alloys" – the British atomic bomb project. He began passing information on the project to the Soviet Union through Ruth Kuczynski, codenamed "Sonia", a German communist and a major in Soviet Military Intelligence who had worked with Richard Sorge's spy ring in the Far East. In 1943, Fuchs and Peierls went to Columbia University, in New York City, to work on the Manhattan Project. In August 1944 Fuchs joined the Theoretical Physics Division at the Los Alamos Laboratory, working under Hans Bethe. His chief area of expertise was the problem of imploding, necessary for the development of the plutonium bomb. After the war he worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as the head of the Theoretical Physics Division.

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Eclogues

Eclogues

The Eclogues, also called the Bucolics, is the first of the three major works of the Latin poet Virgil. Taking as his generic model the Greek Bucolica by Theocritus, Virgil created a Roman version partly by offering a dramatic and mythic interpretation of revolutionary change at Rome in the turbulent period between roughly 44 and 38 BC. Virgil introduced political clamor largely absent from Theocritus' poems, called idylls, even though erotic turbulence disturbs the "idyllic" landscapes of Theocritus. Virgil's book contains ten pieces, each called not an idyll but an eclogue, populated by and large with herdsmen imagined conversing and performing amoebaean singing in largely rural settings, whether suffering or embracing revolutionary change or happy or unhappy love. Performed with great success on the Roman stage, they feature a mix of visionary politics and eroticism that made Virgil a celebrity, legendary in his own lifetime. Capping a sequence or cycle in which Virgil created and augmented a new political mythology, "Eclogue 4" reaches out to imagine a golden age ushered in by the birth of a boy heralded as "great increase of Jove," which ties in with divine associations claimed in the propaganda of Octavian, the ambitious young heir to Julius Caesar. The poet makes this notional scion of Jove the occasion to predict his own metabasis up the scale in epos, rising from the humble range of the bucolic to the lofty range of the heroic, potentially rivaling Homer: he thus signals his own ambition to make Roman epic that will culminate in the Aeneid. In the surge of ambition, Virgil also projects defeating the legendary poet Orpheus and his mother, the epic muse Calliope, as well as Pan, the inventor of the bucolic pipe, even in Pan's homeland of Arcadia, which Virgil will claim as his own at the climax of his eclogue book in the tenth eclogue. Biographical identification of the fourth eclogue's child has proved elusive; but the figure proved a convenient link between traditional Roman authority and Christianity. The connection is first made in the Oration of Constantine appended to the Life of Constantine by Eusebius of Caesarea. Some scholars have also remarked similarities between the eclogue's prophetic themes and the words of Isaiah 11:6: "a little child shall lead."

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Hasmonean dynasty

Hasmonean dynasty

The Hasmonean dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity. Between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE, the dynasty ruled semi-autonomously from the Seleucids in the region of Judea. From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded into the neighbouring regions of Galilee, Iturea, Perea, Idumea and Samaria, and took the title "basileus". Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. In 63 BCE, the kingdom was conquered by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. The Kingdom had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian Dynasty in 37 BCE. Even then, Herod the Great tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess, Mariamne, and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace. The dynasty was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after his brother Judas the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army during the Maccabean Revolt. According to historical sources, including 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees and the first book of The Wars of the Jews by Jewish historian Josephus, after Antiochus IV's successful invasion of Ptolemaic Egypt was turned back by the intervention of the Roman Republic, Antiochus instead moved to assert strict control over Israel, sacking Jerusalem and its Temple, suppressing Jewish religious and cultural observances, and imposing Hellenistic practices. The ensuing revolt by the Jews began a twenty-five-year period of Jewish independence potentiated by the steady collapse of the Seleucid Empire under attacks from the rising powers of the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire. However, the same power vacuum that enabled the Jewish state to be recognized by the Roman Senate c. 139 BCE was later exploited by the Romans themselves. Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, Simon's great-grandsons, became pawns in a proxy war between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. The deaths of Pompey, Caesar, and the related Roman civil wars temporarily relaxed Rome's grip on Israel, allowing a very brief Hasmonean resurgence backed by the Parthian Empire. This short independence was rapidly crushed by the Romans under Mark Antony and Octavian. The installation of Herod the Great as king in 37 BCE made Israel a Roman client state and marked the end of the Hasmonean dynasty. In AD 6, Rome joined Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea into the Roman province of Iudaea. In AD 44, Rome installed the rule of a Roman procurator side by side with the rule of the Herodian kings.

— Freebase

Shakespeare, William

Shakespeare, William

great world-poet and dramatist, born in Stratford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire; his father, John Shakespeare, a respected burgess; his mother, Mary Arden, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer, through whom the family acquired some property; was at school at Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, a yeoman's daughter, at 18, she eight years older, and had by her three daughters; left for London somewhere between 1585 and 1587, in consequence, it is said, of some deer-stealing frolic; took charge of horses at the theatre door, and by-and-by became an actor. His first work, "Venus and Adonis," appeared in 1593, and "Lucrece" the year after; became connected with different theatres, and a shareholder in certain of them, in some of which he took part as actor, with the result, in a pecuniary point of view, that he bought a house in his native place, extended it afterwards, where he chiefly resided for the ten years preceding his death. Not much more than this is known of the poet's external history, and what there is contributes nothing towards accounting for either him or the genius revealed in his dramas. Of the man, says Carlyle, "the best judgment not of this country, but of Europe at large, is slowly pointing to the conclusion that he is the chief of all poets hitherto—the greatest intellect, in our recorded world, that has left record of himself in the way of literature. On the whole, I know not such a power of vision, such a faculty of thought, if we take all the characters of it, in any other man—such a calmness of depth, placid, joyous strength, all things in that great soul of his so true and clear, as in a tranquil, unfathomable sea.... It is not a transitory glance of insight that will suffice; it is a deliberate illumination of the whole matter; it is a calmly seeing eye—a great intellect, in short.... It is in delineating of men and things, especially of men, that Shakespeare is great.... The thing he looks at reveals not this or that face, but its inmost heart, its generic secret; it dissolves itself as in light before him, so that he discerns the perfect structure of it.... It is a perfectly level mirror we have here; no twisted, poor convex-concave mirror reflecting all objects with its own convexities and concavities, that is to say, withal a man justly related to all things and men, a good man.... And his intellect is an unconscious intellect; there is more virtue in it than he himself is aware of.... His art is not artifice; the noblest worth of it is not there by plan or pre-contrivance. It grows up from the deeps of Nature, through this noble sincere soul, who is a voice of Nature.... It is Nature's highest reward to a true, simple, great soul that he got thus to be part of herself." Of his works nothing can or need be said here; enough to add, as Carlyle further says, "His works are so many windows through which we see a glimpse of the world that was in him.... Alas! Shakespeare had to write for the Globe Playhouse; his great soul had to crush itself, as it could, into that and no other mould. It was with him, then, as it is with us all. No man works save under conditions. The sculptor cannot set his own free thought before us, but his thought as he could translate into the stone that was given, with the tools that were given. Disjecta membra are all that we find of any poet, or of any man." Shakespeare's plays, with the order of their publication, are as follows: "Love's Labour's Lost," 1590; "Comedy of Errors," 1591; 1, 2, 3 "Henry VI.," 1590-1592; "Two Gentlemen of Verona," 1592-1593; "Midsummer-Night's Dream," 1593-1594; "Richard III.," 1593; "Romeo and Juliet," 1591-1596 (?); "Richard II.," 1594; "King John," 1595; "Merchant of Venice," 1596; 1 and 2 "Henry IV.," 1597-1598; "Henry V.," 1599; "Taming of the Shrew," 1597 (?); "Merry Wives of Windsor," 1598; "Much Ado about Nothing," 1598; "As You Like It," 1599; "Twelfth Night," 1600-1601; "Julius Cæsar," 1601; "All's Well," 1601-1602 (?); "Hamlet," 1602, "Measure for Measure," 1603; "Troilus and Cressida," 1603-1607 (?); "Othello," 1604; "Lear," 1605; "Macbeth," 1606; "Antony and Cleopatra," 1607; "Coriolanus," 1608; "Timon," 1608; "Pericles," 1608; "Cymbeline," 1609; "Tempest," 1610; "Winter's Tale," 1610-1611; "Henry VIII.," 1612-1613 (1564-1616).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia


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