Definitions containing bürger, gottfried august

We've found 250 definitions:

Whopper

Whopper

The Whopper sandwich is the signature hamburger product sold by the international fast-food restaurant chain Burger King and its Australian franchise Hungry Jack's. Introduced in 1957, it has undergone several reformulations including resizing and bread changes. The burger is one of the best known products in the fast food industry; it is so well known that Burger King bills itself as the Home of the Whopper in its advertising and signage. The company markets several variants of the burger as well as other variants that are specifically tailored to meet local taste preferences or customs of the various regions and countries in which it does business. To promote continuing interest in the product, Burger King occasionally releases limited-time variants on the Whopper.

— Freebase

Cheeseburger

Cheeseburger

A cheeseburger is a hamburger topped with cheese. Traditionally, the slice of cheese is placed on top of the meat patty, but the burger can include many variations in structure, ingredients, and composition. The term itself is a portmanteau of the words "cheese" and "hamburger." The cheese is usually cubed, and then added to the cooking hamburger patty shortly before the patty is completely cooked which allows the cheese to melt. Cheeseburgers are often served with lettuce, tomato, onion, pickles, mustard, mayonnaise, or ketchup. In fast food restaurants, the cheese used is typically processed cheese, but there are variations, such as cheddar, Swiss cheese, mozzarella, blue cheese and pepper jack. When cheese is added to a burger the nutritional value of the burger can be changed substantially. For example, a slice of Cheddar cheese can add 113 calories and 4.5 grams of saturated fat to a burger. Other types and amounts of cheese would have varying effects, depending on their nutritional content.

— Freebase

Transfiguration

Transfiguration

The miraculous event, on a mountain, when the face of Jesus "shone like the sun" before the apostles; the feast commemorating this event u2013 6 August (or 19 August in the Orthodox church)

— Wiktionary

VJ Day

VJ Day

Victory over Japan day, being 15 August 1945, or in the US 14 August 1945, the day after Japanese forces surrendered in World War II.

— Wiktionary

Leibnizian

Leibnizian

Of or relating to the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

— Wiktionary

Nieco

Nieco

Nieco is a commercial kitchen equipment manufacturer specializing in automatic broilers. Based in Windsor, California, the company was founded in 1905 as a sheet metal manufacturer. The company counts major companies as A&W Restaurants, Burger King, Burger Ranch, Dairy Queen, Red Robin and others as its clients.

— Freebase

Frita

Frita

Frita is a Cuban dish with a seasoned ground beef patty on Cuban bread topped with shoestring potatoes, lettuce, onions, and a spiced ketchup sauce. A similar dish on Cuban bread is called pan con bistec topped with the shoestring potatoes. This type of burger is found mainly in South Florida. This burger is usually washed down with a batido de trigo, a Cuban puffed wheat milk shake. ⁕One of many burgers featured in Hamburgers and Fries by John T. Edge. Frita along with Loco Moco, Jucy Lucy, green chile burgers at Bobcat Bite, and the fried onion burgers of El Reno, Oklahoma are considered some of the unique regional takes on the hamburger in the United States.

— Freebase

Hamburger

Hamburger

A hamburger is a sandwich consisting of a cooked patty of ground meat usually placed inside a sliced hamburger bun. Hamburgers are often served with lettuce, bacon, tomato, onion, pickles, cheese and condiments such as mustard, mayonnaise, ketchup and relish. The term "burger", can also be applied to the meat patty on its own, especially in the UK where the term "patty" is rarely used. The term may be prefixed with the type of meat as in "turkey burger".

— Freebase

Druther's

Druther's

Druther's was a chain of fast food restaurants that began as Burger Queen restaurants; it existed from 1963 through 1981. The name was a play on the word druthers, and their mascot was a giant female bee named Queenie Bee. In 1981, Burger Queen changed to Druther's restaurants, although the changes were mostly cosmetic. One reason given for the name change was to eliminate the perception that they were "just burgers", when they also had fried chicken and a serve-yourself salad bar. Druther's featured a character named "Andy Dandytale" on their kids meal items. Their slogan was "I'd Ruther Go to Druther's."

— Freebase

Veggie burger

Veggie burger

A veggie burger is a hamburger-style, or chicken-style, patty that does not contain animal flesh, but may contain animal products such as rennet, egg, and milk. The patty of a veggie burger may be made from vegetables, textured vegetable protein, legumes, nuts, mushrooms, or grains or seeds, like wheat and flax.

— Freebase

Tin Hat

Tin Hat

Tin Hat is an acoustic chamber music group currently based in San Francisco, California. Their music combines many genres of music, including southern blues, bluegrass, neoclassical, eastern European folk music, and avant-garde. Since its formation in 1997, the original Tin Hat Trio has often expanded its trio format by inviting other musicians to join them. All five of their CDs feature guests, among them Mike Patton, Tom Waits and Willie Nelson, as well as friends like clarinetist Ben Goldberg and harpist Zeena Parkins. Parkins appears on 2002's The Rodeo Eroded and 2004's Book of Silk and has performed live with the trio as the resident sound effects artist in their live music/silent film projects. Goldberg has been a frequent guest of Tin Hat Trio and contributed to both Memory is an Elephant and The Rodeo Eroded. When founding member Rob Burger left the trio in late 2004, Mark Orton and Carla Kihlstedt replaced him with both Goldberg and Parkins, presenting a new, though closely related, ensemble—the Tin Hat Quartet—for two short concert tours in the U.S. in January and April 2005. While on tour, they invited another musician to come under their hat, San Francisco's Ara Anderson—known as one of Tom Waits' favorite sidemen in recent years. Like the departed Burger, Anderson plays myriad keyed instruments as well as trumpet and glockenspiel, thus adding new colors and strokes to the already large canvas of Tin Hat's sound.

— Freebase

Damnum absque injuria

Damnum absque injuria

In law, damnum absque injuria is a phrase expressing the principle of tort law in which some person causes damage or loss to another, but does not injure them, and thus the latter has no legal remedy. For example, opening a burger stand near someone else's may cause them to lose customers, but this in itself does not give rise to a cause of action for the original burger stand owner.

— Freebase

Smashburger

Smashburger

Smashburger is an innovative restaurant concept that is redefining its category by providing a burger experience that combines the superior product, service and atmosphere associated with sit down casual dining and the speed and convenience associated with quick service restaurants. With its hand-crafted menu items ranging from smashed-to-order burgers, hand-spun Haagen-Dazs shakes, chicken sandwiches, salads, and sides made with fresh, premium ingredients and served in less than six minutes, Smashburger is putting the burger back at the center of the consumer dining experience. As the fastest restaurant company to reach the 100-unit milestone, Smashburger is well on its way to becoming a leading international brand.

— CrunchBase

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend. Gottfried's work is regarded, alongside Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Nibelungenlied, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages. He is probably also the composer of a small number of surviving lyrics. His work became a source of inspiration for Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde.

— Freebase

Amber Room

Amber Room

The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was created in the 18th century, disappeared during World War II, and was recreated in 2003. Before it was lost, the Amber Room was sometimes dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" due to its singular beauty. Construction of the Amber Room began in 1701 to 1711 in Prussia. The room was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas Schlüter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram in the service of the Prussian king worked on it until 1707, then work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig. The amber cabinet remained in Berlin City Palace until 1716 when it was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia it was expanded and after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was finished in 1755 and restored in 1830. The Amber Room was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany and brought to Königsberg. Knowledge of its whereabouts was lost in the chaos at the end of the war.

— Freebase

leibnitzian

Leibnizian, Leibnitzian

of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy

— Princeton's WordNet

leibnizian

Leibnizian, Leibnitzian

of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy

— Princeton's WordNet

month

month

A period into which a year is divided, historically based on the phases of the moon. In the Gregorian calendar there are twelve months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December.

— Wiktionary

July

July

The seventh month of the Gregorian calendar, following June and preceding August. Abbreviation: Jul or Jul.

— Wiktionary

September

September

The ninth month of the Gregorian calendar, following August and preceding October. Abbreviations: Sep or Sep., Sept or Sept.

— Wiktionary

winter

winter

Traditionally the fourth of the four seasons, typically regarded as being from December 23 to March 20 in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere or the months of June, July and August in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the time when the sun is lowest in the sky, resulting in short days, and the time of year with the lowest atmospheric temperatures for the region.

— Wiktionary

mid-August

mid-August

Any time in the middle of August.

— Wiktionary

mid-August

mid-August

In the middle of August.

— Wiktionary

mid-August

mid-August

Happening in the middle of August.

— Wiktionary

Nagasaki

Nagasaki

A large city in Western Kyushu, in Japan; it was annihilated by the second military use of the atomic bomb on August 9, 1945.

— Wiktionary

Lammas

Lammas

(England) former festival held on 1st August celebrating the harvest.

— Wiktionary

Lammas

Lammas

1st August, a quarter day

— Wiktionary

Lammas

Lammas

A modern pagan festival celebrated in early August celebrating the start of the grain harvest.

— Wiktionary

Virgo

Virgo

: The zodiac sign for the virgin, ruled by Mercury and covering August 22September 23.

— Wiktionary

Little Boy

Little Boy

The nickname of the nuclear bomb dropped over Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945.

— Wiktionary

Fat Man

Fat Man

The nickname given to the nuclear bomb dropped over Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945.

— Wiktionary

wayzgoose

wayzgoose

a holiday or party for the benefit of printers, traditionally held in August

— Wiktionary

Hiroshima

Hiroshima

A city in Honshu, Japan, devastated by the first atomic bomb dropped in warfare on August 6, 1945.

— Wiktionary

VP Day

VP Day

Victory in the Pacific day, being 15 August 1945, the day after Japanese forces surrendered in World War II.

— Wiktionary

augustly

augustly

In an august or awe inspiring manner.

— Wiktionary

augustness

augustness

The state or quality of being august or noble.

— Wiktionary

Adyghe Autonomous Oblast

Adyghe Autonomous Oblast

Autonomous oblast of the Soviet Union in the Russian SFSR established on August 24, 1922 and existing until July 3, 1991, when it was elevated to the status of a republic and renamed Republic of Adygea.

— Wiktionary

Thermidor

Thermidor

The eleventh month of the French Republican Calendar, from July 19 or 20 to August 18 or 19.

— Wiktionary

Fructidor

Fructidor

The twelfth and final month of the French Republican Calendar, starting on August 18 or 19.

— Wiktionary

onion dome

onion dome

An onion-shaped dome, characteristic of august buildings in Moghul and Russian architecture

— Wiktionary

Augusty

Augusty

characteristic of the month of August

— Wiktionary

saga

saga

[WPI] A cuspy but bogus raving story about N random broken people.Here is a classic example of the saga form, as told by Guy L. Steele:Jon L. White (login name JONL) and I (GLS) were office mates at MIT for many years. One April, we both flew from Boston to California for a week on research business, to consult face-to-face with some people at Stanford, particularly our mutual friend Richard P. Gabriel (RPG).RPG picked us up at the San Francisco airport and drove us back to Palo Alto (going logical south on route 101, parallel to El Camino Bignum). Palo Alto is adjacent to Stanford University and about 40 miles south of San Francisco. We ate at The Good Earth, a ‘health food’ restaurant, very popular, the sort whose milkshakes all contain honey and protein powder. JONL ordered such a shake — the waitress claimed the flavor of the day was “lalaberry”. I still have no idea what that might be, but it became a running joke. It was the color of raspberry, and JONL said it tasted rather bitter. I ate a better tostada there than I have ever had in a Mexican restaurant.After this we went to the local Uncle Gaylord's Old Fashioned Ice Cream Parlor. They make ice cream fresh daily, in a variety of intriguing flavors. It's a chain, and they have a slogan: “If you don't live near an Uncle Gaylord's — MOVE!” Also, Uncle Gaylord (a real person) wages a constant battle to force big-name ice cream makers to print their ingredients on the package (like air and plastic and other non-natural garbage). JONL and I had first discovered Uncle Gaylord's the previous August, when we had flown to a computer-science conference in Berkeley, California, the first time either of us had been on the West Coast. When not in the conference sessions, we had spent our time wandering the length of Telegraph Avenue, which (like Harvard Square in Cambridge) was lined with picturesque street vendors and interesting little shops. On that street we discovered Uncle Gaylord's Berkeley store. The ice cream there was very good. During that August visit JONL went absolutely bananas (so to speak) over one particular flavor, ginger honey.Therefore, after eating at The Good Earth — indeed, after every lunch and dinner and before bed during our April visit — a trip to Uncle Gaylord's (the one in Palo Alto) was mandatory. We had arrived on a Wednesday, and by Thursday evening we had been there at least four times. Each time, JONL would get ginger honey ice cream, and proclaim to all bystanders that “Ginger was the spice that drove the Europeans mad! That's why they sought a route to the East! They used it to preserve their otherwise off-taste meat.” After the third or fourth repetition RPG and I were getting a little tired of this spiel, and began to paraphrase him: “Wow! Ginger! The spice that makes rotten meat taste good!” “Say! Why don't we find some dog that's been run over and sat in the sun for a week and put some ginger on it for dinner?!” “Right! With a lalaberry shake!” And so on. This failed to faze JONL; he took it in good humor, as long as we kept returning to Uncle Gaylord's. He loves ginger honey ice cream.Now RPG and his then-wife KBT (Kathy Tracy) were putting us up (putting up with us?) in their home for our visit, so to thank them JONL and I took them out to a nice French restau

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

double double

double double

A double cheeseburger with cheese on each burger (i.e., double cheese).

— Wiktionary

Whopper

Whopper

A hamburger from the fast food company Burger King

— Wiktionary

White Castle

White Castle

The first fast-food hamburger chain and one of the oldest American fast-food restaurant chains, known for its Slyder, a small square burger.

— Wiktionary

quarter-pounder

quarter-pounder

A burger weighing approximately a quarter of a pound.

— Wiktionary

beanburger

beanburger

A vegetarian burger made from beans.

— Wiktionary

crab burger

crab burger

a burger with crab meat inside of it

— Wiktionary

mooseburger

mooseburger

A burger made from moose meat

— Wiktionary

nonburger

nonburger

Not a burger, or not specializing in burgers

— Wiktionary

whaleburger

whaleburger

A burger made with the meat of a whale.

— Wiktionary

soyburger

soyburger

A vegetarian burger made from soy.

— Wiktionary

burgerless

burgerless

Without a burger or burgers.

— Wiktionary

lamburger

lamburger

A burger made with lamb instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

fishburger

fishburger

A burger made with fish instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

tofuburger

tofuburger

A vegetarian burger using tofu in place of meat.

— Wiktionary

steakburger

steakburger

A burger made with ground beef from a better-than-usual cut.

— Wiktionary

porkburger

porkburger

A burger made with pork instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

chiliburger

chiliburger

A burger made of chili con carne

— Wiktionary

turkeyburger

turkeyburger

A burger made with turkey instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

mushroomburger

mushroomburger

A burger made with mushrooms in addition to, or instead of, meat.

— Wiktionary

salmonburger

salmonburger

A burger made with salmon instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

vealburger

vealburger

A burger made with veal.

— Wiktionary

venisonburger

venisonburger

A burger made with venison instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

shrimpburger

shrimpburger

A burger made with shrimp instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

duckburger

duckburger

A burger made with duck meat

— Wiktionary

veggie burger

veggie burger

A burger containing a patty made without meat or other animal products.

— Wiktionary

veggie burger

veggie burger

A burger patty made without meat or other animal products.

— Wiktionary

horseburger

horseburger

A burger made from horsemeat.

— Wiktionary

goatburger

goatburger

A burger made from goat meat.

— Wiktionary

fishwich

fishwich

A burger with a filling of breaded fish.

— Wiktionary

clamburger

clamburger

A burger made with clam instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

crabburger

crabburger

A burger made with crab instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

tunaburger

tunaburger

A burger made with tuna instead of beef.

— Wiktionary

miniburger

miniburger

A small burger.

— Wiktionary

Sehnsucht

Sehnsucht

Sehnsucht is the second album by German industrial metal band Rammstein, released on 25 August 1997. The album booklet folds out to reveal six different covers, one for each band member. The cover most commonly seen features Till Lindemann with an egg-lifter worn as a muzzle and bent forks over his eyes worn as sunglasses. The cover art was created by Austrian artist Gottfried Helnwein, who also created the cover for the Scorpions' Blackout album, which is very similar to the Sehnsucht cover and even the forks in both covers are the same. Sehnsucht is the only album entirely in German to be certified platinum by the RIAA in the US.

— Freebase

Ab

Ab

the fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August

— Webster Dictionary

Augustly

Augustly

in an august manner

— Webster Dictionary

Augustness

Augustness

the quality of being august; dignity of mien; grandeur; magnificence

— Webster Dictionary

Bartholomew tide

Bartholomew tide

time of the festival of St. Bartholomew, August 24th

— Webster Dictionary

Etesian

Etesian

periodical; annual; -- applied to winds which annually blow from the north over the Mediterranean, esp. the eastern part, for an irregular period during July and August

— Webster Dictionary

Fructidor

Fructidor

the twelfth month of the French republican calendar; -- commencing August 18, and ending September 16. See Vendemiaire

— Webster Dictionary

Kingly

Kingly

belonging to, suitable to, or becoming, a king; characteristic of, resembling, a king; directed or administered by a king; monarchical; royal; sovereign; regal; august; noble; grand

— Webster Dictionary

Lammas

Lammas

the first day of August; -- called also Lammas day, and Lammastide

— Webster Dictionary

Majestic

Majestic

possessing or exhibiting majesty; of august dignity, stateliness, or imposing grandeur; lofty; noble; grand

— Webster Dictionary

Nones

Nones

the fifth day of the months January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December, and the seventh day of March, May, July, and October. The nones were nine days before the ides, reckoning inclusively, according to the Roman method

— Webster Dictionary

Perseid

Perseid

one of a group of shooting stars which appear yearly about the 10th of August, and cross the heavens in paths apparently radiating from the constellation Perseus. They are beleived to be fragments once connected with a comet visible in 1862

— Webster Dictionary

Princely

Princely

suitable for, or becoming to, a prince; grand; august; munificent; magnificent; as, princely virtues; a princely fortune

— Webster Dictionary

Superb

Superb

grand; magnificent; august; stately; as, a superb edifice; a superb colonnade

— Webster Dictionary

Thermidor

Thermidor

the eleventh month of the French republican calendar, -- commencing July 19, and ending August 17. See the Note under Vendemiaire

— Webster Dictionary

Transfiguratien

Transfiguratien

a feast held by some branches of the Christian church on the 6th of August, in commemoration of the miraculous change above mentioned

— Webster Dictionary

Virgo

Virgo

a sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of August, marked thus [/] in almanacs

— Webster Dictionary

ab

Ab, Av

the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August)

— Princeton's WordNet

av

Ab, Av

the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August)

— Princeton's WordNet

dog-day cicada

dog-day cicada, harvest fly

its distinctive song is heard during July and August

— Princeton's WordNet

dormition

Dormition, Feast of Dormition

celebration in the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary's being taken up into heaven when her earthly life ended; corresponds to the Assumption in the Roman Catholic Church and is also celebrated on August 15th

— Princeton's WordNet

ellul

Elul, Ellul

the twelfth month of the civil year; the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in August and September)

— Princeton's WordNet

elul

Elul, Ellul

the twelfth month of the civil year; the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in August and September)

— Princeton's WordNet

feast of dormition

Dormition, Feast of Dormition

celebration in the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary's being taken up into heaven when her earthly life ended; corresponds to the Assumption in the Roman Catholic Church and is also celebrated on August 15th

— Princeton's WordNet

fructidor

Fructidor

twelfth month of the Revolutionary calendar (August and September); the month of fruit

— Princeton's WordNet

harvest fly

dog-day cicada, harvest fly

its distinctive song is heard during July and August

— Princeton's WordNet

hiroshima

Hiroshima

a port city on the southwestern coast of Honshu in Japan; on August 6, 1945 Hiroshima was almost completely destroyed by the first atomic bomb dropped on a populated area

— Princeton's WordNet

july

July

the month following June and preceding August

— Princeton's WordNet

leo

Leo, Leo the Lion, Lion

the fifth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about July 23 to August 22

— Princeton's WordNet

leo the lion

Leo, Leo the Lion, Lion

the fifth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about July 23 to August 22

— Princeton's WordNet

lion

Leo, Leo the Lion, Lion

the fifth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about July 23 to August 22

— Princeton's WordNet

mid-august

mid-August

the middle part of August

— Princeton's WordNet

nagasaki

Nagasaki

a city in southern Japan on Kyushu; a leading port and shipbuilding center; on August 9, 1945 Nagasaki became the second populated area to receive an atomic bomb

— Princeton's WordNet

sep

September, Sep, Sept

the month following August and preceding October

— Princeton's WordNet

september

September, Sep, Sept

the month following August and preceding October

— Princeton's WordNet

sept

September, Sep, Sept

the month following August and preceding October

— Princeton's WordNet

thermidor

Thermidor

eleventh month of the Revolutionary calendar (July and August); the month of heat

— Princeton's WordNet

virgin

Virgo, Virgo the Virgin, Virgin

the sixth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about August 23 to September 22

— Princeton's WordNet

virgo

Virgo, Virgo the Virgin, Virgin

the sixth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about August 23 to September 22

— Princeton's WordNet

virgo the virgin

Virgo, Virgo the Virgin, Virgin

the sixth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about August 23 to September 22

— Princeton's WordNet

Familia

Familia

Familia was the name of a Polish political party led by the Czartoryski magnates and families allied with them, and formed toward the end of the reign of King August II. The Familia's principal leaders were Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski, Great Chancellor of Lithuania, his brother August Aleksander Czartoryski, voivode of Ruthenia, and their brother-in-law, Stanisław Poniatowski, Castellan of Kraków. During the 1733 interregnum, the Familia supported Stanisław Leszczyński for king, then reconciled with August III and became a party of the royal court. Following unsuccessful attempts at reforming the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth undertaken at sejms between 1744 and 1750, the Familia distanced itself from the royal court. In foreign affairs, they represented a pro-Russian orientation. During the 1763–1764 interregnum, armed Russian intervention allowed the Familia to overcome their opponents. When in 1764 Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski declined to seek the throne, the Czartoryskis agreed to the election, as king, of their kinsman, Stanisław August Poniatowski, one-time lover of Russian Empress Catherine II. In this period the Familia partially enacted their program of reforms, including the creation of treasury and military commissions limiting the power of treasurers and hetmans. Also, the liberum veto was suspended. Further reforms, however, were blocked by Russia and Prussia; and conservative opponents of the Familia and the King, backed by Russia's Catherine II, in 1767 formed the Radom Confederation and at the infamous Repnin Sejm abolished part of the recently introduced reforms.

— Freebase

August

August

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with a length of 31 days. In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In common years no other month starts on the same day of the week as August, though in leap years February starts on the same day. August ends on the same day of the week as November every year. This month was originally named Sextilis in Latin, because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, when March was the first month of the year. About 700 BC it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 45 BC giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

— Freebase

Black Friday

Black Friday

Black Friday, Friday, August 13, 2004, was the crackdown by the Maldivian National Security Service — later Maldivian National Defence Force — on a peaceful protest in the capital city of Maldives, Malé. This unplanned and unorganized demonstration was the largest such protest in the country's history. Beginning on the evening of August 12, 2004, the demonstration grew and continued until it was forcefully ended on the afternoon of August 13, 2004. Protesters initially demanding the freeing of the pro-reformists arrested on the afternoon of August 12, 2004. As the protest continued to grow, people demanded the resignation of president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who had been in power since 1978. What started as a peaceful demonstration ended after 22 hours, as the country's darkest day in recent history. Several people were severely injured as NSS personnel used riot batons and teargas on unarmed civilians. Pursuant to the powers vested in him by Section 144 of the Constitution — and for only the second time in Maldives history — president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom declared a State of Emergency in Malé and the nearby islands a few minutes after the crackdown. Several members of the Majlis, former cabinet ministers, and many reformists were arrested. As a symbol of unity, President Gayoom pardoned all arrested following the December 26th tsunami.

— Freebase

Fanconi Anemia

Fanconi Anemia

Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems

Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems

A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Sickness Impact Profile

Sickness Impact Profile

A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Qi

Qi

The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

prisoner of war

prisoner of war

A detained person as defined in Articles 4 and 5 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949. In particular, one who, while engaged in combat under orders of his or her government, is

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Kompakt

Kompakt

Kompakt is a Cologne-based electronic music record label and vinyl/CD distributor, owned by Wolfgang Voigt, Michael Mayer and Jürgen Paape. They specialize in microhouse and minimal techno, and are known for their Total compilation series which reached its eleventh installment in 2010. Kompakt originated from a techno record store that was opened in Cologne in 1993 by Wolfgang Voigt, Reinhard Voigt, Jörg Burger and Jürgen Paape, who were soon joined by Michael Mayer. Kompakt itself was formally founded in 1998, combining several existing labels, the record store and distributor and also event organizing activities. According to Grooves magazine, "Kompakt’s chief aesthetic objective has always been the perfect marriage of ambient texture and linear 4x4 structure—blending deep, granular sound design with the 4-bar rhythmic intensity and patterning that makes house and techno so club-effective". Kompakt has been noted for releases enriching abstract techno tracks with pop elements such as vocals - Mayer has stated that "We grew up with pop music and really like traces of pop in techno music. This is probably Kompakt's biggest strength-- that we can detect these pop traces and give them a home".

— Freebase

Vegetarian food

Vegetarian food

Vegetarian cuisine refers to food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products. For lacto-ovo vegetarianism, eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted. For lacto vegetarianism, the earliest known type of vegetarianism, dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted. The strictest forms of vegetarianism are veganism and fruitarianism, which exclude all animal products, including dairy products as well as honey, and even some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char. Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types: ⁕Traditional foods that have always been vegetarian ⁕Soy products including tofu and tempeh which are common protein sources ⁕Textured vegetable protein, made from defatted soy flour, often included in chili and burger recipes in place of ground meat ⁕Meat analogues, which mimic the taste, texture, and appearance of meat and are often used in recipes that traditionally contained meat. ⁕Vegans may also use analogues for eggs and dairy products

— Freebase

Recycler

Recycler

Recycler is the tenth studio album by American blues rock band ZZ Top, released in 1990. The band had a cameo in the 1990 movie Back to the Future Part III playing an "old west" version of "Doubleback" along with some local musicians.. The music video for "Doubleback" also had clips from the movie and was included on the DVD. The album spawned three hits in the form of "Doubleback", "Concrete And Steel", and "My Head's In Mississippi". Music videos were also made for "My Head's in Mississippi", "Burger Man" and "Give It Up". In the UK, it was the band's third album to be certified by the British Phonographic Industry, attaining Silver in 1990. To date, this is the last studio album to achieve UK certification. The song "Tell It" marks the first instance of a song in a which a sampled clip of a distinctively-toned saying of the word "fine" is used, which was later featured again on the song "Lizard Life", off Antenna, the band's next album, and even in a performance of the song "Cheap Sunglasses" on the Live from Texas album.

— Freebase

Excited

Excited

"Excited" is the third single from Australian indie rock band Little Birdy's debut album, BigBigLove, released on 18 April 2005. It was produced by Paul McKercher at Big Jesus Burger Studios, and mixed at Studios 301. "Excited" reached number 44 on the Australian ARIA Singles Charts. The B-side of the single includes a live version of "Beautiful to Me" recorded at the 2005 Big Day Out and a version of the Lee Hazlewood song "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'".

— Freebase

Ping Pong

Ping Pong

PingPong is an Israeli pop quartet that represented Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest in 2000 with the song Sameach. The members of the band were: Guy Asif, Ahal Eden, Roy Arad and Yifat Giladi. The band released one album Between Moral and Fashion with songs like "Burger Ranch", "I got a lover in Givati" and "Mr. Israel". This album sells only about 1000 copies. Their hit song "Sameach" was admitted to the 2000 Eurovision Song Contest. At the close of voting the song had received 7 points, placing 22nd in a field of 24. The song lyrics mentioned a friend from Damascus who dates an Israeli girl. The band was sanctioned by the Israel Broadcasting Authority after waving the flag of Syria during the rehearsal and the video-clip of the song. They refused to back down for the performance in the final and pulled the flag out live, as planned, all to encourage the Israeli-Syrian peace Ehud Barak was negotiating at the time. They also visited a Syrian community center in Stockholm, where the Eurovision was held. The band was the favourite of the NME magazine for winning the contest, but failed.

— Freebase

Tempeh

Tempeh

Tempeh, is a traditional soy product originally from Indonesia. It is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form, similar to a very firm vegetarian burger patty. Tempeh is unique among major traditional soy foods in that it is the only one that did not originate from the Sinosphere cuisine. It originated in today's Indonesia, and is especially popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans, but it is a whole soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiber, and vitamins. It has a firm texture and an earthy flavor which becomes more pronounced as it ages. Because of its nutritional value, tempeh is used worldwide in vegetarian cuisine, where it is used as a meat analogue.

— Freebase

Vada pav

Vada pav

Vada pav, sometimes spelled wada pav or Vada Paav, is a popular spicy vegetarian fast food dish native to the Indian state of Maharashtra. It consists of a batata vada sandwiched between 2 slices of a pav. The compound word batata vada refers in Marathi to a vada made out of batata, the latter referring to a potato. Pav refers to unsweetened bread or bun. It is also known as Indian Burger.

— Freebase

Beavis

Beavis

Beavis is one of the protagonists on the MTV series Beavis and Butt-head. He is voiced by the show’s creator, Mike Judge. Beavis has an underbite and an obsessive stare on his face which rarely looks directly at the television viewer, but rather to the side. He is usually seen wearing a Metallica T-shirt, though in merchandising appearances, his shirt displays the slogan “Death Rock,” to avoid licensing issues. In the episode Blood Drive, he wears a Slayer shirt, while in the Christmas special "It's a Miserable Life" Beavis is seen wearing a Winger shirt during the alternate reality section of the episode. He is slightly shorter than Butt-head, although he appears to be the same height when viewed at a distance because of his oversized pompadour hairstyle. Beavis works as a fry cook at Burger World and once defiantly revealed that he’s a fan of Bon Jovi to Butt-head, who dislikes the band and its leader Jon Bon Jovi. Beavis' name was inspired by a friend of Judge’s from his college days named Bobby Beavis.

— Freebase

Breakfast of Champions

Breakfast of Champions

Breakfast of Champions, or Goodbye Blue Monday is a 1973 novel by the American author Kurt Vonnegut. Set in the fictional town of Midland City, it is the story of "two lonesome, skinny, fairly old white men on a planet which was dying fast." One of these men, Dwayne Hoover, is a normal-looking but deeply deranged Pontiac dealer and Burger Chef franchise owner who becomes obsessed with the writings of the other man, Kilgore Trout, taking them for literal truth. Trout, a largely unknown pulp science fiction writer who has appeared in several other Vonnegut novels, looks like a crazy old man but is in fact relatively sane. As the novel opens, Trout journeys toward Midland City to appear at a convention where he is destined to meet Dwayne Hoover and unwittingly inspire him to run amok.

— Freebase

Poutine

Poutine

Poutine is a common Canadian dish, made with french fries, topped with brown gravy and cheese curds. Sometimes additional ingredients are added. This Québécois fast food dish can now be found across Canada. It is sold by national and international fast food chains, in small "greasy spoon" type diners and pubs, as well as by roadside chip wagons. International chains like McDonald's, A&W, KFC, and Burger King also sell mass-produced poutine in Canada. Poutine may also contain other ingredients such as bacon, beef, pulled pork, lamb, lobster meat, shrimp, rabbit confit, caviar, and truffles.

— Freebase

WENE

WENE

WENE is a radio station broadcasting a sports format. Licensed to Endicott, New York, USA, the station serves the Binghamton market. During its Top 40/Rock heyday, from the early Sixties through 1975, the station was home to many nationally famous talent such as Johnny Donovan, Greaseman, Bob Savage, Dave "Roe" Mason, Charlie Burger and Fred "Bumper Morgan" Merrin. The station is currently owned by Clear Channel Communications and features programing from Premiere Radio Networks, Dial Global and Fox Sports Radio.

— Freebase

Executive privilege

Executive privilege

In the United States government, executive privilege is the power claimed by the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government. The concept of executive privilege is not mentioned explicitly in the United States Constitution, but the Supreme Court of the United States ruled it to be an element of the separation of powers doctrine, and/or derived from the supremacy of executive branch in its own area of Constitutional activity. The Supreme Court confirmed the legitimacy of this doctrine in United States v. Nixon, but only to the extent of confirming that there is a qualified privilege. Once invoked, a presumption of privilege is established, requiring the Prosecutor to make a "sufficient showing" that the "Presidential material" is "essential to the justice of the case.". Chief Justice Burger further stated that executive privilege would most effectively apply when the oversight of the executive would impair that branch's national security concerns. Historically, the uses of executive privilege underscore the untested nature of the doctrine, since Presidents have generally sidestepped open confrontations with the United States Congress and the courts over the issue by first asserting the privilege, then producing some of the documents requested on an assertedly voluntary basis.

— Freebase

Neuss

Neuss

Neuss is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district and owes its prosperity to its location at the crossing of historic and modern trade routes. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. In 1984 Neuss celebrated 2000 years since its foundation. It therefore holds the title of "Germany's oldest city" alongside the city of Trier.

— Freebase

Tempted

Tempted

"Tempted" was the second single released from Squeeze's fourth album, East Side Story. Over the years it has become one of Squeeze's most well-known songs, despite failing to crack the Top 40 in any country it was released in; Stewart Mason of AllMusic remarked, "Although its increasing ubiquity on '80s hits radio and on television would suggest otherwise, Squeeze's "Tempted" was not actually a hit single." The song also became ingrained in public consciousness due to its use in commercials by Burger King and Heineken, and the video games Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Rock Band. To this day, "Tempted" still gets moderate airplay from adult alternative-formatted radio stations. Unlike other Squeeze songs, which are usually sung by guitarist/songwriter Glenn Tilbrook or less often guitarist/lyricist Chris Difford, the song's lead vocal is sung by keyboardist Paul Carrack, though Tilbrook and producer Elvis Costello also trade a few lines in the second verse. The song was written by Squeeze members Difford and Tilbrook.

— Freebase

Coates

Coates

Coates is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota located west of the Upper Mississippi River on the exurban fringe in central Dakota County. U.S. Highway 52 connects north to Saint Paul while County Road 46 draws east-west to nearby suburban cities. The population was 161 at the 2010 census. It is named for Civil War Captain Henry C. Coates who served in the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. Major employers are in trucking, moving and recycling services. The city is popular with Twin Citians for the House of Coates, a burger joint since 1962. St. Agatha's Catholic Church serves as city hall. Originally a rural post office hub in the 1900s, the U.S. Postal Service now designates addresses as part of larger Rosemount. The city incorporated in 1953 on the northwest corner of Vermillion Township and was named for early settler G. A. Coates.

— Freebase

Flank steak

Flank steak

The flank steak is a beef steak cut from the abdominal muscles of the cow. A relatively long and flat cut, flank steak is used in a variety of dishes including London broil and as an alternative to the traditional skirt steak in fajitas. It can be grilled, pan-fried, broiled, or braised for increased tenderness. The cut is common in Colombia, where it is known as sobrebarriga, literally meaning "over the belly". Flank steak is best when it has a bright red color. Because it comes from a strong, well-exercised part of the cow, it is best sliced across the grain before serving, to maximise tenderness. Flank steak is frequently used in Asian cuisine, often sold in Chinese markets as "stir-fry beef". In the United Kingdom McDonald's uses "100% forequarter and flank" in its burger patties.

— Freebase

White Spot

White Spot

White Spot is a Canadian restaurant chain based in Vancouver, British Columbia, best known for its hamburgers, Pirate Pak children's meal and burger sauce. Some locations have carhop drive-in service.

— Freebase

On-Foot

On-Foot

On-Foot is a travel show on the Living Asia Channel. The show follows the comic and upbeat television host Tim Tayag around the Philippine and Asian countries. The program is a co-production of Bacon Burger Productions and CCI Asia Group Corporation and is being aired in the Philippines via The Living Asia Channel. It is also being aired simultaneously in North America via The Filipino Channel Direct, North America and Canada via Globecast World TV In Asia, we can be seen in Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam and Laos as well via The Mabuhay Satellite Corporation. In the Philippines, The Living Asia Channel is currently aired on major cable networks such as Home, Dream, Destiny and Sky. On-Foot is everyday three times a day on an eight hour loop seen simultaneously in the other countries with broadcast partners.

— Freebase

Sausage Fest

Sausage Fest

Li’l Hitler will win your heart! The Library of Heaven yields answers even God doesn’t know. The Burger King serves up some Delicious B&E. Garfield and Heathcliff take each other to court. A giraffe deals with the stages of death. The gang from Police Academy joins the X-Men.

— Freebase

Anti-proverb

Anti-proverb

An anti-proverb or a perverb is the transformation of a standard proverb for humorous effect. Mieder defines them as "parodied, twisted, or fractured proverbs that reveal humorous or satirical speech play with traditional proverbial wisdom". They have also been defined as "an allusive distortion, parody, misapplication, or unexpected contextualization of a recognized proverb, usually for comic or satiric." To have full effect, an anti-proverb must be based on a known proverb. For example, "If at first you don't succeed, quit" is only funny if the hearer knows the standard proverb "If at first you don't succeed, try, try again." Anti-proverbs are used commonly in advertising, such as "Put your burger where your mouth is" from Red Robin. Anti-proverbs are also common on T-shirts, such as "Taste makes waist" and "If at first you don't succeed, skydiving is not for you". Anti-proverbs have been used and recognized a long time, though the term "anti-proverb" was not coined until 1982 by Wolfgang Mieder. The term became more established with the publication of Twisted Wisdom: Modern Anti-Proverbs by Wolfgang Mieder and Anna T. Litovkina, Standard proverbs are essentially defined phrases, well-known to many people, as e. g. Don't bite the hand that feeds you. When this sequence slightly changed it becomes an anti-proverb.

— Freebase

Margo Guryan

Margo Guryan

Margo Guryan is an American songwriter, singer, musician and lyricist. As a songwriter, her work was first recorded in 1958, although it was for her 1960s song "Sunday Mornin'", a hit for both Spanky and Our Gang and Oliver, that she is perhaps best known. Her songs have also been recorded by Cass Elliot, Glen Campbell and Astrud Gilberto, among others. As a performer, she is best known for her 1968 album Take a Picture, the sole album release in the initial phase of her career. The album was re-released in 2000, and followed by a compilation entitled 25 Demos. In 2014 the American record label Burger Records released another compilation named 27 Demos on cassette.

— Freebase

Tracie

Tracie

Tracie is the 1999 studio effort released from R&B singer Tracie Spencer. It was her first album in nine years on Capitol Records. The primary reason for the length of time between her studio albums was due to Capitol's constant changes. At the time, the label went through several CEO's and eventually shut down their urban music division from 1996-1999. When the record label got a new president in former Arista Records executive Roy Lott, he revived Capitol's long-struggling urban music division. Spencer acknowledged the changes within Capitol in the liner notes of Tracie. She stated: "I have seen a lot of changes occur at the tower, but that's just the way life goes. I have nothing but love and respect for my record company. Change is good". Although this is Spencer's first album in over a decade, this was not her first recording of new material. She recorded a couple of songs for the soundtracks of two films from the late 90's. She sang "I'll Be There For You" for the 1997 Nickelodeon film Good Burger as well as the DJ Quik produced "The Rain" for the 1998 Maya Angelou directed film Down in the Delta.

— Freebase

EyeView

EyeView

Eyeview is the leading provider of personalized digital video advertising solutions for brand marketers. Eyeview is the only company that offers broadcast quality personalized videos for each consumer, with proprietary creative technology that integrates the brand's relevant messages. As the consumer progresses along the path to purchase, Eyeview dynamically changes the brand's message in-stream to ensure the consumer continues to receive the most relevant informative and effective ad. As a result, our brands consistently experience lift in key performance indicators and increase in brand equity and sales. Eyeview partners with Fortune 500 leaders in automotive, retail, telecommunications, quick service restaurants, entertainment and travel including Target, Comcast, Lowe's, Officemax, Expedia, Toyota, Burger King and more. The company is headquartered in New York City with offices in Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit, and Tel Aviv. For more information, please visit www.eyeviewdigital.com.

— CrunchBase

Gifi

Gifi

Gifi combines the Venmo API and Foursquare API into a fun, location based game involving real money. By hiding money for one of your friends to claim at a new restaurant you have discovered, recommending a favorite dish becomes a social game. Eg, you leave a Gifi with the hint: “staple pub food in the west village.” The next time a friend checks in at Spotted Pig, she automatically gets a payment “$17 to try the burger at spotted pig. pricey but best in town!” Besides allowing friends to literally put their money where their mouth is when sharing their favorite restaurants, Gifi also provides local merchants a dead simple way for restaurants to deliver rewards to frequent/valued customers. And, because Gifi’s are redeemed Foursquare checkins and public Venmo payments, every time a customer redeems a reward, the restaurant gets valuable distribution in social activity feeds of all of their customers’ friends.

— CrunchBase

YCD Multimedia

YCD Multimedia

YCD Multimedia is an industry leader providing corporations and organizations worldwide with advanced digital media solutions and applications within the retail environment, as well as other industries. YCD's flexible platforms help businesses attract clients, reinforce branding and ensure a measurable impact on their business. YCD's end-to-end offering combines strategy, professional services and technology to increase profits, optimize product mix and enhance the customer experience. To date, the company has partnered with over 2,000 customers, including Fortune 500 corporations and some of the world's most recognized brands, such as Burger King, Coca-Cola, Toyota, Estee Lauder, Ferrari, Cartier, and Diesel. Founded in 1999, YCD Multimedia is headquartered in the United States with offices in the United Kingdom and Israel, and has an international network of resellers serving clients around the globe. In October 2011 YCD acquired C-nario, a global provider of digital signage software solutions. For more information, visit www.ycdmultimedia.com

— CrunchBase

Brickfish

Brickfish

Brickfish provides social marketing software and services to global brands and advertising agencies.The company offers marketers comprehensive solutions to build, manage, monitor and measure brand presence across the social web. By combining industry expertise, a leading technology platform, and comprehensive analytics into an integrated approach, Brickfish delivers effective social CRM and marketing solutions to Fortune 2000 brands and agencies.Since 2005, our unique solution has generated over 600 million brand engagements for some of the world’s premier brands, including Microsoft, Dell, Redbox, Capital One, Viacom, QVC, Neiman Marcus, Coach, The North Face® and more. PatentsContent Distribution Systems including Cost Per Engagement United States Patent Application 11893766 Filed August 17, 2007Online Marketing Platforms United States Patent Application 11893765 Filed August 17, 2007Systems and Method for voting in online competitions United States Patent Application 11893839 Filed August 17, 2007Systems and Methods for Conducting Online Campaigns United States Patent Application 12326011 Filed December 1, 2008Systems and Methods for Creating UGC Campaigns using Content from a Content System United States Patent Application 12497916 Filed July 6, 2009 Contact: Michael Mullarkey

— CrunchBase

Sparkbrowser

Sparkbrowser

Sparkbrowser is an enterprise scale software company based in Boston Massachusetts. Sparkbrowser produces high quality desktop applications, primarily web browsers.
Sparkbrowser was founded in 2010 to create the most user friendly web browser. And that browser is set to launch in mid to late august of 2011. Sparkbrowser is currently in the development stage, and is closed source as far as contributions. In late 2010 Sparkbrowser has merged with Spark Software Group, as well as Free Software Group to combine efforts to launch the browser in August. As there is an exteremely untapped market as far as browsers go, Sparkbrowser is a pioneer in its respective field. Making leaps ahead of the competition as the only marketed For Profit premium web browser. Sparkbrowser was founded under the principles set forth by the Netscape project, that software should be paid for. And that generally, for profit software is better quality as there are greater resources available, and more attention can be paid to detail. Sparkbrowser has met many challenges over the past several months, however in anticipation of the launch in mid August we would like to apologize for the wait as this browser was expected to launch in march. We can honestly say that it has been worth the wait!
The new browser is faster, and provides a preferred view of the web with new pre-fetching code to ignite speed and agility. As well as a redesigned SSL encryption script. Best regards from the Sparkbrowser Foundation, and we hope that this project has exposed the untapped market of web browsers,the most used application.

— CrunchBase

Kontakte

Kontakte

Kontakte is a celebrated electronic music work by Karlheinz Stockhausen, realized in 1958–60 at the Westdeutscher Rundfunk electronic-music studio in Cologne with the assistance of Gottfried Michael Koenig. The score is Nr. 12 in the composer's catalogue of works, and is dedicated to Otto Tomek.

— Freebase

Primordialism

Primordialism

Primordialism or perennialism is the argument which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena. Primordialism can be traced philosophically to the ideas of German Romanticism, particularly in the works of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Johann Gottfried Herder. For Herder, the nation was synonymous with language group. In Herder's thinking, language was synonymous with thought, and as each language was learnt in community, then each community must think differently. This also suggests that the community would hold a fixed nature over time. Primordialism encountered enormous criticism after the Second World War, with a few scholars of nationalism coming to treat the nation as a community constructed by the technologies and politics of modernity. Though largely rejected by most theorists of nationalism, some of its ideas have found parallels in ethnosymbolism.

— Freebase

Zinnia

Zinnia

Zinnia is a genus of 20 species of annual and perennial plants of the family Asteraceae. They are native to scrub and dry grassland in an area stretching from the Southwestern United States to South America, with a centre of diversity in Mexico. Members of the genus are notable for their solitary long-stemmed flowers that come in a variety of bright colors. The name honours genus German botanist Johann Gottfried Zinn.

— Freebase

Integral

Integral

Integration is an important concept in mathematics and, together with its inverse, differentiation, is one of the two main operations in calculus. Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral is defined informally to be the signed area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b, such that area above the x-axis adds to the total, and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total. The term integral may also refer to the notion of the antiderivative, a function F whose derivative is the given function f. In this case, it is called an indefinite integral and is written: The integrals discussed in this article are termed definite integrals. The principles of integration were formulated independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz in the late 17th century. Through the fundamental theorem of calculus, which they independently developed, integration is connected with differentiation: if f is a continuous real-valued function defined on a closed interval [a, b], then, once an antiderivative F of f is known, the definite integral of f over that interval is given by

— Freebase

Helminthology

Helminthology

Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ἕλμινς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich Müller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.

— Freebase

Space

Space

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics, "spaces" are examined with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, or Socrates in his reflections on what the Greeks called khora, or in the Physics of Aristotle in the definition of topos, or even in the later "geometrical conception of place" as "space qua extension" in the Discourse on Place of the 11th century Arab polymath Alhazen. Many of these classical philosophical questions were discussed in the Renaissance and then reformulated in the 17th century, particularly during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute—in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space. Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was in fact a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the 18th century, the philosopher and theologian George Berkeley attempted to refute the "visibility of spatial depth" in his Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision. Later, the metaphysician Immanuel Kant said neither space nor time can be empirically perceived, they are elements of a systematic framework that humans use to structure all experiences. Kant referred to "space" in his Critique of Pure Reason as being: a subjective "pure a priori form of intuition", hence it is an unavoidable contribution of our human faculties.

— Freebase

Clarinet

Clarinet

The clarinet is a type of woodwind instrument that has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an approximately cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell. A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist or clarinettist. The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It "is plainly a diminutive of clarino, the Italian for trumpet", and the Italian clarinetto is the source of the name in many other languages. According to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name was that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet". This may indicate its strident quality in the upper register, although in the low register it was "feeble and buzzing". The English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, and the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. There are many types of clarinets of differing sizes and pitches, comprising a large family of instruments. The unmodified word clarinet usually refers to the B♭ soprano clarinet, by far the most common type, which has a large range of nearly four octaves. The clarinet family is the largest woodwind family, with more than a dozen types, ranging from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet. Of these, many are rare or obsolete, and music written for them is usually played on more common versions of the instrument.

— Freebase

Identity of indiscernibles

Identity of indiscernibles

The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle which states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct things can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. A related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals, discussed below. A form of the principle is attributed to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It is one of his two great metaphysical principles, the other being the principle of sufficient reason. Both are famously used in his arguments with Newton and Clarke in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Because of its association with Leibniz, the principle is sometimes known as Leibniz's law.

— Freebase

Conatus

Conatus

In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself. This "thing" may be mind, matter or a combination of both. Over the millennia, many different definitions and treatments have been formulated. Seventeenth-century philosophers René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, and Thomas Hobbes made important contributions. The conatus may refer to the instinctive "will to live" of living organisms or to various metaphysical theories of motion and inertia. Often the concept is associated with God's will in a pantheist view of Nature. The concept may be broken up into separate definitions for the mind and body and split when discussing centrifugal force and inertia. The history of the term conatus is that of a series of subtle tweaks in meaning and clarifications of scope developed over the course of two and a half millennia. Successive philosophers to adopt the term put their own personal twist on the concept, each developing the term differently such that it now has no accepted definition. The earliest authors to discuss conatus wrote primarily in Latin, basing their usage on ancient Greek concepts. These thinkers therefore used "conatus" not only as a technical term but as a common word and in a general sense. In archaic texts, the more technical usage is difficult to discern from the more common one, and they are also hard to differentiate in translation. In English translations, the term is italicized when used in the technical sense or translated and followed by conatus in brackets. Today, conatus is rarely used in the technical sense, since modern physics uses concepts such as inertia and conservation of momentum that have superseded it. It has, however, been a notable influence on nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Louis Dumont.

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Impenetrability

Impenetrability

In metaphysics, impenetrability is the name given to that quality of matter whereby two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time. The philosopher John Toland argued that impenetrability and extension were sufficient to define matter, a contention strongly disputed by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnez. Locke considered impenetrability to be "more a consequence of solidity, than solidity itself."[2]

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Infinitesimal

Infinitesimal

Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. The insight with exploiting infinitesimals was that objects could still retain certain specific properties, such as angle or slope, even though these objects were quantitatively small. The word infinitesimal comes from a 17th-century Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infinite-th" item in a series. It was originally introduced around 1670 by either Nicolaus Mercator or Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object which is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size; or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective, "infinitesimal" in the vernacular means "extremely small". In order to give it a meaning it usually has to be compared to another infinitesimal object in the same context. Infinitely many infinitesimals are summed to produce an integral. Archimedes used what eventually came to be known as the Method of indivisibles in his work The Method of Mechanical Theorems to find areas of regions and volumes of solids. In his formal published treatises, Archimedes solved the same problem using the Method of Exhaustion. The 15th century saw the work of Nicholas of Cusa, further developed in the 17th century by Johannes Kepler, in particular calculation of area of a circle by representing the latter as an infinite-sided polygon. Simon Stevin's work on decimal representation of all numbers in the 16th century prepared the ground for the real continuum. Bonaventura Cavalieri's method of indivisibles led to an extension of the results of the classical authors. The method of indivisibles related to geometrical figures as being composed of entities of codimension 1. John Wallis's infinitesimals differed from indivisibles in that he would decompose geometrical figures into infinitely thin building blocks of the same dimension as the figure, preparing the ground for general methods of the integral calculus. He exploited an infinitesimal denoted in area calculations.

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Pinsetter

Pinsetter

In bowling, a pinsetter, or pinspotter, was originally a person who manually reset bowling pins to their correct position, cleared fallen pins, and returned bowling balls to players. Probably due to the nature of the work, many pinsetters were teenaged boys, and thus pinboy is another name used to describe the job. In 1936 Gottfried Schmidt invented the mechanical pinsetter while with the AMF firm, which largely did away with pinsetting as a manual profession, although a small number of bowling alleys still use human pinsetters. While humans usually no longer set the pins, a pinchaser, or in slang 'pin monkey', often is stationed near the equipment to ensure that it is clean and working properly, and to clear minor jams. Many pinsetters are integrated with electronic scoring systems of varying sophistication. While many pinsetters have a manual reset button to use in case the pinsetter does not automatically activate at the correct time, other types have no automatic tracking of the state of the game - especially for the candlepin and duckpin bowling sports which use smaller balls - and are almost always manually activated.

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Bacterioplankton

Bacterioplankton

Bacterioplankton refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column. The name comes from the Ancient Greek word πλανκτος, meaning "wanderer" or "drifter", and bacterium, a Latin neologism coined in the 19th century by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. They are found in both seawater and freshwater. Bacterioplankton occupy a range of ecological niches in aquatic systems. Many are saprotrophic, and obtain energy by consuming organic material produced by other organisms. This material may be dissolved in the medium and taken directly from there, or bacteria may live and grow in association with particulate material such as marine snow. Many other bacterioplankton species are autotrophic, and derive energy from either photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. The former are often categorised as picophytoplankton, and include cyanobacterial groups such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Bacterioplankton also play roles in ecological pathways such as nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, remineralisation and methanogenesis. Like other small plankton, the bacterioplankton are preyed upon by zooplankton, and their numbers are also controlled through infection by bacteriophages.

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Opah

Opah

Opah are large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic Lampriform fish comprising the small family Lampridae. There are only two living species in a single genus: Lampris. One species is found in tropical to temperate waters of most oceans, while the other is limited to a circumglobal distribution in the Southern Ocean, with the 34th parallel as its northern limit. Two additional species, one in the genus Lampris and the other in the monotypic Megalampris Gottfried, Fordyce & Rust, 2006, are only known from fossil remains. The extinct family, Turkmenidae, from the Paleogene of Central Asia, is closely related, though much smaller. Opah are rarely caught by recreational anglers. They are prized trophies for deep-water anglers as their large size and attractive form lend themselves well to taxidermy. Opah are frequently caught as bycatch in many longline tuna fisheries. Opah is becoming increasingly popular in seafood markets. It first became popular as a sushi and sashimi in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The meat is lightly flavored and lends itself well to a variety of preparations, principally saute. Opah flesh has a light pink to orange color, but turns white when cooked. It is popular in Hawaii, especially in restaurants. An average of 35 percent of an opah's weight is consumable, with the remaining 65% being bone and thick skin.

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Plinth

Plinth

In architecture, a plinth is the base or platform upon which a column, pedestal, statue, monument or structure rests. Gottfried Semper's The Four Elements of Architecture posited that the plinth, the hearth, the roof, and the wall make up all of architectural theory. The plinth usually rests directly on the ground, or "stylobate". According to Semper, the plinth exists to negotiate between a structure and the ground. Semper's theory has been influential in the development of architecture. Many houses in flood-prone rural areas of Bangladesh are built on plinths. The word is also used for the base of a cabinet or an audio turntable. In dam engineering, the "plinth" is the link between the ground and the dam. For the case of arch dams, the term is changed to "pulvino".

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Theodicy

Theodicy

A theodicy is an attempt to resolve the evidential problem of evil by reconciling the traditional divine characteristics of omnibenevolence, omnipotence, and omniscience with the occurrence of evil or suffering in the world. Unlike a defense, which tries to demonstrate that God's existence is logically possible in the light of evil, a theodicy provides a framework which claims to make God's existence probable. The term was coined in 1710 by German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz in his work, Théodicée, though various responses to the problem of evil had been previously proposed. The British philosopher John Hick traced the history of theodicy in his work, Evil and the God of Love, identifying two major traditions: the Augustinian theodicy, based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo, and the Irenaean theodicy, which Hick developed, based on the thinking of St Irenaeus. Other philosophers have suggested that theodicy is a modern discipline because deities in the ancient world were often imperfect. German philosopher Max Weber saw theodicy as a social problem, based on the human need to explain puzzling aspects of the world; sociologist Peter L. Berger argued that religion arose out of a need for social order, and theodicy developed to sustain it. Following the Holocaust, a number of Jewish theologians developed a new response to the problem of evil, sometimes called anti-theodicy, which maintains that God cannot be meaningfully justified. As an alternative to theodicy, a defence may be proposed, which is limited to showing the logical possibility of God's existence. American philosopher Alvin Plantinga presented a version of the free will defence which argued that the coexistence of God and evil is not logically impossible, and that free will further explains the existence of evil without threatening the existence of God. Similar to a theodicy, a cosmodicy attempts to justify the fundamental goodness of the universe, and an anthropodicy attempts to justify the goodness of humanity.

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Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In addition to his work on the calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, and developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function.

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Vis viva

Vis viva

In the history of science, vis viva is an obsolete scientific theory that served as an elementary and limited early formulation of the principle of conservation of energy. It was the first [known] description of what we now call kinetic energy or of energy related to sensible motions. Proposed by Gottfried Leibniz over the period 1676–1689, the theory was controversial as it seemed to oppose the theory of conservation of momentum advocated by Sir Isaac Newton and René Descartes. The two theories are now understood to be complementary. The theory was eventually absorbed into the modern theory of energy though the term still survives in the context of celestial mechanics through the vis viva equation.

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Monadology

Monadology

The Monadology is one of Gottfried Leibniz’s best known works representing his later philosophy. It is a short text which sketches in some 90 paragraphs a metaphysics of simple substances, or monads.

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BESSY

BESSY

The Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung m. b. H., abbreviated BESSY, is a research establishment in the Adlershof district of Berlin. Founded on 5 March 1979, it currently operates one of Germany's 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities, BESSY II. Originally part of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community, BESSY now belongs to the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. Owing to the radiometry lab of the PTB, BESSY is the European calibration standard for electromagnetic radiation. BESSY supplies synchrotron light and provides support for science and industry. There are institutional long-time users, like the Max-Planck-Society, the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing and the national metrology institute of Germany. Furthermore, research groups from other institutes or universities can apply for utilization for certain projects.

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Robinsonade

Robinsonade

Robinsonade is a literary genre that takes its name from the 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. The success of this novel spawned so many imitations that its name was used to define a genre, which is sometimes described simply as a "desert island story". The word "robinsonade" was coined by the German writer Johann Gottfried Schnabel in the Preface of his 1731 work Die Insel Felsenburg. It is often viewed as a subgenre of survivalist fiction.

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Problem Child

Problem Child

Problem Child is a 1990 American comedy film. It stars John Ritter, Amy Yasbeck, Gilbert Gottfried, Jack Warden, Michael Richards and Michael Oliver. The film was directed by Dennis Dugan. The film was the first of many produced by Robert Simonds.

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Nicolaus-Cusanus-Gymnasium Bonn

Nicolaus-Cusanus-Gymnasium Bonn

The Nicolaus-Cusanus-Gymnasium is a secondary school in Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. Its pupils range from Grade 5 to Grade 13. The main aspects of the school are a bilingual English-German branch, with lessons such as Geography, Politics and History taught in English and participation at THIMUN. In Grade 5 pupils can choose, if they want to be taught bilingual lessons. The school's headteacher is Nicole Auen, her deputy Gottfried Rottländer.

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Method of Fluxions

Method of Fluxions

Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. The book was completed in 1671, and published in 1736. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667, but did not choose to make his findings known. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673, and published it in 1684, fifty years before Newton. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz, although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics and circuit analysis. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously, but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.

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Oswald Spengler

Oswald Spengler

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West, published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. He proposed a new theory, according to which the lifespan of civilizations is limited and ultimately they decay. He wrote extensively throughout World War I and the interwar period, and supported German hegemony in Europe. His other writings made little impact outside Germany. In 1920 Spengler produced Prussiandom and Socialism, which argued for an organic, nationalist version of socialism and authoritarianism. Some Nazis held Spengler as an intellectual precursor but he was ostracised by the Nazis after 1933 for his pessimism about Germany's and Europe's future, his refusal to support Nazi ideas of racial superiority, and his critical work The Hour of Decision.

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Paddy Chayefsky

Paddy Chayefsky

Sidney Aaron "Paddy" Chayefsky, was an American playwright, screenwriter and novelist. He is the only person to have won three solo Academy Awards for Best Screenplay. He was considered one of the most renowned dramatists of the so-called Golden Age of Television. His intimate, realistic scripts provided a naturalistic style of television drama for the 1950s, and he was regarded as the central figure in the "kitchen sink realism" movement of American television. Martin Gottfried wrote, "He was a successful writer, the most successful graduate of television's slice of life school of naturalism." Following his critically acclaimed teleplays, Chayefsky continued to succeed as a playwright and novelist. As a screenwriter, he received three Academy Awards for Marty, The Hospital and Network. The movie Marty was based on his own television drama about a relationship between two lonely people finding love. Network was his scathing satire of the television industry and The Hospital was also satiric. Film historian David Thomson termed The Hospital "daring, uninhibited, and prophetic. No one else would have dreamed of doing it."

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Theodor Gottfried Liesching

Theodor Gottfried Liesching

Theodor Gottfried Liesching was a German jurist and politician.

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Carolines on Broadway

Carolines on Broadway

Carolines on Broadway is a venue for stand-up comedy located in Times Square in New York City on Broadway between 49th and 50th Street. It is one of the most established, famous, and recognized stand-up comedy clubs in the United States. Its marketing slogan is "America's Premiere Comedy Nightclub." Many of the top headliners in the U.S. have performed at Carolines, including Paul Reubens, Jerry Seinfeld, Jay Leno, Bill Hicks, Andrew Dice Clay, Gilbert Gottfried, Andy Borowitz, Joy Behar, Jon Stewart, Robin Williams, Colin Quinn, Chris Rock, Norm Macdonald, Elayne Boosler, Michael Richards, Richard Belzer, Chris Rush and Mitch Hedberg. Other popular stand-ups that have headlined at Caroline's include Patrice O'Neal, Jim Norton, Greg Giraldo, Adam Ferrara, Dave Attell, Rich Vos, Bill Burr, Bob Kelly, Lee Camp, Harrison Greenbaum, Modi Rosenfeld and Stephen Lynch. Caroline Hirsch opened her eponymous cabaret in Chelsea, New York, in 1981. She started booking comedians, and these were so popular that soon she was booking nothing else. Needing a larger venue, Caroline's moved to South Street Seaport where it gained national recognition as the venue for A&E Network's Caroline's Comedy Hour television series, which won a CableACE award for Best Stand-Up Comedy Series. In 1992, the club moved to a 300-seat space in Times Square. The new club received the American Institute of Architecture Award for Best Interior Club Design and was featured on the cover of Interior Design magazine. In December of 2009, Caroline's played host to the first public reunion of Dave Chappelle, Paul Mooney, and Charlie Murphy since the cancellation of Chappelle's Show.

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John Couch Adams

John Couch Adams

John Couch Adams FRS was a British mathematician and astronomer. Adams was born in Laneast, near Launceston, Cornwall, and died in Cambridge. The Cornish name Couch is pronounced "cooch". His most famous achievement was predicting the existence and position of Neptune, using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. At the same time, but unknown to each other, the same calculations were made by Urbain Le Verrier. Le Verrier would assist Berlin Observatory astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle in locating the planet on 23 September 1846, which was found within 1° of its predicted location, a point in Aquarius. He was Lowndean Professor at the University of Cambridge for thirty-three years from 1859 to his death. He won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1866. In 1884, he attended the International Meridian Conference as a delegate for Britain. A crater on the Moon is jointly named after him, Walter Sydney Adams and Charles Hitchcock Adams. Neptune's outermost known ring and the asteroid 1996 Adams are also named after him. The Adams Prize, presented by the University of Cambridge, commemorates his prediction of the position of Neptune. His personal library is now in the care of Cambridge University Library.

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Zwinger

Zwinger

The Zwinger is a palace in Dresden, eastern Germany, built in Rococo style and designed by court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann. It served as the orangery, exhibition gallery and festival arena of the Dresden Court. The location was formerly part of the Dresden fortress of which the outer wall is conserved. The name derives from the German word Zwinger; it was for the cannons that were placed between the outer wall and the major wall. The Zwinger was not enclosed until the Neoclassical building by Gottfried Semper called the Semper Gallery was built on its northern side. Today, the Zwinger is a museum complex that contains the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, the Dresden Porcelain Collection and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon.

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Modern Age

Modern Age

Modern Age is an American conservative academic quarterly journal, founded in 1957 by Russell Kirk in close collaboration with Henry Regnery. Originally published independently in Chicago, in 1976 ownership was transferred to the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. With its founding Kirk hoped for "a dignified forum for reflective, traditionalist conservatism," and the magazine has remained one of the voices of intellectual, small-"c" conservatism to the present day. Reflecting the ideals of its founder, in its politics it is traditionalist, localist, against most military interventions, not libertarian, anti-Straussian, and generally critical of neoconservatism. In its religious sympathies it adheres to orthodoxy, whether Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox or Protestant. Modern Age has been described by historian George H. Nash as "the principal quarterly of the intellectual right." Paul Gottfried, a professor at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania, has said that "Modern Age represents humanistic learning, reverence for the eternal, and the sense of human finiteness, values that have less and less to do with the academic presentation of the liberal arts." Kirk edited the publication from 1957 to 1959. Eugene Davidson edited it from 1960 to 1969. David S. Collier was the quarterly's third editor, from 1970 to 1983. Modern Age's fourth editor was George A. Panichas who served from 1984 to 2007. The current editor is R. V. Young.

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Loure

Loure

The loure, also known as the gigue lente or slow gigue, is a slow French Baroque dance, probably originating in Normandy and named after the sound of the instrument of the same name. The loure is a dance of slow or moderate tempo, sometimes in simple ternary meter, more often in compound binary. The weight is on the first beat, which is further emphasised by the preceding anacrusis that begins the traditional loure. One of its features is a lilting dotted rhythm. In his Musicalisches Lexicon, Johann Gottfried Walther wrote that the loure "is slow and ceremonious; the first note of each half-measure is dotted which should be well observed". Examples of loures are found in the works of Lully and of Bach.

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Jade Emperor

Jade Emperor

The Jade Emperor in Chinese folk culture, is the ruler of Heaven and all realms of existence below including that of Man and Hell, according to a version of Taoist mythology. He is one of the most important gods of the Chinese traditional religion pantheon. In actual Taoism, the Jade Emperor governs all of the mortals' realm and below, but ranks below the Three Pure Ones. The Jade Emperor is known by many names, including Heavenly Grandfather which is used by commoners; the Pure August Jade Emperor, August Personage of Jade; the Xuanling High Sovereign; and his rarely used, formal title, Peace Absolving, Central August Spirit Exalted, Ancient Buddha, Most Pious and Honorable, His Highness the Jade-Emperor, Xuanling High Sovereign.

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Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, also known as the Latvian SSR, was a republic of the Soviet Union. It was established on 21 July 1940, during World War II, as a puppet state in the territory of the previously independent Republic of Latvia after it had been occupied by the Soviet Army, in conformity with the terms of 23 August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, on 17 June 1940. The Latvian SSR was formally annexed into the Soviet Union on 5 August 1940, when it nominally became the fifteenth constituent republic of the USSR. Its territory was subsequently conquered by Nazi Germany in 1941, before being retaken by the Soviets in 1944–1945. The first freely elected parliament of the Latvian SSR had passed Sovereignty Declaration "On the Renewal of the Independence of the Republic of Latvia" on May 4, 1990, and renamed the Latvian SSR the Republic of Latvia. The full independence of Republic of Latvia was restored on 21 August 1991.

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Republic of Upper Volta

Republic of Upper Volta

The Republic of Upper Volta was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community. Before attaining autonomy it had been French Upper Volta and part of the French Union. On August 5, 1960 it attained full independence from France. Thomas Sankara came to power through a military coup d'état on August 4, 1983. After the coup, he formed the National Council for the Revolution, with himself as president. Under the direction of Sankara, the country changed its name on August 4, 1984 from the Upper Volta to Burkina Faso, which means "Land of Incorruptible People". The name Upper Volta indicated that the country contains the upper part of the Volta River. The river is divided into three parts—the Black Volta, White Volta, and Red Volta, which form the colors of the national flag corresponding to parts of the river.

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Scient

Scient

Scient was a San Francisco-based Internet consulting company, founded in 1997, that was one of the large American consulting firms during the dot-com bubble. The company was founded by Eric Greenberg, who had previously founded its competitor, Viant. Its CEO was Robert Howe, the former head of IBM global consulting. At its height in the fall of 2000, it had quarterly revenues of US$100 million, 1,180 employees and a stock price of US$133. In August 2001, it bought rival company iXL; by then its quarterly revenues were down to US$11 million. In July 2002, the company filed for bankruptcy and was bought by SBI and Company, which became SBI Group. SBI Group later sold Scient with the other members of Avenue A/Razorfish to a company called aQuantive. aQuantive, in turn, was bought by Microsoft in August 2007 and became Microsoft's newly-created Advertiser and Publisher Solutions Group. On August 9, 2009, Microsoft sold the firm to Publicis Groupe for $530M in cash and stock.

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Remus

Remus

Remus is the inner and smaller moon of the main-belt asteroid 87 Sylvia. It follows an almost-circular close-to-equatorial orbit around the parent asteroid. In this respect it is similar to the other moon Romulus. Remus was discovered several years after Romulus on images taken starting on August 9, 2004, and announced on August 10, 2005. It was discovered by Franck Marchis of UC Berkeley, and Pascal Descamps, Daniel Hestroffer, and Jérôme Berthier of the Observatoire de Paris, France, using the Yepun telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. Marchis, the project leader, was waiting for the completion of the image acquisition programme before starting to process the data. Just as he was set to go on vacation in March 2005, Descamps sent him a brief note entitled "87 Sylvia est triple ?" pointing out that he could see two moonlets on several images of Sylvia. The entire team then focused quickly on analysis of the data, wrote a paper, submitted an abstract to the August meeting in Rio de Janeiro and submitted a naming proposal to the IAU. Its full designation is Sylvia II Remus; before receiving its name, it was known as S/2004 1. The moon is named after Remus, twin of the mythological founder of Rome, one of the children of Rhea Silvia raised by a wolf.

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SNICK

SNICK

SNICK is a two-hour programming block on the American cable television network Nickelodeon, geared toward older audiences, that ran from August 15, 1992 until August 28, 2004. It was aired on Saturdays starting at 8 p.m and ending at 10 p.m. ET. In 2004, SNICK was revamped as the Saturday night edition of TEENick. Nickelodeon continues to run a Saturday night programming block today, though since the TEENick name was removed from the lineup in February 2009, the block no longer goes by any name. The block debuted on Saturday, August 15, 1992, with a pair of Sunday favorites and the network premieres of Roundhouse and Are You Afraid of the Dark?.

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Maintaining

Maintaining

Maintaining was a comic strip by cartoonist Nate Creekmore. Nate is a two-time winner of the Scripps College Cartoonist of the Year and an Associated Press award for achievement in college cartooning. Nate's strip first appeared in the newspaper at Lipscomb University in Nashville. Maintaining was later picked up for syndication through Universal Press Syndicate. It was launched on May 7, 2007 and canceled in August 2009 for poor sales. The last daily strip was August 1, 2009 and the last Sunday strip was August 30, 2009.

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Lammas

Lammas

In some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, August 1 is Lammas Day, the festival of the wheat harvest, and is the first harvest festival of the year. On this day it was customary to bring to church a loaf made from the new crop, which began to be harvested at Lammastide. The loaf was blessed, and in Anglo-Saxon England it might be employed afterwards to work magic: A book of Anglo-Saxon charms directed that the lammas bread be broken into four bits, which were to be placed at the four corners of the barn, to protect the garnered grain. In many parts of England, tenants were bound to present freshly harvested wheat to their landlords on or before the first day of August. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it is referred to regularly, it is called "the feast of first fruits". The blessing of first fruits was performed annually in both the Eastern and Western Churches on the first or the sixth of August. Lammas coincides with the feast of St. Peter in Chains, commemorating St. Peter's miraculous deliverance from prison.

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August Kekulé

August Kekulé

August Kekulé, born Friedrich August Kekule, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekule was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially in theoretical chemistry. He was the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure.

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Good Spirit

Good Spirit

Good Spirit is the fifth album and the third live album from Australian roots musician Xavier Rudd. It was released in Australia on 11 April 2005. The album was album recorded from various gigs around Australia: The Enmore Theatre in Sydney on 14 August 2004; The Palais, Melbourne on 19 August 2004 and at the Fly-by-Night Club in Fremantle on 21 August 2004. The success of the album lead it to eventually be certified gold by the ARIA.

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Capitonym

Capitonym

A capitonym is a word that changes its meaning when it is capitalized; the capitalization usually applies due to one form being a proper noun or eponym. It is a portmanteau of the word capital with the suffix -onym. A capitonym is a form of homograph and – when the two forms are pronounced differently – also of heteronym. In situations where both words should be capitalized, there will be nothing to distinguish between them except the context in which they are used. Although some pairs, such as march and March, are completely unrelated, in other cases, such as august and catholic, the capitalized form is a name that is etymologically related to the uncapitalized form. For example, August derives from the name of Imperator Augustus, who named himself after the word augustus, whence English august came. Likewise, both Catholic and catholic derive from a Greek adjective meaning "universal". Capital letters may be used to differentiate between a set of objects, and a particular example of that object. For instance in Astronomical terminology a distinction may be drawn between a moon, any natural satellite, and the Moon, to be specific the natural satellite of Earth. Likewise, Sun with a capital may be used to emphasise that the sun of Earth is under discussion.

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Noorderzon

Noorderzon

The Noorderzon Festival is an annual festival in the Dutch city of Groningen taking place in the urban public park the Noorderplantsoen, usually for a period of eleven days beginning in the third week of August. The festival typically draws between 130,000 and 150,000 visitors. The festival started out as a small music festival and a subsidiary of De Parade but has expanded to a festival where art, music, dance and theatre go together. Performances are shown in tents, on the street and in cultural venues in Groningen's inner city. There is a strong emphasis on international work, and on the cross-fertilization between theatre and other performing arts. The 2013 edition takes place from August 15 to August 25.

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PlayCafe

PlayCafe

PlayCafe was an interactive Internet game show network which billed itself as "the first online game show network." PlayCafe was founded in April 2007 by Dev Nag and Mark Goldenson, funded by angel investors. PlayCafe produced over 300 hour-long episodes, which were broadcast live from Redwood City, California and hosted by Daniella Martin from August 2007 to August 7, 2008, then by Chad Mosher in Flint, Michigan from August 14, 2008 to December 18, 2008. PlayCafe broadcast two shows daily, Monday through Friday, at 6:00 pm and 7:00 pm Pacific Time until May 30, 2008. On the last daily show, it was announced that the broadcast schedule would change to one show a week, starting the following week. On June 5, 2008, PlayCafe broadcast its first weekly shows on Thursday at the same time as the daily shows until its final show on December 18, 2008.

— Freebase

Pure Software

Pure Software

Pure Software was founded in October 1991 by Reed Hastings and Mark Box. The original product was a debugging tool for Unix/C engineers called Purify. After adding new products such as Quantify and PureLink, and doubling its revenue every year for four years, Pure Software went public with the help of Morgan Stanley in August 1995. In August 1996, Pure Software merged with Atria to form Pure Atria Corporation. Later in August 1997, Rational Software acquired Pure Atria, giving Hastings the capital to start Netflix. When Pure Atria was acquired by Rational Software, it triggered a 42% drop in both companies' stocks after the deal was announced. Hastings was appointed Chief Technical Officer of the combined companies and left soon after the acquisition. "I had the great fortune of doing a mediocre job at my first company," says Hastings. "We got more bureaucratic as we grew." After Pure Software, Hastings spent two years thinking about how to avoid similar problems at his next startup, Netflix.

— Freebase

Warhawk

Warhawk

Warhawk is a multiplayer third-person vehicle and flight combat video game developed by Incognito Entertainment exclusively for the PlayStation 3. It is a remake of an aerial warfare game of the same name, which was a launch title on the original PlayStation. Apart from the similarity of controlling aircraft, the remake bears little other resemblance. It was the first PlayStation 3 game to be available both for download on the PlayStation Network and for retail on Blu-ray Disc. For the United States, Blu-ray Disc and PlayStation Network versions were released on August 28, 2007. The PlayStation Network version was released in Europe, Australia and Japan on August 30, August 31 and October 4 respectively. The Blu-ray Disc version was released in Australia and Europe on September 20 and September 21, respectively, but was not released in Japan. Warhawk was initially intended to have both single-player and multiplayer modes, however the single-player element was canceled during development due to concerns that it was inferior to the game's multiplayer component. The game was released with five maps and four game types, Deathmatch, Team Deathmatch, Zones and Capture the Flag. After the 1.4 update, the number of game types increased to six with the addition of the Hero and Collection modes. Three optional expansion packs for the game containing new maps and equipment increase the number of available maps to eight.

— Freebase

The Bill

The Bill

The Bill is a police procedural television series that was broadcast on the ITV network from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, entitled Woodentop, which was broadcast in August 1983. In its final year on air, The Bill was broadcast once a week, usually on Tuesdays or Thursdays, in a one-hour format. The programme focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers, rather than on any particular aspect of police work. At the time of the series' conclusion, The Bill was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, and was among the longest-running of any British television series. The series was produced by Thames Television. The series name originated from "Old Bill", a slang term for the police. This was also Geoff McQueen's original title idea for the series, before he eventually decided on "The Bill". Although highly acclaimed amongst fans and critics alike, the series attracted controversy on several occasions. An episode broadcast in 2008 was criticised for featuring fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis, and another episode in the same year resulted in litigation, submitted by MP George Galloway for defamation. The series has also faced more general criticism, concerning the levels of violence it portrays, particularly prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed slot. During its time on air, The Bill won several awards, including BAFTAs, a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award and the title of "best drama" at the Inside Soap Awards in 2009, the latter being the series' fourth consecutive win. Throughout its twenty-seven-year run, the programme was always broadcast on the main ITV network. In later years, episodes of the show were repeated on ITV3 on their week of broadcast. The series has also been repeated on other digital stations, including Gold, Alibi, Watch, Dave and Drama. In March 2010, executives at ITV announced that the network did not intend to recommission The Bill, and that filming on the series would cease on 14 June 2010. The last ever episode of the series was aired on 31 August 2010.

— Freebase

CakeStyle

CakeStyle

CakeStyle is a virtual personal styling service for women designed to take the hassle out of shopping by shipping a box of handpicked clothing and accessories to members’ doors each season.After signing up at www.cakestyle.com, each member has a consultation with her stylist so that CakeStyle knows how she needs to dress each day, what pieces she owns, and how she likes her clothes to fit. Then, her stylist hand-selects pieces for her from designers like Elie Tahari, Diane von Furstenberg, Theory and more, creating four to six outfits with accessories. The box is shipped directly to each member’s door and she tries on the outfits at home. Once she has decided which looks to keep, she ships the rest of the pieces back to CakeStyle, paying only for the items she keeps.All clothing and accessories are priced at retail, with boxes valued at about $2,500 to $3,000 each. Shipping both ways, and the stylists’ services, are free. CakeStyle has no minimum purchase requirement.CakeStyle also has a style blog where the team posts about trends, style advice, designers, and other fashion-related content. CakeStyle was founded in August 2011 by Cecelia Myers and Millie Tadewaldt, and launched officially in November of that year. In August 2012, CakeStyle announced that it had raised $1M in seed funding from the Sandbox Advantage Fund.

— CrunchBase

Foneshow

Foneshow

Foneshow has built a telephony-based distribution platform for short-form audio (primarily news/talk/sports radio programming). The platform leverages the cellular telephone network and enables users to subscribe to, access, publish, share, and consume short-form audio programming immediately from virtually any cell phone. The system features the very rapid propagation of programming from the creator to the consumer. Patents are pending.Foneshow was founded in late August of 2006 on Ballston Beach in Truro, Massachusetts by Erik Schwartz and Nic Wolff, two technology industry veterans and lifelong friends. Nic and Erik had been kicking some of the ideas around for a while, wondering why they never listened to podcasts. In late summer 2006 they developed the ideas that would become Foneshow. They started coding in September of 2006 with alpha launching later in September. The foneshow.com domain was registered in October 2006. The company was organized as a Delaware LLC in November of 2006. In August of 2007 Foneshow closed a series A venture capital round with CEI Community Ventures, Masthead Venture Partners, and Small Enterprise Growth Fund of Maine.

— CrunchBase

Veeam Software

Veeam Software

Veeam Software is an international software development company based in Baar, Switzerland. As a Microsoft managed partner and Elite VMware Technology Alliance partner, Veeam develops products for backing up and managing vSphere and Hyper-V virtual environments. Currently, Veeam has more than 1,500 employees worldwide. HistoryVeeam was founded in 2006 by Ratmir Timashev and Andrei Baronov, and originally had 10 employees. In August 2006, Veeam launched their first commercial product: Veeam Monitor. This application allowed monitoring and resource management for VMware Virtual Machines (VMs). A month later, Veeam announced a new product called FastSCP - a free tool to create and deploy ISO-based backup copies of VMs. FastSCP became extremely popular and widely used. In 2008, Veeam successfully launched Veeam Backup & Replication. This innovative product supported fast file-level recovery and VM migration inside VMware environments. Future focus was on the development and marketing for Veeam Backup & Replication. In 2010, Veeam Backup & Replication won the Best of Show and New Technology awards in VMworld. Veeam's flagship product grew so quickly, it was used by more than 20,000 customers worldwide in 2011. Once Veeam Backup & Replication v6 was released, Veeam expanded its business to Microsoft Hyper-V users. As Veeam continued to grow, so did the awards, such as in 2012 where Veeam Backup & Replication won VMworld's Best Virtualization and Server Consolidation, Best of Show and Best Virtualization for Disaster Recovery awards. Veeam Backup & Replication v7 was released in August 2013 and is used by more than 73,000 customers worldwide.

— CrunchBase

back door

back door

[common] A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. The motivation for such holes is not always sinister; some operating systems, for example, come out of the box with privileged accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance programmers. Syn. trap door; may also be called a wormhole. See also iron box, cracker, worm, logic bomb.Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than anyone expected or planned, and a few have become widely known. Ken Thompson's 1983 Turing Award lecture to the ACM admitted the existence of a back door in early Unix versions that may have qualified as the most fiendishly clever security hack of all time. In this scheme, the C compiler contained code that would recognize when the login command was being recompiled and insert some code recognizing a password chosen by Thompson, giving him entry to the system whether or not an account had been created for him.Normally such a back door could be removed by removing it from the source code for the compiler and recompiling the compiler. But to recompile the compiler, you have to use the compiler — so Thompson also arranged that the compiler would recognize when it was compiling a version of itself, and insert into the recompiled compiler the code to insert into the recompiled login the code to allow Thompson entry — and, of course, the code to recognize itself and do the whole thing again the next time around! And having done this once, he was then able to recompile the compiler from the original sources; the hack perpetuated itself invisibly, leaving the back door in place and active but with no trace in the sources.The Turing lecture that reported this truly moby hack was later published as “Reflections on Trusting Trust”, Communications of the ACM 27, 8 (August 1984), pp. 761--763 (text available at http://www.acm.org/classics/). Ken Thompson has since confirmed that this hack was implemented and that the Trojan Horse code did appear in the login binary of a Unix Support group machine. Ken says the crocked compiler was never distributed. Your editor has heard two separate reports that suggest that the crocked login did make it out of Bell Labs, notably to BBN, and that it enabled at least one late-night login across the network by someone using the login name “kt”.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

kremvax

kremvax

[from the then-large number of Usenet VAXen with names of the form foovax] Originally, a fictitious Usenet site at the Kremlin, announced on April 1, 1984 in a posting ostensibly originated there by Soviet leader Konstantin Chernenko. The posting was actually forged by Piet Beertema as an April Fool's joke. Other fictitious sites mentioned in the hoax were moskvax and kgbvax. This was probably the funniest of the many April Fool's forgeries perpetrated on Usenet (which has negligible security against them), because the notion that Usenet might ever penetrate the Iron Curtain seemed so totally absurd at the time.In fact, it was only six years later that the first genuine site in Moscow, demos.su, joined Usenet. Some readers needed convincing that the postings from it weren't just another prank. Vadim Antonov, senior programmer at Demos and the major poster from there up to mid-1991, was quite aware of all this, referred to it frequently in his own postings, and at one point twitted some credulous readers by blandly asserting that he was a hoax!Eventually he even arranged to have the domain's gateway site named kremvax, thus neatly turning fiction into fact and demonstrating that the hackish sense of humor transcends cultural barriers. [Mr. Antonov also contributed the Russian-language material for this lexicon. —ESR]In an even more ironic historical footnote, kremvax became an electronic center of the anti-communist resistance during the bungled hard-line coup of August 1991. During those three days the Soviet UUCP network centered on kremvax became the only trustworthy news source for many places within the USSR. Though the sysops were concentrating on internal communications, cross-border postings included immediate transliterations of Boris Yeltsin's decrees condemning the coup and eyewitness reports of the demonstrations in Moscow's streets. In those hours, years of speculation that totalitarianism would prove unable to maintain its grip on politically-loaded information in the age of computer networking were proved devastatingly accurate — and the original kremvax joke became a reality as Yeltsin and the new Russian revolutionaries of glasnost and perestroika made kremvax one of the timeliest means of their outreach to the West.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Assumption, Feast of the

Assumption, Feast of the

festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven, celebrated on the 15th of August, the alleged day of the event.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

August

August

originally called Sextilis, as the sixth month of the Roman year, which began in March, and named August in honour of Augustus, as being the month identified with remarkable events in his career.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bartholomew's Day, St.

Bartholomew's Day, St.

24th August, day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de Medici, then regent of the kingdom for her son, Charles IX., an event, cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court, which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched, although it extinguished Protestantism proper in France, till Charles was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ber`gamo

Ber`gamo

a Lombard town, in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone quarries in the neighbourhood.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Black Saturday

Black Saturday

name given in Scotland to Saturday, 4th August 1621; a stormy day of great darkness, regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bull Run

Bull Run

a stream in Virginia, U.S., 25 m. from Washington, where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate, July 1861 and August 1862.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Dog-days

Dog-days

20 days before and 20 after the rising of the dog-star Sirius, at present from 3rd July to 11th August.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Dreyfus, l'Affaire

Dreyfus, l'Affaire

. On 23rd December 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew, captain of French Artillery; was by court-martial found guilty of revealing to a foreign power secrets of national defence, and sentenced to degradation and perpetual imprisonment; he constantly maintained his innocence, and, in time, the belief that he had been unjustly condemned became prevalent, and a revision of the trial being at length ordered, principally through the exertions of Colonel Picquart and Zola, the well-known author, Dreyfus was brought back from Cayenne, where he had been kept a close prisoner and cruelly treated, and a fresh trial at Rennes began on 6th August 1899, and lasted till 9th September; the proceedings, marked by scandalous "scenes," and by an attempt to assassinate one of prisoner's counsel—disclosed an alarmingly corrupt condition of affairs in some lines of French public life under the Republic of the time, and terminated in a majority verdict of "guilty"; M. Dreyfus was set at liberty on 20th September, the sentence of ten years' imprisonment being remitted; b. 1860.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Electors, The

Electors, The

or Kurfürsts, of Germany, German princes who enjoyed the privilege of disposing of the imperial crown, ranked next the emperor, and were originally six in number, but grew to eight and finally nine; three were ecclesiastical—the Archbishops of Mayence, Cologne, and Trèves, and three secular—the Electors of Saxony, the Palatinate, and Bohemia, to which were added at successive periods the Electors of Brandenburg, of Bavaria, and Hanover. "There never was a tenth; and the Holy Roman Empire, as it was called, which was a grand object once, but had gone about in a superannuated and plainly crazy state some centuries, was at last put out of pain by Napoleon, August 6, 1806, and allowed to cease from the world."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Eugenius

Eugenius

the name of four Popes. E., St., I., Pope from 654 to 658 (festival, August 27); E. II., Pope from 824 to 827; E. III., Pope from 1145 to 1153; E. IV., Pope from 1431 to 1447.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gowrie Conspiracy

Gowrie Conspiracy

a remarkable and much disputed episode in the reign of James VI. of Scotland; the story goes that Alexander Ruthven and his brother, the Earl of Gowrie, enticed the king to come to Gowrie House in Perth on the 5th August 1600 for the purpose of murdering or kidnapping him, and that in the scuffle Ruthven and Gowrie perished. Historians have failed to trace any motive incriminating the brothers, while several good reasons have been brought to light why the king might have wished to get rid of them.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lammas Day

Lammas Day

the first of August, literally "the loaf-mass" day or festival day at the beginning of harvest, one of the cross quarter days, Whitsuntide, Martinmas, and Candlemas being the other three.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nonconformists

Nonconformists

a name originally applied to the clergy of the Established Church of England, some two thousand, who in 1662 resigned their livings rather than submit to the terms of the Act of Uniformity passed on the 24th of August that year, and now applied to the whole Dissenting body in England.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Northallerton

Northallerton

a market-town and capital of the North Riding of Yorkshire, 30 m. NW. of York; in the vicinity was fought the famous Battle of the Standard, in which David I. of Scotland was routed by the English, August 22, 1138.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Otterburn

Otterburn

a Northumberland village, 16 m. S. of the border, famous as the scene of a struggle on 19th August 1388 between the Douglases and the Percies, at which the Earl of Douglas lost his life, and Hotspur was taken prisoner. See Chevy Chase.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pekin

Pekin

the capital of China, on a sandy plain in the basin of the Pei-ho, is divided into two portions, each separately walled, the northern or Manchu city and the southern or Chinese. The former contains the Purple Forbidden city, in which are the Imperial palaces; surrounding it is the August city, in which are a colossal copper Buddha and the Temple of Great Happiness. Outside this are the government offices, foreign legations, the temple of Confucius, a great Buddhist monastery, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and Christian mission stations. The Chinese city has many temples, mission stations, schools, and hospitals; but it is sparsely populated, houses are poor, and streets unpaved. Pekin has railway communication with Hankow, and is connected with other cities and with Russia by telegraph. Its trade and industry are inconsiderable. It is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was Kubla Khan's capital, and has been the metropolis of the empire since 1421.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pleiades

Pleiades

in the Greek mythology seven sisters, daughters of Atlas, transformed into stars, six of them visible and one invisible, and forming the group on the shoulders of Taurus in the zodiac; in the last week of May they rise and set with the sun till August, after which they follow the sun and are seen more or less at night till their conjunction with it again in May.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ruthven, Raid of

Ruthven, Raid of

a conspiracy entered into by certain Scottish nobles, headed by William, first Earl of Gowrie, to seize the young king James VI., and break down the influence of his worthless favourites, Lennox and Arran; at Ruthven Castle, or Huntingtower, in Perthshire, on 23rd August 1582, the king was captured and held for 10 months; Arran was imprisoned, and Lennox fled, to die in France; the conduct of the conspirators was applauded by the country, but after the escape of the king from St. Andrews Castle the conspirators were proclaimed guilty of treason, and Gowrie was ultimately executed.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Saarbrück

Saarbrück

a manufacturing town in Rhenish Prussia, on the French frontier, where the French under Napoleon III. repulsed the Germans, August 2, 1870.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Smolensk

Smolensk

an ancient town of Russia, and capital of a government (1,412) of the same name, on the Dnieper, 244 m. SW. of Moscow; is surrounded by walls; has a fine cathedral, and is strongly fortified; carries on a good grain trade; here in 1812 Napoleon defeated the Russians under Barclay de Tolly and Bagration on his march to Moscow in August 1812.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Springfield

Springfield

1, capital (34) of Illinois, situated in a flourishing coal district, 185 m. SW. of Chicago; has an arsenal, two colleges, and a handsome marble capitol; coal-mining, foundries, and flour, cotton, and paper mills are the chief industries; the burial-place of Abraham Lincoln. 2, A nicely laid out and flourishing city (62) of Massachusetts, capital of Hampden County, on the Connecticut River (spanned here by five bridges), 99 m. W. by S. of Boston; settled in 1635; has important manufactories of cottons, woollens, paper, and a variety of other articles, besides the United States armoury. 3, Capital (22) of Greene County, Missouri, 232 m. WSW. of St. Louis; has rapidly increasing manufactories of cottons, woollens, machinery, &c.; in the vicinity was fought the battle of Wilson's Creek, 10th August 1861. 4, Capital (38) of Clark County, Ohio, on Lagonda Creek and Mad River, 80 m. NE. of Cincinnati; is an important railway centre, and possesses numerous factories of machinery, bicycles, paper, &c.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Stanley, Henry Morton

Stanley, Henry Morton

African explorer, born in Denbigh, Wales, in humble circumstances, his parental name being Rowlands, he having assumed the name of Stanley after that of his adopted father, Mr. Stanley, New Orleans; served in the Confederate army; became a newspaper foreign correspondent, to the New York Herald at length; was summoned to go and "find Livingstone"; after many an impediment found Livingstone on 10th November 1871, and after staying with him, and accompanying him in explorations, returned to England in August next year; in 1874 he set out again at the head of an expedition, solved several problems, and returned home; published "Congo and its Free State," "In Darkest Africa," &c.; represents Lambeth, North, in Parliament, having been elected in 1895; b. 1840.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

White Sea

White Sea

a large inlet of the Arctic Ocean, in the N. of Russia, which is entered by a long channel and branches inward into three bays; it is of little service for navigation, being blocked with ice all the year except in June, July, and August, and even when open encumbered with floating ice, and often enveloped in mists at the same time.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Wilhelmina I.

Wilhelmina I.

queen of the Netherlands, daughter of William III., and who ascended the throne on his decease in November 1890; her mother, a sister of the Duchess of Albany, acted as regent during her minority, and she became of age on the 11th August 1898, when she was installed as sovereign amid the enthusiasm of her people; b. 1880.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hot Water

Hot Water

Hot Water is a novel by P.G. Wodehouse, first published on August 17, 1932, in the United Kingdom by Herbert Jenkins, London, and in the United States by Doubleday, Doran, New York. The novel had been serialised in Collier's from 21 May to 6 August 1932. It was subsequently adapted for the stage by Wodehouse and his long-time collaborator Guy Bolton as The Inside Stand. The story takes place at the Chateau Blissac, Brittany, and recounts the various romantic and criminal goings-on there during a house party, hosted by the Vicomte Blissac. It contains a mixture of romance, intrigue and Wodehouse's brand of humour.

— Freebase

Mantissa

Mantissa

Mantissa were an Australian hard rock band which formed as Killing Time in 1989. Killing Time included Nina Grant on bass guitar and vocals, Chris Paine on guitar, and Adam Pringle on lead vocals. In February 1991 they issued an extended play, Ruby's Mind, which reached the Top 100 on the ARIA Singles Chart. Their Dream Alone extended play, peaked in the Top 30. Killing Time supported national tours by Jane's Addiction, Mudhoney, Scatterbrain and Baby Animals. In August 1992 Killing Time changed their name to Mantissa and followed with their debut album, Mossy God, in October on Red Eye Records / Polydor Records, which appeared in the Top 50 ARIA Albums Chart. Their second album, Thirst, appeared in August 1995 and the group disbanded in 1996.

— Freebase

Irish National Liberation Army

Irish National Liberation Army

The Irish National Liberation Army or INLA is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group that was formed on 8 December 1974. Its goal is to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a socialist united Ireland. Sharing a common Marxist ideology with its political wing, the Irish Republican Socialist Party, it enjoyed its peak of influence in the late 1970s and early 1980s. In its earliest days, the INLA was known as the People's Liberation Army. During the PLA period, the group's purpose was primarily to protect IRSP members from attacks. After a twenty-four year armed campaign, the INLA declared a ceasefire on 22 August 1998. In August 1999, it stated that "There is no political or moral argument to justify a resumption of the campaign". In October 2009, the INLA formally vowed to pursue its aims through peaceful political means. The organisation is classified as a proscribed terrorist group in the United Kingdom and as an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland.

— Freebase

Grace

Grace

Grace is the only complete studio album by Jeff Buckley, released on August 23, 1994. While the album initially had poor sales, peaking at No. 149 in the U.S., and received mixed reviews, it gradually acquired critical and popular acclaim and has now sold over 2 million copies worldwide. An extended version of the album celebrating its tenth anniversary was released on August 23, 2004, and it peaked at No. 44 in the UK. Grace re-entered the albums chart in Australia at number 44 for the week of January 29 to February 5, 2007 – 13 years after its original release date. It is currently certified 6x Platinum in Australia.

— Freebase

WAXY

WAXY

WAXY is a radio station licensed in South Miami, Florida broadcasting on 790 kHz with a sports talk format. The station is owned by Lincoln Financial Media, which was previously known as Jefferson-Pilot Communications. Its studios are located near Sun Life Stadium in northern Dade County. The callsign was formerly used on FM at 105.9 until Jefferson-Pilot acquired the callsign due to their competing station WMXJ Majic 102.7 having the same format, Oldies. 105.9 FM is now WBGG-FM and owned by Clear Channel with a Classic Rock format. On 24 August 2012, Lincoln Financial Media announced that it had acquired 104.3 WMSF. Beginning on 29 August 2012, 104.3 FM will begin simulcasting the 790 broadcast. Once the acquisition closes, "The Ticket" broadcast will move to 104.3 FM and 790 AM will break off for new programming.

— Freebase

Al-Muhajiroun

Al-Muhajiroun

Al-Muhajiroun is a banned Islamist terrorist organisation that was based in Britain and which has been linked to international terrorism, homophobia and antisemitism. The group was proscribed under the UK Terrorism Act 2000 on 14 January 2010 together with four other organisations including Islam4UK. The Group operated in the United Kingdom from 14 January 1986 until the British Government announced an intended ban in August 2005. The group became notorious for its September 2002 conference, "The Magnificent 19", praising the September 11, 2001 attacks. Home Secretary Charles Clarke banned Bakri from the United Kingdom on 12 August 2005 because it was alleged that his presence was "not conducive to the public good." The group has previously clashed with members of the English Defence League. The group was then relaunched in June 2009. Two other offshoot organisations, The Saviour Sect and Al-Ghurabaa had previously been banned for the 'glorification' of terrorism under the Terrorism Act 2006. It was also alleged to have run a Lahore safe house for visiting British Muslims. Michael Adebolajo, the man accused of killing Lee Rigby in a terrorist attack in Woolwich, attended Al-Muhajiroun meetings and demonstrations.

— Freebase

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are common names for Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, when its government was controlled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the state. Nazi Germany ceased to exist after the Allied Forces defeated the Wehrmacht in May 1945, thus ending World War II in Europe. After Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate their power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany when the powers and offices of the Chancellery and Presidency were merged. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's hands, and his word was above all laws. The government was not a coordinated, cooperating body, but rather a collection of factions struggling to amass power and gain Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahns. The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity.

— Freebase

Ministry

Ministry

Ministry is an American industrial metal band founded by lead singer Al Jourgensen in 1981. Originally a new wave - synthpop outfit, Ministry changed its style to industrial metal in the late 1980s. Ministry found mainstream success in the early 1990s with its most successful album Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs and touring as part of the Lollapalooza festival. After 27 years of performing, Jourgensen decided to end the band in 2008, and since then stated that a reunion would never happen. However, on August 7, 2011, a reunion was announced, when Ministry confirmed that they will play one of their first shows in 4 years at the Wacken Open Air festival in August 2012. Ministry released a new album, titled Relapse, on March 23, 2012, which was followed by a world tour.

— Freebase

Solidarity

Solidarity

Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non–communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 Congress that constituted 1/3 of the total working age population of Poland. In its clandestine years, the United States provided significant financial support for Solidarity, estimated to be as much as 50 million US dollars. In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with the union. The Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then it has become a more traditional, liberal trade union. 30 years after emerging its membership dropped to between just over 400,000 and 680,000.

— Freebase

Dwell

Dwell

Dwell is an American magazine devoted to modern architecture and design. It was launched in September 2000 by mail-order heiress Lara Hedberg Deam with architecture and design critic Karrie Jacobs as its editor-in-chief. In August 2002 Jacobs left the magazine and was replaced by senior editor Allison Arieff. Arieff subsequently resigned in August 2006, citing a "fundamental change in the magazine's mission and philosophy" as her reason for leaving. Dwell is published 10 times a year by Dwell Media, LLC. The current subscription is priced at $19.95 a year. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, by the close of 2005 the magazine's circulation exceeded 260,000, a 25.5 percent increase over 2004. Recently, president and publisher Michela O’Connor Abrams has attempted to capitalize on the magazine’s success by introducing a number of branded spin-offs, including a limited edition minimalist athletic sneaker designed by Medium Design Group and a weekly TV series on the Fine Living cable network. Dwell LLC also publishes a popular design website dwell.com and produces an annual design conference and exhibition called Dwell on Design. Approximately 50% of the pages in a typical issue of Dwell are used for advertising.

— Freebase

Bowery

Bowery

Bowery is a station on the BMT Nassau Street Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of Bowery and Delancey Street in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, it is served by the J train at all times and the Z train during rush hours in peak direction. Construction of this underground station began in August 1907 and was almost completed by the end of 1910. However, the BMT Nassau Street Line to the south did not open until August 4, 1913 when Chambers Street ready for service. The station has three tracks and two island platforms. It was originally configured like a typical express station with express service on the inner tracks and local service on the outer tracks. When it was built, the station was an important connection point for elevated and streetcar lines. With those lines long-gone, a four-track station was no longer considered necessary. A renovation of the Nassau Street Line, completed in October 2004, resulted in the former northbound platform being sealed off with service in both directions now provided on the former southbound platform. On the abandoned side, only the outer track remains. The station has two mezzanine areas on each side of Bowery. One part of the station has a high ceiling which was built for a proposed subway to pass through it. There is also a "Future Doorway" at this station where an opening could be made to the never-built subway station if it had side platforms. At the curve between Bowery and Canal Street, there is a small provision for a line into Spring Street, for which no definite plan was ever provided. Due to the depth, there were escalators that were provided in the original construction, one on each platform running to the east mezzanine. The escalator on the south platform was either not installed or removed long ago.

— Freebase

Virgo

Virgo

Virgo is the sixth astrological sign in the Zodiac. It spans the 150-180th degree of the zodiac, between 152.75 and 180 degree of celestial longitude, which the Tropical zodiac the Sun transits this area on average between August 23 to September 22 each year. Virgo is also part of the 12 zodiac signs. In Sidereal astrology, the sun currently transits the constellation of Virgo from August 22 to September 22. Individuals born during these dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Virgos or Virgoans.

— Freebase

Battle of Thermopylae

Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. The Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, and simultaneously block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium. A Greek force of approximately 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the summer of 480 BC. The Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered over one million but today considered to have been much smaller, arrived at the pass in late August or early September. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands. During two full days of battle the small force led by King Leonidas I of Sparta blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day of battle a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path that led behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard the rear with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others, most of whom were killed.

— Freebase

Assembly

Assembly

The Assembly demo party is a demoscene and gaming event in Finland. The main organizers of the event are Pekka Aakko and Jussi Laakkonen. The event takes place every year between late July and early August, and lasts three to four days. The most recent Assembly was held from the 2 to 5 August 2012 at Hartwall Areena in Helsinki. In the beginning of the year 2007 Assembly Winter was announced. The new winter party is a more gaming oriented event in Tampere where the summer events continues the traditions of the original demoparty in Helsinki under the name Assembly Summer. Both parties will be held once a year.

— Freebase

Cassie Ventura

Cassie Ventura

Casandra Ventura, known simply as Cassie, is an American recording artist, dancer, actress and model. Born in New London, Connecticut, she began her career as a result of meeting record producer Ryan Leslie in late 2002, who later signed her to NextSelection Lifestyle Group. During this time, Diddy heard "Me & U" in a club, and Leslie convinced him to partner his Bad Boy Records with Leslie's NextSelection imprint for the release of Cassie's debut album Cassie's self titled debut studio album was released in late 2006, peaking at number four on the Billboard 200 chart and features the Billboard Hot 100 top three hit "Me & U", which became a major hit in 2006. She began work on her second studio album in 2007 releasing three singles; "Official Girl" featuring Lil Wayne in August 2008, "Must Be Love" featuring Diddy in April 2009, and "Lets Get Crazy" featuring Akon in August 2009, which all failed to chart in the USA, in late 2009 Cassie signed a record deal with Interscope Records. On April 11, 2013 Cassie released her debut mixtape RockaByeBaby, the mixtape was promoted with the release of "Numb" featuring Rick Ross and "Paradise" featuring Wiz Khalifa. Apart from music, Cassie is signed to modeling agency Wilhelmina Models and One Management. Cassie has modeled for Calvin Klein one and has featured in magazines including GQ and Bust and becoming the face of ASOS 2013 spring collection, Cassie has appeared in adverts for Delia's, Adidas, Abercrombie & Fitch, Seventeen, and a commercial for Clean and Clear. Cassie is known for being a style icon due to her "edgy style" and "feminine" and "sophisticated" fashion. Cassie is known for setting the trend among women of shaving their hair, after Cassie shaved hers in 2009 influenced by punk. Cassie cites Kate Moss as her style influence. Cassie has also ventured into acting, she made her film debut in Step Up 2: The Streets.

— Freebase

February

February

February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the shortest month and the only month with fewer than 30 days. The month has 28 days in common years or 29 days in leap years. February is the third month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, February is the seasonal equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, in meteorological reckoning. February starts on the same day of the week as March and November in common years, and on the same day of the week as August in leap years. February ends on the same day of the week as October every year and on the same day of the week as January in common years only. In leap years, it is the only month that ends on the same weekday it begins.

— Freebase

Autumn

Autumn

Autumn or Fall is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer into winter, in September or March when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. The equinoxes might be expected to be in the middle of their respective seasons, but temperature lag means that seasons appear later than dates calculated from a purely astronomical perspective. The actual lag varies with region. Some cultures regard the autumnal equinox as "mid-autumn", others with a longer lag treat it as the start of autumn. Meteorologists use a definition based on months, with autumn being September, October and November in the northern hemisphere, and March, April and May in the southern hemisphere. In North America, autumn is usually considered to start with the September equinox. In traditional East Asian solar term, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on about 7 November. In Ireland, the autumn months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are September, October and November. However, according to the Irish Calendar which is based on ancient Gaelic traditions, autumn lasts throughout the months of August, September, and October, or possibly a few days later, depending on tradition. In Australia, autumn officially begins on 1 March and ends 31 May According to United States tradition, autumn runs from the day after Labor Day through Thanksgiving, after which the holiday season that demarcates the unofficial beginning of winter begins.

— Freebase

United States Coast Guard

United States Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President at any time, or by Congress during time of war. Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine first, and later as the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790, it is the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton headed the USRCS, and the branch was involved in every war from 1790 to World War I. As of August 2009 the Coast Guard had approximately 42,000 men and women on active duty, 7,500 reservists, 30,000 auxiliarists, and 7,700 full-time civilian employees. The Coast Guard's legal authority differs from the other four armed services: it operates simultaneously under Title 10 of the United States Code and its other organic authorities, e.g. Titles 6, 14, 19, 33, 46, etc. Because of its legal authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3.

— Freebase

Abkhazia

Abkhazia

Abkhazia is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus. Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. This status is recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, Tuvalu and also by the partially recognised state of South Ossetia, and the unrecognized Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh. The Georgian government and the majority of the world's governments consider Abkhazia a part of Georgia's territory. Under Georgia's official designation it is an autonomous republic, called the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi. The status of Abkhazia is a central issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict. The wider region formed part of the Soviet Union until 1991. As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate towards the end of the 1980s, ethnic tensions grew between the Abkhaz and Georgians over Georgia's moves towards independence. This led to the 1992–1993 War in Abkhazia that resulted in a Georgian military defeat, de facto independence of Abkhazia and the mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population from Abkhazia. In spite of the 1994 ceasefire agreement and years of negotiations, the status dispute has not been resolved, and despite the long-term presence of a United Nations monitoring force and a Russian-dominated Commonwealth of Independent States peacekeeping operation, the conflict has flared up on several occasions. In August 2008, the sides again fought during the South Ossetia War, which was followed by the formal recognition of Abkhazia by Russia, the annulment of the 1994 cease fire agreement and the termination of the UN and CIS missions. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution declaring Abkhazia a Russian-occupied territory.

— Freebase

Bartholomäus

Bartholomäus

Bartholomew was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and is usually identified with Nathanael, who is mentioned in John 1. He was introduced to Christ through Philip, another of the twelve apostles as per John 1:43–51, where the name Nathanael first appears. He is also mentioned as "Nathanael of Cana in Galilee" in John 21:2. The account of the calling of Nathanael of Cana occurs at the end of John 1, immediately followed by the account of Jesus' miracle at the Marriage at Cana in John 2. The name Nathanael is the one used for him in John’s Gospel. The relationship between Philip and Nathanael is noted as per John 1:43–51. Bartholomew comes from the Aramaic bar-Tôlmay, meaning son of Tolmay or son of the furrows. According to the Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church, his martyrdom is commemorated on the 1st day of the Coptic Calendar, which currently falls on September 11. His feast is June 11 in Eastern Christianity, and August 24 in both forms of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. The festival in August has been a traditional occasion for markets and fairs, such as the Bartholomew Fair held in Smithfield, London since the Middle Ages, which served as the scene for Ben Jonson's homonymous comedy.

— Freebase

Iran–Iraq War

Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War, also known as the First Persian Gulf War, was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war after the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was initially referred to in English as the "Persian Gulf War" prior to the Persian Gulf War of the early 1990s. The Iran–Iraq War began when Iraq invaded Iran via simultaneous invasions by air and land on 22 September 1980. It followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority as well as Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's revolutionary chaos and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran and were quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive. Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with Resolution 598, a U.N.-brokered ceasefire which was accepted by both sides. At the war's conclusion, it took several weeks for Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honour pre-war international borders set by the 1975 Algiers Agreement. The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.

— Freebase

Reprieve

Reprieve

Reprieve is the fifteenth studio album by singer-songwriter Ani DiFranco, released on August 8, 2006. Righteous Babe Records' website notes that only DiFranco's bassist Todd Sickafoose, who had accompanied her on her recent tours, would be performing on the album. The album has a dark, mournful, mellow sound reminiscent of 1999's To the Teeth and 2004's Educated Guess and features experimental arrangements with synthesizers, electronics and tape manipulation. As the recording of the album was briefly interrupted due to the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, the album has a heavily political and vaguely conceptual undercurrent that "paints a haunting portrait of New Orleans as the water retreats and the natives continue to rebuild their lives." The album cover was inspired by a picture of a real tree in Nagasaki which was partially destroyed by the atomic bomb. While the city around it lay in ruin, this one tree stood, half of it destroyed, the other untouched. DiFranco also references the eucalyptus tree in the title track about the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. While the official release date of Reprieve was August 8, the album was made available for purchase on the iTunes Music Store between June 24 and June 27, 2006, possibly in error, as the album date on the site was listed as 2002.

— Freebase

Mother Earth

Mother Earth

Mother Earth is the second studio album by Dutch symphonic/gothic metal band Within Temptation. Originally released on December 4, 2000 in the Netherlands, and August 21, 2001 in other parts of Europe, it quickly became a success in the band's heartland, reaching platinum status in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany in addition to achieving TMF/MTV Awards in both countries. The album reportedly sold 750,000 copies in Europe. The album was licensed to be released in Germany and neighboring countries through GUN Records in January 2003 as a special extended edition with four bonus tracks. The same edition reached the UK through Sanctuary Records with a release in September 2004. The album was re-released by Roadrunner Records on September 28, 2007, with bonus live tracks. On August 5, 2008, Mother Earth along with The Silent Force was released in the United States on Roadrunner Records.

— Freebase


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