Definitions containing bülow, guido von

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Bernstorff

Bernstorff

Bernstorff is a German-Danish noble family of Mecklenburgian origin. Notable members of the family include: Albrecht von Bernstorff diplomat, Prussian Foreign Minister Albrecht von Bernstorff, German diplomat and resistance fighter Andreas Bernstorff, Danish military officer Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, a Hanoverian minister who accompanied George I to Britain when he became King Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Danish statesman Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, German diplomat Andreas Peter Bernstorff, Danish state minister Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman Joachim Frederik Bernstorff, Danish statesman Georg Ernst von Bernstorff, German politician Percy von Bernstorff, German public official

— Freebase

Iduna

Iduna

Iduna was an important literary association founded in May 1891 by a circle of writers around Fritz Lemmermayer. Lemmermayer acted as a sort of "middle man" between an older generation of authors and a group of younger writers and thinkers. The society had the descriptive subtitle of "Free German Society for Literature". The name Iduna was provided by Guido von List himself and is that of a North Germanic goddess of eternal youth and renewal. Richard von Kralik and Joseph Kalasanz Poestion, authors with specifically neo-Germanic leanings, where also involved in the circle. The circle dissolved in 1893 when the 'Literarische Donaugesellschaft' grew out of its ashes and was founded by Guido von List and Fanny Wschiansky.

— Freebase

Weltpolitik

Weltpolitik

"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.

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Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand was an internist from Finland. The son of a district engineer in Vaasa, von Willebrand got his medical degree in the University of Helsinki. He graduated in 1896, and did his doctoral thesis on the changes that occurred in blood following significant blood loss. For the remainder of his professional career, the properties of blood and its coagulation continued to be the focus of his interest. Von Willebrand was the first to describe the blood coagulation disorder later named for him, von Willebrand disease. The condition first aroused his interest in the case of a 5-year-old girl from Åland with an extensive history of bleeding in her family. Mapping her family history, von Willebrand found 23 of the girl's 66 family members were affected, and that the disease was more common in women. In his personal life, von Willebrand was described as a very modest man. He also published two papers concerning the use of hot air as a form of medical treatment.

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Python

Python

A programming language invented by Guido van Rossum, named after Monty Python.

— Wiktionary

Guido

Guido

Without qualification, Guido van Rossum (author of Python). Note that Guido answers to English /gwee´do/ but in Dutch it's /khwee´do/. Mythically, Guido's most important attribute besides Python itself is Guido's time machine, a device he is reputed to possess because of the unnerving frequency with which user requests for new features have been met with the response “I just implemented that last night...”. See BDFL.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

von

von

In German, von is a preposition which approximately means of or from. When it is used as a part of a German family name, it is usually a nobiliary particle, like the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese de. At certain times and places, it has been illegal for anyone who was not a member of the nobility to use von before the family name. However, in Northern Germany and Switzerland the von particle is still a common part of surnames and is widely used also by commoners, whereas in the Middle Ages this was common practice in all German-speaking areas; thus, "Hans von Duisburg" meant Hans from [the city of] Duisburg. The Dutch van, which is a cognate of von but does not indicate nobility, can be said to have preserved this meaning.

— Freebase

Von Restorff effect

Von Restorff effect

The Von Restorff effect, also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered than other items. A bias in favour of remembering the unusual. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity. Von Restorff worked as a postdoctoral assistant to Wolfgang Köhler at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin up to the time that Köhler resigned in protest against Nazi interference with the Institute. During her time in Köhler’s laboratory, von Restorff published two papers, the second of which she co-authored with Köhler. Von Restorff proposed the isolation effect in a paper she wrote in 1933 on the topic of spontaneous reminding which included a prescient discussion of the role of intentionality in the memory test.

— Freebase

Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture

The term Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, derives from a 1945 computer architecture description by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The design of a Von Neumann architecture is simpler than the more modern Harvard architecture which is also a stored-program system but has one dedicated set of address and data buses for reading data from and writing data to memory, and another set of address and data buses for fetching instructions.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Factor

von Willebrand Factor

A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Guido

Guido

Guido is a slang term for a lower-class or working-class urban Italian American. The guido stereotype is multi-faceted. Originally, it was used as a demeaning term for Italian Americans in general. More recently, it has come to refer to Italian Americans who conduct themselves in a thuggish, overtly macho manner. The time period in which it obtained the latter meaning is not clear, but some sources date it to the 1970s or 1980s.

— Freebase

Heroína

Heroína

The Heroína was a privately owned frigate that was operated as a privateer under a license issued by the United Provinces of the River Plate. It was under the command of American-born Colonel David Jewett and has become linked with the Argentine claim to sovereignty of the Falkland Islands. This stems from a ceremony that took place on 6 November 1820, where Jewett formally claimed the Falkland Islands for the United Provinces. The Buenos Aires businessman Patrick Lynch acquired the French frigate Braque at some point in 1819/1820. The exact date is unknown with dates for the transaction ranging from August 1819 until January 1820. Initially it was planned to name the ship Tomás Guido but that name was considered inappropriate as Guido, Chief Secretary of the Army, was still alive at the time. After naming her Heroína and fitting out the ship to act as a privateer, Lynch obtained a corsair license from the Buenos Aires Supreme Director José Rondeau. Colonel David Jewett, an American privateer was given command of Heroína in 1820 and set out on a voyage marked by misfortune, a mutiny, and scurvy. In July 1820, Jewett captured the Portuguese frigate Carlota that was en route to Lisbon. In doing so, Jewett crossed the line between privateer and pirate, since his corsairs license restricted his activities to Spanish ships. Jewett continued to capture ships of other flags causing further controversy.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene. In his lifetime, Brahms's popularity and influence were considerable; following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow, he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs". Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished. Brahms is often considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. He was a master of counterpoint, the complex and highly disciplined art for which Johann Sebastian Bach is famous, and of development, a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and other composers. Brahms aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers.

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Jeremy Irons

Jeremy Irons

Jeremy John Irons is an English actor. After receiving classical training at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, Irons began his acting career on stage in 1969, and has since appeared in many London theatre productions including The Winter's Tale, Macbeth, Much Ado About Nothing, The Taming of the Shrew, Godspell, Richard II and Embers. In 1984, he made his Broadway debut in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing and received a Tony Award for Best Actor. Irons's first major film role came in the 1981 romantic drama The French Lieutenant's Woman, for which he received a BAFTA nomination for Best Actor. After starring in such films as Moonlighting, Betrayal and The Mission, he gained critical acclaim for portraying twin gynaecologists in David Cronenberg's psychological thriller Dead Ringers. In 1990, Irons played accused murderer Claus von Bulow in Reversal of Fortune, and took home multiple awards including an Academy Award for Best Actor. Other notable films have included Kafka, The House of the Spirits, The Lion King, Die Hard with a Vengeance, Lolita, The Man in the Iron Mask, The Merchant of Venice, Being Julia, Kingdom of Heaven, Eragon, Appaloosa, and Margin Call.

— Freebase

Schwenkfeldian

Schwenkfeldian

a member of a religious sect founded by Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a Silesian reformer who disagreed with Luther, especially on the deification of the body of Christ

— Webster Dictionary

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.

— Freebase

Ritter

Ritter

Ritter is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and would generally be used together with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr". In addition to the described system, some states like Württemberg and Bavaria introduced orders of merit beginning in the late 18th century which also conferred nobility as "Ritter von" but kept the title limited to the recipient's lifetime. In heraldry, from the late 18th century a Ritter would often be indicated by the use of a coronet with five points, although not everyone who was a Ritter and displayed arms actually made use of such a coronet.

— Freebase

Von Neumann entropy

Von Neumann entropy

In quantum statistical mechanics, von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics. For a quantum-mechanical system described by a density matrix ρ, the von Neumann entropy is where tr denotes the trace. If ρ is written in terms of its eigenvectors |1〉, |2〉, |3〉, ... as then the von Neumann entropy is In this form, S can be seen to be related to the Shannon entropy.

— Freebase

Ristocetin

Ristocetin

Ristocetin is an antibiotic, obtained from Amycolatopsis lurida, previously used to treat staphylococcal infections. It is no longer used clinically because it caused thrombocytopenia and platelet agglutination. It is now used solely to assay those functions in vitro in the diagnosis of conditions such as von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Platelet agglutination caused by ristocetin can occur only in the presence of von Willebrand factor multimers, so if ristocetin is added to blood lacking the factor, the platelets will not clump. In an unknown fashion, the antibiotic ristocetin causes von Willebrand factor to bind the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib, so when ristocetin is added to normal blood, it causes agglutination. In some types of vWD, even very small amounts of ristocetin cause platelet aggregation when the patient's platelet-rich plasma is used. This paradox is explained by these types having gain-of-function mutations which cause the vWD high molecular-weight multimers to bind more tightly to their receptors on platelets. In the case of type 2B vWD, the gain-of-function mutation involves von Willebrand's factor, and in platelet-type vWD, the receptor is the object of the mutation. This increased binding causes vWD because the high-molecular weight multimers are removed from circulation in plasma since they remain attached to the patient's platelets. Thus, if the patient's platelet-poor plasma is used, the ristocetin cofactor assay will not agglutinate standardized platelets, similar to the other types of vWD.

— Freebase

Von Kármán

Von Kármán

Von Kármán is a lunar crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. The northern third of this formation is overlain by the rim and outer rampart of the walled plain Leibnitz, forming a deep indentation in the formation. The remainder of the outer wall is roughly circular in shape, although it is irregular and heavily worn by subsequent impacts. The interior of Von Kármán has been subjected to flooding by lava flows after the original crater formed, leaving the southern portion of the floor nearly flat. This surface has a lower albedo than the surrounding terrain, and is nearly as dark as the interior of Leibnitz. There is a central peak at the location where the midpoint of the original Von Kármán was formed, which joins with the rougher surface in the northern part of the crater. In addition to Leibnitz to the north, the crater Oresme is located to the west-northwest, and Finsen lies to the northeast on the edge of Leibnitz's rim. Nearly attached to the southeast rim is the unusual figure-eight-shaped Von Kármán L formation. Directly to the east of this is the crater Alder.

— Freebase

Misesian

Misesian

A person who substantially agrees with the economic analyses of Ludwig von Mises.

— Wiktionary

Linnean

Linnean

of, or relating to Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish nobleman, born as Carolus Linnaeus: "the Linnean Society".

— Wiktionary

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

A Von Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street.

— Wiktionary

Linnaeus

Linnaeus

Carl (or the latinized Carolus) Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy."

— Wiktionary

Bismarck

Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck, one of the prominent German statesmen of the nineteenth century.

— Wiktionary

copper captain

copper captain

A Brummagem captain; a person with an artificial title of captain; a General von Poffenburgh.

— Wiktionary

Clausewitzian

Clausewitzian

Adhering to or described by the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz.

— Wiktionary

Alamire

Alamire

the lowest note but one in Guido Aretino's scale of music

— Webster Dictionary

E-la

E-la

originally, the highest note in the scale of Guido; hence, proverbially, any extravagant saying

— Webster Dictionary

Si

Si

a syllable applied, in solmization, to the note B; more recently, to the seventh tone of any major diatonic scale. It was added to Guido's scale by Le Maire about the end of the 17th century

— Webster Dictionary

Ut

Ut

the first note in Guido's musical scale, now usually superseded by do. See Solmization

— Webster Dictionary

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a partial deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from qualitative deficiencies of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. The subtype is divided into several variants with each variant having a distinctive pattern of PLATELET-interaction.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a total or near total deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

John von Neumann

John von Neumann

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer. Von Neumann's mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." Along with Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.

— Freebase

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs, and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats. There are three forms of vWD: inherited, acquired and pseudo or platelet type. There are three types of hereditary vWD: vWD Type I, vWD Type II and vWD III. Within the three inherited types of vWD there are various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition. vWD Type I is the most common type of the disorder and those that have it are typically asymptomatic or may experience mild symptoms such as nosebleeds although there may be severe symptoms in some cases. There are various factors that affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD such as blood type. vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish pediatrician who first described the disease in 1926.

— Freebase

Lutetium

Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal which resists corrosion in dry, but not moist, air. It is the last element in the lanthanide series, and traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these men found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and von Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain as he published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium for element 71 proposed by von Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s. Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, though significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust; it has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, and so used to determine the age of meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy on neuroendocrine tumours.

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Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Factor VIII is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor. In humans, factor VIII is encoded by the F8 gene. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. Factor VIII is produced in liver sinusoidal cells and endothelial cells outside of the liver throughout the body. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs. In response to injury, coagulation factor VIII is activated and separates from von Willebrand factor. The active protein interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. This interaction sets off a chain of additional chemical reactions that form a blood clot. Factor VIII participates in blood coagulation; it is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca+2 and phospholipids forms a complex that converts factor X to the activated form Xa. The factor VIII gene produces two alternatively spliced transcripts. Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand factor in a noncovalent complex. This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which consists primarily of the phospholipid binding domain of factor VIIIc. This binding domain is essential for coagulant activity.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from 1916, he and his deputy, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg gradually gained more influence in Germany than the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany. Hindenburg, as German President, appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. Hindenburg personally despised Hitler, condescendingly referring to Hitler as that "Bohemian corporal". Hitler repeatedly and forcefully pressured Hindenburg to appoint him as Chancellor, Hindenburg repeatedly refused Hitler's demand. Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. Although he was opposing Hitler, the deteriorating political stability of the Weimar Republic let him play an important role in the Nazi Party's rise to power. He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In February, he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act, in which the parliament gave Hitler's administration legislative powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and, as "Führer und Reichskanzler", made himself head of state.

— Freebase

Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, in the United States. He is credited as being the "Father of Rocket Science". In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the V-2 combat rocket during World War II. After the war, he and some select members of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip. Von Braun worked on the United States Army intermediate range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated by NASA. Under NASA, he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. According to one NASA source, he is "without doubt, the greatest rocket scientist in history". His crowning achievement was to lead the development of the Saturn V booster rocket that helped land the first men on the Moon in July 1969. In 1975 he received the National Medal of Science.

— Freebase

Universal Turing machine

Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some to be the origin of the stored program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. It is also known as universal computing machine, universal machine, machine U, U. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.

— Freebase

Technological singularity

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the theoretical emergence of superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the technological singularity is seen as an occurrence beyond which events cannot be predicted. The first use of the term "singularity" in this context was by mathematician John von Neumann. Neumann in the mid-1950s spoke of "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue". The term was popularized by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement, or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. Futurist Ray Kurzweil cited von Neumann's use of the term in a foreword to von Neumann's classic The Computer and the Brain. Proponents of the singularity typically postulate an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, that might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human.

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Sphygmograph

Sphygmograph

The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

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Useful idiot

Useful idiot

In political jargon, useful idiot is a pejorative term for people perceived as propagandists for a cause whose goals they do not understand, and who are used cynically by the leaders of the cause. The term has been used to refer to Soviet sympathizers in Western countries. The implication was that, although the people in question naïvely thought of themselves as an ally of the Soviet Union, they were actually held in contempt and were being cynically used. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naïvely believe to be a force for good. Despite often being attributed to Lenin, in 1987, Grant Harris, senior reference librarian at the Library of Congress, declared that "We have not been able to identify this phrase among [Lenin's] published works." A New York Times article from 1948, on contemporary Italian politics, documented usage of the term in an article from the social-democratic Italian paper L'Umanita. The French equivalent, "idiots utiles", was used in a newspaper article title as early as 1946. An earlier usage of a similar term, useful innocents, appears in Austrian-American economist Ludwig von Mises' "Planned Chaos". Von Mises claims the term was used by communists for liberals that von Mises describes as "confused and misguided sympathizers". The term useful innocents also appears in a Readers Digest article titled "Yugoslavia's Tragic Lesson to the World", an excerpt from a, at the time, forthcoming book authored by Bogdan Raditsa, a "high ranking official of the Yugoslav Government". Raditsa says: "In the Serbo-Croat language the communists have a phrase for true democrats who consent to collaborate with them for 'democracy.' It is Korisne Budale, or Useful Innocents." Although Raditsa translates the phrase as "Useful Innocents", the word budala actually translates as "fool" and synonyms thereof.

— Freebase

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen was a German politician descended from an old Hanoverian family. His father, Karl von Bennigsen, was an officer in the Hanoverian army who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments. The anthropologist Moritz von Leonhardi was his nephew. After studying at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of the Corps Hannovera, Bennigsen entered the Hanoverian civil service. In 1855, he was elected a member of the second chamber, and because the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties, he resigned his post in the public service. He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Alexander Levin, Count of Bennigsen, a member of the same family and son of the distinguished Russian General Bennigsen, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time, serving as Hanover's minister-president between 1848 and 1850 and afterwards as president first of the first chamber, then of the second chamber of the Estates Assembly of the Kingdom of Hanover. What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the German National Association, which was due to him, and of which he was president. This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the Austro-Sardinian War, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland. It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of King George V of Hanover to suppress it. Bennigsen was also one of the founders of the Protestantenverein in 1863.

— Freebase

Polylux

Polylux

Polylux, the self-appointed "last/worst on the first [channel]", is a weekly half-hour German television program hosted by Tita von Hardenberg. It was produced by RBB for Das Erste and was aired in the timeslot on Thursdays at 11:15 CET. The show, which was concerned with politics, culture and social trends, offers a vivid blend of documentary & satirical segments. Typically it began with a satirical 'report' by Carsten von Ryssen related to a current matter of public concern. The show's essential hipness, which was underlined by von Hardenberg's crisp announcements and the visual & thematic backdrop of the city of Berlin, infuses the subsequent documentary pieces with a certain esprit. Thematically, their scope ran from coverage of political and social movements to current trends in underground and popular culture, whereby one piece was usually biographical in nature, setting it off from the more panoramic style of the rest of the show. Less serious segments often echoed the satire of the keynote feature. Regular items included the "Berlin for Beginners" and the show's end note, in which Manfred Dumke, an elderly pensioner, shared his curious insights on current affairs with the rest of Germany from the comfort of his front room.

— Freebase

Fenris

Fenris

Fenris are two fictional characters from the Marvel Comics universe, namely German twins Andrea and Andreas von Strucker. They are the children of supervillain Baron Wolfgang von Strucker of HYDRA and the half-brother of Werner von Strucker. Andrea is female, Andreas is male. They first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #194 as Andrea and Andreas and were first called Fenris in Uncanny X-Men #200. They were created by Chris Claremont and John Romita, Jr. Fenris is also the name of the terrorist organization the two are head of, which is made up of armored soldiers based on technology developed by HYDRA.

— Freebase

Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

— Freebase

Steve von Till

Steve von Till

Steve von Till is best known as singer and guitarist for the atmospheric metal band Neurosis, replacing Chad Salter in 1989. He is also in Tribes of Neurot and Culper Ring, and records solo work under both his given name and the moniker Harvestman. His solo albums are composed of original songs and traditional folk arrangements, using minimalistic acoustic guitar and vocal styles. Outside his semi-professional role as a musician, he works as an elementary school teacher. His father, Steven von Till, Sr, is a civil attorney in the San Francisco Bay Area. His mother, Beth von Till, is a communications professor at San Jose State University. He resides with his wife Niela and his kids in Idaho.

— Freebase

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, Graf, later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 with the Duke of Wellington. The honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock bore the nickname "Marschall Vorwärts" because of his approach to warfare.

— Freebase

angiohemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

ardennes counteroffensive

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the ardennes bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

bismarckian

Bismarckian

of or relating to Prince Otto von Bismarck or his accomplishments

— Princeton's WordNet

dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl wilhelm siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

maria magdalene von losch

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

marlene dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

richard strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir charles william siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

vascular hemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

von neumann machine

von Neumann machine

any digital computer incorporating the ideas of stored programs and serial counters that were proposed in 1946 by von Neumann and his colleagues

— Princeton's WordNet

von willebrand's disease

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

BDFL

BDFL

[Python; common] Benevolent Dictator For Life. Guido, considered in his role as the project leader of Python. People who are feeling temporarily cheesed off by one of his decisions sometimes leave off the B. The mental image that goes with this, of a cigar-chomping caudillo in gold braid and sunglasses, is extremely funny to anyone who has ever met Guido in person.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sickingen, Franz von

Sickingen, Franz von

a German free-lance, a man of a knightly spirit and great prowess; had often a large following, Götz von Berlichingen of the number, and joined the cause of the Reformation; lost his life by a musket-shot when besieged in the castle of Landstuhl; he was a warm friend of Ulrich von Hutten (1481-1523).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease with an incidence of 1 per 350,000 births, with a higher frequency in Ashkenazi Jews and Afrikaners in South Africa. FA is the result of a genetic defect in a cluster of proteins responsible for DNA repair. As a result, the majority of FA patients develop cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure by age 40. About 60-75% of FA patients have congenital defects, commonly short stature, abnormalities of the skin, arms, head, eyes, kidneys, and ears, and developmental disabilities. Around 75% of FA patients have some form of endocrine problem, with varying degrees of severity. Median age of death was 30 years in 2000. Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. Because of the genetic defect in DNA repair, cells from people with FA are sensitive to drugs that treat cancer by DNA crosslinking, such as mitomycin C. The disease is named after the Swiss pediatrician who originally described this disorder, Guido Fanconi. It should not be confused with Fanconi syndrome, a kidney disorder also named after Fanconi.

— Freebase

German Foreign Office

German Foreign Office

The Federal Foreign Office, abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign politics and its relationship with the European Union. It is a cabinet-level ministry. The term "Auswärtiges Amt" was the name of the Foreign Office established in 1870 by the North German Confederation, which then became German Empire's Foreign Office in 1871. It is still the name of the German foreign ministry today. From 1871 to 1919, the Foreign Office was led by a Foreign Secretary, and since 1919, it has been led by the Foreign Minister of Germany. Since 2009, Guido Westerwelle has served as Foreign Minister, and Werner Hoyer and Cornelia Pieper as Ministers of State. The primary seat of the ministry is at the Werderscher Markt square in the Mitte district, the historic centre of Berlin.

— Freebase

Prader–Willi syndrome

Prader–Willi syndrome

'Prader–Willi syndrome' is a rare, genetic disorder in which seven genes on Chromosome 15 |chromosome 15 ]] are deleted or unexpressed on the paternal chromosome. It was first described in 1956 by Andrea Prader, Heinrich Willi, Alexis Labhart, Andrew Ziegler, and Guido Fanconi of Switzerland. Characteristic of PWS is "low muscle tone, short stature, incomplete sexual development, cognitive disabilities, problem behaviors, and a chronic feeling of hunger that can lead to excessive eating and life-threatening obesity." The incidence of PWS is between 1 in 25,000 and 1 in 10,000 live births. The maternal origin of the genetic material that is affected in the syndrome is important because the particular region of chromosome 15 involved is subject to parent of origin imprinting, meaning that for a number of genes in this region only one copy of the gene is expressed while the other is silenced through imprinting. For the genes affected in PWS, it is the maternal copy that is usually imprinted, while the mutated paternal copy is not functional. This means that while most people have a single working copy of these genes, people with PWS have a non-working copy and a silenced copy. If the maternally derived genetic material from the same region is affected instead, the sister syndrome Angelman syndrome is the result.

— Freebase

Nine

Nine

Nine is a musical with a book by Arthur Kopit, music and lyrics by Maury Yeston. The story is based on Federico Fellini's semi-autobiographical film 8½. It focuses on film director Guido Contini, who is dreading his imminent 40th birthday and facing a midlife crisis, which is blocking his creative impulses and entangling him in a web of romantic difficulties in early-1960s Venice. The original Broadway production opened in 1982 and ran for 729 performances, starring Raul Julia. The musical won five Tony Awards, including best musical, and has enjoyed a number of revivals.

— Freebase

Life Is Beautiful

Life Is Beautiful

Life Is Beautiful is a 1997 Italian comedy-drama film directed by and starring Roberto Benigni. Benigni plays Guido Orefice, a Jewish Italian book shop owner, who must employ his fertile imagination to shield his son from the horrors of internment in a Nazi concentration camp. Part of the film came from Benigni's own family history; before Roberto's birth, his father had survived three years of internment at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The film was a critical and financial success, winning Benigni the Academy Award for Best Actor at the 71st Academy Awards as well as the Academy Award for Best Original Dramatic Score and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

— Freebase

Didacticism

Didacticism

Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art. The term has its origin in the Ancient Greek word διδακτικός, "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner. Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience. An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism, which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism. An example of didactism in music is the chant Ut queant laxis, which was used by Guido of Arezzo to teach solfege syllables. Around the 19th century the term didactic came to also be used as a criticism for work that appears to be overly burdened with instructive, factual, or otherwise educational information, to the detriment of the enjoyment of the reader. Edgar Allan Poe even called didacticism the worst of "heresies" in his essay The Poetic Principle.

— Freebase

Musica ficta

Musica ficta

Musica ficta was a term used in European music theory from the late 12th century to about 1600 to describe any pitches, whether notated or to be added by performers in accordance with their training, that lie outside the system of musica recta or musica vera as defined by the hexachord system of Guido of Arezzo. In modern usage, the term is often loosely applied to all unnotated inflections that must be inferred from the musical context and added either by an editor or by the performers themselves. One common use of ficta was to avoid harsh harmonic or melodic intervals such as the tritone, for example the use of a E♭ instead of a E♮ to avoid dissonance with a B♭ in another part. In modern transcriptions of medieval and Renaissance music, ficta are usually indicated by an "accidental" sign appearing above the note. Editors provide these ficta for modern singers, whereas the kind of training given to singers of that time may have made such indications unnecessary.

— Freebase

Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish in the Low Countries, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. Fawkes later converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years' War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful. He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England. Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there. Prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and found Fawkes guarding the explosives. Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, and eventually he broke. Immediately before his execution on 31 January, Fawkes jumped from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.

— Freebase

Aeolian mode

Aeolian mode

The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale called the natural minor scale. The word "Aeolian" in the music theory of ancient Greece was an alternative name for what Aristoxenus called the Low Lydian tonos, nine semitones higher than the lowest "position of the voice", which was called Hypodorian. In the mid-16th century, this name was given by Heinrich Glarean to his newly defined ninth mode, with the diatonic octave species of the natural notes extending one octave from A to A—corresponding to the modern natural minor scale. Up until this time, chant theory recognized eight musical modes: the relative natural scales in D, E, F and G, each with their authentic and plagal counterparts, and with the option of B-flat instead of B-natural in several modes. In 1547 Heinrich Glarean published his Dodecachordon. His premise had as its central idea the existence of twelve diatonic modes rather than eight, including a separate pair of modes each on the finals A and C. Finals on these notes, as well as on B♮, had been recognized in chant theory at least since Hucbald in the early tenth century, but they were regarded as merely transpositions from the regular finals a fifth lower. In the eleventh century Guido d'Arezzo, in chapter 8 of his Micrologus, designated these transposed finals A, B♮ and C as "affinals", and later still the term "confinal" was used in the same way. In 1525, Pietro Aaron was the first theorist to explain polyphonic modal usage in terms of the eightfold system, including these transpositions. As late as 1581, Illuminato Aiguino da Brescia published the most elaborate theory defending the eightfold system for polyphonic music against Glarean's innovations, in which he regarded the traditional plainchant modes 1 and 2 at the affinal position as a composite of species from two modes, which he described as "mixed modes." Glarean added Aeolian as the name of the new ninth mode: the relative natural mode in A with the perfect fifth as its dominant, reciting note or tenor. The tenth mode, the plagal version of the Aeolian mode, Glarean called Hypoaeolian, based on the same relative scale, but with the minor third as its tenor, and having a melodic range from a perfect fourth below the tonic to a perfect fifth above it.

— Freebase

Piano accordion

Piano accordion

A piano accordion is an accordion equipped with a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano or organ. Its acoustic mechanism is more that of an organ than a piano, as they are both wind instruments, but the term "piano accordion"—coined by Guido Deiro in 1910—has remained the popular nomenclature. It may be equipped with any of the available systems for the left-hand manual. In comparison to a piano keyboard, the keys are more rounded, smaller, and lighter to the touch. These go vertically down the side, pointing inward, toward the bellows, making them accessible to only one hand while handling the accordion. The bass piano accordion is a variation of a piano accordion without bass buttons and with the piano keyboard in an octave lower. They typically have around 3 octaves.

— Freebase

Valentina

Valentina

Valentina is one of the most influential European comics series, created in 1965 by the Italian artist Guido Crepax. Originally a minor character working for the comic hero Neutron, Valentina became the sole protagonist of the series in 1967. The first episode was entitled "La Curva di Lesmo". This story was followed by 30 others, collected in a total of seven books, along with two others Lanterna magica and Valentina pirata, the first in full colour.

— Freebase

Cressida

Cressida

Cressida is a character who appears in many Medieval and Renaissance retellings of the story of the Trojan War. She is a Trojan woman, the daughter of Calchas a priestly defector to the Greeks. She falls in love with Troilus the youngest son of King Priam, and pledges everlasting love, but when she is sent to the Greeks as part of a hostage exchange, she forms a liaison with the Greek warrior Diomedes. The character's name is derived from that of Chryseis, a character who appears in the Iliad but has no connection with Troilus, Diomedes or Calchas. Indeed, the story of Troilus and Cressida does not appear in any Greek legends but was invented by the twelfth century French poet Benoît de Sainte-Maure in the Roman de Troie. The woman in the love triangle is here called not Cressida but Briseida, a name derived from that of Briseis, a different character in the Iliad, who again is neither related to Calchas nor involved in any love affairs with Troilus or Diomedes. Initially, after the Roman appeared, other authors who refer to the story, for example, Azalais d'Altier in her poem Tanz salutz e tantas amors and Guido delle Colonne in his Historia destructionis Troiae, continue to use names derived from that of Briseis.

— Freebase

Guido Reni

Guido Reni

Guido Reni was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style.

— Freebase

Alamire

Alamire

Alamire is an English vocal consort specialising in medieval and Renaissance music, both secular and religious. It was founded by David Skinner in 2005, and very swiftly won praise for the quality and imagination of its recordings. "The performances fairly glow, and so does one's spirit after traversing this glorious programme." Alamire recorded the music accompanying the British Library exhibition marking the 500th anniversary of the accession of Henry VIII to the throne in 1509. In 2011 David Skinner and Alamire commenced a ten-year 30-cd programme to explore English choral music between 1400 and the mid-17th century. The name 'Alamire' is taken from Pierre Alamire, the adopted name of Flemish composer Peter van den Hove, itself derived from syllables in the Solfège invented by the medieval music theorist Guido of Arezzo.

— Freebase

Incantesimo

Incantesimo

Incantesimo is a long-running drama series on Italian television, broadcast on the RAI network. It is set in a hospital called Clinica Life in Turin, Italy, and revolves around the life of the doctors and nurses in the hospital. According to the official website, it is "interested in social themes, the incoherence of daily life, solidarity, love and passion, not forgetting moments of comedy". Incantesimo was first broadcast in March 1997, is now in its 10th series and has broadcast 400 episodes. Incantesimo is also being broadcast on the Chinese CCTV 8 network, dubbed into Mandarin. Many notable Italian actors and actresses have starred in the series including, Orso Maria Guerrini, Delia Boccardo, Kaspar Capparoni, Paolo Malco, Guido Furlani, Alessio Boni, Vanessa Gravina, Paola Pitagora, Alessandra Acciai and Barbara Livi. The series was especially popular in Bulgaria, where it was aired on BNT 1 and Nova Television. In Armenia it was aired on ArmeniaTV and TV5 in Russian, as well as on Shant TV in Armenian.

— Freebase

Carobbiite

Carobbiite

Carobbiite, chemical formula KF, is a rare, soft, colorless cubic mineral. It is found at Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Province of Naples, Campania, Italy. It was discovered in 1956 by Italian geologist Guido Carobbi. It has also been reported from Hokkaido, Japan.

— Freebase

Francesca da Rimini

Francesca da Rimini

Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da Polenta was the daughter of Guido da Polenta, lord of Ravenna. She was a historical contemporary of Dante Alighieri, who portrayed her as a character in the Divine Comedy.

— Freebase

John Lydgate

John Lydgate

John Lydgate of Bury was a monk and poet, born in Lidgate, Suffolk, England. Lydgate is at once a greater and a lesser poet than John Gower. He is a greater poet because of his greater range and force; he has a much more powerful machine at his command. The sheer bulk of Lydgate's poetic output is prodigious, amounting, at a conservative count, to about 145,000 lines. Life at the monastery of Bury St. Edmund's, where he spent most of his life, gave him a leisure that many another poet might have envied, and enabled him to explore and establish every major Chaucerian genre, except such as were manifestly unsuited to his profession, like the fabliau. In the Troy-book, an amplified translation of the Trojan history of the thirteenth-century Latin writer Guido delle Colonne, commissioned by Prince Henry, he moved deliberately beyond Chaucer's Knight's Tale and his Troilus, to provide a full-scale epic. The Siege of Thebes is a shorter excursion in the same field of chivalric epic. The Monk's Tale, a brief catalog of the vicissitudes of Fortune, gives a hint of what is to come in Lydgate's massive Fall of Princes, which is also derived, though not directly, from Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium. The Man of Law's Tale, with its rhetorical elaboration of apostrophe, invocation, and digression in what is essentially a saint's legend, is the model for Lydgate's legends of St. Edmund and St. Albon, both local monastic patrons, as well as for many shorter saints' lives, though not for the richer and more genuinely devout Life of Our Lady.

— Freebase

Sermonette

Sermonette

Sermonette is a generic term for short, locally-produced religious messages that were aired by many U.S. television stations during their sign-on and sign-off periods. While some of these segments carried the actual program title of "Sermonette," there were a variety of names used by individual stations, such as "Prayer for Today," "Give Us This Day," "Words of Inspiration" or the like. Sermonettes were generally about three to five minutes in length, and featured religious clergy from churches in the local station's coverage area. Reflecting the majority religious faith in the U.S., the clergy involved were almost always Christian, although in TV markets with a large Jewish population, a rabbi might occasionally be called upon. The segments were pre-taped for airing at their normally scheduled early morning or late night time slots. Some stations also presented a nationally-distributed filmed or videotaped inspirational message, either in addition to, or replacing, local messages. One of the best-known national sermonettes was A Seed from the Sower, presented by Michael Guido. Along with films featuring the playing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" and other patriotic or inspirational short features, sermonettes gradually disappeared from U.S. TV schedules as more and more stations switched to 24-hour programming, eliminating the classic sign-on and sign-off routines.

— Freebase

Cars

Cars

Cars is a 2006 American computer-animated comedy-adventure sports film produced by Pixar Animation Studios, and directed and co-written by John Lasseter and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is Pixar's final, independently-produced motion picture before its purchase by Disney. Set in a world populated entirely by anthropomorphic cars and other vehicles, it features voices by Paul Newman, Owen Wilson, Larry the Cable Guy, Bonnie Hunt, Tony Shalhoub, Cheech Marin, Michael Wallis, George Carlin, Paul Dooley, Jenifer Lewis, Guido Quaroni, Michael Keaton, Katherine Helmond, and John Ratzenberger as well as voice cameos by several celebrities including Jeremy Piven, Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Petty, Dale Earnhardt, Jr., Bob Costas, Darrell Waltrip, Jay Leno, Michael Schumacher, Tom and Ray Magliozzi from NPR's Car Talk, and Mario Andretti. The film is also the second Pixar film—after A Bug's Life—to have an entirely non-human cast. The film was accompanied by the short One Man Band for its theatrical and home media releases. Cars premiered on May 26, 2006 at Lowe's Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina, and was released on June 9, 2006, to positive reviews. It was nominated for two Academy Awards, including Best Animated Feature, and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film. It was released on DVD November 7, 2006 and on Blu-ray Disc in late 2007. Related merchandise, including scale models of several of the cars, broke records for retail sales of merchandise based on a Disney·Pixar film, bringing an estimated $10 billion in 5 years since the film's release. The film was dedicated to Joe Ranft, who was killed in a car accident during the film's production.

— Freebase

Forti

Forti

Forti Corse, commonly known as Forti, was an Italian motor racing team chiefly known for its brief, and unsuccessful, involvement in Formula One in the mid-1990s. It was established in the late 1970s and competed in lower formulae for two decades. The team's successes during this period included four Drivers' Championships in Italian Formula Three during the 1980s, and race wins in the International Formula 3000 championship, in which it competed from 1987 to 1994. From 1992, team co-founder Guido Forti developed a relationship with the wealthy Brazilian businessman Abílio dos Santos Diniz that gave Diniz's racing driver son, Pedro, a permanent seat in the team and the outfit a sufficiently high budget to consider entering Formula One. Forti graduated to Formula One as a constructor and entrant in 1995, but its first car – the Forti FG01 – proved to be uncompetitive, and the team failed to score a point. Despite this setback, Forti was committed to a three-year deal with Diniz, which was broken when Pedro moved to the Ligier team prior to the 1996 season, taking most of the team's sponsorship money with him. Nevertheless, Forti continued to compete in the sport, and produced the much-improved FG03 chassis, before succumbing to financial problems mid-season after an ultimately fruitless deal with a mysterious entity known as Shannon Racing. The team competed in a total of 27 Grands Prix, scoring no points, and is recognised as one of the last truly privateer teams to race in an era when many large car manufacturers were increasing their involvement in the sport.

— Freebase

Banti's syndrome

Banti's syndrome

Banti's syndrome is a chronic congestive enlargement of the spleen resulting in premature destruction of the red blood cells by the spleen. However, the term Banti's syndrome is a term that was used in the past to describe patients with splenomegaly, hypersplenism and portal hypertension without cirrhosis and without occlusion of the portal venous system. It is named for Guido Banti.

— Freebase

Arezzo

Arezzo

an ancient Tuscan city, 38 m. SE. of Florence, and eventually subject to it; the birthplace of Mæcenas, Michael Angelo, Petrarch, Guido, and Vasari.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bentivoglio

Bentivoglio

an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido, cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Cantarini, Simone

Cantarini, Simone

an Italian painter, born at Pesaro; a pupil of Guido and a rival, but only an imitator from afar (1612-1648).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Agito Networks

Agito Networks

Agito Networks, Inc. is the award-winning technology leader in the enterprise mobility space. Its product, the RoamAnywhereâ„¢ Mobility Routerâ„¢, is an innovative enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC) platform enabling enterprises to extend voice and Unified Communications to cell phones. RoamAnywhere is the first and only network appliance that fuses enterprise wireless LANs, carrier cellular networks, IP telephony and location technology to mobilize voice and data applications, while remaining agnostic to customers™ choices of carrier and equipment vendors. Agito Networks enables low-cost in-building voice coverage, reduced cellular costs, improved enterprise visibility and control over cellular usage, and better accessibility and responsiveness for mobile workers. A Red Herring 100 winner, Agito was named a Coolest Emerging Technology Vendor for 2008 by CRN, as well as a Top Innovator by VON Magazine. The Company™s RoamAnywhere has received numerous industry awards as wel, including earning CTIA Emerging Technology and eWEEK Excellence awards, and receiving Product of the Year honors from Unified Communications and Internet Telephony magazines. CTO Timothy Olson was also named one of the Best CTOs of 2008 by InfoWorld.Founded and led by industry experts in the areas of WiFi, cellular, telephony and mobile operating systems, Agito Networks is delivering its innovative, patent-pending solution to enterprises in a variety of markets, including healthcare, education, manufacturing and high tech. Agito Networks™ RoamAnywhere represents the next generation of enterprise mobility products for enterprises seeking the promise of improved productivity and cost savings from enterprise fixed mobile convergence (eFMC).Headquartered in Santa Clara, Calif., Agito Networks is well funded with approximately $20 million in investment from Battery Ventures, Castile Ventures and ITX International Holdings, Inc.

— CrunchBase

app2you

app2you

app2you provides a web service that enables anyone to create their own custom, hosted, interactive web applications simply by outlining the pages of the application.app2you’s licensed, patent-pending technology originated in UCSD’s web and databases lab and won the UCSD von Liebig Technology Commercialization award in May 2006.

— CrunchBase

CakeStyle

CakeStyle

CakeStyle is a virtual personal styling service for women designed to take the hassle out of shopping by shipping a box of handpicked clothing and accessories to members’ doors each season.After signing up at www.cakestyle.com, each member has a consultation with her stylist so that CakeStyle knows how she needs to dress each day, what pieces she owns, and how she likes her clothes to fit. Then, her stylist hand-selects pieces for her from designers like Elie Tahari, Diane von Furstenberg, Theory and more, creating four to six outfits with accessories. The box is shipped directly to each member’s door and she tries on the outfits at home. Once she has decided which looks to keep, she ships the rest of the pieces back to CakeStyle, paying only for the items she keeps.All clothing and accessories are priced at retail, with boxes valued at about $2,500 to $3,000 each. Shipping both ways, and the stylists’ services, are free. CakeStyle has no minimum purchase requirement.CakeStyle also has a style blog where the team posts about trends, style advice, designers, and other fashion-related content. CakeStyle was founded in August 2011 by Cecelia Myers and Millie Tadewaldt, and launched officially in November of that year. In August 2012, CakeStyle announced that it had raised $1M in seed funding from the Sandbox Advantage Fund.

— CrunchBase

Polyvore

Polyvore

Polyvore is the leading community site for online style where users are empowered to discover their style and set trends around the world. The company collaborates with prominent brands such as Calvin Klein, Diane Von Furstenberg, Lancôme, Net-a-Porter, Gap and Coach to drive product engagement; and its user-generated fashion campaigns have been judged by Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, Polyvore is funded by Benchmark Capital and Matrix Partners.In September 2013, Polyvore launched a section dedicated to home decor.

— CrunchBase

Ley

Ley

Ley is a lunar impact crater that is located across the southern rim of the much larger walled plain Campbell. Intruding into the south-southwestern rim of Ley is the slightly larger crater Von Neumann. The debris from the formation of Von Neumann has produced a bulging rampart that occupies the southwest interior floor of Ley. The outer rim of Ley has undergone impact erosion, and is marked by a number of small craterlets. The inner wall is also worn, and the interior floor is pock-marked by a number of tiny craterlets. There is a small, cup-shaped crater on the floor to the northwest of the midpoint.

— Freebase

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."

— Freebase

Dishonored

Dishonored

Dishonored is a 1931 romantic spy film made by Paramount Pictures. It was co-written, directed and edited by Josef von Sternberg. The costume design was by Travis Banton. The film stars Marlene Dietrich, Victor McLaglen, Gustav von Seyffertitz and Warner Oland.

— Freebase

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness", it was first described by the neurologist Constantin von Economo in 1917. The disease attacks the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless. Between 1915 and 1926, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread around the world; no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported, though isolated cases continue to occur.

— Freebase

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg

Gottfried von Strassburg is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend. Gottfried's work is regarded, alongside Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Nibelungenlied, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages. He is probably also the composer of a small number of surviving lyrics. His work became a source of inspiration for Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde.

— Freebase

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel–Lindau disease is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic condition that predisposes individuals to benign and malignant tumours. The most common tumours found in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, pancreatic cysts, endolymphatic sac tumors and epididymal papillary cystadenomas. VHL results from a mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25.3.

— Freebase

Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis. It is deficient or defective in von Willebrand disease and is involved in a large number of other diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heyde's syndrome, and possibly hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Increased plasma levels in a large number of cardiovascular, neoplastic, and connective tissue diseases are presumed to arise from adverse changes to the endothelium, and may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis.

— Freebase

Hauerite

Hauerite

Hauerite is a manganese sulfide mineral with the chemical formula MnS2. It forms reddish brown or black octahedral crystals and it is usually found associated with the sulfides of other transition metals such as rambergite. It occurs in low temperature, sulfur rich environments associated with solfataras and salt deposits in association with native sulfur, realgar, gypsum and calcite. It was discovered in Austro-Hungarian Monarchy near Banska Bystrica in what is now Slovakia in 1846 and named after the Austrian geologists, Joseph Ritter von Hauer and Franz Ritter von Hauer.

— Freebase

Encirclement

Encirclement

Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces. This situation is highly dangerous for the encircled force: at the strategic level, because it cannot receive supplies or reinforcements, and on the tactical level, because the units in the force can be subject to an attack from several sides. Lastly, since the force cannot retreat, unless it is relieved or can break out, it must either fight to the death or surrender. Encirclement has been used throughout the centuries by military leaders, including generals such as Alexander the Great, Khalid bin Waleed, Hannibal, Sun Tzu, Shaka Zulu, Wallenstein, Napoleon, Moltke, Heinz Guderian, von Rundstedt, von Manstein, Zhukov, and Patton. Sun Tzu suggests that an army should not be completely encircled, but should be given some room for escape, in order to prevent that 'encircled' army's men lifting their morale and fighting till the death –- a better situation would be them considering the possibility of a retreat. Examples of this might be the battles of Dunkirk, in 1940, and the Falaise Gap in 1944. The main form of encircling, the "double pincer," is executed by attacks on the flanks of a battle, where the mobile forces of the era, such as light infantry, cavalry, tanks, or APCs attempt to force a breakthrough to utilize their speed to join behind the back of the enemy force, and complete the "ring", while the main enemy force is stalled by probing attacks. The encirclement of the German Sixth Army in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942 is a typical example of this.

— Freebase

Game theory

Game theory

Game theory is a study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, to include both human and non-humans, like computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.

— Freebase

Von Neumann

Von Neumann

Von Neumann is a lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, in the northern hemisphere. It is nearly attached to the south-southeastern rim of the walled plain Campbell. The crater Ley is attached to the northeastern rim of Von Neumann, and is somewhat overlain by the outer rampart. To the west is the prominent Wiener, and to the south-southwest is Nikolayev. This crater has a wide inner wall with multiple terraces. The width of the inner wall varies around the perimeter, with the widest section to the south. There is some slumping along the inner wall to the northwest where the rim makes its closest approach to Campbell, and the narrow terrain between these two craters is rugged and irregular. But the remaining terrain that surrounds the crater is almost equally rugged. The rim appears somewhat straighter along the southwest side, but is roughly circular elsewhere. The interior floor is nearly flat and level along the western side. There is a small range of ridges running from the south to the northern edge of the floor, and the ground is more irregular in the eastern half. There are no significant impacts within the crater interior and the sides are generally unworn.

— Freebase

Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack

Smoke Stack is a studio album by jazz pianist Andrew Hill, recorded in 1963 and released in 1966 on the Blue Note Records label. It was his second recording as leader on the record label. "Ode to Von" is dedicated to saxophonist Von Freeman, whilst "Verne" is dedicated to Hill's first wife, Laverne Gillette. The album is notable for its use of two basses playing contemporaneously.

— Freebase

Empiricism

Empiricism

Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism, and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. Philosophers associated with empiricism include Aristotle, Alhazen, Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, Robert Grosseteste, William of Ockham, Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Robert Boyle, John Locke, George Berkeley, Hermann von Helmholtz, David Hume, Leopold von Ranke, and John Stuart Mill.

— Freebase

Heldenbuch

Heldenbuch

Heldenbücher is the conventional title under which a group of manuscripts and prints of the 15th and 16th centuries has come down to us. Each Heldenbuch contains a collection of primarily German epic poetry, typically including material from the Theodoric cycle, and the cycle of Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit. The Heldenbuch texts are thus based on medieval German literature, but adapted to the tastes of the Renaissance, remodelled in rough Knittelvers or doggerel. The Heldenbücher group was edited in 19th-century German scholarship, by Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, Müllenhoff, Simrock and A. von Keller.

— Freebase

Schiller

Schiller

Schiller is an electronic music project led by Christopher von Deylen, a German musician, composer and producer. The band is named after poet and dramatist Friedrich Schiller. Schiller won the ECHO award in 2002 for the Best Dance Single of the Year with 'Dream of You'. Schiller has sold over 7 million albums worldwide. Christopher von Deylen does not provide any vocals for Schiller productions himself. Vocals are sung by guest artists including Sarah Brightman, Moya Brennan of Clannad, Adam Young of Owl City, Andrea Corr of The Corrs, Colbie Caillat, Sarah Howells of Welsh emotional folk / indie band Paper Aeroplanes, Ben Becker, Peter Heppner of synth pop band Wolfsheim, MiLù - also known as Mila Mar, Xavier Naidoo, Maya Saban, Kim Sanders formerly of Culture Beat, Ana Torroja of the Spanish pop group Mecano, Tarja Turunen formerly of power metal group Nightwish, Despina Vandi, Alexander Veljanov of Darkwave group Deine Lakaien, Swedish singer September. Other musicians that have collaborated with Schiller include Lang Lang, Klaus Schulze, Mike Oldfield, Helen Boulding, Kate Havnevik, Damae of Fragma, Jaël of Swiss band Lunik, Stephenie Coker and German actress Anna Maria Mühe.

— Freebase

Ghazal

Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi and Hafiz, the Azeri poet Fuzûlî, as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert and August von Platen. The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

— Freebase

Chorology

Chorology

Chorology can mean ⁕the study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region ⁕the study of the spatial distribution of organisms. In geography, the term was first used by Strabo. In the twentieth century, Richard Hartshorne worked on that notion again. The term was popularized by Ferdinand von Richthofen, uncle of Manfred von Richthofen.

— Freebase

Saturn V

Saturn V

The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload. It remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds the record for the heaviest launch vehicle payload. The largest production model of the Saturn family of rockets, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, with Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company, and IBM as the lead contractors. Von Braun's design was based in part on his work on the Aggregate series of rockets, especially the A-10, A-11, and A-12, in Germany during World War II. To date, the Saturn V is the only launch vehicle to transport human beings beyond low Earth orbit. A total of 24 astronauts were launched to the Moon, three of them more than once, in the four years spanning December 1968 through December 1972.

— Freebase

Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I or von Gierke's disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. This genetic disease results from deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, and has an incidence in the American population of approximately 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 births. The deficiency impairs the ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. Since these are the two principal metabolic mechanisms by which the liver supplies glucose to the rest of the body during periods of fasting, it causes severe hypoglycemia and results in increased glycogen storage in liver and kidneys. This can lead to enlargement of both. Both organs function normally in childhood, but are susceptible to a variety of problems in adult years. Other metabolic derangements include lactic acidosis and hyperlipidemia. Frequent or continuous feedings of cornstarch or other carbohydrates are the principal treatment. Other therapeutic measures may be needed for associated problems. The disease was named after Edgar von Gierke, the German doctor who discovered it.

— Freebase

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. Linnaeus received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, "The Pliny of the North," and "The Second Adam".

— Freebase

Grey goo

Grey goo

Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all matter on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy. The original idea assumed machines designed to have this capability, while popularizations have assumed that machines might somehow gain this capability by accident. Self-replicating machines of the macroscopic variety were originally described by mathematician John von Neumann, and are sometimes referred to as von Neumann machines. The term grey goo was coined by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler in his 1986 book Engines of Creation. In 2004 he stated "I wish I had never used the term 'grey goo'." Engines of Creation mentions "grey goo" in two paragraphs and a note, while the popularized idea of grey goo was first publicized in a mass-circulation magazine, Omni, November 1986.

— Freebase

Heilbronn

Heilbronn

Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with approximately 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state. The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is also the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn.

— Freebase

Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis

Angiomatosis is a non-neoplastic condition presenting with little knots of capillaries in various organs. It consists of many angiomas. It is also known as Von Hippel-Lindau Disease and is a rare genetic multi system disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of tumours in the body. Symptoms may include headaches, problems with balance and walking, dizziness, weakness of the limbs, vision problems and high blood pressure. Prognosis depends on the size and location of the tumour, untreated angiomatosis may lead to blindness and/ or permanent brain damage. Death may occur, with complications in the kidney or brain. These tend to be cavernous hemangiomas, which are sharply defined, sponge-like tumors composed of large, dilated, cavernous vascular spaces. They often appear in: ⁕Von Hippel-Lindau disease ⁕Bacillary angiomatosis ⁕Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome ⁕Sturge-Weber syndrome

— Freebase

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Osteitis fibrosa cystica, abbreviated OFC, and also known as osteitis fibrosa, osteodystrophia fibrosa, Von Recklinghausen's Disease of Bone, not to be confused with Von Recklinghausen's disease. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica is a skeletal disorder caused by a surplus of parathyroid hormone from over-active parathyroid glands. This surplus stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone, in a process known as osteoclastic bone resorption. The over-activity of the parathyroid glands can be triggered by parathyroid adenoma, hereditary factors, parathyroid carcinoma, or renal osteodystrophy. Osteoclastic bone resorption releases minerals, including calcium, from the bone into the bloodstream. In addition to elevated blood calcium levels, over-activity of this process results in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue, and the formation of cyst-like brown tumors in and around the bone. The symptoms of the disease are the consequences of both the general softening of the bones and the excess calcium in the blood, and include bone fractures, kidney stones, nausea, appetite loss, and weight loss.

— Freebase

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, Leo von Klenze was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival style.

— Freebase

JOHNNIAC

JOHNNIAC

The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by RAND that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine. It was named in honor of von Neumann, short for John v. Neumann Numerical Integrator and Automatic Computer. JOHNNIAC is arguably the longest-lived early computer, being used almost continuously from 1953 for over 13 years before finally being shut down on February 11, 1966, logging over 50,000 operational hours. After two "rescues" from the scrap heap, the machine currently resides at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. Like the IAS machine, JOHNNIAC used 40-bit words, and included 1024 words of Selectron tube main memory, each holding 256 bits of data. Two instructions were stored in every word in 20-bit subwords consisting of an 8-bit instruction and a 12-bit address, the instructions being operated in series with the left subword running first. The initial machine had 83 instructions. A single A register supplied an accumulator, and the machine also featured a Q, for quotient, register as well. There was only one test condition, whether or not the high bit of the A register was set. There were no index registers, and as addresses were stored in the instructions, loops had to be implemented by modifying the instructions as the program ran. Since the machine only had 10 bits of address space, two of the address bits were unused and were sometimes used for data storage by interleaving data through the instructions.

— Freebase

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen was an officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, who ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He was a notable participant of the first Russian circumnavigation and subsequently a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica. Bellingshausen started his service in the Baltic Fleet, and after distinguishing himself, he joined the First Russian circumnavigation in 1803-1806, where he served on frigate Nadezhda under the captaincy of Adam Johann von Krusenstern. After the journey he published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently he commanded several ships of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. As a prominent cartographer, Bellingshausen was appointed to command the circumnavigation of the globe in 1819-1821, intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The expedition was prepared by Mikhail Lazarev, who was made Bellingshausen's second-in-command and the captain of sloop Mirny, while Bellingshausen himself commanded sloop Vostok. During this expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see the land of Antarctica on January 28, 1820. They managed to twice circumnavigate the continent and never lost each other from view. Thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice fields. The expedition discovered and named Peter I Island, Zavodovski, Leskov and Visokoi Islands, Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island, and made some discoveries in the tropical waters of the Pacific.

— Freebase

Felix Weingartner

Felix Weingartner

Paul Felix von Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.

— Freebase

SMIL

SMIL

SMIL was a first-generation computer built at Lund University in Lund, Sweden. SMIL was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann. Carl-Erik Froberg belonged to the group of five young Swedish scientists 1947-48 that IVA sent to the U.S. to gather information about the early computer development, and then came to strongly influence the development in Sweden. Froberg visited with Erik Stemme Institute for Advanced Study, and John von Neumann's research group. Back in Lund, he played a leading role in the creation of SMIL, which was the first computer developed in Lund and among the first in Sweden. SMIL was introduced in August 1956 and then was in operation until 1970. In February 1962 SMIL was fitted with a compiler for ALGOL 60. The compiler was constructed by Torgil Ekman and Leif Robertson. Carl-Erik Froberg was also behind the early emergence of numerical analysis as a separate university subject. In this context, he wrote himself and collaborated with others on several textbooks in computer education, for example, Textbook on Numerical Analysis and Textbook of Algol. These books were widely distributed and translated into several languages.

— Freebase

Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl was a German botanist from Stuttgart. He was a son of the Württemberg statesman Benjamin Ferdinand von Mohl, the family being connected on both sides with the higher class of state officials of Württemberg. While a pupil at the gymnasium he pursued botany and mineralogy in his leisure time, till in 1823 he entered the University of Tübingen. After graduating with distinction in medicine he went to Munich, where he met a distinguished circle of botanists, and found ample material for research. This seems to have determined his career as a botanist, and he started in 1828 those anatomical investigations which continued till his death. In 1832 he was appointed professor of botany in Tübingen, a post which he never left. Unmarried, his pleasures were in his laboratory and library, and in perfecting optical apparatus and microscopic preparations, for which he showed extraordinary manual skill. He was largely a self-taught botanist from boyhood, and, little influenced in his opinions even by his teachers, preserved always his independence of view on scientific questions. He received many honours during his lifetime, and was elected foreign fellow of the Royal Society in 1868.

— Freebase

Franz von Papen

Franz von Papen

Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician. He served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934. He belonged to the group of close advisers to president Paul von Hindenburg in the late Weimar Republic. It was largely Papen, believing that Hitler could be controlled once he was in the government, who persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in a cabinet not under Nazi Party domination. However, Papen and his allies were quickly marginalised by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of the Long Knives, during which some of his confidantes were killed by the Nazis.

— Freebase

Seedo

Seedo

Seedo was a German composer who worked primarily in England. He was the son of Samuel Peter Sidow, a musician employed by the Elector of Brandenburg. By the mid-1720s, Seedo was working at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. In 1727 he married the singer Maria Manina, who had small parts in London’s Italian operas beginning in 1711 Between 1731 and 1734, Seedo worked on Drury Lane imitations. He wrote several successful stage works of which his ballad opera, The Devil to Pay, was the most successful. When the work initially premiered it was a failure, but when the composer cut the work significantly from a full opera of 42 airs to an afterpiece of 16 airs it became a hit. Apart from The Beggar's Opera, The Devil to Pay was by far the most popular ballad opera of the 18th century. The work was given regular London performances until well into the 19th century and a translation by C.W. von Borcke became popular in Germany as well. Von Borcke's translation was a major influence on the development of singspiel. Seedo died in Potsdam.

— Freebase

Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen

Von heute auf morgen is a one act opera composed by Arnold Schoenberg, to a German libretto by "Max Blonda," the pseudonym of Gertrud Schoenberg, the composer's wife. It is the composer's opus 32. The opera was composed at the end of 1928, and was premiered in Frankfurt on 1 February 1930, with William Steinberg conducting Herbert Graf's production. It was the first twelve-tone opera, and Schoenberg's only comedy. The libretto may indeed be a contemporary comedy of manners, but the music is complex, the angular vocal-lines and large orchestra creating a frightening whirlwind of fury. In fact, the composer described his music in this opera: "The music is ugly, as always in my compositions; it corresponds with my artistic and spiritual disposition." Schoenberg also wrote: "I have proved in my operas Von heute auf morgen and Moses und Aron that every expression and characterization can be produced with the style of free dissonance," in contrast to Alban Berg, who believed that a contrast with tonal elements needed to be introduced for certain reasons, and did so in his opera Wozzeck.

— Freebase

Destructionism

Destructionism

Destructionism is a term used by Ludwig Von Mises, a classical liberal economist, to refer to policies that consume capital but do not accumulate it. It is the title of Part V of his seminal work Socialism. Since accumulation of capital is the basis for economic progress, Von Mises warned that pursuing socialist and etatist policies will eventually lead to the consumption and reliance on old capital, borrowed capital, or printed "capital" as these policies cannot create any new capital, instead only consuming the old.

— Freebase

Odic force

Odic force

The Odic force is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach. Von Reichenbach coined the name from that of the Norse god Odin in 1845.

— Freebase

Schlieffen Plan

Schlieffen Plan

The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff's early-20th-century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The First World War later became such a war, with both a Western and an Eastern Front. The plan took advantage of Russia's slowness and expected differences in the three countries' speed in preparing for war. In short, it was the German plan to avoid a two-front war by concentrating troops in the West and quickly defeating the French and then, if necessary, rushing those troops by rail to the East to face the Russians before they had time to mobilize fully. The Schlieffen Plan was created by Count Alfred von Schlieffen and modified by Helmuth von Moltke the Younger after Schlieffen's retirement; it was Moltke who actually implemented the plan at the outset of World War I. In modified form, it was executed to near victory in the first month of the war. However, the modifications to the original plan, stronger than expected resistance from the Belgians and surprisingly speedy Russian offensives contributed to the plan's eventual failure. The plan ultimately collapsed when a French counterattack on the outskirts of Paris ended the German offensive and resulted in years of trench warfare. The Schlieffen Plan has been the subject of intense debate among historians and military scholars ever since. Schlieffen's last words were "remember to keep the right flank strong," which was significant in that Moltke strengthened the left flank in his modification.

— Freebase

Basic Channel

Basic Channel

Basic Channel is a production team and record label, composed of Moritz Von Oswald and Mark Ernestus, that originated in Berlin, Germany in 1993. The duo originally released a number of vinyl-only tracks under various aliases, each of which employed their signature brand of minimal techno. The original nine releases were each primarily identified as Basic Channel productions by their catalogue numbers, as the Basic Channel logo on the label became more distorted and unreadable with each subsequent release. The duo set up a studio in Berlin on Paul-Lincke-Ufer, in a building which was eventually to house Mark Ernestus’ distributing company and shop Hard Wax, and the label's mastering studio Dubplates & Mastering, set up to ensure a desired dynamic quality for the vinyl. The Basic Channel imprint ceased business in 1995, but were followed by a string of similar labels. Main Street handled Chicago house-inspired releases; Chain Reaction released non-Von Oswald/Ernestus productions and helped launch the careers of dub techno producers such as Monolake and Porter Ricks. Basic Channel has also shown a strong affinity for Jamaican music. The Rhythm & Sound label imprint saw the duo's sound move closer to dub reggae. Frequent Rhythm & Sound collaborator Paul St. Hilaire set up the subsidiary False Tuned in 2003.

— Freebase

Liberism

Liberism

Liberism is a term for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire capitalism first used by the philosopher Benedetto Croce, and popularized in English by the Italian-American political scientist Giovanni Sartori. Sartori imported the term from Italian in order to distinguish between social liberalism, which is generally considered a political ideology often advocating extensive government intervention in the economy, and those liberal theories of economics which propose to virtually eliminate such intervention. In informal usage, liberism overlaps with other concepts such as free trade, neoliberalism, right-libertarianism, the American concept of libertarianism, and the French notion of laissez-faire. In Italy, liberism is often identified with the political theories of Gaetano Mosca, Luigi Einaudi and Bruno Leoni. Internationally, liberism has been advocated by the Austrian School of economic theory, for instance by Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek.

— Freebase

Coutts

Coutts

Coutts & Co. is a private bank and wealth manager. It is one of the world’s oldest banks and is wholly owned by the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. RBS acquired Coutts when it bought NatWest in 2000. Coutts then acquired Zurich-based Bank von Ernst & Cie in 2003 and in 2008, Coutts Bank von Ernst and other Coutts International subsidiaries became RBS Coutts Bank. These traded as RBS Coutts International to align them with the parent RBS Group until 2011, when RBS Coutts was renamed Coutts & Co. Limited. Headquartered in London, Coutts is the wealth division of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, with clients from over 40 offices in financial centres in the UK, Switzerland, the Middle East and Asia.

— Freebase

Spione

Spione

Spione (English title: Spies, under which title it was released in the United States) is a German silent espionage thriller written and directed by Fritz Lang in 1928. Lang's wife, Thea von Harbou, worked as a co-writer. The film was Lang's penultimate silent film, and the first for his own production company; Fritz Lang-film GmbH. As in Lang's Mabuse films, such as Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse, Rudolf Klein-Rogge plays a master criminal aiming for world domination. Spione was restored to its original length by the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung during 2003 and 2004. No original negatives survive, but a high quality nitrate copy is held at the Národni Filmovy Archiv at Prague. Beautiful Russian spy Sonja Baranikowa (Gerda Maurus) seduces Colonel Jellusic (Fritz Rasp) into betraying his country for her employer, Haghi (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a seemingly respectable bank director who is actually the criminal mastermind of a powerful espionage organization. Jason (Craighall Sherry), head of the Secret Service, gives the task of bringing the mysterious Haghi down to a handsome young agent known only as Number 326. 326 believes his identity is a secret, but Haghi is well aware of him. He assigns Sonja to worm her way into 326's confidence. She convinces 326 that she has just shot a man who tried to force himself on her. He hides her from the police. What Haghi does not anticipate is that the couple will fall in love. Unwilling to betray 326, she quietly slips away after they spend the afternoon and evening together. He trails her to Colonel Jellusic, whom he mistakes for her lover (she is actually paying him for his treason). Haghi suspects Sonya's feelings for 326. When she refuses to act against 326, he confines her to a room in his secret headquarters. Meanwhile, Haghi is after a crucial, secret Japanese treaty. He blackmails Lady Leslane (Hertha von Walther), an opium addict, into betraying what her husband knows of the negotiations. Akira Masimoto (Lupu Pick), the Japanese head of security responsible for the treaty's safekeeping, crosses paths with 326. When 326 seeks out Sonya, he finds her apartment stripped bare. Masimoto finds him drowning his sorrows in a bar and informs him that he would have arrested the woman as a spy had she not disappeared. Masimoto gives each of three couriers a sealed packet to deliver to Tokyo; he informs them that a copy of the treaty is inside one of them. Haghi obtains all three packages, but finds only newspapers. However, Haghi has one more card up his sleeve. Masimoto pities Kitty (Liene Dyers), a young woman he finds huddling in a doorway during a rainstorm, and takes her in. When he prepares to leave for Japan with the treaty, she begs him to spend a few hours with her. He gives in, attracted by her beauty. However, when he wakes up later, she is gone, as is the treaty. Disgraced, he commits ritual suicide. 326 tracks Jellusic down, but too late. To tie up loose ends, Haghi has already betrayed the colonel. When confronted by his superiors, Jellusic shoots himself to avoid a scandal. 326 wires the serial numbers of the bank notes used to pay Jellusic, which Jason passes on to agent 719, working undercover as a circus clown, to trace. On the train trip back, 326 is nearly killed in a trap set by Haghi. While he is sleeping, his car is detached and left in a tunnel. He awakens just before another train smashes into it. Sonya, tricked into trying to smuggling the treaty out of the country by Haghi's promise not to harm 326, learns of the crash, races to the site and is reunited with her love. 326 orders Haghi's bank surrounded. Then he sends Sonya away with his trusted chauffeur, Franz (Paul Hörbiger), while he and his men search for Haghi. However, Haghi captures Sonya and Franz, and sends 326 an ultimatum: clear the building within 15 minutes or Sonya will die. After agonizing, 326 continues searching, even after poison gas is released. Fortunately, Franz...

— Freebase

Deamino Arginine Vasopressin

Deamino Arginine Vasopressin

A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic

Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic

Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Diseases

von Willebrand Diseases

Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Receptors, Cytoadhesin

Receptors, Cytoadhesin

A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hemangioblastoma

Hemangioblastoma

A benign tumor of the nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE. It accounts for approximately 2% of intracranial tumors, arising most frequently in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Histologically, the tumors are composed of multiple capillary and sinusoidal channels lined with endothelial cells and clusters of lipid-laden pseudoxanthoma cells. Usually solitary, these tumors can be multiple and may also occur in the brain stem, spinal cord, retina, and supratentorial compartment. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas usually present in the third decade with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and ataxia. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2071-2)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Receptors, Vitronectin

Receptors, Vitronectin

Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex

Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex

Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex

Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Weibel-Palade Bodies

Weibel-Palade Bodies

Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Integrin alpha2

Integrin alpha2

An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Furin

Furin

A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein

Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein

A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Lipocalin 1

Lipocalin 1

A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Thrombotic Microangiopathies

Thrombotic Microangiopathies

Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

blinkenlights

blinkenlights

[common] Front-panel diagnostic lights on a computer, esp. a dinosaur. Now that dinosaurs are rare, this term usually refers to status lights on a modem, network hub, or the like.This term derives from the last word of the famous blackletter-Gothic sign in mangled pseudo-German that once graced about half the computer rooms in the English-speaking world. One version ran in its entirety as follows:                   ACHTUNG!  ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS! Alles touristen und non-technischen looken peepers! Das computermachine ist nicht fuer gefingerpoken und mittengrabben. Ist easy schnappen der springenwerk, blowenfusen und poppencorken mit spitzensparken.  Ist nicht fuer gewerken bei das dumpkopfen. Das rubbernecken sichtseeren keepen das cotten-pickenen hans in das pockets muss; relaxen und watchen das blinkenlichten. This silliness dates back at least as far as 1955 at IBM and had already gone international by the early 1960s, when it was reported at London University's ATLAS computing site. There are several variants of it in circulation, some of which actually do end with the word ‘blinkenlights’.In an amusing example of turnabout-is-fair-play, German hackers have developed their own versions of the blinkenlights poster in fractured English, one of which is reproduced here:                               ATTENTION This room is fullfilled mit special electronische equippment. Fingergrabbing and pressing the cnoeppkes from the computers is allowed for die experts only!  So all the “lefthanders” stay away and do not disturben the brainstorming von here working intelligencies.  Otherwise you will be out thrown and kicked anderswhere!  Also: please keep still and only watchen astaunished the blinkenlights. See also geef.Old-time hackers sometimes get nostalgic for blinkenlights because they were so much more fun to look at than a blank panel. Sadly, very few computers still have them (the three LEDs on a PC keyboard certainly don't count). The obvious reasons (cost of wiring, cost of front-panel cutouts, almost nobody needs or wants to interpret machine-register states on the fly anymore) are only part of the story. Another part of it is that radio-frequency leakage from the lamp wiring was beginning to be a problem as far back as transistor machines. But the most fundamental fact is that there are very few signals slow enough to blink an LED these days! With slow CPUs, you could watch the bus register or instruction counter tick, but even at 33/66/150MHz (let alone gigahertz speeds) it's all a blur.Despite this, a couple of relatively recent computer designs of note have featured programmable blinkenlights that were added just because they looked cool. The Connection Machine, a 65,536-processor parallel computer designed in the mid-1980s, was a black cube with one side covered with a grid of red blinkenlights; the sales demo had them evolving life patterns. A few years later the ill-fated BeBox (a personal computer designed to run the BeOS operating system) featured twin rows of blinkenlights on the case front. When Be, Inc. decided to get out of the hardware business in 1996 and instead ported their OS to the PowerPC and later to the Intel architecture, many users suffered severely from the absence of their beloved blinkenlights. Before long an external version of the blinkenlights driven by a PC serial port became available; there is some sort of plot symmetry

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

netiquette

netiquette

[Coined by Chuq von Rospach c.1983] [portmanteau, network + etiquette] The conventions of politeness recognized on Usenet, such as avoidance of cross-posting to inappropriate groups and refraining from commercial pluggery outside the biz groups.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

demigod

demigod

A hacker with years of experience, a world-wide reputation, and a major role in the development of at least one design, tool, or game used by or known to more than half of the hacker community. To qualify as a genuine demigod, the person must recognizably identify with the hacker community and have helped shape it. Major demigods include Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (co-inventors of Unix and C), Richard M. Stallman (inventor of EMACS), Larry Wall (inventor of Perl), Linus Torvalds (inventor of Linux), and most recently James Gosling (inventor of Java, NeWS, and GOSMACS) and Guido van Rossum (inventor of Python). In their hearts of hearts, most hackers dream of someday becoming demigods themselves, and more than one major software project has been driven to completion by the author's veiled hopes of apotheosis. See also net.god, true-hacker, ubergeek. Since 1995 or so this term has been gradually displaced by ubergeek.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Python

Python

In the words of its author, “the other scripting language” (other than Perl, that is). Python's design is notably clean, elegant, and well thought through; it tends to attract the sort of programmers who find Perl grubby and exiguous. Some people revolt at its use of whitespace to define logical structure by indentation, objecting that this harks back to the horrible old fixed-field languages of the 1960s. Python's relationship with Perl is rather like the BSD community's relationship to Linux — it's the smaller party in a (usually friendly) rivalry, but the average quality of its developers is generally conceded to be rather higher than in the larger community it competes with. There's a Python resource page at http://www.python.org. See also Guido, BDFL.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Av`ola

Av`ola

a seaport on the E. coast of Sicily, ruined by an earthquake in 1693, rebuilt since; place of export of the Hybla honey.

A`von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bonpland, Aimé

Bonpland, Aimé

a French botanist and traveller, born at Rochelle; companion of Alexander von Humboldt in his S. American scientific explorations; brought home a large collection of plants, thousands of species of them new to Europe; went out again to America, arrested by Dr. Francia in Paraguay as a spy, kept prisoner there for about nine years; released, settled in the prov. of Corrientes, where he died; wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Brentano, Clemens

Brentano, Clemens

poet of the romanticist school, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, brother of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim; was a roving genius (1778-1849).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Buch, Leopold von

Buch, Leopold von

a German geologist, a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt, who esteemed him highly; adopted the volcanic theory of the earth; wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Danites

Danites

or Destroying Angels, a band of Mormons organised to prevent the entrance into Mormon territory of other than Mormon immigrants, but whose leader, for a massacre they perpetrated, was in 1827 convicted and shot.

Dannecker, Johann Heinrich von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Haym, Rudolf

Haym, Rudolf

professor of Philosophy at Halle; wrote biographies of Hegel, W. von Humboldt, and Schopenhauer; b. 1821.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Heilbronn

Heilbronn

a quaint old town of Würtemberg, on the Neckar, 23 m. N. of Stuttgart; has a fine 11th-century Gothic church, and the Thief's Tower (Diebsthurm); is associated with the captivity of Goetz von Berlichingen (q. v.); it is now a busy commercial centre, and manufactures silverware, paper, beet-sugar, chemicals, &c.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Heine, Heinrich

Heine, Heinrich

a German lyric poet, born at Düsseldorf, of Jewish parents; was bred to law, but devoted himself to literature, and mingled with literary people, and associated in particular with the Varnhagen von Ense circle; first became notable by the publication of his "Reisebilder" and his "Buch der Lieder," the appearance of which created a wide-spread enthusiasm in Germany in 1825 he abandoned the Jewish faith and professed the Christian, but the creed he adopted was that of a sceptic, and he indulged in a cynicism that outraged all propriety, and even common decency; in 1830 he quitted Germany and settled in Paris, and there a few years afterwards married a rich lady, who alleviated the sufferings of his last years; an attack of paralysis in 1847 left him only one eye, and in the following year he lost the other, but under these privations and much bodily pain he bore up with a singular fortitude, and continued his literary labours to the last; in his songs he was at his best, and by these alone it is believed he will be chiefly remembered (1797-1856).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Iron Hand

Iron Hand

Goetz von Berlichingen (q. v.).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Keller, Gottfried

Keller, Gottfried

distinguished poet and novelist, born in Zurich; his greatest remance, and the one by which he is best known, is "Der Grüne Heinrich"; wrote also a collection of excellent tales entitled, "Die Leute von Seldwyla" (1819-1890).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim

a German author, and founder of modern German literature, born at Kamenz, Saxony, son of the pastor there; sent to study theology at Leipzig, studied hard; conceived a passion for the stage; wrote plays and did criticisms; wrote an essay on Pope; took English authors as his models, revolted against those of France; made it his aim to inaugurate or rather revive a purely German literature, and produced examples regarded as classics to this day; his principal dramas, all conceived on the soil, are "Miss Sara Sampson," "Mina von Barnhelm," "Emilia Galotti," and "Nathan der Weise," and his principal prose works are his "Fables" and "Laocoon," a critical work on art still in high repute (1729-1781).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Liebig, Baron von

Liebig, Baron von

eminent German chemist, born at Darmstadt; in 1824 attracted the attention of Alexander von Humboldt by a paper before the Institute of France on fulminates, and was appointed to the chair of Chemistry in Giessen, where he laboured 28 years, attracting students from all quarters, and where his laboratory became a model of many others elsewhere; wrote a number of works on chemistry, inorganic and organic, animal and agricultural, and their applications, as well as papers and letters; accepted a professorship in Münich in 1852, and in 1860 was appointed President of the Münich Academy of Sciences (1803-1873).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Linnæus

Linnæus

or more properly Linné, Karl von, great Swedish naturalist, specially in the department of botany, a branch to the study of which he was devoted from his earliest years; he was the founder of the system of the classification of plants which bears his name, and which is determined by the number and disposition of the reproductive organs, but which is now superseded by the natural system of Jussieu; he was professor at Upsala, and his works on his favourite subject were numerous, and extended far and wide his reputation as a naturalist (1707-1778).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Maria Louisa

Maria Louisa

empress of France, daughter of Francis I., Emperor of Austria; was married to Napoleon in 1810 after the divorce of Joséphine, and bore him a son, who was called King of Rome; after Napoleon's death she became the wife of Count von Neipperg (1791-1847).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Potsdam

Potsdam

18 m. SW. of Berlin, stands on an island at the confluence of the Nuthe and Havel, and is the capital of the Prussian province of Brandenburg; a handsome town, with broad streets, many parks and squares, numberless statues and fine public buildings; it is a favourite residence of Prussian royalty, and has several royal palaces; was the birthplace of Alexander von Humboldt; has sugar and chemical works, and a large violet-growing industry.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Prinzenraub

Prinzenraub

name given to an attempt, to satisfy a private grudge of his, on the part of Kunz von Kaufingen to carry off, on the night of the 7th July 1455, two Saxon princes from the castle of Altenburg, in which he was defeated by apprehension at the hands of a collier named Schmidt, through whom he was handed over to justice and beheaded. See Carlyle's account of this in his "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Puffendorf, Samuel

Puffendorf, Samuel

Baron von, eminent German jurist, born at Chemnitz, Saxony; wrote several works on jurisprudence, one of which, under the ban of Austria, was burned there by the hangman, but his "De Jure Naturæ et Gentium" is the one on which his fame rests; was successively in the service of Charles XI. of Sweden and the Elector of Brandenburg (1632-1694).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Radnorshire

Radnorshire

the least populous of the Welsh counties; lies on the English border between Montgomery (N.) and Brecknock (S.); has a wild and dreary surface, mountainous and woody. Radnor Forest covers an elevated heathy tract in the E.; is watered by the Wye and the Teme. The soil does not favour agriculture, and stock-raising is the chief industry. Contains some excellent spas, that at Llandrindod the most popular. County town, Presteign.

Radowitz, Joseph von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rahel

Rahel

wife of Varnhagen von Ense, born in Berlin, of Jewish parentage; was a woman of "rare gifts, worth, and true genius, and equal to the highest thoughts of her century," and lived in intimate relation with all the intellectual lights of Germany at the time; worshipped at the shrine of Goethe, and was the foster-mother of German genius generally in her day; she did nothing of a literary kind herself; all that remains of her gifts in that line are her Letters, published by her husband on her death, which letters, however, are intensively subjective, and reveal the state rather of her feelings than the thoughts of her mind (1771-1833).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece" (1763-1825).

Richthofen, Baron von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Scheffel, Joseph Victor von

Scheffel, Joseph Victor von

German poet, bred to law, but abandoned it for literature; his first and best work "Der Trompeter von Sakkingen," a charming tale in verse of the Thirty Years' War, succeeded by "Gaudeamus," a collection of songs and ballads familiar to the German students all over the Fatherland (1826-1886).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Spontini, Gasparo

Spontini, Gasparo

Italian operatic composer, born at Majolati; settled in Paris in 1803, and a year later made his mark with the little opera "Milton," and subsequently established his fame with the three grand operas, "La Vestale," "Ferdinand Cortez," and "Olympia"; from 1820 to 1842 was stationed at Berlin under court patronage, and in the face of public and press opposition continued to write in a strain of elevated and melodious music various operas, including his greatest work "Agnes von Hohenstaufen" (1774-1851).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Storm-and-Stress Period

Storm-and-Stress Period

name given in the history of German literature to a period at the close of the 18th century, when the nation began to assert its freedom from artificial literary restraint, a period to which Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen" and Schiller's "Robbers" belong, and the spirit of which characterises it; the representatives of the period were called Kraftmänner (Power-men), who "with extreme animation railed against Fate in general, because it enthralled free virtue, and with clenched hands or sounding shields hurled defiance towards the vault of heaven."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Tauchnitz, Karl Cristoph Traugott

Tauchnitz, Karl Cristoph Traugott

a noted German printer and bookseller, born at Grosspardau, near Leipzig; trained as a printer, he started on his own account in Leipzig in 1796, flourished, and became celebrated for his neat and cheap editions of the Roman and Greek classics; introduced stereotyping into Germany (1761-1836). The well-known "British Authors" collection was started in 1841 by Christian Bernard, Baron von Tauchnitz, a nephew of the preceding, who established himself as a printer and publisher in Leipzig in 1837; was ennobled in 1860, and made a Saxon life-peer in 1877; b. 1816.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Carnaval

Carnaval

Carnaval, Op. 9, is a work by Robert Schumann for piano solo, written in 1834-1835, and subtitled Scènes mignonnes sur quatre notes. It consists of a collection of short pieces representing masked revelers at Carnival, a festival before Lent. Schumann gives musical expression to himself, his friends and colleagues, and characters from improvised Italian comedy. For Schumann the four notes were encoded puzzles, and he predicted that "deciphering my masked ball will be a real game for you." The 21 pieces are connected by a recurring motif. In each section of Carnaval there appears either or both of two series of musical notes. These are musical cryptograms, as follows: ⁕A, E-flat, C, B - signified in German as A-S-C-H ⁕A-flat, C, B - signified in German as As-C-H ⁕E-flat, C, B, A - signified in German as S-C-H-A. The first two spell the German name for the town of Asch, in which Schumann's then fiancée, Ernestine von Fricken, was born. The sequence of letters also appears in the German word Fasching, meaning carnival. Asch is also German for "Ash," as in Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent. It also encodes a version of the composer's name, Robert Alexander Schumann. The grouping S-C-H-A encodes the composer's name again with the musical letters appearing in Schumann, in their correct order.

— Freebase

Albrecht von Haller

Albrecht von Haller

Albrecht von Haller was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet.

— Freebase

Sonnen

Sonnen

Sonnen is a small municipality in the district of Passau in Bavaria in Germany. It is located in the Danube forest, lower Bavarian forest and is located mostly in the district Passau at a height of 700 to 900 meters. Sonnen lies 28 km from Passau, 9 km from Hauzenberg and from the forest itself 13 km. Sonnen borders with upper Austria which lies only 8 km away. Sonnen has been able to possess a rather secured boundary since the Middle Ages. Max Heuwieser writes in "The Tradition of Passau", that Sonnen received its official name somewhere between the years 1130AD and 1150AD by Baron Von Falkenstein. Sonnen was settled in Bavaria, Passau district, at the end of a trade-route from Vienna, Austria. Gustav Wasmayrs in his "History of the Market Ulrichsberg" writes, "in the document over the award of market privileges, King the Heinrich IV plans on 11/07/1349 to secure a free road issued after Passau. This road, coming from upper plan, will lead from upper Austria to Bavaria's sunny mountain town of Sonnen." The village now boasts unique natural energy systems, being nearly fully solar powered.

— Freebase

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that October, Johann Friedrich Böttger, continued his work and brought porcelain to the market. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. It dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

— Freebase

Alexander von Kluck

Alexander von Kluck

Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von Kluck was a German general during World War I.

— Freebase

Alexander von Zemlinsky

Alexander von Zemlinsky

Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky was an Austrian composer, conductor, and teacher.

— Freebase

Alexej von Jawlensky

Alexej von Jawlensky

Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. He was a key member of the New Munich Artist's Association, Der Blaue Reiter group and later the Die Blaue Vier.

— Freebase

Battle

Battle

Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the hierarchy of combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area and force commitment. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility. German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles ... to achieve the object of war" was the essence of strategy.

— Freebase

Human Action

Human Action

Human Action: A Treatise on Economics is the thirteenth work of the Austrian economist and philosopher Ludwig von Mises. Widely considered Mises' magnum opus, it presents the case for laissez-faire capitalism based on praxeology, or rational investigation of human decision-making. It rejects positivism within economics. It defends an a priori epistemology and underpins praxeology with a foundation of methodological individualism and speculative laws of apodictic certainty. Mises argues that the free-market economy not only outdistances any government-planned system, but ultimately serves as the foundation of civilization itself. Nationalökonomie: Theorie des Handelns und Wirtschaftens is the 1940 German-language predecessor to Human Action.

— Freebase

Pure tone

Pure tone

A pure tone is a tone with a sinusoidal waveform. A sine wave is characterized by its frequency, the number of cycles per second—or its wavelength, the distance the waveform travels through its medium within a period—and the amplitude, the size of each cycle. A pure tone has the unique property that its waveshape and sound are changed only in amplitude and phase by linear acoustic systems. A pure sine wave is an artificial sound. Hermann von Helmholtz is credited as the first creator of a sine wave with the 'Helmholtz siren', a mechanical device that sends compressed air through holes in a rotating plate. This is presumably the closest thing to a sine wave that was heard before the invention of electronic oscillators. Sinewaves are generally uncomfortable to the ear, and may cause noise-induced hearing loss at lower volumes than other noises. Sound localization is often more difficult with sine waves than with other sounds; they seem to ‘fill the room’.

— Freebase

ORDO

ORDO

ORDO — Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1948 by the German economists Walter Eucken and Franz Böhm. The journal focuses on the economic and political institutions governing modern society.

— Freebase

Almira

Almira

Almira, Königin von Castilien is George Frideric Handel's first opera. It was first performed in Hamburg in January 1705.

— Freebase

Heinrich von Kleist

Heinrich von Kleist

Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. The Kleist Prize, a prestigious prize for German literature, is named after him.

— Freebase

Battle of Caporetto

Battle of Caporetto

The Battle of Caporetto, took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid, on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town of Kobarid. Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian army, which had practically no mobile reserves. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army.

— Freebase

Vacuum pump

Vacuum pump

A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke, and was preceded by the suction pump, which dates to antiquity.

— Freebase

Werther

Werther

Werther is an opera in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Édouard Blau, Paul Milliet and Georges Hartmann, based on the German epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, based partly on fact and Goethe's own early life. Earlier examples of operas using the story were made by Kreutzer and Pucitta.

— Freebase

Natural order

Natural order

In philosophy, the natural order is the moral source from which natural law seeks to derive its authority. It encompasses the natural relations of beings to one another, in the absence of law, which natural law attempts to reinforce. In contrast, divine law seeks authority from God, and positive law seeks authority from government. The term is used by Hans-Hermann Hoppe in his book Democracy: The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy, and Natural Order to designate Anarcho-capitalism. The term is used by Friedrich von Hayek in his writings to designate divine law. It starts with god, then the monarch. Keywords: Cosmos

— Freebase

Thomas à Kempis

Thomas à Kempis

Thomas à Kempis, C.R.S.A. was a canon regular of the late medieval period and the most probable author of The Imitation of Christ, which is one of the best known Christian books on devotion. His name means "Thomas of Kempen", his hometown, and in German he is known as Thomas von Kempen. He also is known by various spellings of his family name: Thomas Haemerkken; Thomas Hammerlein; Thomas Hemerken and Thomas Hämerken.

— Freebase

Sex

Sex

Sex is a coffee table book written by Madonna, with photographs taken by Steven Meisel Studio and film frames shot by Fabien Baron. The book was edited by Glenn O'Brien and was released on October 21, 1992, by Warner Books, Maverick and Callaway Books. Approached with an idea for a book on erotic photographs, Madonna expanded on the idea and conceived the book and its content. Shot in early 1992 in New York City and Miami, the locations ranged from hotels and burlesque theaters, to the streets of Miami. The photographs were even stolen before publishing, but were quickly recovered. The book had a range of influences – from punk rock to earlier fashion iconoclasts like Guy Bourdin and his surrealism, and Helmut Newton, in its stylized, sado-masochistic look. Sex has photographs that feature adult content and softcore pornographic as well as simulations of sexual acts, including sadomasochism and analingus. Madonna wrote the book as a character named "Mistress Dita", inspired by 1930s film actress Dita Parlo. It also includes cameos by actress Isabella Rossellini, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Vanilla Ice, model Naomi Campbell, gay porn star Joey Stefano, actor Udo Kier, socialite Tatiana von Fürstenberg, and nightclub owner Ingrid Casares.

— Freebase

Easter Bunny

Easter Bunny

The Easter Bunny is a character depicted as a rabbit bringing Easter eggs. Originating among German Lutherans, the Easter Hare originally played the role of a judge, evaluating whether children were good or disobedient in behaviour at the start of the season of Eastertide. The Easter Bunny is sometimes depicted with clothes. In legend, the creature carries colored eggs in his basket, candy and sometimes also toys to the homes of children, and as such shows similarities to Santa Claus, as they both bring gifts to children on the night before their respective holiday. The German Lutheran custom was first mentioned in Georg Franck von Frankenau's De ovis paschalibus in 1682 referring to an Alsace tradition of an Easter Hare bringing Easter Eggs. In many church services on Easter Sunday, a live rabbit representing the Easter Bunny, is brought into the congregation, especially for the children's message.

— Freebase

CAPTCHA

CAPTCHA

A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human. The term was coined in 2000 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper of Carnegie Mellon University, and John Langford of IBM. A common type of CAPTCHA requires that the user type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appears on the screen. Because the test is administered by a computer, in contrast to the standard Turing test that is administered by a human, a CAPTCHA is sometimes described as a reverse Turing test. This term is ambiguous because it could also mean a Turing test in which the participants are both attempting to prove they are the computer.

— Freebase

MISTIC

MISTIC

The MISTIC, or Michigan State Integral Computer, was the first computer system at Michigan State University and was built by its students, faculty and staff in 1956. Powered by vacuum tubes, its design was based on ILLIAC, the supercomputer built at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a descendent of the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.

— Freebase

Das

Das

Das is a lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon. It is located to the northwest of the walled plain Chebyshev. To the southwest of Das is the irregular crater Mariotte, and Von der Pahlen lies to the east-northeast. This crater has a sharp-edged rim that is not overlaid by any craters of note. It is roughly circular in shape, with slight bulges to the west and northwest. The inner walls have slumped toward the uneven interior floor, leaving a steeper slope near the rim. This crater lies at the center of a faint ray system. The higher albedo ejecta is continuous out to a distance of nearly two crater diameters, then forms wispy rays particularly to the northwest. These rays may overlap a second system to the east-southeast.

— Freebase

John Bach McMaster

John Bach McMaster

John Bach McMaster was an American historian. He was born in Brooklyn, New York. His father, a native of New York, was a banker and planter at New Orleans at the beginning of the Civil War. He graduated from the college of the City of New York in 1872, worked as a civil engineer in 1873-1877, was instructor in civil engineering at Princeton University in 1877-1883, and in 1883 became professor of American history in the University of Pennsylvania. He is best known for his History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, a valuable supplement to the more purely political writings of James Schouler, Von Holst and Henry Adams. He began working on it in 1873, having collected material since 1870. His A School History of the United States was an extremely popular textbook for many years. Besides these books and numerous magazine articles, he wrote Life of Benjamin Franklin in the "Men of Letters" series.

— Freebase

Hypotrich

Hypotrich

The hypotrichs are a group of ciliate protozoa, included among the spirotrichs. Most are oval in shape, with a rigid pellicle, and have cirri distributed in isolated tufts on the ventral surface of the cell. Some also have dorsal cilia, which function as sensory bristles. Euplotes and Aspidisca are common genera. Like other ciliates, hypotrichs reproduce by cell division and conjugation. The hypotrichs were first defined by Friedrich von Stein in 1859. Originally the stichotrichs, which also have cirri, were included here, but they were separated out by Small & Lynn, 1981, who placed the restricted hypotrichs among the Nassophorea because of various peculiarities in their infraciliature. More recent schemes reverse this move, and some molecular studies suggest they may be paraphyletic to the stichotrichs as currently defined.

— Freebase

Da

Da

Da is a 1978 comedy play by Irish playwright Hugh Leonard. The play had its New York City premiere at the off-off-Broadway Hudson Guild Theatre in 1978, and this production transferred to Broadway shortly after the completion of its run. It was directed by Melvin Bernhardt and produced on Broadway by Lester Osterman, Marilyn Strauss and Marc Howard. It opened at the Morosco Theatre on 1 May 1978 and closed on 1 January 1980 after 697 performances. The scenic design was by Marjorie Kellogg, the costume design by Jennifer von Mayrhauser, and the lighting Design by Arden Fingerhut. The original cast included Barnard Hughes as Da, Brian Murray as Charlie Now, Lois De Banzie as Mrs. Prynne, Mia Dillon as Mary Tate, Sylvia O'Brien as Mother, Lester Rawlins as Drumm, Richard Seer as Young Charlie, and Ralph Williams as Oliver. Brian Keith replaced Barnard Hughes towards the end of the Broadway run, when Hughes went out on a National Tour across the US and Canada. It won 1978 Drama Desk Award Outstanding New Play, the 1978 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award Best Play and the 1978 Tony Award for Best Play.

— Freebase

Petzite

Petzite

The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. It forms isometric crystals, and is usually associated with rare tellurium and gold minerals, often with silver, mercury, and copper. The name comes from chemist W. Petz, who first analyzed the mineral from the type locality in Săcărâmb, Transylvania, Romania in 1845. It was described by Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger in 1845 and dedicated to W. Petz who had carried out the first analyses. It occurs with other tellurides in vein gold deposits. It is commonly associated with native gold, hessite, sylvanite, krennerite, calaverite, altaite, montbrayite, melonite, frohbergite, tetradymite, rickardite, vulcanite and pyrite. Petzite forms together with uytenbogaardtite and fischesserite the uytenbogaardtite group.

— Freebase

Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana, commonly known as pampas grass, is a flowering plant native to southern South America, including the pampas after which it is named. It is a tall grass, growing in dense tussocks that can reach a height of 3 m. The leaves are evergreen, long and slender, 1–2 m long and 1 cm broad, with very sharp edges. The leaves are usually bluish-green, but can be silvery grey. The flowers are produced in a dense white panicle 20–40 cm long on a 2–3 m tall stem. It was named by Alexander von Humboldt in 1818, after the German botanist and naturalist Friedrich Sellow, who studied the flora of South America, especially that of Brazil.

— Freebase

Sorrows of Werther

Sorrows of Werther

Sorrows of Werther is a satirical poem by William Makepeace Thackeray written in response to the enormous success of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther.

— Freebase

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are common names for Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, when its government was controlled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the state. Nazi Germany ceased to exist after the Allied Forces defeated the Wehrmacht in May 1945, thus ending World War II in Europe. After Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate their power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany when the powers and offices of the Chancellery and Presidency were merged. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's hands, and his word was above all laws. The government was not a coordinated, cooperating body, but rather a collection of factions struggling to amass power and gain Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahns. The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity.

— Freebase

Soxhlet extractor

Soxhlet extractor

A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet. It was originally designed for the extraction of a lipid from a solid material. However, a Soxhlet extractor is not limited to the extraction of lipids. Typically, a Soxhlet extraction is only required where the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. If the desired compound has a significant solubility in a solvent then a simple filtration can be used to separate the compound from the insoluble substance. Normally a solid material containing some of the desired compound is placed inside a thimble made from thick filter paper, which is loaded into the main chamber of the Soxhlet extractor. The Soxhlet extractor is placed onto a flask containing the extraction solvent. The Soxhlet is then equipped with a condenser. The solvent is heated to reflux. The solvent vapour travels up a distillation arm, and floods into the chamber housing the thimble of solid. The condenser ensures that any solvent vapour cools, and drips back down into the chamber housing the solid material. The chamber containing the solid material slowly fills with warm solvent. Some of the desired compound will then dissolve in the warm solvent. When the Soxhlet chamber is almost full, the chamber is automatically emptied by a siphon side arm, with the solvent running back down to the distillation flask. The thimble ensures that the rapid motion of the solvent does not transport any solid material to the still pot. This cycle may be allowed to repeat many times, over hours or days.

— Freebase

Child prodigy

Child prodigy

A child prodigy is someone who, at an early age, develops one or more skills at a level far beyond the norm for their age. A prodigy has to be a child, or at least younger than 18 years, who is performing at the level of a highly trained adult in a very demanding field of endeavour. The giftedness of prodigies is determined by the degree of their talent relative to their ages. Examples of particularly extreme prodigies could include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Teresa Milanollo in music, Magnus Carlsen, Sergey Karjakin, Paul Morphy and José Capablanca in chess, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Srinivasa Ramanujan, John von Neumann, and Terence Tao in mathematics, Pablo Picasso and Wang Ximeng in art, Paul Thomas Anderson in film direction, and Saul Kripke in philosophy. There is controversy as to at what age and standard to use in the definition of a prodigy. The term Wunderkind is sometimes used as a synonym for prodigy, particularly in media accounts, although this term is discouraged in scientific literature. Wunderkind also is used to recognize those who achieve success and acclaim early in their adult careers.

— Freebase

Japanophile

Japanophile

Japanophilia is an interest in, or love of, Japan and anything Japanese; its opposite is Japanophobia. One who has such an interest or love is a Japanophile. In Japanese, the term for Japanophile is "shinnichi", with "親" "shin" acting as the English suffix 'pro-', and "日" "nichi", meaning to "Japanese". In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Carl Peter Thunberg and Philipp Franz von Siebold, who stayed in the Dutch outpost of Dejima, helped introduce Japanese flora, artworks, and other objects to Europe. Some consider them to be among the earliest Japanophiles. Lafcadio Hearn, an Irish-Greek author who made his home in Japan in the 19th century, was described to be "a confirmed Japanophile" by Charles E. Tuttle Company in their foreword to most of his books. In the first decade of the 20th century, British writers were lauding Japan. In 1904, for example, Beatrice Webb wrote that Japan was a "rising star of human self-control and enlightenment", praising the "innovating collectivism" of the Japanese, and the "uncanny" purposefulness and open-mindedness of its "enlightened professional elite". H. G. Wells similarly named the élite of his A Modern Utopia "samurai". In part this was a result of the decline of British industrial primacy, with Japan and Germany rising comparatively. Germany was seen as a threat close to hand, but Japan was seen as an ally. The British sought efficiency as the solution, and after the publication of Alfred Stead's 1906 book Great Japan: A Study of National Efficiency, pundits in Britain looked to Japan for lessons. This interest ended with World War I.

— Freebase

Black Coffee

Black Coffee

"Black Coffee" is a song by British girl group All Saints from their second studio album Saints & Sinners. It was released as the second single off the album by London Records worldwide on October 2, 2000. After the success off their single "Pure Shores", the group decided to commence recording and producing their second full-length studio album. Written by Tom Nichols, Alex von Soos and Kirsty Elizabeth while produced by William Orbit, the song has noted to be similar to the groups previous single which was electronica, trip-hop and dream pop music, but features more a dance-pop style. Though it hasn't been lyrically explain, the song has been referenced as heartbreak and relationship problems. The song received positive reviews from most music critics, praising the composition and vocals from the members, though some critics noted similarities towards their previous single. Many critics also called the song a "hidden gem" and praised William Orbit's production. The song was commercially successful as well, but so much as "Pure Shores", where it managed to chart inside the top ten in countries including Italy, Sweden, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, where it peaked inside the top twenty in countries including Finland, Australia and Norway. The song was released in North America, but didn't manage to chart. It was also certified silver in the United Kingdom, and sold 212,707 copies to date.

— Freebase

Fraunhofer lines

Fraunhofer lines

In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer. The lines were originally observed as dark features in the optical spectrum of the Sun.

— Freebase

Takahē

Takahē

The Takahē or South Island Takahē is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand and belonging to the rail family. It was thought to be extinct after the last four known specimens were taken in 1898. However, after a carefully planned search effort the bird was rediscovered by Geoffrey Orbell near Lake Te Anau in the Murchison Mountains, South Island, on 20 November 1948. The specific scientific name commemorates the Austrian geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter.

— Freebase

Hermann Göring

Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring, was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party. A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron". A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.

— Freebase

Walther von der Vogelweide

Walther von der Vogelweide

Walther von der Vogelweide is the most celebrated of the Middle High German lyric poets.

— Freebase

Waggle dance

Waggle dance

Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance, successful foragers can share, with other members of the colony, information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen, to water sources, or to new housing locations. A waggle dance with a very short waggle run used to be characterized as a distinct recruitment dance. Austrian ethologist and Nobel laureate Karl von Frisch was one of the first who translated the meaning of the waggle dance.

— Freebase

Toxicology

Toxicology

Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect. Ibn Wahshiya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century. Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale. In 1850, Jean Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning him with nicotine. Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim is also considered "the father" of toxicology. He is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle Dinge sind Gift und nichts ist ohne Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist." which translates as, "All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison." This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum".

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Wassermann test

Wassermann test

The Wassermann test or Wassermann reaction is an antibody test for syphilis, named after the bacteriologist August Paul von Wassermann, based on complement-fixation.

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Skeletal formula

Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, sometimes called line-angle formula, of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its bonding and some details of its molecular geometry. The technique was developed by the organic chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. Skeletal formulae have become ubiquitous in organic chemistry, partly because they are relatively quick and simple to draw. Carbon atoms are usually depicted as line ends or vertices with the assumption that all carbons have a valence of 4 and carbon-hydrogen bonds, usually not shown explicitly, are assumed to complete each C valence. A skeletal formula shows the skeletal structure or skeleton of a molecule, which is composed of the skeletal atoms that make up the molecule.

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Manual of arms

Manual of arms

A manual of arms was an instruction book for handling and using weapons in formation, whether in the field or on parade. Such manuals were especially important in the matchlock and flintlock eras, when loading and firing was a complex and lengthy process typically carried out in close order. When capitalized, the term has reference to one of several important manuals, such as the British Army manual of 1764, the manual of Frederick the Great or Von Steuben's manual, adopted by the Continental Army in 1777. The positions and evolutions contained in such manuals have become the standard for parade drill throughout most of the world. Typical examples of rules and procedures can be found in the 1764 manual. It was used by both sides at the start of the American Revolution. ⁕Stance: stand straight, head right, shoulders square, stomach in, chest out, heels close, toes turned out a little. ⁕Holding the weapon: on the left shoulder, forefinger and thumb to the side of the stock, the other three holding the butt. ⁕Timing: each motion to be done on a count of "one, two". Such manuals contain various evolutions, such as the twelve or so steps needed to load, ready and fire, and steps for fixing bayonets, forming line, column or square.

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Protoplasm

Protoplasm

Protoplasm is the living contents of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm. Protoplasm is composed of a mixture of small molecules such as ions, amino acids, monosaccharides and water, and macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. In eukaryotes the protoplasm surrounding the cell nucleus is known as the cytoplasm and that inside the nucleus as the nucleoplasm. In prokaryotes the material inside the plasma membrane is the bacterial cytoplasm, while in Gram-negative bacteria the region outside the plasma membrane but inside the outer membrane is the periplasm. The word "protoplasm" comes from the Greek protos for first, and plasma for thing formed. It was first used in 1846 by Hugo von Mohl to describe the "tough, slimy, granular, semi-fluid" substance within plant cells, to distinguish this from the cell wall, cell nucleus and the cell sap within the vacuole. Thomas Huxley later referred to it as the "physical basis of life" and considered that the property of life resulted from the distribution of molecules within this substance. Its composition, however, was mysterious and there was much controversy over what sort of substance it was. Attempts to investigate the origin of life through the creation of synthetic "protoplasm" in the laboratory were not successful, yet.

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Pasigraphy

Pasigraphy

A pasigraphy is a writing system where each written symbol represents a concept. The aim is to be intelligible to persons of all languages. The term was first applied to a system proposed in 1796, though a number of pasigraphies had been devised prior to that; Leopold Einstein reviews 60 attempts at creating an international auxiliary language, the majority of the 17th-18th century projects being pasigraphies of one kind or another, while Arika Okrent includes a list of 500 in her book on the subject, with samples of many. Leibniz wrote about the Alphabet of human thought and Alexander von Humboldt corresponded with Peter Stephen Du Ponceau who proposed a universal phonetic alphabet. Examples of pasigraphies include Blissymbols and Real Character.

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War

War

War is an organised and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors. It is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace. In 2003, Nobel Laureate Richard E. Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing the society of mankind for the next fifty years. In the 1832 treatise On War, Prussian military general and theoretician Carl von Clausewitz defined war as follows: "War is thus an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will." While some scholars see warfare as an inescapable and integral aspect of human nature, others argue that it is only inevitable under certain socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. Some scholars argue that the practice of war is not linked to any single type of political organization or society. Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his History of Warfare, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. Another argument suggests that since there are human societies in which warfare does not exist, humans may not be naturally disposed for warfare, which emerges under particular circumstances. The ever changing technologies and potentials of war extend along a historical continuum. At the one end lies the endemic warfare of the Paleolithic with its stones and clubs, and the naturally limited loss of life associated with the use of such weapons. Found at the other end of this continuum is nuclear warfare, along with the recently developed possible outcome of its use, namely the potential risk of the complete extinction of the human species.

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Zeppelin

Zeppelin

A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. Zeppelin's ideas were first outlined in 1874 and formulated in detail in 1893. They were patented in Germany in 1895 and in the United States on 14 March 1899. After the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the term zeppelin in casual use came to refer to all rigid airships. Zeppelins were first flown commercially in 1910 by Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG, the world's first airline in revenue service. By mid-1914, DELAG had carried over 34,000 passengers on over 1,500 flights. After the outbreak of World War I, the German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts. The World War I defeat of Germany in 1918 temporarily halted the airship business. But under the guidance of Hugo Eckener, the deceased Count's successor, civilian Zeppelins became popular again. In 1919 DELAG established scheduled daily services between Berlin, Munich, and Friedrichshafen. Their heyday was during the 1930s when the airships LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin and LZ 129 Hindenburg operated regular transatlantic flights from Germany to North America and Brazil. The Art Deco spire of the Empire State Building was originally, if impractically, designed to serve as a mooring mast for Zeppelins and other airships to dock at. The Hindenburg disaster in 1937, along with political and economic issues, hastened the demise of the Zeppelins.

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Caracal

Caracal

The caracal, also known as the desert lynx, is a wild cat that is widely distributed across Africa, central Asia and southwest Asia into India. In 2002 the IUCN listed the caracal as Least Concern as it is widespread and relatively common. The felid is considered threatened in north Africa, and rare in the central Asian republics and India. The German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber first described Felis caracal in 1776 from a specimen collected from Table Mountain, South Africa, which is considered the type locality of the species. The generic name Caracal was first used by the British naturalist John Edward Gray in 1843 on the basis of a type specimen collected near the Cape of Good Hope. The word caracal is derived from the Turkish words "kara kulak", which means "black ear". The caracal has been classified variously with Lynx and Felis in the past, but molecular evidence supports a monophyletic genus that is closely allied with the African golden cat and serval.

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Quinaldine

Quinaldine

Quinaldine or 2-methylquinoline is a simple derivative of a heterocyclic compound quinoline. Quinaldine has critical point at 787 K and 4.9 MPa and its refractive index is 1.8116. It can be prepared from aniline and paraldehyde via Skraup synthesis or from aniline and crotonaldehyde via Doebner-von Miller variation of the Skraup reaction or extracted from coal tar.

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Helmholtz free energy

Helmholtz free energy

In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and volume. For such a system, the negative of the difference in the Helmholtz energy is equal to the maximum amount of work extractable from a thermodynamic process in which temperature and volume are held constant. Under these conditions, it is minimized at equilibrium. The Helmholtz free energy was developed by Hermann von Helmholtz and is usually denoted by the letter A, or the letter F . The IUPAC recommends the letter A as well as the use of name Helmholtz energy. In physics, the letter F can also be used to denote the Helmholtz energy, as Helmholtz energy is sometimes referred to as the Helmholtz function, Helmholtz free energy, or simply free energy. While Gibbs free energy is most commonly used as a measure of thermodynamic potential, especially in the field of chemistry, the isobaric restriction on that quantity is inconvenient for some applications. For example, in explosives research, Helmholtz free energy is often used since explosive reactions by their nature induce pressure changes. It is also frequently used to define fundamental equations of state in accurate correlations of thermodynamic properties of pure substances.

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Played

Played

Played is a 2006 crime film produced by Caspar von Winterfeldt, Nick Simunek and Mick Rossi, executive produced by John Daly, co-produced by Nigel Mead and Lenny Bitondo, written by Sean Stanek and Mick Rossi and directed by Sean Stanek. The film stars Val Kilmer, Gabriel Byrne, Vinnie Jones, Patrick Bergin, Joanne Whalley, Bruno Kirby, Anthony LaPaglia, Roy Dotrice, Patsy Kensit, Andy Nyman and Mick Rossi. Originally intended to be a short, the film was shot without the use of a scripted screenplay and the director allowed the actors to improvise a majority of dialogue as he shot the scenes. The picture was shot on location in London and Los Angeles and took three years to complete.

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Arithmetic logic unit

Arithmetic logic unit

In computing, an arithmetic and logic unit is a digital circuit that performs integer arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processing units accommodate very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs. Mathematician John von Neumann proposed the ALU concept in 1945, when he wrote a report on the foundations for a new computer called the EDVAC. Research into ALUs remains as an important part of computer science, falling under Arithmetic and logic structures in the ACM Computing Classification System.

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Bunsen

Bunsen

Bunsen is a lunar crater that lies near the northwestern limb of the Moon. It is located to the west of the Oceanus Procellarum and the crater von Braun. To the southeast is the crater Lavoisier, and to the northeast lies Gerard. Northwest of Bunsen, on the far side of the Moon, is McLaughlin. Due to its position this crater appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth, and its visibility is affected by libration. This crater has become considerably worn and eroded by subsequent impacts, leaving a formation that has been described as disintegrated. The most intact portion of the rim is along the northeastern side. There is a smaller, crater-like formation intruding into the southeastern rim. Within the crater, the floor is pitted by tiny impacts, and has a rille system of criss-crossing clefts near the northern and southern rims. There is a low ridge near the southwest corner of the interior.

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Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner was a German geographer. He is known for his concept of chorology, the study of places and regions, a concept that also influenced Carl O. Sauer. His field work concentrated on Colombia, Chile and Russia, among others. Alfred Hettner, who obtained his PhD from the University of Strasbourg, was also a pupil of Ferdinand von Richthofen and Friedrich Ratzel in Leipzig—where he obtained his habilitation. His book 'Europe' was published in 1907. According to him, geography is a chorological science or it is a study of regions. Hettner rejected the view that geography could be either general or regional. Geography like other fields of learning, must deal in both the unique things and with universal, but the study of regions is the main field of geography. Hettner supervised the PhD of Heinrich Schmitthenner who in turn graduated Herbert Wilhelmy

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Axiology

Axiology

Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology Axiology is the philosophical study of value. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics—philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of value—or the foundation for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and meta-ethics. The term was first used by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Eduard von Hartmann, in 1908. Axiology studies mainly two kinds of values: ethics and aesthetics. Ethics investigates the concepts of "right" and "good" in individual and social conduct. Aesthetics studies the concepts of "beauty" and "harmony." Formal axiology, the attempt to lay out principles regarding value with mathematical rigor, is exemplified by Robert S. Hartman's Science of Value. Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology http://www.international-journal-of-axiology.net/

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Sexual inversion

Sexual inversion

"Sexual inversion" is a term used by sexologists, primarily in the late 19th and early 20th century, to refer to homosexuality. Sexual inversion was believed to be an inborn reversal of gender traits: male inverts were, to a greater or lesser degree, inclined to traditionally female pursuits and dress and vice versa. The sexologist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing described female sexual inversion as "the masculine soul, heaving in the female bosom". In its emphasis on gender role reversal, the theory of sexual inversion resembles transgender, which did not yet exist as a separate concept at the time. Initially confined to medical texts, the concept of sexual inversion was given wide currency by Radclyffe Hall's 1928 lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness, which was written in part to popularize the sexologists' views. Published with a foreword by the sexologist Havelock Ellis, it consistently used the term "invert" to refer to its protagonist, who bore a strong resemblance to one of Krafft-Ebing's case studies.

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Xenien

Xenien

Xenien is a Germanization of the Greek Xenia "host gifts", a title originally applied by the Roman poet Martial to a collection of poems which were to accompany his presents. Following this precedent, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe named a collection of distichs, which he wrote together with Friedrich Schiller, Die Xenien, in which the two friends avenged themselves on opposing critics. They were first published in the Musenalmanach. The Xenien were prompted by the indifference and animosity of contemporary criticism, and its disregard for what the two poets regarded as the higher interests of German poetry. The Xenien succeeded as a retaliation on the critics, but the masterpieces which followed them proved in the long run much more effective weapons against the prevailing mediocrity.

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Robert Graves

Robert Graves

Robert von Ranke Graves was an English poet, scholar/translator/writer of antiquity specializing in Classical Greece and Rome, and novelist. During his long life he produced more than 140 works. Graves's poems—together with his translations and innovative analysis and interpretations of the Greek myths, his memoir of his early life, including his role in the First World War, Good-Bye to All That, and his speculative study of poetic inspiration, The White Goddess—have never been out of print. He earned his living from writing, particularly popular historical novels such as I, Claudius, King Jesus, The Golden Fleece, and Count Belisarius. He also was a prominent translator of Classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts; his versions of The Twelve Caesars and The Golden Ass remain popular today for their clarity and entertaining style. Graves was awarded the 1934 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for both I, Claudius and Claudius the God.

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Men at Arms

Men at Arms

Men at Arms is the 15th Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett first published in 1993. It is the second novel about the Ankh-Morpork City Watch on the Discworld. Lance-constable Angua von Überwald, later in the series promoted to the rank of Sergeant, is introduced in this book. Lance-constable Detritus is introduced as a new member of the watch as well, though he had already appeared in other Discworld novels, most notably in Moving Pictures. Also notable is the only appearance of Lance-constable Cuddy.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.

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Triassic

Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Ma. It is the first period of the Mesozoic Era, and lies between the Permian and Jurassic periods. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europe—red beds, capped by chalk, followed by black shales—called the "Trias." The Triassic began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which left the Earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of the period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic. The first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of Therapsids also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, who like the dinosaurs were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs. The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to gradually rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. The global climate during the Triassic was mostly hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior. However, the climate shifted and became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart. The end of the period was marked by yet another major mass extinction, wiping out many groups and allowing dinosaurs to assume dominance in the Jurassic.

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Cancrinite

Cancrinite

Cancrinite is a complex carbonate and silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminium with the formula Na6Ca2[(CO3)2|Al6Si6O24]·2H2O. It is classed as a member of the feldspathoid group of minerals; the alkali feldspars that are poor in silica. Yellow, orange, pink, white or even blue, it has a vitreous or pearly lustre; a hardness of 5-6 and an uneven conchoidal fracture. It is unusual among the silicate minerals in that it will effervesce with hydrochloric acid due to the associated carbonate ions. Found originally in 1839 in the Ural Mountains, it is named after Georg von Cancrin, a Russian minister of finance.

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Picamar

Picamar

Picamar is a colorless, hydrocarbon oil extracted from the creosote of beechwood tar with a peculiar odor and bitter taste. It consists of derivatives of pyrogallol. It was discovered by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach in the 1830s.

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Steuben

Steuben

Steuben is a town in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 1,110 at the 2010 census. The town is named after Baron von Steuben. The Town of Steuben in northeast of Utica, New York.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to a hitherto-unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures. This interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune that was not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin, Liszt and Mendelssohn. The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, and was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were later orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was later set for piano and orchestra by Liszt.

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Impenetrability

Impenetrability

In metaphysics, impenetrability is the name given to that quality of matter whereby two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time. The philosopher John Toland argued that impenetrability and extension were sufficient to define matter, a contention strongly disputed by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnez. Locke considered impenetrability to be "more a consequence of solidity, than solidity itself."[2]

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Zoysia

Zoysia

Zoysia is a genus of creeping grasses native to southeast and east Asia and Australasia. These species, commonly called zoysia or zoysiagrass, are found in coastal areas or grasslands. The genus is named after the Austrian botanist Karl von Zois.

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Table talk

Table talk

Table talk is a species of memoir in which a collector records impromptu comments by some famous person, in anticipation of their lasting value. The collector may go on to publish the remarks in book form. "Table talk" may also refer to a similar informal conversation, more deliberately engaged in by the famous person, with the direct intent of publication. Collections of such table talks by royal persons, celebrities, and other important personalities dating back to the 3rd century exist. The phrase table talk has been in use in the English language since the 16th century. As examples, published table talks exist for: ⁕Frederick the Great; ⁕Martin Luther, see Table Talk; ⁕John Milton; ⁕Samuel Johnson; ⁕Samuel Taylor Coleridge; ⁕Ludwig van Beethoven; ⁕Napoleon Bonaparte; ⁕John Selden; ⁕Johann von Goethe; ⁕Amos Bronson Alcott; ⁕George Bernard Shaw; ⁕Adolf Hitler, see Hitler's Table Talk. Occasionally, comments are collected from others by a notable person as part of that person's working notes and may survive in the papers of that person. Ralph Waldo Emerson, for example, kept notes on the conversations of his family and friends, many of whom, of course, were noteworthy.

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