Definitions containing bülow, friedrich wilhelm, baron von

We've found 250 definitions:

Vavasor

Vavasor

the vassal or tenant of a baron; one who held under a baron, and who also had tenants under him; one in dignity next to a baron; a title of dignity next to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Weltpolitik

Weltpolitik

"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.

— Freebase

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. He is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking, and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment. He was a fierce critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Emanuel Swedenborg, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, as well as Danish pastors Jacob Peter Mynster and Hans Lassen Martensen and Danish poet Johan Ludvig Heiberg. His theological work focuses on Christian ethics, on the institution of the Church, and on the differences between purely objective proofs of Christianity and the individual's subjective relationship to Jesus Christ, the God-Man, which came through faith. Much of his work deals with the art of Christian love. He was extremely critical of the practice of Christianity as a state religion, primarily that of the Church of Denmark. His psychological work explored the emotions and feelings of individuals when faced with life choices.

— Freebase

Wilhelmine

Wilhelmine

Wilhelmine Germany is the period running from the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Kaiser at Versailles in 1871 to the abdication of his grandson Wilhelm II in 1918. Although the father of Wilhelm II, Friedrich III, was not named Wilhelm, he was only Kaiser for three months, and hence almost the entire period 1871-1918 saw a Kaiser named Wilhelm.

— Freebase

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos, attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Georg von Neumayer, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.

— Freebase

Bernstorff

Bernstorff

Bernstorff is a German-Danish noble family of Mecklenburgian origin. Notable members of the family include: Albrecht von Bernstorff diplomat, Prussian Foreign Minister Albrecht von Bernstorff, German diplomat and resistance fighter Andreas Bernstorff, Danish military officer Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, a Hanoverian minister who accompanied George I to Britain when he became King Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Danish statesman Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, German diplomat Andreas Peter Bernstorff, Danish state minister Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman Joachim Frederik Bernstorff, Danish statesman Georg Ernst von Bernstorff, German politician Percy von Bernstorff, German public official

— Freebase

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi

Baron Samedi is one of the Loa of Haitian Vodou. Samedi is a Loa of the dead, along with Baron's numerous other incarnations Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, and Baron Kriminel. He is often syncretized with Saint Martin de Porres. He is the head of the Guédé family of Loa, or an aspect of them, or possibly their spiritual father. "Samedi" means "Saturday" in French. His wife is the Loa Maman Brigitte.

— Freebase

Hegelian

Hegelian

Of or pertaining to the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

— Wiktionary

Wilhelm von Opel

Wilhelm von Opel

Wilhelm von Opel, known as Wilhelm Opel before being granted nobility in 1917, was one of the founding figures of the German automobile manufacturer Opel. He introduced the assembly line to the German automobily industry. His father, Adam Opel, founded the Opel firm as a manufacturer of sewing machines, then expanded into bicycle manufacturing. After Adam's death in 1895, control of the company passed to his five sons. In 1898, Wilhelm and his brother Fritz brought Opel into the automobile industry with the purchase of the small Lutzmann automobile factory of Dessau. Along with his brother Heinrich, Wilhelm was raised to grand-ducal nobility in 1917. Their brother Karl was raised to the same level in the next year.

— Freebase

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

Rothschild, Meyer Amschel

the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand

Erik Adolf von Willebrand was an internist from Finland. The son of a district engineer in Vaasa, von Willebrand got his medical degree in the University of Helsinki. He graduated in 1896, and did his doctoral thesis on the changes that occurred in blood following significant blood loss. For the remainder of his professional career, the properties of blood and its coagulation continued to be the focus of his interest. Von Willebrand was the first to describe the blood coagulation disorder later named for him, von Willebrand disease. The condition first aroused his interest in the case of a 5-year-old girl from Åland with an extensive history of bleeding in her family. Mapping her family history, von Willebrand found 23 of the girl's 66 family members were affected, and that the disease was more common in women. In his personal life, von Willebrand was described as a very modest man. He also published two papers concerning the use of hot air as a form of medical treatment.

— Freebase

baroness

baroness

a noblewoman who holds the rank of baron or who is the wife or widow of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe

Viscount Northcliffe, of St Peter in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, It was created in 1918 for the press baron Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Baron Northcliffe. He had already been created a baronet in 1904 and Baron Northcliffe, of the Isle of Thanet in the County of Kent, in 1905. All these titles became extinct on his death in 1922. Lord Northcliffe was the elder brother of Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet and Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet.

— Freebase

Freiherr

Freiherr

"Freiherr", "Freifrau" and "Freiin" are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, and in its various successor states, including Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above Ritter and below Graf. It corresponds to baron in rank; a Freiherr is sometimes also referred to as "Baron"; he is always addressed as "Herr Baron" or "Baron".

— Freebase

Barony

Barony

the fee or domain of a baron; the lordship, dignity, or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

von

von

In German, von is a preposition which approximately means of or from. When it is used as a part of a German family name, it is usually a nobiliary particle, like the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese de. At certain times and places, it has been illegal for anyone who was not a member of the nobility to use von before the family name. However, in Northern Germany and Switzerland the von particle is still a common part of surnames and is widely used also by commoners, whereas in the Middle Ages this was common practice in all German-speaking areas; thus, "Hans von Duisburg" meant Hans from [the city of] Duisburg. The Dutch van, which is a cognate of von but does not indicate nobility, can be said to have preserved this meaning.

— Freebase

Von Restorff effect

Von Restorff effect

The Von Restorff effect, also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered than other items. A bias in favour of remembering the unusual. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity. Von Restorff worked as a postdoctoral assistant to Wolfgang Köhler at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin up to the time that Köhler resigned in protest against Nazi interference with the Institute. During her time in Köhler’s laboratory, von Restorff published two papers, the second of which she co-authored with Köhler. Von Restorff proposed the isolation effect in a paper she wrote in 1933 on the topic of spontaneous reminding which included a prescient discussion of the role of intentionality in the memory test.

— Freebase

Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture

The term Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, derives from a 1945 computer architecture description by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The design of a Von Neumann architecture is simpler than the more modern Harvard architecture which is also a stored-program system but has one dedicated set of address and data buses for reading data from and writing data to memory, and another set of address and data buses for fetching instructions.

— Freebase

Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang is a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play Sturm und Drang, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang, with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger also significant figures. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was also a notable proponent of the movement, though he and Friedrich Schiller ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Factor

von Willebrand Factor

A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."

— Freebase

Spione

Spione

Spione (English title: Spies, under which title it was released in the United States) is a German silent espionage thriller written and directed by Fritz Lang in 1928. Lang's wife, Thea von Harbou, worked as a co-writer. The film was Lang's penultimate silent film, and the first for his own production company; Fritz Lang-film GmbH. As in Lang's Mabuse films, such as Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse, Rudolf Klein-Rogge plays a master criminal aiming for world domination. Spione was restored to its original length by the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung during 2003 and 2004. No original negatives survive, but a high quality nitrate copy is held at the Národni Filmovy Archiv at Prague. Beautiful Russian spy Sonja Baranikowa (Gerda Maurus) seduces Colonel Jellusic (Fritz Rasp) into betraying his country for her employer, Haghi (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a seemingly respectable bank director who is actually the criminal mastermind of a powerful espionage organization. Jason (Craighall Sherry), head of the Secret Service, gives the task of bringing the mysterious Haghi down to a handsome young agent known only as Number 326. 326 believes his identity is a secret, but Haghi is well aware of him. He assigns Sonja to worm her way into 326's confidence. She convinces 326 that she has just shot a man who tried to force himself on her. He hides her from the police. What Haghi does not anticipate is that the couple will fall in love. Unwilling to betray 326, she quietly slips away after they spend the afternoon and evening together. He trails her to Colonel Jellusic, whom he mistakes for her lover (she is actually paying him for his treason). Haghi suspects Sonya's feelings for 326. When she refuses to act against 326, he confines her to a room in his secret headquarters. Meanwhile, Haghi is after a crucial, secret Japanese treaty. He blackmails Lady Leslane (Hertha von Walther), an opium addict, into betraying what her husband knows of the negotiations. Akira Masimoto (Lupu Pick), the Japanese head of security responsible for the treaty's safekeeping, crosses paths with 326. When 326 seeks out Sonya, he finds her apartment stripped bare. Masimoto finds him drowning his sorrows in a bar and informs him that he would have arrested the woman as a spy had she not disappeared. Masimoto gives each of three couriers a sealed packet to deliver to Tokyo; he informs them that a copy of the treaty is inside one of them. Haghi obtains all three packages, but finds only newspapers. However, Haghi has one more card up his sleeve. Masimoto pities Kitty (Liene Dyers), a young woman he finds huddling in a doorway during a rainstorm, and takes her in. When he prepares to leave for Japan with the treaty, she begs him to spend a few hours with her. He gives in, attracted by her beauty. However, when he wakes up later, she is gone, as is the treaty. Disgraced, he commits ritual suicide. 326 tracks Jellusic down, but too late. To tie up loose ends, Haghi has already betrayed the colonel. When confronted by his superiors, Jellusic shoots himself to avoid a scandal. 326 wires the serial numbers of the bank notes used to pay Jellusic, which Jason passes on to agent 719, working undercover as a circus clown, to trace. On the train trip back, 326 is nearly killed in a trap set by Haghi. While he is sleeping, his car is detached and left in a tunnel. He awakens just before another train smashes into it. Sonya, tricked into trying to smuggling the treaty out of the country by Haghi's promise not to harm 326, learns of the crash, races to the site and is reunited with her love. 326 orders Haghi's bank surrounded. Then he sends Sonya away with his trusted chauffeur, Franz (Paul Hörbiger), while he and his men search for Haghi. However, Haghi captures Sonya and Franz, and sends 326 an ultimatum: clear the building within 15 minutes or Sonya will die. After agonizing, 326 continues searching, even after poison gas is released. Fortunately, Franz...

— Freebase

Schwenkfeldian

Schwenkfeldian

a member of a religious sect founded by Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a Silesian reformer who disagreed with Luther, especially on the deification of the body of Christ

— Webster Dictionary

Station

Station

a place calculated for the rendezvous of troops, or for the distribution of them; also, a spot well adapted for offensive measures. Wilhelm (Mil. Dict.)

— Webster Dictionary

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene. In his lifetime, Brahms's popularity and influence were considerable; following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow, he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs". Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished. Brahms is often considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. He was a master of counterpoint, the complex and highly disciplined art for which Johann Sebastian Bach is famous, and of development, a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and other composers. Brahms aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers.

— Freebase

Jeremy Irons

Jeremy Irons

Jeremy John Irons is an English actor. After receiving classical training at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, Irons began his acting career on stage in 1969, and has since appeared in many London theatre productions including The Winter's Tale, Macbeth, Much Ado About Nothing, The Taming of the Shrew, Godspell, Richard II and Embers. In 1984, he made his Broadway debut in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing and received a Tony Award for Best Actor. Irons's first major film role came in the 1981 romantic drama The French Lieutenant's Woman, for which he received a BAFTA nomination for Best Actor. After starring in such films as Moonlighting, Betrayal and The Mission, he gained critical acclaim for portraying twin gynaecologists in David Cronenberg's psychological thriller Dead Ringers. In 1990, Irons played accused murderer Claus von Bulow in Reversal of Fortune, and took home multiple awards including an Academy Award for Best Actor. Other notable films have included Kafka, The House of the Spirits, The Lion King, Die Hard with a Vengeance, Lolita, The Man in the Iron Mask, The Merchant of Venice, Being Julia, Kingdom of Heaven, Eragon, Appaloosa, and Margin Call.

— Freebase

Lutetium

Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal which resists corrosion in dry, but not moist, air. It is the last element in the lanthanide series, and traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these men found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and von Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain as he published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium for element 71 proposed by von Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s. Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, though significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust; it has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, and so used to determine the age of meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy on neuroendocrine tumours.

— Freebase

Fenris

Fenris

Fenris are two fictional characters from the Marvel Comics universe, namely German twins Andrea and Andreas von Strucker. They are the children of supervillain Baron Wolfgang von Strucker of HYDRA and the half-brother of Werner von Strucker. Andrea is female, Andreas is male. They first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #194 as Andrea and Andreas and were first called Fenris in Uncanny X-Men #200. They were created by Chris Claremont and John Romita, Jr. Fenris is also the name of the terrorist organization the two are head of, which is made up of armored soldiers based on technology developed by HYDRA.

— Freebase

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes

Montyon Prizes are a series of prizes awarded annually by the Académie Française. They were endowed by the French benefactor Baron de Montyon. Prior to start of the French Revolution, the Baron de Montyon established a series of prizes to be given away by the Académie Française, the Académie des Sciences, and the Académie Nationale de Médecine. These were abolished by the National Convention, but were taken up again when Baron de Montyon returned to France in 1815. When he died, he bequeathed a large sum of money for the perpetual endowment of four annual prizes. The endowed prizes were as follows: ⁕Making an industrial process less unhealthy ⁕Perfecting of any technical improvement in a mechanical process ⁕Book which during the year rendered the greatest service to humanity ⁕The "prix de vertu" for the most courageous act on the part of a poor Frenchman These prizes were considered by some to be a forerunner of the Nobel Prize.

— Freebase

Baron Verulam

Baron Verulam

The title Baron Verulam was created in two separate and unrelated instances: first as Baron Verulam, of Verulam, in the Peerage of England, then secondly as Baron Verulam, of Gorhambury in the County of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was firstly created for the English philosopher and statesman Sir Francis Bacon, and secondly created for James Grimston, 3rd Viscount Grimston.

— Freebase

Scottish feudal lordship

Scottish feudal lordship

A feudal lordship is a Scottish feudal title that is held in baroneum, which Latin term means that its holder, who is called a feudal lord, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal lordship is an ancient title of nobility in Scotland. The holder may or may not be a Lord of Regality, which meant that the holder was appointed by the Crown and had the power of "pit and gallows", meaning the power to authorise the death sentence. A Scottish feudal lord ranks above a Scottish feudal baron, but below a lord of parliament which is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, and below a feudal earldom, which is a feudal barony of still higher degree than a feudal lordship. There are far fewer feudal lordships than feudal baronies, whilst feudal earldoms are very rare. While feudal barons originally sat in parliament, all of the peerage, originally, was within the feudal system. Later, some of what used to be feudal lordships came to be known as peerages while others were sold, inherited by greater peers, or otherwise disqualified from the modern-day peerage. The feudal rights were gradually emasculated and, with the demise of the Scottish parliament in 1707, the right of feudal barons to sit in parliament ceased altogether, unless, that is, a feudal baron was also a Peer.

— Freebase

Pandectists

Pandectists

Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Pandectists were attacked in arguments by noted jurists Julius Hermann von Kirchmann and Rudolf von Jhering who favored a modern approach of law as a practical means to an end. In the United States, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and other legal realists pushed for laws based on what judges and the courts actually did, rather than the historical and conceptual or academic law of Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the Pandectists.

— Freebase

Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lithophane

Lithophane

A lithophane is an etched or molded artwork in thin very translucent porcelain that can only be seen clearly when back lit with a light source. It is a design or scene in intaglio that appears "en grisaille" tones. A lithophane presents a three dimensional image - completely different from two dimensional engravings and daguerreotypes that are "flat". The images change characteristics depending on the light source behind them. Window lithophane panel scenes change throughout the day depending upon the amount of sunlight. The varying lightsource is what makes lithophanes more interesting to the viewer than two dimensional pictures. The word "lithophane" derives from Greek "litho", which is from "lithos" which means stone or rock, and "phainein" meaning "to cause to appear" or "to cause to appear suddenly". From this is derived a meaning for lithophane of "light in stone" or to "appear in stone" as the three dimensional image appears suddendly when lit with a back light source. European lithophanes were first produced nearly at the same time in France, Germany, Prussia, and England around the later part of the 1820s. Many times historians credit Baron Paul de Bourging with inventing the process "email ombrant" of lithophanes in 1827 in France. Robert Griffith Jones acquired Bourging's rights in 1828 and licensed out to English factories to make them. The English factories sometimes used the name "lithophane" for specimens of ordinary "email ombrant." Some say however it was Georg Friedrich Christoph of Prussia that actually perfected the true lithophane process in 1828. Others say the technique was developed in Berlin and other parts of Germany by such manufacturers as Königlichen Porzellan-Manufaktur and Porzellanmanufactur. This is why sometimes lithophanes are referred to as "Berlin transparency." There is a well known mark of Ad'T' on lithophanes from Rubles, near Melun in France. It is thought to be the mark of Baron A. de Tremblay, however some scholars on the subject think he only made earthenware and not true lithophanes and the mark belongs to a yet unknown source.

— Freebase

leibnitzian

Leibnizian, Leibnitzian

of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy

— Princeton's WordNet

leibnizian

Leibnizian, Leibnitzian

of or relating to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or to his mathematics or philosophy

— Princeton's WordNet

Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf, in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed petrol engine and the first four-wheel automobile. Daimler and his lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach were two inventors whose goal was to create small, high-speed engines to be mounted in any kind of locomotion device. In 1885 they designed a precursor of the modern petrol engine which they subsequently fitted to a two-wheeler, the first internal combustion motorcycle and, in the next year, to a stagecoach, and a boat. Daimler baptized it the Grandfather Clock engine because of its resemblance to an old pendulum clock. In 1890, they founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. They sold their first automobile in 1892. Daimler fell ill and took a break from the business. Upon his return he experienced difficulty with the other stockholders that led to his resignation in 1893. This was reversed in 1894. Maybach resigned at the same time, and also returned. In 1900 Daimler died and Wilhelm Maybach quit DMG in 1907. In 1924, the DMG management signed a long term co-operation agreement with Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and in 1926 the two companies merged to become Daimler-Benz AG, which is now part of Daimler AG.

— Freebase

Kaiser Wilhelm

Kaiser Wilhelm

Irvin Key "Kaiser" Wilhelm from Wooster, Ohio was a pitcher and manager in Major League Baseball. Wilhelm's debut came in 1903 for the Pittsburgh Pirates, and he played off and on until he retired in 1915 at the age of 38. In 1921, Wilhelm became the manager for the Philadelphia Phillies and, at age 44, pitched in four games during the season.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Busch

Wilhelm Busch

Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch was a German humorist, poet, illustrator and painter. He published comic illustrated cautionary tales from 1859, achieving his most notable works in the 1870s. Busch's illustrations used wood engraving, and later, zincography. Busch drew on contemporary parochial and city life, satirizing Catholicism, Philistinism, strict religious morality and bigotry. His comic text was colourful and entertaining, using onomatopoeia, neologisms and other figures of speech, and led to some work being banned by the authorities. Busch was influential in both poetry and illustration, and became a source for future generations of comic artists. The Katzenjammer Kids was inspired by Busch's Max and Moritz, one of a number of imitations produced in Germany and the United States. The Wilhelm Busch Prize and the Wilhelm Busch Museum help maintain his legacy. His 175th anniversary in 2007 was celebrated throughout Germany. Busch remains one of the most influential poets and artists in Western Europe.

— Freebase

Kosmos

Kosmos

Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. is a media publishing house based in Stuttgart, Germany, founded in 1822 by Johann Friedrich Franckh. In the nineteenth century the company published the fairy tales of Wilhelm Hauff as well as works by Wilhelm Waiblinger and Eduard Mörike. The "Friends of Nature Club" was set up in 1903 in response to booming public interest in science and technology, and by 1912 100,000 members were receiving its monthly magazine "Cosmos". The company moved into publishing books on popular science topics under the brands Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung and KOSMOS, including successful non-fiction guidebooks by Hanns Günther and Heinz Richter. Children's fiction and Kosmos-branded science experimentation kits were introduced in the 1920s. Kosmos's current output includes non-fiction, children's books, science kits and German-style board games. Many of their games are translated into English and published by Rio Grande Games, Mayfair Games, and Fantasy Flight Games. Their line of experiment kits and science kits is distributed in North America by Thames & Kosmos.

— Freebase

Ritter

Ritter

Ritter is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and would generally be used together with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr". In addition to the described system, some states like Württemberg and Bavaria introduced orders of merit beginning in the late 18th century which also conferred nobility as "Ritter von" but kept the title limited to the recipient's lifetime. In heraldry, from the late 18th century a Ritter would often be indicated by the use of a coronet with five points, although not everyone who was a Ritter and displayed arms actually made use of such a coronet.

— Freebase

Von Neumann entropy

Von Neumann entropy

In quantum statistical mechanics, von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics. For a quantum-mechanical system described by a density matrix ρ, the von Neumann entropy is where tr denotes the trace. If ρ is written in terms of its eigenvectors |1〉, |2〉, |3〉, ... as then the von Neumann entropy is In this form, S can be seen to be related to the Shannon entropy.

— Freebase

Ristocetin

Ristocetin

Ristocetin is an antibiotic, obtained from Amycolatopsis lurida, previously used to treat staphylococcal infections. It is no longer used clinically because it caused thrombocytopenia and platelet agglutination. It is now used solely to assay those functions in vitro in the diagnosis of conditions such as von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Platelet agglutination caused by ristocetin can occur only in the presence of von Willebrand factor multimers, so if ristocetin is added to blood lacking the factor, the platelets will not clump. In an unknown fashion, the antibiotic ristocetin causes von Willebrand factor to bind the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib, so when ristocetin is added to normal blood, it causes agglutination. In some types of vWD, even very small amounts of ristocetin cause platelet aggregation when the patient's platelet-rich plasma is used. This paradox is explained by these types having gain-of-function mutations which cause the vWD high molecular-weight multimers to bind more tightly to their receptors on platelets. In the case of type 2B vWD, the gain-of-function mutation involves von Willebrand's factor, and in platelet-type vWD, the receptor is the object of the mutation. This increased binding causes vWD because the high-molecular weight multimers are removed from circulation in plasma since they remain attached to the patient's platelets. Thus, if the patient's platelet-poor plasma is used, the ristocetin cofactor assay will not agglutinate standardized platelets, similar to the other types of vWD.

— Freebase

Von Kármán

Von Kármán

Von Kármán is a lunar crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. The northern third of this formation is overlain by the rim and outer rampart of the walled plain Leibnitz, forming a deep indentation in the formation. The remainder of the outer wall is roughly circular in shape, although it is irregular and heavily worn by subsequent impacts. The interior of Von Kármán has been subjected to flooding by lava flows after the original crater formed, leaving the southern portion of the floor nearly flat. This surface has a lower albedo than the surrounding terrain, and is nearly as dark as the interior of Leibnitz. There is a central peak at the location where the midpoint of the original Von Kármán was formed, which joins with the rougher surface in the northern part of the crater. In addition to Leibnitz to the north, the crater Oresme is located to the west-northwest, and Finsen lies to the northeast on the edge of Leibnitz's rim. Nearly attached to the southeast rim is the unusual figure-eight-shaped Von Kármán L formation. Directly to the east of this is the crater Alder.

— Freebase

Kohlrausch's Law

Kohlrausch's Law

A law of the rate of travel of the elements and radicals in solutions under the effects of electrolysis. It states that each element under the effects of electrolysis has a rate of travel for a given liquid, which is independent of the element with which it was combined. The rates of travel are stated for different elements in centimeters per hour for a potential difference of one or more volts per centimeter of path.

[Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch (1840-1910)]

— The Standard Electrical Dictionary

Hermann Göring

Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring, was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party. A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron". A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.

— Freebase

Kindergarten

Kindergarten

a school for young children, conducted on the theory that education should be begun by gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play, observation, imitation, and construction; -- a name given by Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in rooms opening on a garden

— Webster Dictionary

Krupp gun

Krupp gun

a breech-loading steel cannon manufactured at the works of Friedrich Krupp, at Essen in Prussia. Guns of over eight-inch bore are made up of several concentric cylinders; those of a smaller size are forged solid

— Webster Dictionary

Wolffian

Wolffian

discovered, or first described, by Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), the founder of modern embryology

— Webster Dictionary

alfred krupp

Krupp, Alfred Krupp

German arms manufacturer and son of Friedrich Krupp; his firm provided ordnance for German armies from the 1840s through World War II (1812-1887)

— Princeton's WordNet

dialectical materialism

dialectical materialism

the materialistic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

— Princeton's WordNet

krupp

Krupp, Alfred Krupp

German arms manufacturer and son of Friedrich Krupp; his firm provided ordnance for German armies from the 1840s through World War II (1812-1887)

— Princeton's WordNet

marxism

Marxism

the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism

— Princeton's WordNet

Misesian

Misesian

A person who substantially agrees with the economic analyses of Ludwig von Mises.

— Wiktionary

Linnean

Linnean

of, or relating to Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish nobleman, born as Carolus Linnaeus: "the Linnean Society".

— Wiktionary

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street

A Von Ku00E1rmu00E1n vortex street.

— Wiktionary

Linnaeus

Linnaeus

Carl (or the latinized Carolus) Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linnu00E9, Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy."

— Wiktionary

Bismarck

Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck, one of the prominent German statesmen of the nineteenth century.

— Wiktionary

copper captain

copper captain

A Brummagem captain; a person with an artificial title of captain; a General von Poffenburgh.

— Wiktionary

Clausewitzian

Clausewitzian

Adhering to or described by the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz.

— Wiktionary

Henotheism

Henotheism

Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling to depict early stages of monotheism, however Max Müller, a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism, focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God.

— Freebase

Dianium

Dianium

Dianium was the proposed name for a new element found by the mineralogist and poet Wolfgang Franz von Kobell in 1860. The name derived from the Roman goddess Diana. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite and niobite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. Following the rediscovery of niobium in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, Friedrich Wöhler, Heinrich Rose, R. Hermann and Kobell analysed the minerals tantalite and columbite to better understand the chemistry of niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum hindered preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. Rose discovered pelopium in 1846, while Hermann announced the discovery of ilmenium in 1847. In 1860 Kobell published the results on the tantalite from a quarry near Kimito a village in Finland and columbite from Bodenmais a village in Germany. He concluded that the element he found was different from tantalum, niobium, pelopium and ilmenium. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

— Freebase

Iron Cross

Iron Cross

The Iron Cross is a cross symbol typically in black with a white or silver outline that originated after 1219 when the Kingdom of Jerusalem granted the Teutonic Order the right to combine the Teutonic Black Cross placed above a silver Cross of Jerusalem. The military decoration called the Iron Cross which existed in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire and Third Reich, was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who were awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class respectively for their actions as pilots during World War II. The Iron Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. The Iron Cross was reintroduced as an award in the German Army in 1939 with a Swastika added in the center during the Third Reich in World War II. In 1956, the Iron Cross resumed its German military usage, as it became the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces. The traditional design is black and this design is used on armored vehicles and aircraft. A newer design in blue and silver is used as the emblem in other contexts.

— Freebase

Geopolitik

Geopolitik

Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.

— Freebase

Ludwig's angina

Ludwig's angina

Ludwig's angina, otherwise known as angina ludovici, is a serious, potentially life-threatening cellulitis, or connective tissue infection, of the floor of the mouth, usually occurring in adults with concomitant dental infections and if left untreated, may obstruct the airways, necessitating tracheotomy. It is named after the German physician, Wilhelm Friedrich von Ludwig who first described this condition in 1836. Other names include "angina Maligna" and "Morbus Strangularis". Ludwig's angina should not be confused with angina pectoris, which is also otherwise commonly known as "angina". The word "angina" comes from the Greek word ankhon, meaning "strangling", so in this case, Ludwig's angina refers to the feeling of strangling, not the feeling of chest pain, though there may be chest pain in Ludwig's angina if the infection spreads into the retrosternal space. The life-threatening nature of this condition generally necessitates surgical management with involvement of critical care physicians such as those found in an intensive care unit.

— Freebase

August Kekulé

August Kekulé

August Kekulé, born Friedrich August Kekule, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekule was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially in theoretical chemistry. He was the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure.

— Freebase

Classical period

Classical period

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1730 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense to describe a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1750 to 1820. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic. Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.

— Freebase

Tilsit

Tilsit

a manufacturing town of East Prussia, on the Memel or Niemen, 65 m. NE. of Königsberg; here was signed in 1807 a memorable treaty between Alexander I. of Russia and Napoleon, as the result of which Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia was deprived of the greater part of his dominions.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Marxism

Marxism

The socialist philosophy and political program founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; scientific socialism.

— Wiktionary

existentialism

existentialism

A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).

— Wiktionary

Bunsen

Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German chemist

— Wiktionary

Wolffian

Wolffian

Relating to Caspar Friedrich Wolff

— Wiktionary

Second Reich

Second Reich

The German Empire from its consolidation in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

— Wiktionary

Kaiser

Kaiser

the German Emperor, often specifically Wilhelm II

— Wiktionary

orgone

orgone

in the theories of Wilhelm Reich, a supposed excess sexual energy distributed throughout the universe and available for collection, storage, and further use

— Wiktionary

Wilhelmina

Wilhelmina

of origin; the female form of Wilhelm (William).

— Wiktionary

Reichian

Reichian

Relating to or influenced by the Austrian psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) and his therapeutic methods.

— Wiktionary

Gaussian

Gaussian

Of or pertaining to Carl Friedrich Gauss.

— Wiktionary

Nietzschean

Nietzschean

A supporter of the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche.

— Wiktionary

Nietzschean

Nietzschean

Of, pertaining to or characteristic of Friedrich Nietzsche or his writings.

— Wiktionary

duledge

duledge

One of the dowels joining the ends of the fellies which form the circle of the wheel of a gun carriage. --Wilhelm.

— Wiktionary

Leibnizian

Leibnizian

Of or relating to the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

— Wiktionary

Hayekian

Hayekian

The proponent of economic theories of Friedrich Hayek.

— Wiktionary

Hayekian

Hayekian

Of or pertaining to economic theories of Friedrich Hayek.

— Wiktionary

Odic force

Odic force

The Odic force is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach. Von Reichenbach coined the name from that of the Norse god Odin in 1845.

— Freebase

nobleman

nobleman

A peer; an aristocrat; ranks range from baron to king to emperor.

— Wiktionary

baroness

baroness

The female ruler of a barony. The male equivalent is baron.

— Wiktionary

barony

barony

A dominion ruled by a baron or baroness, often part of a larger kingdom or empire.

— Wiktionary

thane

thane

in Anglo-Saxon England, a man holding lands from the king, or from a superior in rank. There were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Norman Conquest, this title was no longer used, and baron took its place.

— Wiktionary

viscount

viscount

A member of the peerage above a baron but below a count or earl.

— Wiktionary

Lord

Lord

A British aristocratic title used as a form of address for a marquess, earl or viscount; the usual style for a baron; a courtesy title for a younger son of a duke or marquess

— Wiktionary

Verulam

Verulam

Baron Verulam, Viscount St Albans

— Wiktionary

Byron

Byron

George Gordon (Noel) Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788u2013April 19, 1824), a famous English poet and leading figure in romanticism.

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

belonging or relating to a baron or barons

— Wiktionary

baronial

baronial

suitable for a baron

— Wiktionary

rix-baron

rix-baron

A baron of the German Empire.

— Wiktionary

Red Baron

Red Baron

An equivalent of the Red Baron, ace fighter pilot.

— Wiktionary

Heldenbuch

Heldenbuch

Heldenbücher is the conventional title under which a group of manuscripts and prints of the 15th and 16th centuries has come down to us. Each Heldenbuch contains a collection of primarily German epic poetry, typically including material from the Theodoric cycle, and the cycle of Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit. The Heldenbuch texts are thus based on medieval German literature, but adapted to the tastes of the Renaissance, remodelled in rough Knittelvers or doggerel. The Heldenbücher group was edited in 19th-century German scholarship, by Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, Müllenhoff, Simrock and A. von Keller.

— Freebase

Schiller

Schiller

Schiller is an electronic music project led by Christopher von Deylen, a German musician, composer and producer. The band is named after poet and dramatist Friedrich Schiller. Schiller won the ECHO award in 2002 for the Best Dance Single of the Year with 'Dream of You'. Schiller has sold over 7 million albums worldwide. Christopher von Deylen does not provide any vocals for Schiller productions himself. Vocals are sung by guest artists including Sarah Brightman, Moya Brennan of Clannad, Adam Young of Owl City, Andrea Corr of The Corrs, Colbie Caillat, Sarah Howells of Welsh emotional folk / indie band Paper Aeroplanes, Ben Becker, Peter Heppner of synth pop band Wolfsheim, MiLù - also known as Mila Mar, Xavier Naidoo, Maya Saban, Kim Sanders formerly of Culture Beat, Ana Torroja of the Spanish pop group Mecano, Tarja Turunen formerly of power metal group Nightwish, Despina Vandi, Alexander Veljanov of Darkwave group Deine Lakaien, Swedish singer September. Other musicians that have collaborated with Schiller include Lang Lang, Klaus Schulze, Mike Oldfield, Helen Boulding, Kate Havnevik, Damae of Fragma, Jaël of Swiss band Lunik, Stephenie Coker and German actress Anna Maria Mühe.

— Freebase

Ghazal

Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th-century Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi and Hafiz, the Azeri poet Fuzûlî, as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert and August von Platen. The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

— Freebase

Liberism

Liberism

Liberism is a term for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire capitalism first used by the philosopher Benedetto Croce, and popularized in English by the Italian-American political scientist Giovanni Sartori. Sartori imported the term from Italian in order to distinguish between social liberalism, which is generally considered a political ideology often advocating extensive government intervention in the economy, and those liberal theories of economics which propose to virtually eliminate such intervention. In informal usage, liberism overlaps with other concepts such as free trade, neoliberalism, right-libertarianism, the American concept of libertarianism, and the French notion of laissez-faire. In Italy, liberism is often identified with the political theories of Gaetano Mosca, Luigi Einaudi and Bruno Leoni. Internationally, liberism has been advocated by the Austrian School of economic theory, for instance by Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek.

— Freebase

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

von Willebrand Disease, Type 1

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a partial deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

von Willebrand Disease, Type 2

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from qualitative deficiencies of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. The subtype is divided into several variants with each variant having a distinctive pattern of PLATELET-interaction.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

von Willebrand Disease, Type 3

A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a total or near total deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

John von Neumann

John von Neumann

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer. Von Neumann's mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." Along with Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.

— Freebase

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs, and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats. There are three forms of vWD: inherited, acquired and pseudo or platelet type. There are three types of hereditary vWD: vWD Type I, vWD Type II and vWD III. Within the three inherited types of vWD there are various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition. vWD Type I is the most common type of the disorder and those that have it are typically asymptomatic or may experience mild symptoms such as nosebleeds although there may be severe symptoms in some cases. There are various factors that affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD such as blood type. vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish pediatrician who first described the disease in 1926.

— Freebase

Iduna

Iduna

Iduna was an important literary association founded in May 1891 by a circle of writers around Fritz Lemmermayer. Lemmermayer acted as a sort of "middle man" between an older generation of authors and a group of younger writers and thinkers. The society had the descriptive subtitle of "Free German Society for Literature". The name Iduna was provided by Guido von List himself and is that of a North Germanic goddess of eternal youth and renewal. Richard von Kralik and Joseph Kalasanz Poestion, authors with specifically neo-Germanic leanings, where also involved in the circle. The circle dissolved in 1893 when the 'Literarische Donaugesellschaft' grew out of its ashes and was founded by Guido von List and Fanny Wschiansky.

— Freebase

Factor VIII

Factor VIII

Factor VIII is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor. In humans, factor VIII is encoded by the F8 gene. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. Factor VIII is produced in liver sinusoidal cells and endothelial cells outside of the liver throughout the body. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs. In response to injury, coagulation factor VIII is activated and separates from von Willebrand factor. The active protein interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. This interaction sets off a chain of additional chemical reactions that form a blood clot. Factor VIII participates in blood coagulation; it is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca+2 and phospholipids forms a complex that converts factor X to the activated form Xa. The factor VIII gene produces two alternatively spliced transcripts. Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand factor in a noncovalent complex. This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which consists primarily of the phospholipid binding domain of factor VIIIc. This binding domain is essential for coagulant activity.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from 1916, he and his deputy, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg gradually gained more influence in Germany than the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany. Hindenburg, as German President, appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. Hindenburg personally despised Hitler, condescendingly referring to Hitler as that "Bohemian corporal". Hitler repeatedly and forcefully pressured Hindenburg to appoint him as Chancellor, Hindenburg repeatedly refused Hitler's demand. Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. Although he was opposing Hitler, the deteriorating political stability of the Weimar Republic let him play an important role in the Nazi Party's rise to power. He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In February, he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act, in which the parliament gave Hitler's administration legislative powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and, as "Führer und Reichskanzler", made himself head of state.

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Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, in the United States. He is credited as being the "Father of Rocket Science". In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the V-2 combat rocket during World War II. After the war, he and some select members of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip. Von Braun worked on the United States Army intermediate range ballistic missile program before his group was assimilated by NASA. Under NASA, he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. According to one NASA source, he is "without doubt, the greatest rocket scientist in history". His crowning achievement was to lead the development of the Saturn V booster rocket that helped land the first men on the Moon in July 1969. In 1975 he received the National Medal of Science.

— Freebase

Universal Turing machine

Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some to be the origin of the stored program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. It is also known as universal computing machine, universal machine, machine U, U. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.

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Technological singularity

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the theoretical emergence of superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the technological singularity is seen as an occurrence beyond which events cannot be predicted. The first use of the term "singularity" in this context was by mathematician John von Neumann. Neumann in the mid-1950s spoke of "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue". The term was popularized by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement, or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. Futurist Ray Kurzweil cited von Neumann's use of the term in a foreword to von Neumann's classic The Computer and the Brain. Proponents of the singularity typically postulate an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, that might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human.

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Sphygmograph

Sphygmograph

The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

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Useful idiot

Useful idiot

In political jargon, useful idiot is a pejorative term for people perceived as propagandists for a cause whose goals they do not understand, and who are used cynically by the leaders of the cause. The term has been used to refer to Soviet sympathizers in Western countries. The implication was that, although the people in question naïvely thought of themselves as an ally of the Soviet Union, they were actually held in contempt and were being cynically used. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naïvely believe to be a force for good. Despite often being attributed to Lenin, in 1987, Grant Harris, senior reference librarian at the Library of Congress, declared that "We have not been able to identify this phrase among [Lenin's] published works." A New York Times article from 1948, on contemporary Italian politics, documented usage of the term in an article from the social-democratic Italian paper L'Umanita. The French equivalent, "idiots utiles", was used in a newspaper article title as early as 1946. An earlier usage of a similar term, useful innocents, appears in Austrian-American economist Ludwig von Mises' "Planned Chaos". Von Mises claims the term was used by communists for liberals that von Mises describes as "confused and misguided sympathizers". The term useful innocents also appears in a Readers Digest article titled "Yugoslavia's Tragic Lesson to the World", an excerpt from a, at the time, forthcoming book authored by Bogdan Raditsa, a "high ranking official of the Yugoslav Government". Raditsa says: "In the Serbo-Croat language the communists have a phrase for true democrats who consent to collaborate with them for 'democracy.' It is Korisne Budale, or Useful Innocents." Although Raditsa translates the phrase as "Useful Innocents", the word budala actually translates as "fool" and synonyms thereof.

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Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen

Rudolf von Bennigsen was a German politician descended from an old Hanoverian family. His father, Karl von Bennigsen, was an officer in the Hanoverian army who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments. The anthropologist Moritz von Leonhardi was his nephew. After studying at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of the Corps Hannovera, Bennigsen entered the Hanoverian civil service. In 1855, he was elected a member of the second chamber, and because the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties, he resigned his post in the public service. He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Alexander Levin, Count of Bennigsen, a member of the same family and son of the distinguished Russian General Bennigsen, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time, serving as Hanover's minister-president between 1848 and 1850 and afterwards as president first of the first chamber, then of the second chamber of the Estates Assembly of the Kingdom of Hanover. What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the German National Association, which was due to him, and of which he was president. This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the Austro-Sardinian War, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland. It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of King George V of Hanover to suppress it. Bennigsen was also one of the founders of the Protestantenverein in 1863.

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Polylux

Polylux

Polylux, the self-appointed "last/worst on the first [channel]", is a weekly half-hour German television program hosted by Tita von Hardenberg. It was produced by RBB for Das Erste and was aired in the timeslot on Thursdays at 11:15 CET. The show, which was concerned with politics, culture and social trends, offers a vivid blend of documentary & satirical segments. Typically it began with a satirical 'report' by Carsten von Ryssen related to a current matter of public concern. The show's essential hipness, which was underlined by von Hardenberg's crisp announcements and the visual & thematic backdrop of the city of Berlin, infuses the subsequent documentary pieces with a certain esprit. Thematically, their scope ran from coverage of political and social movements to current trends in underground and popular culture, whereby one piece was usually biographical in nature, setting it off from the more panoramic style of the rest of the show. Less serious segments often echoed the satire of the keynote feature. Regular items included the "Berlin for Beginners" and the show's end note, in which Manfred Dumke, an elderly pensioner, shared his curious insights on current affairs with the rest of Germany from the comfort of his front room.

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Steve von Till

Steve von Till

Steve von Till is best known as singer and guitarist for the atmospheric metal band Neurosis, replacing Chad Salter in 1989. He is also in Tribes of Neurot and Culper Ring, and records solo work under both his given name and the moniker Harvestman. His solo albums are composed of original songs and traditional folk arrangements, using minimalistic acoustic guitar and vocal styles. Outside his semi-professional role as a musician, he works as an elementary school teacher. His father, Steven von Till, Sr, is a civil attorney in the San Francisco Bay Area. His mother, Beth von Till, is a communications professor at San Jose State University. He resides with his wife Niela and his kids in Idaho.

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Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, Graf, later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 with the Duke of Wellington. The honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock bore the nickname "Marschall Vorwärts" because of his approach to warfare.

— Freebase

adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baron adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

baronetcy

baronetcy

the title of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

baronet

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the estate of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

barony

barony

the domain of a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

bart

baronet, Bart

a member of the British order of honor; ranks below a baron but above a knight

— Princeton's WordNet

edgar douglas adrian

Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron Adrian

English physiologist who conducted research into the function of neurons; 1st baron of Cambridge (1889-1997)

— Princeton's WordNet

peer

peer

a nobleman (duke or marquis or earl or viscount or baron) who is a member of the British peerage

— Princeton's WordNet

thane

thane

a feudal lord or baron

— Princeton's WordNet

viscount

viscount

a British peer who ranks below an earl and above a baron

— Princeton's WordNet

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Peerage of the United Kingdom

The Peerage of the United Kingdom and British Empire comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898. The ranks of the peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron. The last non-royal dukedom was created in 1900, and the last marquessate in 1926. Creation of the remaining ranks mostly ceased once Harold Wilson's Labour government took office in 1964, and only four non-royal hereditary peerages have been created since then. These were: ⁕John Morrison, 1st Baron Margadale, 1965 ⁕William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, 1983 ⁕George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy, 1983 ⁕Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, 1984 Until the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, all peers of the United Kingdom were automatically members of the House of Lords. However, from that date, most of the hereditary peers ceased to be members as part of Parliamentary reform, whereas the life peers retained their seats. All hereditary peers of the first creation, and all surviving hereditary peers who had served as Leader of the House of Lords were offered a life peerage in order to allow them to sit in the House should they so choose.

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Vavasour

Vavasour

A vavasour, is a term in Feudal law. A vavasour was the vassal or tenant of a baron, one who held their tenancy under a baron, and who also had tenants under him. Alternative spellings include: vavasour, valvasor, vasseur, vasvassor, oavassor, and others. In its most general sense the word thus indicated a mediate vassal, i.e. one holding a fief under a vassal. The word was, however, applied at various times to the most diverse ranks in the feudal hierarchy, being used practically as the synonym of vassal. Thus tenants-in-chief of the crown are described by the Emperor Conrad II as valvassores majores, as distinguished from mediate tenants, valvassores minores. Gradually the term without qualification was found convenient for describing sub-vassals, tenants-in-chief being called capitanei or barones; Its implication, however, still varied in different places and times. Bracton ranks the magnates seu valvassores between barons and knights; for him they are "men of great dignity," and in this order they are found in a charter of Henry II of England. But in the regestum of Philip II Augustus we find that five vavassors are reckoned as the equivalent of one knight. Finally, Du Cange quotes two charters, one of 1187, another of 1349, in which vavassors are clearly distinguished from nobles.

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Robber baron

Robber baron

A robber baron or robber knight was an unscrupulous and despotic noble of the medieval period in Europe. The term has slightly different meanings in different countries. In modern U.S. parlance, the term is also used to describe unscrupulous industrialists. Robber baron behavior among the Germanic warrior class in medieval Europe indirectly led to the Catholic innovations of the Peace and Truce of God.

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots. In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. Keynes instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate "boom and bust" cycles of economic activity. He advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were adopted by leading Western economies. In 1942, Keynes was awarded a hereditary peerage as Baron Keynes of Tilton in the County of Sussex. Keynes died in 1946, but during the 1950s and 1960s the success of Keynesian economics resulted in almost all capitalist governments adopting its policy recommendations.

— Freebase

Red Baron

Red Baron

Red Baron is a critically acclaimed video game for the PC, created by Damon Slye at Dynamix and published by Sierra Entertainment. It was released in 1990. As the name suggests, the game is a flying simulation set on the Western Front of World War I. The player can engage in single missions or career mode, flying for either the German Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps. In the course of the game the player might find himself either flying in the Red Baron's squadron Jasta 11, or encountering him as an enemy above the front.

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Chit

Chit

Chits are a type of wargame counter that are generally not directly representational but used for the following purposes: ⁕Tracking, being placed on a numeric runner to indicate turn status, as in some rule variants for Squad Leader. In Axis & Allies Revised Edition, chits can be used to track air unit movement, indicating how many spaces fighters or bombers can move after combat. ⁕Randomization or chit drawing, as in Air Baron, where at the start of each round, one color-coded chit per player is placed in a cup. The chits are drawn sequentially to determine the current order of play. Chit drawing is also used in Air Baron to pay income. Every purchased airline spoke, plus all hubs, have a unique chit placed in a cup. At the start of every turn, the player randomly draws two chits, paying the owner appropriately. Chits are replaced at the end of each round. ⁕Fog of war, with some chits marked with question marks or placed over unit chits, allowing the opposing player to see where opposing forces are but hiding the type of unit. ⁕Terrain attributes, where numeric chits are randomly distributed over the terrain to indicate the frequency that resources are available in The Settlers of Catan.

— Freebase

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton

Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton, was a British Jewish businessman. Marks was born in Leeds and educated at The Manchester Grammar School. In 1907 he inherited a number of "penny bazaars" from his father, Michael Marks, which had been established with Thomas Spencer. With the help of Israel Sieff, he built Marks & Spencer into an icon of British business. Marks was knighted in 1944 and in 1961 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Marks of Broughton, of Sunningdale in the Royal County of Berkshire. He died in December 1964, aged 76, and was succeeded in the barony by his only son Michael.

— Freebase

Tenant-in-chief

Tenant-in-chief

In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief, denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy. The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. Other names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron, although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron. The Latin term was tenens in capite; In most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church, however in England after the Norman Conquest, the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown. A tenure by frankalmoin, which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement. Every land-holding was deemed by feudal custom to be no more than an estate in land whether directly or indirectly held of the king; absolute title in land could only be held by the king himself, the most anyone else could hold was a right over land, not a title in land per se. In England, a tenant-in-chief could enfief, or grant fiefs carved out of his own holding, to his own followers. The creation of subfiefs under a tenant-in-chief or other fief-holder was known as subinfeudation. The Norman kings, however, eventually imposed on all free men who occupied a tenement a duty of fealty to the crown rather than to their immediate lord who had enfeoffed them. This was to diminish the possibility of sub-vassals being employed by tenants-in-chief against the crown.

— Freebase

Victor Horta

Victor Horta

Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that he is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts. The French architect Hector Guimard was deeply influenced by Horta and further spread the "whiplash" style in France and abroad. In 1932 King Albert I of Belgium conferred on Horta the title of Baron for his services to architecture. Four of the buildings he designed have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

— Freebase

Piera

Piera

Piera is a municipality covers a large portion of the southeastern corner of the comarca of Anoia in Catalonia, Spain, on the left bank of the Anoia river. The agricultural land, mostly non-irrigated, is used for the cultivation of cereals, grapes, olives and almonds. The town itself hosts a number of light industries: textiles, plastics and construction materials. Tourism during the summer months is also relatively important for the local economy. The FGC railway line R6 from Martorell and Barcelona to Igualada runs through the town, while local roads lead to Capellades and Sant Sadurní d'Anoia. Notable monuments include the castle of Fontanet. The castle which was restored in 1916 by Ramon de Viala d'Aiguavives, Baron of Almenar is documented in 955 a.c. and now used for private functions. The sister of the Baron of Almenar, Isabel de Viala d'Aiguavives also financed and patroned the modernist church of Ca n'Aguilera which was donated to Barcelona's Bishop by Zaragoza de Viala family on 1921. The architect of Ca N'Aguilera modernist church is Francesc Berenguer i Mestres, who was Antoni Gaudi's disciple and personal friend. Another Piera relevant monument is the church of Santa Maria, with both gothic and roman elements

— Freebase

Earl Grey

Earl Grey

Earl Grey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1806 for General Charles Grey, 1st Baron Grey. He had already been created Baron Grey, of Howick in the County of Northumberland, in 1801, and was made Viscount Howick, in the County of Northumberland, at the same time as he was given the earldom. A member of the prominent Grey family of Northumberland, he was the third son of Sir Henry Grey, 1st Baronet, of Howick. Lord Grey was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, 2nd Earl Grey. He was a prominent Whig politician and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1830 to 1834, which tenure saw the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832. In 1808 he also succeeded his uncle as third Baronet, of Howick.

— Freebase

Whithorn

Whithorn

Whithorn is a former royal burgh in Wigtownshire Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. The town was the location of the first recorded Christian church in Scotland, Candida Casa : the 'White [or 'Shining'] House', built by Saint Ninian about 397. Ref. The Whithorn Trust Refer to Archaeological and Historical Collections relating to Ayrshire and Galloway. vol.VII. pp.53-55 Whithorn is also the name of the area of 10,000 acres in Wigtownshire, in the District Council Region of Dumfries and Galloway 11 miles south from Wigtown, about eight miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, anciently divided into baronies, each controlled by a baron of the court of the barony, i.e. Houston, Baron of the Barony of Busbie or Busby. Burke's Peerage Lineage: This Baronet is heir male of the HOUSTOUNs O.C., the chiefs of which were heritable Baillies and Justiciaries of the Barony of Busbie, Wigtownshire. Scottish feudal lordship Scottish feudal barons sat in Parliament by virtue of holding their lands 'per baroniam', that is as barons.. Whithorn was first known as Candida Casa. 'Whithorn' is a modern form of the Anglo-Saxon version of this name, Hwit Ærne, 'white house'. In Gallovidian Gaelic, it was called Rosnat, or Futarna, the latter a version of the Anglo-Saxon name.

— Freebase

Nobile

Nobile

Nobile or Nob. is an Italian title of nobility ranking between that of baron and knight. As with some other titles of nobility, such as baron or count, nobile is also used immediately before the family name, usually in the abbreviated form: Nob. The word “nobile” is derived from the Latin “nobilis”, meaning honourable. The heraldic coronet of a nobile is composed of a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five pearls, either on stems or set directly upon the rim. The armorial shield of a nobile is surmounted by a silver helm displayed in a ¾ side-view and surmounted by the coronet already described. A noble entitled to wear a coronet of noble status also customarily displays it above the shield in the full heraldic achievement associated with the particular title in question.

— Freebase

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian

Baron Adrian, of Cambridge in the County of Cambridge, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 27 January 1955 for the electrophysiologist and Nobel Prize recipient Edgar Adrian. He was succeeded by his only son, the second Baron. He was Professor of cell physiology at the University of Cambridge. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1995.

— Freebase

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte is a death loa and the wife of Baron Samedi in Vodou. She drinks rum infused with hot peppers and is symbolized by a black rooster. Like Baron and the Ghede, she uses obscenities. She protects gravestones in cemeteries if they are properly marked with a cross. A New World loa, Maman Brigitte is syncretized with various saints, including:Saint Brigid, and Mary Magdalene

— Freebase

angiohemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

ardennes counteroffensive

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the ardennes bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

battle of the bulge

Battle of the Ardennes Bulge, Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes counteroffensive

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

— Princeton's WordNet

bismarckian

Bismarckian

of or relating to Prince Otto von Bismarck or his accomplishments

— Princeton's WordNet

dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

karl wilhelm siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

maria magdalene von losch

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

marlene dietrich

Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich, Maria Magdalene von Losch

United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)

— Princeton's WordNet

richard strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

sir charles william siemens

Siemens, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, Sir Charles William Siemens

engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823-1883)

— Princeton's WordNet

strauss

Strauss, Richard Strauss

German composer of many operas; collaborated with librettist Hugo von Hoffmannsthal to produce several operas (1864-1949)

— Princeton's WordNet

vascular hemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

von neumann machine

von Neumann machine

any digital computer incorporating the ideas of stored programs and serial counters that were proposed in 1946 by von Neumann and his colleagues

— Princeton's WordNet

von willebrand's disease

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

Baron

Baron

a husband; as, baron and feme, husband and wife

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the dignity or rank of a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baronage

Baronage

the land which gives title to a baron

— Webster Dictionary

Baroness

Baroness

a baron's wife; also, a lady who holds the baronial title in her own right; as, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts

— Webster Dictionary

Baronet

Baronet

a dignity or degree of honor next below a baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of knights except those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners

— Webster Dictionary

Baronial

Baronial

pertaining to a baron or a barony

— Webster Dictionary

Court-baron

Court-baron

an inferior court of civil jurisdiction, attached to a manor, and held by the steward; a baron's court; -- now fallen into disuse

— Webster Dictionary

Lady

Lady

a woman of social distinction or position. In England, a title prefixed to the name of any woman whose husband is not of lower rank than a baron, or whose father was a nobleman not lower than an earl. The wife of a baronet or knight has the title of Lady by courtesy, but not by right

— Webster Dictionary

Napier's rods

Napier's rods

a set of rods, made of bone or other material, each divided into nine spaces, and containing the numbers of a column of the multiplication table; -- a contrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor of logarithms, for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division

— Webster Dictionary

Peer

Peer

a nobleman; a member of one of the five degrees of the British nobility, namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of the realm

— Webster Dictionary

Thane

Thane

a dignitary under the Anglo-Saxons and Danes in England. Of these there were two orders, the king's thanes, who attended the kings in their courts and held lands immediately of them, and the ordinary thanes, who were lords of manors and who had particular jurisdiction within their limits. After the Conquest, this title was disused, and baron took its place

— Webster Dictionary

Tolt

Tolt

a writ by which a cause pending in a court baron was removed into a country court

— Webster Dictionary

Viscount

Viscount

a nobleman of the fourth rank, next in order below an earl and next above a baron; also, his degree or title of nobility. See Peer, n., 3

— Webster Dictionary

Hans Geiger

Hans Geiger

Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm Geiger was a German physicist. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger-Marsden experiment which discovered the Atomic nucleus. Geiger was born at Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He was one of five children born to the Indologist Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, who was professor at the University of Erlangen. In 1902, Geiger started studying physics and mathematics in University of Erlangen and was awarded a doctorate in 1906. In 1907 he began work with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester and in 1909, along with Ernest Marsden, conducted the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment called the "gold foil experiment". Together they created the Geiger counter. In 1911 Geiger and John Mitchell Nuttall discovered the Geiger-Nuttall law and performed experiments that led to Rutherford's atomic model. In 1928 Geiger and his student Walther Müller created an improved version of the Geiger counter, the Geiger-Müller counter. Geiger also worked with James Chadwick. In 1912 he became leader of the Physical-Technical Reichsanstalt in Berlin, 1925 professor in Kiel, 1929 in Tübingen, and from 1936 in Berlin.

— Freebase

German Empire

German Empire

The German Empire is the common name given to the state officially named Deutsches Reich, designating Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II. The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories. While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the Reich, the Prussian leadership became supplanted by German leaders and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Its three largest neighbours were rivals Imperial Russia to the east, France to the west and ally Austria-Hungary to the south. After 1850, Germany industrialized rapidly, with a foundation in coal, iron, chemicals and railways. From a population of 41 million people in 1871, it grew to 68 million in 1913. From a heavily rural nation in 1815, it was now predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological and scientific giant, receiving more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia and the United States combined.

— Freebase

Erkenntnis

Erkenntnis

Erkenntnis is a journal of philosophy that publishes papers in analytic philosophy. Its name is derived from the German word for knowledge recognition. The journal was founded by Hans Reichenbach and Rudolf Carnap in 1930, and circulated under its original title, Erkenntnis, in 1930-1938. Renamed The Journal of Unified Science and interrupted after the beginning of World War II in 1940. The journal was "refounded" by Wilhelm K. Essler, Carl G. Hempel and Wolfgang Stegmüller in 1975. The current editors are Hans Rott, Wilhelm K. Essler, Patrick Suppes and Wolgang Spohn.

— Freebase

Cloudbusting

Cloudbusting

"Cloudbusting" is a song that was written, produced and performed by the British singer Kate Bush. It was the second single released from her no.1 1985 album Hounds of Love. "Cloudbusting" peaked at no.20 in the UK Singles Chart. The song is about the very close relationship between psychologist and philosopher Wilhelm Reich and his young son, Peter, told from the point of view of the mature Peter. It describes the boy's memories of his life with Reich on their family farm, called Orgonon where the two spent time "cloudbusting", a rain-making process which involved pointing at the sky a machine designed and built by Reich, called a cloudbuster. The lyric further describes Wilhelm Reich's abrupt arrest and imprisonment, the pain of loss the young Peter felt, and his helplessness at being unable to protect his father. The song was inspired by Peter Reich's 1973 memoir, "A Book of Dreams", which Bush read and found deeply moving. In a retrospective review of the single, Allmusic journalist Amy Hanson praised the song for its "magnificence" and "hypnotic mantric effects". Hanson wrote: "Safety and danger are threaded through the song, via both a thoughtful lyric and a compulsive cello-driven melody. Even more startling, but hardly surprising, is the ease with which Bush was able to capture the moment when a child first realizes that adults are fallible."

— Freebase

Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard

The sulfur mustards, or sulphur mustards, commonly known as mustard gas, are a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs. Pure sulfur mustards are colorless, viscous liquids at room temperature. When used in impure form, such as warfare agents, they are usually yellow-brown in color and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic, or horseradish, hence the name. Mustard gas was originally assigned the name LOST, after the scientists Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf, who developed a method for the large-scale production of mustard gas for the Imperial German Army in 1916. Mustard agents are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this Convention, with sulfur and nitrogen mustard grouped in Schedule 1, as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare. Mustard agents could be deployed on the battlefield by means of artillery shells, aerial bombs, rockets, or by spraying from warplanes.

— Freebase

Unification of Germany

Unification of Germany

The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Unofficially, the de facto transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states occurred far earlier, via alliances formal and informal between noblemen— but also fitfully as self-interests of parties hampered the process over nearly a century of aristocratic experimentation from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the consequent rise of nationalism over the span of the Napoleonic Wars era. Unification exposed several glaring religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences between and among the inhabitants of the new nation, suggesting that 1871 only represents one moment in a continuum of the larger unification processes. The Holy Roman Emperor was oft-called "Emperor of all The Germanies", news accounts referred to 'The Germanies' and in the empire, its higher nobility were referred to as "Princes of Germany" or "Princes of the Germanies"—for the lands once East Francia had been ruled as pocket kingdoms, dynastic independent states ruled by its ruling classes since the times well before the rise of Charlemagne. Given the mountainous terrains of much of the territory, it is obvious that isolated peoples would develop cultural, educational, linguistic and religious based differences over such a lengthy time period. But Germany of the nineteenth century would enjoy transportation and communications improvements tying the peoples into a greater, tighter culture, as has the entire world under the influence of better communications and transportation infrastructures.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

— Freebase

Diamond net

Diamond net

"Diamond net" is a metaphor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel uses in his Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences for “the entire range of the universal determinations of thought…into which everything is brought and thereby first made intelligible.” In other words, the diamond net of which Hegel speaks is the logical categories according to which we understand our experience, making our empirical observations intelligible.

— Freebase

Immanent critique

Immanent critique

Immanent critique is the philosophical or sociological strategy that analyzes cultural forms by locating contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. Contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy, this method aims to contextualize not only the object of its investigation, but also the ideological basis of that object; both the object and the category to which it belongs are shown to be products of a historical process. Immanent critique has its roots in the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx; it is now strongly associated with critical theorists such as Theodor Adorno. Roy Bhaskar has advocated it as one of the key methodological elements of critical realism. Quoting Marx, Robert J. Antonio writes in the British Journal of Sociology, According to David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York,

— Freebase

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the “kindergarten” and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts.

— Freebase

Voluntarism

Voluntarism

Voluntarism is a school of thought that regards the will as superior to the intellect and to emotion. This description has been applied to various points of view, from different cultural eras, in the areas of metaphysics, psychology, sociology, and theology. The term voluntarism was introduced by Ferdinand Tönnies into the philosophical literature and particularly used by Wilhelm Wundt and Friedrich Paulsen. The etymology of the word is from Latin. Will Durant, in the glossary to The Story of Philosophy, defines voluntarism as "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct."

— Freebase

Amber Room

Amber Room

The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was created in the 18th century, disappeared during World War II, and was recreated in 2003. Before it was lost, the Amber Room was sometimes dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" due to its singular beauty. Construction of the Amber Room began in 1701 to 1711 in Prussia. The room was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas Schlüter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram in the service of the Prussian king worked on it until 1707, then work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig. The amber cabinet remained in Berlin City Palace until 1716 when it was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia it was expanded and after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was finished in 1755 and restored in 1830. The Amber Room was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany and brought to Königsberg. Knowledge of its whereabouts was lost in the chaos at the end of the war.

— Freebase

Pissa River

Pissa River

The Pissa is a river in the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia near Chernyakhovsk. The Pissa, Inster and Angerapp are tributaries to the Pregel river. These names, of Old Prussian origin, were used by Germans of East Prussia until 1945. According to an anecdote, the inhabitants of Gumbinnen were embarrassed by the name and asked King Friedrich Wilhelm IV for a name change. He is said to have replied "Approved. Recommend Urinoco."

— Freebase

Sinningia

Sinningia

Sinningia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae. It is named after Wilhelm Sinning, a gardener of the Botanische Gärten der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn. There are about 65 species of tuberous herbaceous perennials, all occurring in Central and South America, with the greatest concentration of species occurring in southern Brazil. The best-known species, Sinningia speciosa, was originally introduced to cultivation as Gloxinia speciosa and is still commonly known to gardeners and in the horticultural trade as "gloxinia". The true genus Gloxinia is distinguished by having scaly rhizomes rather than tubers. Sinningia species often grow on rocks or cliffs and most are pollinated by hummingbirds or bees but Sinningia brasiliensis is bat-pollinated, and Sinningia tubiflora, with large, powerfully fragrant tubular white flowers, is apparently pollinated by sphinx moths. Most of the species have large, brightly colored flowers. Because of this, numerous species and numerous hybrids and cultivars are grown as houseplants. Some species with particularly large tubers are cultivated by cactus and succulent enthusiasts as caudiciforms. One such example is Sinningia leucotricha, often listed under the older name Rechsteineria leucotricha and dubbed "Brazilian edelweiss" for its covering of silvery, silky hairs. Other species with large tubers are Sinningia iarae, Sinningia lineata, and Sinningia macropoda.

— Freebase

Lorenz Oken

Lorenz Oken

Lorenz Oken was a German naturalist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach, Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent, and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany. In it he extended to physical science the philosophical principles which Immanuel Kant had applied to epistemology and morality. Oken had been preceded in this by Gottlieb Fichte, who, acknowledging that Kant had discovered the materials for a universal science, declared that all that was needed was a systematic coordination of these materials. Fichte undertook this task in his "Doctrine of Science", whose aim was to construct all knowledge by a priori means. This attempt, which was merely sketched out by Fichte, was further elaborated by the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Oken built on Schelling's work, producing a synthesis of what he held Schelling to have achieved.

— Freebase

Bessel

Bessel

Bessel is a small lunar crater that is located in the southern half of the Mare Serenitatis. Despite its small size, this is the largest crater to lie entirely within the mare. It lies to the north-northeast of the crater Menelaus. This crater is circular and bowl-shaped with a rim that has a higher albedo than the floor or the surrounding mare. The outer rim is not significantly worn, and there are no features of note on the interior, apart from some slumping of material from the inner walls to the floor. Bessel is not of sufficient size to have developed the terrace structures of larger craters. It was named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A large ray, most likely from Tycho, crosses the mare from north to south, passing Bessel's western side.

— Freebase

Hausmannite

Hausmannite

Hausmannite is a complex oxide of manganese containing both di- and tri-valent manganese. The formula can be represented as Mn2+Mn3+2O4. It belongs to the spinel group and forms tetragonal crystals. Hausmannite is a brown to black metallic mineral with Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 4.8. The type locality is Oehrenstock, Ilmenau, Thuringian Forest, Thuringia, Germany. Locations include Batesville, Arkansas, USA; Ilfeld, Germany; Langban, Sweden; and the Ural Mountains, Russia. The best samples have been found in South Africa and Namibia where it is associated with other manganese oxides, pyrolusite and psilomelane and the iron-manganese mineral bixbyite. Wilhelm Haidinger named it in honour of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, professor of mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany.

— Freebase

Kegelite

Kegelite

Kegelite is a complex silicate mineral with formula Pb8Al4Si8O20(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8. It was first described in 1975 for an occurrence in the Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region, Namibia and named for Friedrich Wilhelm Kegel, Director of mining operations at Tsumeb. It occurs in a deeply oxidized polymetallic ore deposits in Tsumeb. Associated minerals include quartz, galena, mimetite, hematite, leadhillite, anglesite, fleischerite, melanotekite and alamosite. It has also been reported from the Zeehan district in Tasmania and from Tune, Sarpsberg, Østfold, Norway.

— Freebase

Orchestrion

Orchestrion

An orchestrion is a generic name for a machine that plays music and is designed to sound like an orchestra or band. Orchestrions may be operated by means of a large pinned cylinder or by a music roll and less commonly book music. The sound is usually produced by pipes, though they will be voiced differently to those found in a pipe organ, as well as percussion instruments. Many orchestrions contain a piano as well. The first known automatic playing orchestrion was the panharmonicon, invented in 1805 by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel. Friedrich Wilhelm Kaufmann copied this automatic playing machine in 1808 and his family produced orchestrions from that time on. One of Mälzel's panharmonicons was sent to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1811 and was exhibited there and then in New York and other cities. Mälzel also was on tour with this instrument in the United States from 7 February 1826 until he died in 1838. In 1817 Flight & Robson in London built a similar automatic instrument called Apollonicon and in 1823 William M. Goodrich copied Mälzel's panharmonicon in Boston, USA. The name "orchestrion" has also been applied to three specific musical instruments: ⁕A chamber organ, designed by Abt Vogler in 1785, which in a space of 9 cubic feet contained no less than 900 pipes, 3 manuals of 63 keys each and 39 pedals.

— Freebase

Oxenstierna

Oxenstierna

Oxenstierna, an ancient Swedish noble family, the origin of which can be traced up to the middle of the 14th century, which had vast estates in Södermanland and Uppland, and began to adopt its armorial designation of Oxenstierna as a personal name towards the end of the 16th century. Its most notable members include the following: ⁕Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, regent of Sweden ⁕Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, Powerful chancellor of the Realm, during Sweden's Age of Greatness ⁕Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Bengt Oxenstierna, Swedish Privy Councillor, Governor-General of Ingria and Livonia; ⁕Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna, ⁕Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna of Korsholm and Vasa, President of the Royal Swedish Chancellery, Military Governor of Warsaw; ⁕Christiana Oxenstierna ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, member of the Swedish Academy; ⁕Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, winner of the Olympic gold medal in modern pentathlon. The Oxenstierna brought the blood of Agnes Hákonardottir and Charles VIII of Sweden back into the throne of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the persons of Christian IX of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, the current monarch. All three monarchs today descends from the Oxenstierna through their common ancestor, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose paternal grandmother was Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlobitten, great-great-granddaughter of Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna, 1st Count of Korsholma and Vaasa, himself father of Bengt Gabrielsson the aforementioned and first cousin of Axel and Bengt Gustafssöner, as well as great-great-great-great-grandson of regent Bengt Jönsson the aforementioned. Oxenstierna was also the distant descendant of the aforementioned Charles VIII of Sweden and Agnes Hákonardottir.

— Freebase

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence. Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers and his detractors. His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism", "Spirit", negativity, sublation, the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.

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Epsilon Aurigae

Epsilon Aurigae

Epsilon Aurigae is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation of Auriga. It is traditionally known as Almaaz, Haldus, or Al Anz. Epsilon Aurigae is an unusual eclipsing binary system comprising an F0 supergiant and a companion which is generally accepted to be a huge dark disk orbiting an unknown object, possibly a binary system of two small B-type stars. About every 27 years, Epsilon Aurigae's brightness drops from an apparent visual magnitude of +2.92 to +3.83. This dimming lasts 640–730 days. In addition to this eclipse, the system also has a low amplitude pulsation with a non-consistent period of around 66 days. The distance to the system is still a subject of debate, but modern estimates place it approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Epsilon Aurigae was first suspected to be a variable star when German astronomer Johann Fritsch observed it in 1821. Later observations by Eduard Heis and Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander reinforced Fritsch's initial suspicions and attracted attention to the star. Hans Ludendorff, however, was the first to study it in great detail. His work revealed that the system was an eclipsing binary variable, a star that dims when its partner obscures its light.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Ostwald

Wilhelm Ostwald

Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, and Svante Arrhenius are usually credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry.

— Freebase

Wilhelm Gesenius

Wilhelm Gesenius

Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius was a German orientalist and Biblical critic.

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Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister was a German biologist and botanist. He "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel." He was largely self-taught.

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Deutsches Theater

Deutsches Theater

The Deutsches Theater in Berlin is a well-known German theatre. It was built in 1850 as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Frederick William IV of Prussia. Located on Schumann Street, the Deutsches Theater consists of two adjoining stages that share a common, classical facade. The main stage was built in 1850, originally for operettas. Adolf L'Arronge founded the Deutsches Theater in 1883 with the ambition of providing Berliners with a high-quality ensemble-based repertory company on the model of the German court theatre, the Meiningen Ensemble, which had been developed by Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his colleagues to become "the most widely admired and imitated company in Europe", thanks to its historically accurate sets and costumes, vividly-realized crowd scenes, and meticulous directorial control. Otto Brahm, the leading exponent of theatrical Naturalism in Germany, took over the direction of the theatre in 1894, and applied that approach to a combination of classical productions and stagings of the work of the new realistic playwrights. One of Brahm's ensemble, the legendary theatre director Max Reinhardt, took over the directorship in 1904. Under his leadership it acquired a reputation as one of the most significant theatres in the world. In 1905 he founded a theatre-school and built a chamber theatre. Reinhardt remained the artistic director of the theatre until he fled Nazi Germany in 1933.

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Sittlichkeit

Sittlichkeit

Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" furthered by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. It is the third sphere of 'right' that he establishes, and is marked by family life, civil society, and the state. It attempts to bridge individual subjective feelings and the concept of general rights. To properly comprehend the third sphere, that is Sittlichkeit, one must first review its counterparts which are the two former spheres. The first of the two, the sphere of Right, constitutes what Hegel would call negative freedom, which is to say, freedom ascertained through the denial of outside impetus. The eventual problem, or limitation, of this kind of freedom is made evident when one considers volition without duty - without any real impetus, pulse, drive. The second sphere constitutes Kantian morality, and is therefore called Morality. Given that the purpose of Hegel's philosophy is to provide a critique of his modern day Spirit, he criticizes the deployment of Kantian morality in society for being insufficient. He explains this deficiency through pathologies of loneliness, depression and agony - which he considers to be the empirical grounding behind his writing. To properly understand the movement from these two first spheres to the last, one must also understand to solipsist approach the aforementioned two spheres present, treating the phenomena as if it were atomic. This particularity is what pushes Hegel to assess that he is synthesizing these two spheres and surpassing them in his third sphere of Ethical life.

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Eötvös experiment

Eötvös experiment

The Eötvös experiment was a famous physics experiment that measured the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass, demonstrating that the two were one and the same, something that had long been suspected but never demonstrated with the same accuracy. The earliest experiments were done by Isaac Newton and improved upon by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A much more accurate experiment using a torsion balance was carried out by Loránd Eötvös starting around 1885, with further improvements in a lengthy run between 1906 and 1909. Eötvös's team followed this with a series of similar but more accurate experiments, as well as experiments with different types of materials and in different locations around the Earth, all of which demonstrated the same equivalence in mass. In turn, these experiments led to the modern understanding of the equivalence principle encoded in general relativity, which states that the gravitational and inertial masses are the same. It is sufficient for the inertial mass to be proportional to the gravitational mass. Any multiplicative constant will be absorbed in the definition of the unit of force.

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Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925. Ebert was elected leader of the SPD on the death of August Bebel, and the SPD later became deeply divided because Ebert led it to support war loans for World War I. A moderate social democrat, Ebert was in favour of the Burgfrieden, in which domestic political squabbles were put aside and all forces in society were expected to support the war effort. He tried to isolate those in the party opposed to the war but could not prevent a split. Ebert was a pivotal figure in the German revolution and civil war of 1918/19. Although a supporter of the monarchy, he was chancellor of Germany when it became a republic. His policies at this time were primarily aimed at restoring peace and order and at containing the more extreme elements of the revolutionary left. For this he allied himself with conservative and nationalistic political forces, in particular with the leadership of the military under General Wilhelm Groener and the right wing Freikorps. With their help, Ebert's government crushed a number of leftist uprisings that were pursuing goals that were also nominally those of the SPD. This has made him a controversial historical figure.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's key ideas include the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, the Will to Power, the "death of God", the Übermensch and eternal recurrence. One of the key tenets of his philosophy is the concept of "life-affirmation," which embraces the realities of the world we live now in over the idea of a world beyond. It further champions the creative powers of the individual to strive beyond social, cultural, and moral contexts. His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary, and his influence remains substantial, particularly in the continental philosophical schools of existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism. His ideas of individual overcoming and transcendence beyond structure and context have had a profound impact on late-twentieth and early-twenty-first century thinkers, who have used these concepts as points of departure in the development of their philosophies, as seen in the social and political thought of Roberto Mangabeira Unger.

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Helminthology

Helminthology

Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ἕλμινς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich Müller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.

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Max Born

Max Born

Max Born was a German-British physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle. In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.

— Freebase

Sonnen

Sonnen

Sonnen is a small municipality in the district of Passau in Bavaria in Germany. It is located in the Danube forest, lower Bavarian forest and is located mostly in the district Passau at a height of 700 to 900 meters. Sonnen lies 28 km from Passau, 9 km from Hauzenberg and from the forest itself 13 km. Sonnen borders with upper Austria which lies only 8 km away. Sonnen has been able to possess a rather secured boundary since the Middle Ages. Max Heuwieser writes in "The Tradition of Passau", that Sonnen received its official name somewhere between the years 1130AD and 1150AD by Baron Von Falkenstein. Sonnen was settled in Bavaria, Passau district, at the end of a trade-route from Vienna, Austria. Gustav Wasmayrs in his "History of the Market Ulrichsberg" writes, "in the document over the award of market privileges, King the Heinrich IV plans on 11/07/1349 to secure a free road issued after Passau. This road, coming from upper plan, will lead from upper Austria to Bavaria's sunny mountain town of Sonnen." The village now boasts unique natural energy systems, being nearly fully solar powered.

— Freebase

Sex

Sex

Sex is a coffee table book written by Madonna, with photographs taken by Steven Meisel Studio and film frames shot by Fabien Baron. The book was edited by Glenn O'Brien and was released on October 21, 1992, by Warner Books, Maverick and Callaway Books. Approached with an idea for a book on erotic photographs, Madonna expanded on the idea and conceived the book and its content. Shot in early 1992 in New York City and Miami, the locations ranged from hotels and burlesque theaters, to the streets of Miami. The photographs were even stolen before publishing, but were quickly recovered. The book had a range of influences – from punk rock to earlier fashion iconoclasts like Guy Bourdin and his surrealism, and Helmut Newton, in its stylized, sado-masochistic look. Sex has photographs that feature adult content and softcore pornographic as well as simulations of sexual acts, including sadomasochism and analingus. Madonna wrote the book as a character named "Mistress Dita", inspired by 1930s film actress Dita Parlo. It also includes cameos by actress Isabella Rossellini, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Vanilla Ice, model Naomi Campbell, gay porn star Joey Stefano, actor Udo Kier, socialite Tatiana von Fürstenberg, and nightclub owner Ingrid Casares.

— Freebase

Steuben

Steuben

Steuben is a town in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 1,110 at the 2010 census. The town is named after Baron von Steuben. The Town of Steuben in northeast of Utica, New York.

— Freebase

Praseodymium

Praseodymium

Praseodymium is a chemical element that has the symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide group. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and when artificially prepared, it slowly develops a green oxide coating. The element was named for the color of its primary oxide. In 1841, Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander extracted a rare earth oxide residue he called "didymium" from a residue he called "lantana," in turn separated from cerium salts. In 1885, the Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach separated didymium into two salts of different colors, which he named praseodymium and neodymium. The name praseodymium comes from the Greek prasinos, meaning green, and didymos, twin. Like most rare earth elements, praseodymium most readily forms trivalent Pr ions. These are yellow-green in water solution, and various shades of yellow-green when incorporated into glasses. Many of praseodymium's industrial uses involve its use to filter yellow light from light sources.

— Freebase

Hakea

Hakea

Hakea is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. They are found throughout the country, with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australia. They can reach 1–6 m in height, and have spirally arranged leaves 2–20 cm long, simple or compound, sometimes with the leaflets thin cylindrical and rush-like. The flowers are produced in dense flowerheads of variable shape, globose to cylindrical, 3–10 cm long, with numerous small red, yellow, pink, purple, pale blue or white flowers. Hakeas are named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake, the 18th century German patron of botany, following Heinrich Schrader's description of Hakea teretifolia in 1797. It is now beginning to become accepted that Grevillea is paraphyletic with respect to Hakea. It is likely, therefore, that Hakea may soon be transferred into Grevillea.

— Freebase

Ferrocerium

Ferrocerium

Ferrocerium is a man-made metallic material that gives off a large number of hot sparks at temperatures at 3,000 °F when scraped against a rough surface, such as ridged steel. Because of this property it is used in many applications, such as clockwork toys, strikers for welding torches, so-called "flint-and-steel" or "flint spark lighter" fire-starters in emergency survival kits, and cigarette lighters, as the initial ignition source for the primary fuel. It is also commonly called ferro rod and most commonly of all, mistakenly, flint. As tinder-igniting campfire starter rods it is sold under such trade names as Blastmatch, Fire Steel, and Metal-Match for survivalists and bushcraft hobbyists. Some manufacturers and resellers mistakenly call them "magnesium" rods. It is also known in Europe as Auermetall after its inventor Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach.

— Freebase

Capnomor

Capnomor

Capnomor is a colorless and limpid oil with a peculiar odor, extracted by distillation from beechwood tar. It was discovered in the 1830s by the German chemist Baron Karl von Reichenbach.

— Freebase

Draisine

Draisine

A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle, driven by service personnel, equipped to transport crew and material necessary for the maintenance of railway infrastructure. The eponymous term is derived from German Baron Karl Christian Ludwig Drais von Sauerbronn, who invented his Laufmaschine in 1817, that was called Draisine or Draisienne by the press. It is the first reliable claim for a practically used bicycle, basically the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine commonly called a velocipede, nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse. Later, the name draisine came to be applied only to versions used on rails and was extended to similar vehicles, even when not human-powered. Because of their low weight and small size, they can be put on and taken off the rails at any place, allowing trains to pass. In the United States, motor-powered draisines are known as speeders while human-powered ones are referred as handcars. Vehicles that can be driven on both the highway and the rail line are called hy-rails, or more properly, road-rail vehicles.

— Freebase

Monsun

Monsun

Monsun was a bay Thoroughbred racehorse and stallion bred in Germany by Gestut Isarland and owned by Baron Georg von Ullmann.

— Freebase

Sickingen, Franz von

Sickingen, Franz von

a German free-lance, a man of a knightly spirit and great prowess; had often a large following, Götz von Berlichingen of the number, and joined the cause of the Reformation; lost his life by a musket-shot when besieged in the castle of Landstuhl; he was a warm friend of Ulrich von Hutten (1481-1523).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Heinrich von Kleist

Heinrich von Kleist

Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. The Kleist Prize, a prestigious prize for German literature, is named after him.

— Freebase

Petzite

Petzite

The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. It forms isometric crystals, and is usually associated with rare tellurium and gold minerals, often with silver, mercury, and copper. The name comes from chemist W. Petz, who first analyzed the mineral from the type locality in Săcărâmb, Transylvania, Romania in 1845. It was described by Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger in 1845 and dedicated to W. Petz who had carried out the first analyses. It occurs with other tellurides in vein gold deposits. It is commonly associated with native gold, hessite, sylvanite, krennerite, calaverite, altaite, montbrayite, melonite, frohbergite, tetradymite, rickardite, vulcanite and pyrite. Petzite forms together with uytenbogaardtite and fischesserite the uytenbogaardtite group.

— Freebase

Impenetrability

Impenetrability

In metaphysics, impenetrability is the name given to that quality of matter whereby two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time. The philosopher John Toland argued that impenetrability and extension were sufficient to define matter, a contention strongly disputed by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnez. Locke considered impenetrability to be "more a consequence of solidity, than solidity itself."[2]

— Freebase

Nosema

Nosema

Nosema is a genus of microsporidian parasites. The genus, circumscribed by Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1857, contains 81 species.

— Freebase

Papyrology

Papyrology

Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Papyrology includes both the translation and interpretation of ancient documents in a variety of languages and the care and preservation of rare papyrus originals. Papyrology as a systematic discipline dates from the 1890s, when large caches of well-preserved papyri were discovered by archaeologists in several locations in Egypt, such as Crocodilopolis and Oxyrhynchus. Leading centres of papyrology include Oxford University, Heidelberg University, Columbia University, the University of Michigan, the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, and the University of California, Berkeley. Founders of papyrology were the Viennese orientalist Joseph von Karabacek, Wilhelm Schubart, the Austrian antiquarian Theodor Graf who acquired more than 100,000 Greek, Arabic, Coptic and Persian papyri in Egypt, which were bought by the Austrian Archduke Rainer, G. F. Tsereteli who published papyri of Russian and Georgian collections, Frederic George Kenyon, Ulrich Wilcken, Bernard Pyne Grenfell, Arthur Surridge Hunt and other distinguished scientists.

— Freebase

Meristem

Meristem

A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant, and keeps the plant growing. The Shoot Apical Meristem gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers. The cells of the apical meristems - SAM and RAM - divide rapidly and are considered to be indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end fate. In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, which have an analogous behavior and function. The term meristem was first used in 1858 by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in his book Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik. It is derived from the Greek word merizein, meaning to divide, in recognition of its inherent function. In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. Meristematic cells are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of continued cellular division. Furthermore, the cells are small and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The vacuoles are extremely small. The cytoplasm does not contain differentiated plastids, although they are present in rudimentary form. Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular cavities. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall.

— Freebase

Braunite

Braunite

Braunite is a silicate mineral containing both di- and tri-valent manganese with the chemical formula: Mn2+Mn3+6[O8|SiO4]. Common impurities include iron, calcium, boron, barium, titanium, aluminium, and magnesium. Braunite forms grey/black tetragonal crystals and has a Mohs hardness of 6 - 6.5. It was named after the Wilhelm von Braun of Gotha, Thuringia, Germany. A calcium iron bearing variant, named braunite II, was discovered and described in 1967 from Kalahari, Cape Province, South Africa.

— Freebase

Viljandi

Viljandi

Viljandi is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 19,150. It is the capital of Viljandi County. The town was first mentioned in 1283, upon being granted its town charter by Wilhelm von Endorpe. The town became a member of the Hanseatic League at the beginning of the 14th century, and is one of five Estonian towns and cities in the league. The popular Estonian newspaper Sakala was founded in Viljandi in 1878.

— Freebase

Seven-league boots

Seven-league boots

Seven-league boots is an element in European folklore. The boot allows the person wearing them to take strides of seven leagues per step, resulting in great speed. The boots are often presented by a magical character to the protagonist to aid in the completion of a significant task. Mention of the legendary boots are found in: ⁕Germany – Sweetheart Roland, Adelbert von Chamisso's Peter Schlemiel, Goethe's Faust, Wilhelm Hauff's "Der Kleine Muck" ⁕France – Charles Perrault's - Hop o' My Thumb ⁕Norway – Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe - Soria Moria Castle ⁕England – Jack the Giant Killer, John Masefield's The Midnight Folk, C.S. Lewis's The Pilgrim's Regress, The Light Fantastic, The Bartimaeus Trilogy, Jenny Nimmo's Midnight for Charlie Bone, Diana Wynne Jones' Howl's Moving Castle ⁕United States – Zane Grey's The Last of the Plainsmen, Ruth Chew's "What the Witch Left"

— Freebase

Haidingerite

Haidingerite

Haidingerite is a calcium arsenate mineral with formula Ca·H2O. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system as short prismatic to equant crystals. It typically occurs as scaly, botryoidal or fibrous coatings. It is soft, Mohs hardness of 2 to 2.5, and has a specific gravity of 2.95. It has refractive indices of nα = 1.590, nβ = 1.602 and nγ = 1.638. It was originally discovered in 1827 in Jáchymov, Czech Republic. It was named to honor Austrian mineralogist Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger. It occurs as a dehydration product of pharmacolite in the Getchell Mine, Nevada.

— Freebase

August von Wassermann

August von Wassermann

August Paul von Wassermann was a German bacteriologist and hygienist. Born in Bamberg, with Jewish origins, he studied at several universities throughout Germany, receiving his medical doctorate in 1888 from the University of Strassburg. In 1890 began work under Robert Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In 1906 he became director of the division for experimental therapy and serum research at the institute, followed by a directorship of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft for the Advancement of Science in Berlin-Dahlem. Wassermann developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906, just one year after the causative organism, Spirochaeta pallida, had been identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann. The so-called "Wassermann test" allowed for early detection of the disease, and thus prevention of transmission. He attributed the development of the test to earlier findings of Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou and to a hypothesis introduced by Paul Ehrlich in his interpretation of antibody formation.

— Freebase

Felix Mottl

Felix Mottl

Felix Josef von Mottl was an Austrian conductor and composer. He was regarded as one of the most brilliant conductors of his day. He composed three operas, of which Agnes Bernauer was the most successful, as well as a string quartet and numerous songs and other music. His orchestration of Richard Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder is still the most commonly performed version. He was also a teacher, counting among his pupils Ernest van Dyck and Wilhelm Petersen.

— Freebase

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that October, Johann Friedrich Böttger, continued his work and brought porcelain to the market. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. It dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

— Freebase

Natural order

Natural order

In philosophy, the natural order is the moral source from which natural law seeks to derive its authority. It encompasses the natural relations of beings to one another, in the absence of law, which natural law attempts to reinforce. In contrast, divine law seeks authority from God, and positive law seeks authority from government. The term is used by Hans-Hermann Hoppe in his book Democracy: The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy, and Natural Order to designate Anarcho-capitalism. The term is used by Friedrich von Hayek in his writings to designate divine law. It starts with god, then the monarch. Keywords: Cosmos

— Freebase

Hypotrich

Hypotrich

The hypotrichs are a group of ciliate protozoa, included among the spirotrichs. Most are oval in shape, with a rigid pellicle, and have cirri distributed in isolated tufts on the ventral surface of the cell. Some also have dorsal cilia, which function as sensory bristles. Euplotes and Aspidisca are common genera. Like other ciliates, hypotrichs reproduce by cell division and conjugation. The hypotrichs were first defined by Friedrich von Stein in 1859. Originally the stichotrichs, which also have cirri, were included here, but they were separated out by Small & Lynn, 1981, who placed the restricted hypotrichs among the Nassophorea because of various peculiarities in their infraciliature. More recent schemes reverse this move, and some molecular studies suggest they may be paraphyletic to the stichotrichs as currently defined.

— Freebase

Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana

Cortaderia selloana, commonly known as pampas grass, is a flowering plant native to southern South America, including the pampas after which it is named. It is a tall grass, growing in dense tussocks that can reach a height of 3 m. The leaves are evergreen, long and slender, 1–2 m long and 1 cm broad, with very sharp edges. The leaves are usually bluish-green, but can be silvery grey. The flowers are produced in a dense white panicle 20–40 cm long on a 2–3 m tall stem. It was named by Alexander von Humboldt in 1818, after the German botanist and naturalist Friedrich Sellow, who studied the flora of South America, especially that of Brazil.

— Freebase

Child prodigy

Child prodigy

A child prodigy is someone who, at an early age, develops one or more skills at a level far beyond the norm for their age. A prodigy has to be a child, or at least younger than 18 years, who is performing at the level of a highly trained adult in a very demanding field of endeavour. The giftedness of prodigies is determined by the degree of their talent relative to their ages. Examples of particularly extreme prodigies could include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Teresa Milanollo in music, Magnus Carlsen, Sergey Karjakin, Paul Morphy and José Capablanca in chess, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Srinivasa Ramanujan, John von Neumann, and Terence Tao in mathematics, Pablo Picasso and Wang Ximeng in art, Paul Thomas Anderson in film direction, and Saul Kripke in philosophy. There is controversy as to at what age and standard to use in the definition of a prodigy. The term Wunderkind is sometimes used as a synonym for prodigy, particularly in media accounts, although this term is discouraged in scientific literature. Wunderkind also is used to recognize those who achieve success and acclaim early in their adult careers.

— Freebase

Skeletal formula

Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, sometimes called line-angle formula, of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its bonding and some details of its molecular geometry. The technique was developed by the organic chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. Skeletal formulae have become ubiquitous in organic chemistry, partly because they are relatively quick and simple to draw. Carbon atoms are usually depicted as line ends or vertices with the assumption that all carbons have a valence of 4 and carbon-hydrogen bonds, usually not shown explicitly, are assumed to complete each C valence. A skeletal formula shows the skeletal structure or skeleton of a molecule, which is composed of the skeletal atoms that make up the molecule.

— Freebase

Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner

Alfred Hettner was a German geographer. He is known for his concept of chorology, the study of places and regions, a concept that also influenced Carl O. Sauer. His field work concentrated on Colombia, Chile and Russia, among others. Alfred Hettner, who obtained his PhD from the University of Strasbourg, was also a pupil of Ferdinand von Richthofen and Friedrich Ratzel in Leipzig—where he obtained his habilitation. His book 'Europe' was published in 1907. According to him, geography is a chorological science or it is a study of regions. Hettner rejected the view that geography could be either general or regional. Geography like other fields of learning, must deal in both the unique things and with universal, but the study of regions is the main field of geography. Hettner supervised the PhD of Heinrich Schmitthenner who in turn graduated Herbert Wilhelmy

— Freebase

Xenien

Xenien

Xenien is a Germanization of the Greek Xenia "host gifts", a title originally applied by the Roman poet Martial to a collection of poems which were to accompany his presents. Following this precedent, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe named a collection of distichs, which he wrote together with Friedrich Schiller, Die Xenien, in which the two friends avenged themselves on opposing critics. They were first published in the Musenalmanach. The Xenien were prompted by the indifference and animosity of contemporary criticism, and its disregard for what the two poets regarded as the higher interests of German poetry. The Xenien succeeded as a retaliation on the critics, but the masterpieces which followed them proved in the long run much more effective weapons against the prevailing mediocrity.

— Freebase

Triassic

Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Ma. It is the first period of the Mesozoic Era, and lies between the Permian and Jurassic periods. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europe—red beds, capped by chalk, followed by black shales—called the "Trias." The Triassic began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which left the Earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of the period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic. The first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of Therapsids also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, who like the dinosaurs were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs. The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to gradually rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. The global climate during the Triassic was mostly hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior. However, the climate shifted and became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart. The end of the period was marked by yet another major mass extinction, wiping out many groups and allowing dinosaurs to assume dominance in the Jurassic.

— Freebase

Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to a hitherto-unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures. This interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune that was not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin, Liszt and Mendelssohn. The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, and was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were later orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was later set for piano and orchestra by Liszt.

— Freebase

Saltopus

Saltopus

Saltopus is a genus of very small bipedal dinosauriform, roughly 80 to 100 centimeters long, from the late Triassic of Scotland. A fossil of Saltopus was discovered by William Taylor in the Lossiemouth West & East Quarries. It was named and described by Friedrich von Huene in 1910 as the type species Saltopus elginensis. The generic name is derived from Latin saltare, "to jump" and Greek πούς, pous, "foot". The specific name refers to its provenance near Elgin. The holotype NHMUK R.3915, was excavated from the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation dating from the Carnian-Norian stage. It consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull but including parts of the vertebral column, the forelimbs, the pelvis and the hindlimbs. These have been mainly preserved as impressions or natural casts in the sandstone; very little bone material is present. To date, Saltopus is known only from this very poor material. Saltopus was a carnivore, about the size of a domestic cat, with hollow bones like those of a bird. It may have weighed in at around two pounds. Most of the length was accounted for by the tail. Based on related forms, it probably had a long head with dozens of sharp teeth. It had five-fingered hands, with the fourth and fifth finger reduced in size. Contrary to the original description, in 2011 it was established that the sacrum consisted of two vertebrae, the ancestral condition, not four.

— Freebase

Benzaldehyde

Benzaldehyde

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde and one of the most industrially useful. This colorless liquid has a characteristic pleasant almond-like odor. In fact, benzaldehyde is the primary component of bitter almond oil and can be extracted from a number of other natural sources. Benzaldehyde was first extracted from bitter almonds in 1803 by the French pharmacist Martrès. In 1832 German chemists Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig first synthesized benzaldehyde.

— Freebase

Catallactics

Catallactics

Catallactics is the praxeological theory of the way the free market system reaches exchange ratios and prices. It aims to analyse all actions based on monetary calculation and trace the formation of prices back to the point where an agent makes his or her choices. It explains prices as they are and not as they should be. The laws of catallactics are not value judgments, but aim to be exact, objective and of universal validity. It was first used extensively by the Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Friedrich Hayek used the term catallaxy to describe "the order brought about by the mutual adjustment of many individual economies in a market." He was dissatisfied with the usage of the word "economy" because its Greek root, which translates as "household management", implies that economic agents in a market economy possess shared goals. Hayek derived the word "Catallaxy" from the Greek verb katallasso which meant not only "to exchange" but also "to admit in the community" and "to change from enemy into friend." According to Mises and Hayek it was Richard Whately who coined the term "catallactics". Whately's Introductory Lectures on Political Economy reads:

— Freebase

Henry I

Henry I

Henry was archbishop of Mainz from 1142 to 1153. In his early years as archbishop he was assisted by Anselm of Havelberg. He supported Friedrich von Staufen as successor to Konrad III of Germany. At the time of the Second Crusade, he tried to prevent a repetition of the 1096 violence against the Jews of Mainz. He called in Bernard of Clairvaux, to counter inflammatory preaching by a monk, Radulphe. He was a supporter and correspondent of Hildegard of Bingen. He consecrated the church of her convent at Rupertsberg in 1152. He has been portrayed showing her works to Pope Eugene III and Bernard of Clairvaux. He was archchancellor of Germany, ex officio, but also of Burgundy at the end of his life.

— Freebase

Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics is a growing field of semiotics and biology that studies the production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm. Biosemiotics attempts to integrate the findings of biology and semiotics and proposes a paradigmatic shift in the scientific view of life, demonstrating that semiosis is one of its imminent and intrinsic features. The term "biosemiotic" was first used by Friedrich S. Rothschild in 1962, but Thomas Sebeok and Thure von Uexküll have done much to popularize the term and field. The field, which challenges normative views of biology, is generally divided between theoretical and applied biosemiotics.

— Freebase

Eschscholzia

Eschscholzia

Eschscholzia is a genus of 12 annual or perennial plants in the Papaveraceae family. The genus was named after the Baltic German botanist Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz.

— Freebase

Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne is a genus of about 50-60 species of aquatic monocot plants from the family Araceae. The genus is naturally distributed in tropical regions of Asia and New Guinea. The typical habitats of Cryptocoryne are mostly streams and rivers with not too rapidly flowing water, in the lowland forest. They also live in seasonally inundated forest pools or on river banks submerged only at high water. Although the proper scientific name of the genus is Cryptocoryne, they are commonly referred to as crypts. The English name "water trumpet" refers to their inflorescence, a spadix enclosed by a spathe, which resembles a trumpet. The first Cryptocoryne species was described in 1779 as Arum spirale by Retzius. The genus was described by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer in 1828. However, the scientific classification of Cryptocoryne species is very complicated and there are different opinions about it. Lagenandra is another genus closely related to the genus Cryptocoryne. The two can be easily told apart since the leaves of Cryptocoryne species exhibit convolute vernation whereas Lagenandra species exhibit involute vernation. The name Cryptocoryne is derived from the Greek crypto, hidden, and koryne, meaning club. The common name refers to the shape of its inflorescence, which is typical of the arum family.

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Astronium fraxinifolium

Astronium fraxinifolium

Astronium fraxinifolium is a timber tree, which is native to Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, and Cerrado vegetation in Brazil. This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. It is also used to make hardwood such as Tigerwood.

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Allamanda cathartica

Allamanda cathartica

Allamanda cathartica is an ornamental plant of Allamanda genus in the Apocynaceae family, which is native from Brazil. This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. It is mainly used to treat malaria. Its large flowers are very fragrant. This South American plant is thought to blossom best in full sunshine, and well drained soil. Growing The golden trumpet is a vine that requires a trellis or a fence to support it. It does not twine, nor does it have tendrils or aerial roots. This vine could also be pruned so that it grows as a shrub. If not pruned, it could rapidly grow to a height of 20 feet.

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Novalis

Novalis

Novalis was the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, a poet, an author and philosopher of early German Romanticism.

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Plateosaurus

Plateosaurus

Plateosaurus is a genus of plateosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period, around 214 to 204 million years ago, in what is now Central and Northern Europe. Plateosaurus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur, a so-called "prosauropod". As of 2011, two species are recognized: the type species P. engelhardti from the late Norian and Rhaetian, and the slightly earlier P. gracilis from the lower Norian. However, others have been assigned in the past, and there is no broad consensus on the species taxonomy of plateosaurid dinosaurs. Similarly, there are a plethora of synonyms at the genus level. Discovered in 1834 by Johann Friedrich Engelhardt and described three years later by Hermann von Meyer, Plateosaurus was the fifth named dinosaur genus that is still considered valid. Although it had been described before Richard Owen formally named Dinosauria in 1842, it was not one of the three genera used by Owen to define the group, because at the time, it was poorly known and difficult to identify as a dinosaur. It is now among the dinosaurs best known to science: over 100 skeletons have been found, some of them nearly complete. The abundance of its fossils in Swabia, Germany, has led to the nickname Schwäbischer Lindwurm.

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Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig was a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. His father, who was syndic of Eisfeld, died when he was twelve years old, and he was brought up amidst uncongenial conditions. He had devoted his leisure time to poetry and music, which unfitted him for the mercantile career planned for him. The attention of the Duke of Meiningen was directed to one of his musical compositions, an opera, Die Köhlerin, and Ludwig was enabled in 1839 to continue his musical studies under Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig. But ill health and constitutional shyness caused him to give up a musical career and he turned exclusively to literary studies, and wrote several stories and dramas. Of the latter, Der Erbförster attracted immediate attention as a masterly psychological study. It was followed by Die Makkabäer, in which the realistic method of Der Erbförster was transferred to an historical milieu, which allowed more brilliant coloring and a freer play of the imagination. With these tragedies, to which may be added Die Rechte des Herzens and Das Fräulein von Scuderi, the comedy Hans Frey, and an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Agnes Bernauer, Ludwig ranks immediately after Christian Friedrich Hebbel as Germany's most notable dramatic poet at the middle of the 19th century.

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Fulminic acid

Fulminic acid

Fulminic acid is a chemical compound with a molecular formula HCNO. Its silver salt was discovered in 1800 by Edward Charles Howard and later investigated in 1824 by Justus von Liebig. It is an organic acid and an isomer of isocyanic acid, the silver salt of which was discovered one year later by Friedrich Woehler. The free acid was first isolated in 1966. Fulminic acid and its salts, for instance mercury fulminate, are very dangerous, and are often used as detonators for other explosive materials, and are examples of primary explosives. The vapors also are toxic.

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