Definitions containing bĂ htlingk, otto

We've found 154 definitions:

lise meitner

Meitner, Lise Meitner

Swedish physicist (born in Austria) who worked in the field of radiochemistry with Otto Hahn and formulated the concept of nuclear fission with Otto Frisch (1878-1968)

— Princeton's WordNet

meitner

Meitner, Lise Meitner

Swedish physicist (born in Austria) who worked in the field of radiochemistry with Otto Hahn and formulated the concept of nuclear fission with Otto Frisch (1878-1968)

— Princeton's WordNet

Otto engine

Otto engine

The Otto engine was a large stationary single-cylinder internal combustion four-stroke engine designed by Nikolaus Otto. It was a low-RPM machine, and only fired every other stroke due to the Otto cycle, also designed by Otto.

— Freebase

Novial

Novial

An international auxiliary language, or interlanguage, published by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in 1928.

— Wiktionary

supercharger

supercharger

inlet air compressor for an internal combustion engine (either Otto or Diesel cycle), normally powered from the crankshaft.

— Wiktionary

Otto

Otto

Otto is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 831 at the 2000 census. The name comes from Jacob S. Otto, an agent of the Holland Land Company. The Town of Otto lies on the northern border of the county.

— Freebase

turbocharger

turbocharger

inlet air compressor for an internal combustion engine (either Otto or Diesel cycle), powered from the exhaust air.

— Wiktionary

Otto Jespersen

Otto Jespersen

Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.

— Freebase

Bismarck

Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck, one of the prominent German statesmen of the nineteenth century.

— Wiktionary

bismarckian

Bismarckian

of or relating to Prince Otto von Bismarck or his accomplishments

— Princeton's WordNet

Otto of Freising

Otto of Freising

Otto of Freising was a German churchman and chronicler. He was bishop of Freising as Otto I from 1138.

— Freebase

supercharge

supercharge

to increase the power of an internal combustion engine (either Otto or Diesel cycle) by compressing the inlet air with power extracted from the crankshaft.

— Wiktionary

turbocharge

turbocharge

to increase the power of an internal combustion engine (either Otto or Diesel cycle) by compressing the inlet air with power extracted from the exhaust air.

— Wiktionary

george macaulay trevelyan

Trevelyan, George Macaulay Trevelyan

English historian and son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan whose works include a social history of England and a biography of Garibaldi (1876-1962)

— Princeton's WordNet

trevelyan

Trevelyan, George Macaulay Trevelyan

English historian and son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan whose works include a social history of England and a biography of Garibaldi (1876-1962)

— Princeton's WordNet

holy roman empire

Holy Roman Empire

a political entity in Europe that began with the papal coronation of Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until 1806 when it was dissolved by Napoleon

— Princeton's WordNet

Otto Rank

Otto Rank

Otto Rank was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher. Born in Vienna as Otto Rosenfeld, he was one of Sigmund Freud's closest colleagues for 20 years, a prolific writer on psychoanalytic themes, an editor of the two most important analytic journals, managing director of Freud's publishing house and a creative theorist and therapist. In 1926, Otto Rank left Vienna for Paris. For the remaining 14 years of his life, Rank had a successful career as a lecturer, writer and therapist in France and the U.S..

— Freebase

frisch

Frisch, Otto Frisch, Otto Robert Frisch

British physicist (born in Austria) who with Lise Meitner recognized that Otto Hahn had produced a new kind of nuclear reaction which they named nuclear fission; Frisch described the explosive potential of a chain nuclear reaction (1904-1979)

— Princeton's WordNet

otto frisch

Frisch, Otto Frisch, Otto Robert Frisch

British physicist (born in Austria) who with Lise Meitner recognized that Otto Hahn had produced a new kind of nuclear reaction which they named nuclear fission; Frisch described the explosive potential of a chain nuclear reaction (1904-1979)

— Princeton's WordNet

otto robert frisch

Frisch, Otto Frisch, Otto Robert Frisch

British physicist (born in Austria) who with Lise Meitner recognized that Otto Hahn had produced a new kind of nuclear reaction which they named nuclear fission; Frisch described the explosive potential of a chain nuclear reaction (1904-1979)

— Princeton's WordNet

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Otto Fritz Meyerhof ForMemRS was a German-born physician and biochemist.

— Freebase

Otto Hermann Kahn

Otto Hermann Kahn

Otto Hermann Kahn was an investment banker, collector, philanthropist, and patron of the arts.

— Freebase

In Tune

In Tune

In Tune is a 1914 American silent short drama film directed by Henry Otto starring Charlotte Burton, Ed Coxen, George Field, and Winifred Greenwood.

— Freebase

Numinous

Numinous

Numinous is an English adjective, taken from the Latin Numen, and used to describe the power or presence of a divinity. The word was popularised in the early twentieth century by the German theologian Rudolf Otto in his influential book Das Heilige. According to Otto, the numinous experience has in addition to the tremendum, which is the tendency to invoke fear and trembling, a quality of fascinans, the tendency to attract, fascinate and compel. The numinous experience also has a personal quality, in that the person feels to be in communion with a wholly other. The numinous experience can lead in different cases to belief in deities, the supernatural, the sacred, the holy and/or the transcendent.

— Freebase

Otto Klemperer

Otto Klemperer

Otto Klemperer was a German conductor and composer. He is widely regarded as one of the leading conductors of the 20th century.

— Freebase

Jens Otto Krag

Jens Otto Krag

Jens Otto Krag was a Danish politician. He was Prime Minister from 1962 to 1968 and again from 1971 to 1972.

— Freebase

Otto Wagner

Otto Wagner

Otto Koloman Wagner was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.

— Freebase

Ifeelgoods

Ifeelgoods

The leading digital promotions platform, Ifeelgoods helps marketers incent, convert and reward their audiences with instant fulfillment of desirable gifts from Facebook, Amazon, iTunes and more as a reward for any trackable action - online, offline or mobile.Our over 100 clients include Walmart, Coca-Cola, Universal Pictures, 1-800-Flowers.com, Meijer, Redcats USA, Otto Group, Renault and FTD. Ifeelgoods is a hosted technology platform that manages digital goods promotion offers, redemption, social sharing and customer service. The company is headquartered in Silicon Valley with locations in New York and Paris.

— CrunchBase

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He then created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914. As Minister President of Prussia 1862–90, Bismarck provoked wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France, and lined up the smaller German states behind Prussia. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor of a united Germany after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles and largely controlled its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill's use of the English language."

— Freebase

Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch FRS, was an Austrian-British physicist. With his German-British collaborator Rudolf Peierls he designed the first theoretical mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in 1940.

— Freebase

Disbarred

Disbarred

Disbarred is a 1939 film about a crooked lawyer starring Gail Patrick and Robert Preston. The supporting cast includes Otto Kruger, Virginia Vale and Sidney Toler. The movie was directed by film noir specialist Robert Florey.

— Freebase

Kinkel, Johann Gottfried

Kinkel, Johann Gottfried

German poet and writer on æsthetics, born near Bonn; studied for the Church, but became lecturer on Art in Bonn, 1846; two years later he was imprisoned for revolutionary proceedings; escaped in 1850 to England, and became professor at Zurich in 1866; wrote "Otto der Schütz," an epic, and "Nimrod," a drama (1815-1882).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gervase of Tilbury

Gervase of Tilbury

a mediæval historical writer, born at Tilbury, in Essex; said to have been a nephew of King Henry II.; he held a lectureship in Canon Law at Bologna, and through the influence of Emperor Otto IV. was made marshal of the kingdom of Arles; he was the author of "Otia Imperiala," a historical and geographical work; d. about 1235.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Otto Dix

Otto Dix

Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.

— Freebase

Vacuum pump

Vacuum pump

A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke, and was preceded by the suction pump, which dates to antiquity.

— Freebase

Kontakte

Kontakte

Kontakte is a celebrated electronic music work by Karlheinz Stockhausen, realized in 1958–60 at the Westdeutscher Rundfunk electronic-music studio in Cologne with the assistance of Gottfried Michael Koenig. The score is Nr. 12 in the composer's catalogue of works, and is dedicated to Otto Tomek.

— Freebase

Four Wheel Drive

Four Wheel Drive

The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, more often known as Four Wheel Drive or just FWD, was founded in 1909 in Clintonville, Wisconsin, as the Badger Four-Wheel Drive Auto Company by Otto Zachow and William Besserdich.

— Freebase

Verl

Verl

Verl is a town in the district of GĂŒtersloh in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located approximately 15 km south of Bielefeld and 10 km east of GĂŒtersloh. In the 19th century two citizens of Verl, Johannes Otto and Ferdinand Bredeik, founded two towns in Ohio, USA: Delphos and Ottoville. Since the 1990s Verl has been an official sister city of both towns.

— Freebase

Kose

Kose

Kose is a small borough in Harju County, northern Estonia. It is the administrative centre of Kose Parish. As of 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 2,097. Kose is 39 kilometers southeast of Tallinn, Estonia. World famous navigator Otto von Kotzebue is buried at the churchyard of Kose St. Nicholas Church.

— Freebase

Weltreise

Weltreise

Weltreise is the 2nd studio album by German electronical act Schiller. It became a surprise hit, staying on the top position of the German longplay charts for four consecutive weeks. The album featured Kim Sanders and Peter Heppner as guest singers, with voice actors Otto Sander, Benjamin Völz and Franziska Pigulla adding spoken words passages.

— Freebase

Magdeburg

Magdeburg

Magdeburg, is the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe. Emperor Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, lived for most of his reign in the town and was buried in the cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also well known for the 1631 Sack of Magdeburg, which hardened Protestant resistance during the Thirty Years' War. Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences. Nowadays Magdeburg is a traffic junction as well as an industrial and trading centre. The production of chemical products, steel, paper and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering, ecotechnology and life-cycle management, health management and logistics. Along with ten other cities in Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia, Magdeburg is a member of the Central German Metropolitan Region. In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary.

— Freebase

Otto Nicolai

Otto Nicolai

Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai was a German composer, conductor, and founder of the Vienna Philharmonic. Nicolai is best known for his operatic version of Shakespeare's comedy The Merry Wives of Windsor as Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor. In addition to five operas, Nicolai composed lieder, works for orchestra, chorus, ensemble, and solo instruments.

— Freebase

Wols

Wols

Wols was the pseudonym of Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze, a German painter and photographer predominantly active in France. Though broadly unrecognized in his lifetime, he is considered a pioneer of Lyrical Abstraction, one of the most influential artists of the Tachisme movement. He is the author of a book on art theory entitled Aphorismes de Wols.

— Freebase

Roberta

Roberta

Roberta is a musical from 1933 with music by Jerome Kern, and lyrics and book by Otto Harbach. The musical is based on the novel Gowns by Roberta by Alice Duer Miller. The play features the famous songs "Yesterdays", "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", "Let's Begin", "You're Devastating", "Something Had To Happen" and "The Touch of Your Hand".

— Freebase

Otto Loewi

Otto Loewi

Otto Loewi was a German born pharmacologist whose discovery of acetylcholine helped enhance medical therapy. The discovery earned for him the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936 which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, whom he met in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London. He has been referred to as the "Father of Neuroscience."

— Freebase

Liquidpiston

Liquidpiston

The LiquidPiston engine is a rotary engine, which operates on the High Efficiency Hybrid Cycle. This cycle consists of compressing air to a very high ratio, as is typical in the Diesel cycle. The air is then isolated in a constant volume chamber. Fuel is injected, and allowed to combust fully under constant volume conditions, which is how Otto cycle combustion is modeled. Finally, the combustion products are expanded to atmospheric pressure, utilizing Atkinson cycle.

— Freebase

Junker

Junker

In Prussian history Junkers were members of the landed nobility in Prussia. They owned great estates that were maintained and worked by Slavic peasants with few rights. They were a dominant factor in the Prussian and, after 1871, German military, political and diplomatic leadership. The most famous Junker was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. They were expelled by the Soviets after 1944 and their lands confiscated.

— Freebase

Prosiopesis

Prosiopesis

Prosiopesis is a term coined by Otto Jespersen for pronouncing a word or phrase without vocalizing its initial sounds. One example Jespersen gave is for "Good morning" to be shortened to "Morning". Jesperson introduced the idea in Language, Its Nature, Development, and Origin; he also discusses it in The Philosophy of Grammar. Prosiopesis is studied as a mode for originating interjections, which can shed light on their meaning.

— Freebase

Palindromes

Palindromes

Palindromes is a 2004 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Todd Solondz and a sequel to Solondz's 1995 film, Welcome to the Dollhouse. It competed for the Golden Lion award at the 61st Venice International Film Festival. The protagonist, a 13-year-old girl named Aviva, is played by eight different actors of different ages, races, and genders during the course of the film and features an array of secondary characters. The names of the characters Aviva, Bob, and Otto are all palindromes.

— Freebase

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts. The fission process often produces free neutrons and photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay. Nuclear fission of heavy elements was discovered in 1938 by Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, and Otto Robert Frisch. It was named by analogy with biological fission of living cells. It is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments. In order for fission to produce energy, the total binding energy of the resulting elements must be greater than that of the starting element. Fission is a form of nuclear transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom. The two nuclei produced are most often of comparable but slightly different sizes, typically with a mass ratio of products of about 3 to 2, for common fissile isotopes. Most fissions are binary fissions, but occasionally, three positively charged fragments are produced, in a ternary fission. The smallest of these fragments in ternary processes ranges in size from a proton to an argon nucleus.

— Freebase

Pethidine

Pethidine

Pethidine or meperidine hydrochloride is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. Pethidine was the first synthetic opioid synthesized in 1932 as a potential anti-spasmodic agent by the chemist Otto Eislib. Its analgesic properties were first recognized by Otto Schaumann working for IG Farben, Germany. Pethidine is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, and is delivered as a hydrochloride salt in tablets, as a syrup, or by intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous injection. For much of the 20th century, pethidine was the opioid of choice for many physicians; in 1975 60% of doctors prescribed it for acute pain and 22% for chronic severe pain. Compared to morphine, pethidine was supposed to be safer and carry less risk of addiction, and to be superior in treating the pain associated with biliary spasm or renal colic due to its putative antispasmodic effects. In fact, pethidine is no more effective than morphine at treating biliary or renal pain, and its low potency, short duration of action, and unique toxicity relative to other available opioid analgesics have seen it fall out of favor in recent years for all but a very few, very specific indications. Several countries, including Australia, have put strict limits on its use. Nevertheless, some physicians continue to use it as a first line strong opioid.

— Freebase

Great Vowel Shift

Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1700. The Great Vowel Shift was first studied by Otto Jespersen, a Danish linguist and Anglicist, who coined the term. Because English spelling was becoming standardized in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Great Vowel Shift is responsible for many of the peculiarities of English spelling.

— Freebase

Mollifier

Mollifier

In mathematics, mollifiers are smooth functions with special properties, used in distribution theory to create sequences of smooth functions approximating nonsmooth functions, via convolution. Intuitively, given a function which is rather irregular, by convolving it with a mollifier the function gets "mollified", that is, its sharp features are smoothed, while still remaining close to the original nonsmooth function. They are also known as Friedrichs mollifiers after Kurt Otto Friedrichs, who introduced them.

— Freebase

Berlin Conference

Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference" or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

— Freebase

Innocent III.

Innocent III.

the greatest of the name, born in Arragon; succeeded Celestine III.; extended the territorial power of the Church, and made nearly all Christendom subject to its sway; essayed the recovery of Palestine, and promoted a crusade against the Albigenses; excommunicated Otto IV., emperor of Germany; put England under an interdict, and deposed King John; was zealous for the purity as well as supremacy of the Church, and countenanced every movement that contributed to enhance its influence and stereotype its beliefs as well as its forms of worship, transubstantiation among the one and auricular confession among the other; though harsh, and even cruel, to those whom he conceived to be the enemies of the faith, he was personally a man of blameless life, and did much to reform the morals of the clergy.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Otto Heinrich Warburg

Otto Heinrich Warburg

Otto Heinrich Warburg, son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Ulan during the First World War, and won the Iron Cross for bravery. Warburg was one of the 20th century's leading biochemists. He won the Nobel Prize of 1931. In total, he was nominated an unprecedented three times for the Nobel prize for three separate achievements.

— Freebase

Otto Brahm

Otto Brahm

Otto Brahm was a German drama and literary critic, theatre manager and director. His productions were noted for being accurate and realistic. He was involved in the foundation of the progressive Freie BĂŒhne company, of which he became president and producer. He also edited the company's weekly magazine of the same name, but later changed its name to Die neue Rundschau. Brahm also managed the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, and was responsible for modernising its output.

— Freebase

Frederick II.

Frederick II.

called the Wonder of the World, grandson of the preceding; he was crowned emperor in 1215, at Aix-la-Chapelle, having driven Otto IV. from the throne; he gave much attention to the consolidating of his Italian possessions, encouraged learning and art, founded the university of Naples, and had the laws carefully codified; in these attempts at harmonising the various elements of his empire he was opposed by the Papal power and the Lombards; in 1228 he gained possession of Jerusalem, of which he crowned himself king; his later years were spent in struggles with the Papal and Lombard powers, and darkened by the treachery of his son Henry and of an intimate friend; he was a man of outstanding intellectual force and learning, but lacked the moral greatness of his grandfather (1194-1250).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hölder condition

Hölder condition

In mathematics, a real or complex-valued function f on d-dimensional Euclidean space satisfies a Hölder condition, or is Hölder continuous, when there are nonnegative real constants C, α, such that for all x and y in the domain of f. More generally, the condition can be formulated for functions between any two metric spaces. The number α is called the exponent of the Hölder condition. If α = 1, then the function satisfies a Lipschitz condition. If α = 0, then the function simply is bounded. The condition is named after Otto Hölder.

— Freebase

Rose oil

Rose oil

Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, with the absolute being used more commonly in perfumery. Even with their high price and the advent of organic synthesis, rose oils are still perhaps the most widely used essential oil in perfumery.

— Freebase

Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species of the genus Homo which lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia from at least 600,000 years ago, and may date back 1,300,000 years. It survived until 200,000 to 250,000 years ago. It is probably the ancestor of Homo sapiens in Africa and the Neanderthals in Europe, and perhaps also the Denisovans in Asia. It was first discovered near Heidelberg in Germany in 1907 and named by Otto Schoetensack.

— Freebase

Archchancellor

Archchancellor

An archchancellor or chief chancellor was a title given to the highest dignitary of the Holy Roman Empire, and also used occasionally during the Middle Ages to denote an official who supervised the work of chancellors or notaries. The Carolingian successors of Pepin the Short appointed chancellors over the whole Frankish realm in the ninth century. Hincmar refers to this official as a summus cancellarius in De ordine palatii et regni and an 864 charter of King Lothair I refers to Agilmar, Archbishop of Vienne, as archchancellor, a word which also begins appearing in chronicles about that time. The last Carolingian archchancellor in West Francia was Archbishop Adalberon of Reims, with the accession of Hugh Capet the office was replaced by a Chancelier de France. At the court of Otto I, then King of Germany, the title seems to have been an appanage of the Archbishop of Mainz. After Otto had finally deposed King Berengar II of Italy and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962, a similar office was created for the Imperial Kingdom of Italy. By the early eleventh century, this office was perennially held by the Archbishop of Cologne. Theoretically, the archbishop of Mainz took care of Imperial affairs for Germany and the Archbishop of Cologne for Italy, though the latter often used deputies, his see being outside of his kingdom. A third office was created about 1032, when Emperor Conrad II acquired the Kingdom of Burgundy upon the death of King Rudolph III, but it only appears in the hands of the Archbishop of Trier in the twelfth century as the chancellory of Arles. It is not known if the office was ever more than a prestigious title for the archbishop.

— Freebase

Weltpolitik

Weltpolitik

"Weltpolitik" was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1890, which marked a decisive break with former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's ' "Realpolitik." The aim of Weltpolitik was to transform Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. The origins of the policy can be traced to a Reichstag debate on 6 December 1897 during which German Foreign Secretary Bernhard von Bulow stated, "[i]n one word: We wish to throw no one into the shade, but we demand our own place in the sun." Nancy Mitchell writes that the adoption of Weltpolitik was a fundamental change in the conduct of German foreign policy. Up until Wilhelm's dismissal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany had concentrated its efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two-front war in Europe. Prior to Weltpolitik, German policy had focused on using its army and subtle diplomacy to maintain its status. In particular, Bismarck was wary of acquiring overseas colonies and wished to reserve the role of Germany as honest broker in continental affairs. Kaiser Wilhelm II, however, was far more ambitious. Germany expanded the size of its navy and opted for more aggressive naval policies in order to enact Weltpolitik; indeed, the motto "Our future lies on the sea" was inscribed on one of the German buildings at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This policy led to the rapid expansion of the Imperial German Navy through successive Naval Laws. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the shift in German policy was Germany's intervention in the Agadir Crisis. During the crisis, the German government deployed the large Panther gunboat to intervene in the conflict rather than resorting to diplomacy from the outset. Incidents such as these inflamed British concerns of Germany's rising naval might, against whose naval hegemony the Naval Laws were a direct threat. In turn, this helped contribute to the formation of the Franco-British Entente cordiale.

— Freebase

Bullshot

Bullshot

Bullshot is a 1983 film, based on the stage play "Bullshot Crummond". The name comes from a parody of the 1929 film, on which it is loosely based, Bulldog Drummond. Captain Hugh "Bullshot" Crummond is a World War I fighter pilot, Olympic athlete, racing driver, and part-time sleuth. He must save the world from the dastardly Count Otto van Bruno, his wartime adversary, and win the heart of the damsel in distress. The film was produced by George Harrison's company Handmade Films. Alan Shearman would reprise his association with Handmade Films in their 1985 film Water.

— Freebase

Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner, ForMemRS was an Austrian, later Swedish, physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Meitner is often mentioned as one of the most glaring examples of women's scientific achievement overlooked by the Nobel committee. A 1997 Physics Today study concluded that Meitner's omission was "a rare instance in which personal negative opinions apparently led to the exclusion of a deserving scientist" from the Nobel. Element 109, meitnerium, is named in her honour.

— Freebase

Fram

Fram

Fram is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. It was designed and built by the Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer for Fridtjof Nansen's 1893 Arctic expedition in which Fram was supposed to freeze into the Arctic ice sheet and float with it over the North Pole. Fram is said to have sailed farther north and farther south than any other wooden ship. Fram is preserved at the Fram Museum in Oslo, Norway.

— Freebase

Helminthology

Helminthology

Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms. This field deals with the study of their taxonomy and the effect on their hosts. The origin of the first compound of the word is from the Greek ጕλΌÎčΜς - helmins, meaning "worm". In the 18th and early 19th century there was wave of publications on helminthology in the 19th and at the beginning of the 19th century that has been described as “Golden Era” of helminthology. During that period the authors Peter Simon Pallas, Marcus Elieser Bloch, Otto Friedrich MĂŒller, Johann Goeze, Friedrich Zenker, Carl Asmund Rudolphi and Johann Gottfried Bremser started systematic scientific studies of the subject.

— Freebase

Bismarck Sea

Bismarck Sea

The Bismarck Sea lies in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the north of the island of Papua New Guinea and to the south of the Bismarck Archipelago and Admiralty Islands. Like the Bismarck archipelago, it is named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. The Bismarck archipelago extends round to the east and north of the sea, enclosing the Bismarck Sea and separating it from the Pacific Ocean. To the south it is linked to the Solomon Sea by the Vitiaz Strait. It was the site of a major Japanese naval defeat in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea during World War II on 3 and 4 March 1943.

— Freebase

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, PC CC FRSC FRS was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals". Herzberg's main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals which are difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects. Herzberg served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada from 1973 to 1980.

— Freebase

Ganz Works

Ganz Works

The Ganz electric works in Budapest is probably best known for the manufacture of tramcars, but was also a pioneer in the application of three-phase alternating current to electric railways. Ganz also made: ships, bridge steel structures, high voltage equipment. Notable engineers employed by Ganz in the field were Kålmån Kandó and Ottó Blåthy. The company is named after Ábrahåm Ganz. In 2006, the power transmission and distribution sectors of Ganz Transelektro were acquired by Crompton Greaves, but still doing business under the Ganz brand name, while the unit dealing with electric traction was acquired by Ơkoda Holding and is now a part of Ơkoda Electric.

— Freebase

Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn, OBE, ForMemRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was an opponent of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society from 1948 to 1960. Considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and revered citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany.

— Freebase

Otto Preminger

Otto Preminger

Otto Ludwig Preminger was an Austro–Hungarian-American theatre and film director. After moving from the theatre to Hollywood, he directed over 35 feature films in a five-decade career. He rose to prominence for stylish film noir mysteries such as Laura and Fallen Angel. In the 1950s and 1960s, he directed a number of high-profile adaptations of popular novels and stage works. Several of these pushed the boundaries of censorship by dealing with topics which were then taboo in Hollywood, such as drug addiction, rape and homosexuality. He was twice nominated for the Best Director Academy Award. He also had a few acting roles.

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Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the Glider King. He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful gliding flights. He followed an experimental approach established previously by Sir George Cayley. Newspapers and magazines published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favorably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying machines becoming practical. For his contributions to the field of aviation at such a crucial time he is often referred to as "The Father of Flight." He died of injuries sustained when his glider stalled and he was unable to regain control; falling from about 15 m he fractured his neck.

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Bizarro

Bizarro

Bizarro is a fictional character who appears in comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Otto Binder and artist George Papp as a "mirror image" of Superman and first appeared in Superboy #68. Since then, various iterations of Bizarro have appeared in which he is often, but not always, portrayed as an antagonist to Superman. Debuting in the Silver Age of Comic Books, the character has appeared in both comic books and graphic novels, and other DC Comics-related products such as animated and live-action television series, trading cards, toys, and video games. Bizarro was Ranked #25 on IGN's List of 100 Top Comic Book Villains.

— Freebase

Makiling

Makiling

Makiling is a world-music band based in the Philippines. They have been playing music together since December 1997. The members of Makiling met during their high school days at Philippine High School for the Arts, and decided to form Makiling back in 1997. Since then, they started accepting professional gigs locally and abroad. The music of Makiling is generally classified as world music. But the band likes to call it “Pinoy world music” for its dominant Filipino flavor mixed with influences from Indian, Celtic, Country, Oriental, Moorish, Arabic, Rock, Classical, Jazz and Latin music. The members of Makiling are Evan Britanico, Diwa de Leon, David Sicam, Otto Hernandez, and Wed Lodriga.

— Freebase

Fumage

Fumage

Fumage is a surrealist technique popularized by Wolfgang Paalen in which impressions are made by the smoke of a candle or kerosene lamp on a piece of paper or canvas. Salvador DalĂ­ later utilized the technique in his paintings, calling the technique "sfumato". The technique has been utilized by several artists such as Yves Klein, Burhan Doğançay, Jiri Georg Dokoupil, Otto Piene, Antonio Muñiz, Bimal Banerjee and Hugh Parker Guiler. Guiler's usage of the fumage technique is depicted briefly in the 1987 film Henry and June and his fumage pictures were often used as the covers for his wife AnaĂŻs Nin's books. Scholar Mary Flanagan compared the technique to the reading of tea leaves and to the Rorschach test.

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Otto Diels

Otto Diels

Otto Paul Hermann Diels was a German chemist. He was the son of a professor of philology at the University of Berlin, where he himself earned his doctorate in chemistry, in the group of Emil Fischer. Diels taught until 1916 at the University of Berlin and from 1916 till 1945 at the University of Kiel. Two of his sons were killed in World War II. In 1950 he and his student, Kurt Alder, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their discovery and development of the cycloaddition synthesis". This organic synthesis is known as the Diels–Alder reaction. It regioselectively produces up to four chiral centers and is one of the most useful reactions of its type.

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Adults Only

Adults Only

Adults Only is the first album recorded by Ray Dorset, also known as Mungo Jerry, with his German blues band. Some of the songs are blues standards that have been in his set for several years, others are new recordings of numbers from the Mungo back catalogue, including "I Just Can't Say Goodbye", originally on the 1977 album Ray Dorset and Mungo Jerry, an extended version of "Open Up", a worldwide hit for the band in 1972, recorded live in concert. Making its first appearance on record is Dorset's infectious yet uncompromising anti-war song, "We Gotta Get Out o’ the Army". Ray Dorset – lead vocals, electric guitars, percussion; Michael Pohl – electric and acoustic guitars, percussion; Klaus Wenske – bass; Achim ‘Ako’ Patz – keyboards, blues harp; Klaus Otto – drums.

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Feijoa

Feijoa

Acca sellowiana, a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, is native to the highlands of southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern Argentina,and Colombia. It is widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree in New Zealand, and can be found as a garden plant elsewhere such as in Australia, Azerbaijan, West part of Georgia, South part of Russia and South Africa. Common names include feijoa pineapple guava and guavasteen. It is an evergreen, perennial shrub or small tree, 1–7 metres in height, widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree. The German botanist Otto Karl Berg named feijoa after João da Silva Feijó, a Portuguese botanist born in the colony of Brazil.

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Novial

Novial

Novial [nov- + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language for universal communication between speakers of different native languages. It was devised by Otto Jespersen, a Danish linguist who was previously involved in the Ido movement, and subsequently in the development of Interlingua. Its vocabulary is based largely on the Germanic and Romance languages and its grammar is influenced by English. Novial was first introduced in Jespersen's book An International Language in 1928. It was updated in his dictionary Novial Lexike in 1930, and further modifications were proposed in the 1930s, but the language became dormant with Jespersen's death in 1943. In the 1990s, with the revival of interest in constructed languages brought on by the Internet, some people rediscovered Novial.

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Binswanger's disease

Binswanger's disease

Binswanger disease is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter. White matter atrophy can be caused by many circumstances including chronic hypertension as well as old age. This disease is characterized by loss of memory and intellectual function and by changes in mood. These changes encompass what are known as executive functions of the brain. It usually presents between 54 and 66 years of age, and the first symptoms are usually mental deterioration or stroke. It was described by Otto Binswanger in 1894, and Alois Alzheimer first used the phrase "Binswanger's disease" in 1902. However, Olszewski is credited with much of the modern-day investigation of this disease which began in 1962.

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Werner syndrome

Werner syndrome

Werner syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome, which is characterized by the appearance of premature aging. Werner syndrome is named after the German scientist Otto Werner. He identified the syndrome in four siblings observed with premature aging, which he explored as the subject of his dissertation of 1904. It has a global incidence rate of less than 1 in 100,000 per live birth; there have been 1,300 reported cases. Affected individuals typically grow and develop normally until puberty; the mean age of diagnosis is twenty-four, often realized when the adolescent growth spurt is not observed. The youngest person diagnosed was six years old. The median and mean age of death is 47-48 and 54 years, respectively; the main cause of death is cardiovascular disease or cancer.

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The Cardinal

The Cardinal

The Cardinal is a 1963 American drama film which was produced independently and directed by Otto Preminger, and distributed by Columbia Pictures. The screenplay was written by Robert Dozier, based on the novel of the same name by Henry Morton Robinson. Its cast featured Tom Tryon, Romy Schneider and John Huston, and it was nominated for six Academy Awards. The film was shot on location in Boston, in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and in Rome and Vienna. The music score was written by Jerome Moross. The Cardinal featured the final appearance by veteran film star Dorothy Gish as well as the last big-screen performance of Maggie McNamara. Robinson's novel was based on the life of Cardinal Francis Spellman, who was then Archbishop of New York. The Vatican's liaison officer for the film was Joseph Ratzinger, later to become Pope Benedict XVI.

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Skidoo

Skidoo

Skidoo is an American comedy film directed by Otto Preminger, starring Jackie Gleason and Carol Channing, written by Doran William Cannon and released by Paramount Pictures on December 19, 1968. The screenplay satirizes late 1960s lifestyle and its creature comforts, technology, anti-technology, hippies, free love and then-prevalent use of the mind-altering drug LSD. Along with top-billed Gleason and Channing, Skidoo also stars Frankie Avalon, Fred Clark, Michael Constantine, Frank Gorshin, John Phillip Law, Peter Lawford, Burgess Meredith, George Raft, Cesar Romero, Mickey Rooney and Groucho Marx playing "God". Singer-songwriter Nilsson, who wrote the score and receives credit as a member of the cast, appears in a few brief scenes with Fred Clark, as both portray prison tower guards swaying to Nilsson's music while under the influence of LSD.

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Libel

Libel

Libel is a 1959 British drama film. It stars Olivia de Havilland, Dirk Bogarde, Paul Massie, Wilfrid Hyde-White and Robert Morley. The film's screenplay was written by Anatole de Grunwald and Karl Tunberg from a 1935 play of the same name by Edward Wooll, and it was directed by Anthony Asquith. The Broadway play, which had starred Colin Clive, was adapted for radio in 1941 using the original references to World War I. Ronald Colman played the leading role in the Jan. 13, 1941, CBS network Lux Radio Theater broadcast, with Otto Kruger and Frances Robinson. The role of an amnesiac World War I veteran had similarities to Colman's 1942 hit Random Harvest. A 1938 BBC television production, featured actor Wyndham Goldie, husband of eventual BBC television producer Grace Wyndham Goldie.

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Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt

Friedrichstadt is a town in the district of Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated on the river Eider approx. 12 km south of Husum. It was founded in 1621 by Dutch settlers. Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp pursued them to invest capital and knowledge in this region in turn for freedom of their Mennonite and Remonstrant religion and opportunities to reclaim fen and marsh land in the vicinity of the town. One of them was Johannes Narssius. Dutch became an official language. By 1630, many Arminians had already returned to the Netherlands. In 1633 Frederick III sent an embassy to Persia with a view to setting up Friedrichstadt as the European terminus. Despite being led by Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Otto Bruggemann or Brugman, merchant, the project proved fruitless. The city did not become as successful as anticipated.

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Anemoscope

Anemoscope

An anemoscope is a device invented to show the direction of the wind, or to foretell a change of wind direction or weather. Hygroscopic devices, in particular those utilizing catgut, were considered as very good anemoscopes, seldom failing to foretell the shifting of the wind. The ancient anemoscope seems, by Vitruvius's description of it, to have been intended to show which way the wind actually blew, rather than to foretell into which quarter it would change. Otto von Guericke also gave the title anemoscope to a machine invented by him to foretell the change of the weather, as to fair and rain. It consisted of a little wooden man who rose and fell in a glass tube as the atmospheric pressure increased or decreased. Accordingly, M. Comiers has shown that this was simply an application of the common barometer. This form of the anemoscope was invented by Leonardo Da Vinci.

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Adolf Eichmann

Adolf Eichmann

Otto Adolf Eichmann was a German Nazi SS-ObersturmbannfĂŒhrer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust. Because of his organizational talents and ideological reliability, Eichmann was charged by SS-ObergruppenfĂŒhrer Reinhard Heydrich with the task of facilitating and managing the logistics of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in German-occupied Eastern Europe. After World War II, he fled to Argentina using a fraudulently obtained laissez-passer issued by the International Red Cross. He lived in Argentina under a false identity, working a succession of different jobs until 1960. He was captured by Mossad operatives in Argentina and taken to Israel to face trial in an Israeli court on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity and war crimes. He was found guilty and executed by hanging in 1962. He is the only person to have been executed in Israel on conviction by a civilian court.

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Diels–Alder reaction

Diels–Alder reaction

The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system. The reaction can proceed even if some of the atoms in the newly formed ring are not carbon. Some of the Diels–Alder reactions are reversible; the decomposition reaction of the cyclic system is then called the retro-Diels–Alder. For example, retro-Diels–Alder compounds are commonly observed when a Diels–Alder product is analyzed via mass spectrometry. Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder first documented the novel reaction in 1928 for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1950 for their work on the eponymous reaction. The Diels–Alder reaction is generally considered one of the more useful reactions in organic chemistry since it requires very little energy to create a cyclohexene ring, which is useful in many other organic reactions.

— Freebase

Joe Bloggs

Joe Bloggs

The names "Joe Bloggs" and "Fred Bloggs" are commonly used as placeholder names in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, for teaching, programming, and other thinking and writing. The surname Bloggs on its own is sometimes used in the same way. Fred alone can be a programming placeholder. Other placeholders sometimes used are Mr/Mrs A Smith or A. N. Other. In the United Kingdom and United States, John has historically been one of the most common male first names, and Smith is the most common surname in each, so "John Smith" is a recurrent pseudonym and placeholder name in those countries. In Germany, Max Mustermann, Erika Mustermann, and Otto Normalverbraucher are used. In the United States, John Doe, John Q. Public, Joe Blow, Joe Sixpack and Joe Schmoe are used. Other international variations can be found here. In The Princeton Review standardized test preparation courses, "Joe Bloggs" represents the average test-taker, and students are trained to identify the "Joe Bloggs answer", or the choice which seems right but may be misleading on harder questions.

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Brainiac

Brainiac

Brainiac is a fictional character, a supervillain that appears in comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in Action Comics #242, and was created by Otto Binder and Al Plastino. An extraterrestrial android, Brainiac is a principal foe of Superman, and is responsible for shrinking and stealing Kandor, the capital city of Superman's home planet Krypton. Due to complex storylines involving time travel, cloning, and revisions of DC's continuity, several variations of Brainiac have appeared. Most incarnations of Brainiac depict him as a green-skinned being in humanoid form. He is bald, except for a set of diodes protruding from his skull. The character is the origin of the informal word which means "genius". The name itself is a portmanteau of the words brain and maniac, with influence from ENIAC, the name of an early computer. In 2009, Brainiac was ranked as IGN's 17th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

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Surface plasmon

Surface plasmon

Surface plasmons are coherent electron oscillations that exist at the interface between any two materials where the real part of the dielectric function changes sign across the interface. SPs have lower energy than bulk plasmons which quantise the longitudinal electron oscillations about positive ion cores within the bulk of an electron gas. When SPs couple with a photon, the resulting hybridised excitation is called a surface plasmon polariton. This SPP can propagate along the surface of a metal until energy is lost either via absorption in the metal or radiation into free-space. The existence of surface plasmons was first predicted in 1957 by Rufus Ritchie. In the following two decades, surface plasmons were extensively studied by many scientists, the foremost of whom were T. Turbadar in the 1950s and 1960s, and Heinz Raether, E. Kretschmann, and A. Otto in the 1960s and 1970s. Information transfer in nanoscale structures, similar to photonics, by means of surface plasmons, is referred to as plasmonics.

— Freebase

Ebullioscope

Ebullioscope

An ebullioscope is an instrument for measuring the boiling point of a liquid. This can be used for determining the alcoholic strength of a mixture, or for determining the molecular weight of a non-volatile solute based on the boiling-point elevation. The procedure is known as ebullioscopy. The first ebullioscope was invented in 1838 by Brossard-Vidal, and was used for measuring alcoholic content. The advantage of this method was that the boiling point is relatively insensitive to other components such as sugars. Older alcoholimeters were based on measuring the density, which is more sensitive to the presence of other solutes. A later version was built by the French chemist François-Marie Raoult, but the difficulty to determine the exact temperature was overcome by the invention of the Beckmann thermometer by Ernst Otto Beckmann in 1887. This improvement made the ebullioscope a standard apparatus to determine the molecular weight of substances in solution by using the ebullioscopic constant of the solvent.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation, in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern thought, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers; his faith in "transcendental ideality" led him to accept atheism and learn from Christian philosophy. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced a long list of thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges.

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Ordered field

Ordered field

In mathematics, an ordered field is a field together with a total ordering of its elements that is compatible with the field operations. Historically, the axiomatization of an ordered field was abstracted gradually from the real numbers, by mathematicians including David Hilbert, Otto Hölder and Hans Hahn. In 1926, this grew eventually into the Artin–Schreier theory of ordered fields and formally real fields. An ordered field necessarily has characteristic 0, all natural numbers, i.e. the elements 0, 1, 1 + 1, 1 + 1 + 1, 
 are distinct. This implies that an ordered field necessarily contains an infinite number of elements: a finite field cannot be ordered. Every subfield of an ordered field is also an ordered field in the inherited order. Every ordered field contains an ordered subfield that is isomorphic to the rational numbers. Any Dedekind-complete ordered field is isomorphic to the real numbers. Squares are necessarily non-negative in an ordered field. This implies that the complex numbers cannot be ordered since the square of the imaginary unit i is −1. Every ordered field is a formally real field.

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Johnny Hodges

Johnny Hodges

John Keith "Johnny" Hodges was an American alto saxophonist, best known for solo work with Duke Ellington's big band. He played lead alto in the saxophone section for many years, except the period between 1932 and 1946 when Otto Hardwick generally played first chair. Hodges was also featured on soprano saxophone, but refused to play soprano after 1946, when he was given the lead chair. He is considered one of the definitive alto saxophones players of the Big Band Era. Hodges started playing with Lloyd Scott, Sidney Bechet, Lucky Roberts and Chick Webb. When Ellington wanted to expand his band in 1928, Ellington's clarinet player Barney Bigard recommended Hodges. His playing became one of the identifying voices of the Ellington orchestra. From 1951 to 1955, Hodges left the Duke to lead his own band, but returned shortly before Ellington's triumphant return to prominence – the orchestra's performance at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival.

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Pomeranians

Pomeranians

The Pomeranians were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers. They spoke the Pomeranian language belonging to the Lechitic branch of the West Slavic language family. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea. The Pomeranian tribes formed after the 6th century, when as a result of the Slavic migration, groups of Slavs populated the area formerly inhabited by Germanic tribes, such as the Goths and the Rugians etc. From the late 10th century, the Piast dukes of Poland tried to incorporate the Pomeranians into their realm and they succeeded several times. The Pomeranians were nevertheless always able to regain their independence. In the course of the 12th century, the non-Christian Pomeranians faced continuous pressure from their expanding Christian neighbours Denmark, Poland, and the Saxon dukes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1121 they were again subdued by the Polish duke BolesƂaw III Wrymouth, who had Pomerania Christianized by the German missionary Otto of Bamberg.

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Bismark, Germany

Bismark, Germany

Bismark is a town in the Stendal district, in the historic Altmark region of northern Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated approximately 22 km west of Stendal. In the early 12th century the area then under the rule of Albert the Bear was settled with peasants descending from the Low Countries. The town's name is derived from the nearby Biese creek, a tributary of the Aland; though it may also refer to the bishop's march, a possession of the Havelberg bishops mentioned in a 1209 deed issued by the Ascanian margrave Albert II. With the Altmark, Bismark was part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg until it was adjudicated to the Prussian Province of Saxony after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. One Herbordus of Bismarck was mentioned holding the office of a Schultheiß in Stendal about 1270. His descendant Otto von Bismarck received the honorary citizenship of Bismark in 1895. Upon an administrative reform effective from 1 January 2010, the town of Bismark comprises the former municipalities of Badingen, Berkau, BĂŒste, Dobberkau, Garlipp, Grassau, Hohenwulsch, Holzhausen, KĂ€then, KlĂ€den, Könnigde, Kremkau, Meßdorf, Querstedt, SchĂ€plitz, Schernikau, Schorstedt and Steinfeld.

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Employment contract

Employment contract

A contract of employment is a category of contract used in labour law to attribute right and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. On the one end stands an "employee" who is "employed" by an "employer". It has arisen out of the old master-servant law, used before the 20th century. Put generally, the contract of employment denotes a relationship of economic dependence and social subordination. In the words of the controversial labour lawyer Sir Otto Kahn-Freund, "the relation between an employer and an isolated employee or worker is typically a relation between a bearer of power and one who is not a bearer of power. In its inception it is an act of submission, in its operation it is a condition of subordination, however much the submission and the subordination may be concealed by the indispensable figment of the legal mind known as the 'contract of employment'. The main object of labour law has been, and... will always be a countervailing force to counteract the inequality of bargaining power which is inherent and must be inherent in the employment relationship."

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Melocactus

Melocactus

Melocactus is a genus of cactus with about 30-40 species. They are native to the Caribbean, western Mexico through Central America to northern South America, with some species along the Andes down to southern Peru, and a concentration of species in northeastern Brazil. The first species was named by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, as Cactus melocactus. When the genus was separated from Cactus, the pre-Linnaean name Melocactus was used. Acting on the principle of priority, in 1922 Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose resurrected Linnaeus' Cactus. However, the 1905 Vienna botanical congress had already rejected the name Cactus, so this name was not available, and Melocactus Link & Otto is the correct genus name. Mature plants are easily recognizable by their cephalium, a wool- and bristle-coated structure at the apex of the plant, containing a mass of areoles from which the small flowers grow. Since the red, wool-coated cephalium of the plant is similar to the hat of the Turkish male citizens during late Ottoman Empire, one name for the lant is Turk's cap cactus.

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Viroid

Viroid

Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA. In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2 kilobases in size. The human pathogen Hepatitis D Virus is similar to viroids. Viroid genomes are extremely small in size, ranging from 246 to 467 nucleotides, and consisting of fewer than 10,000 atoms. Viroids were discovered and named by Theodor Otto Diener, a plant pathologist at the Agricultural Research Service in Maryland, in 1971. Viroid RNA does not code for any protein. The replication mechanism involves RNA polymerase II, an enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA, which instead catalyzes "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA using the viroid's RNA as template. Some viroids are ribozymes, having catalytic properties which allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates. The first viroid to be identified was Potato spindle tuber viroid. Some 33 species have been identified.

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Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl is a German conservative politician and statesman. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1982–98 and the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973–98. His 16-year tenure was the longest of any German chancellor since Otto von Bismarck, and the longest for any democratically elected German leader. Kohl oversaw the end of the Cold War, and is widely regarded as the main architect of the German reunification. Together with French president François Mitterrand, he is also considered the architect of the Maastricht Treaty, which established the European Union. Kohl and Mitterrand were the joint recipients of the Charlemagne Prize in 1988. In 1996, he won the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award in International Cooperation. In 1998, Kohl was named Honorary Citizen of Europe by the European heads of state or government for his extraordinary work for European integration and cooperation, an honour previously only bestowed on Jean Monnet. Kohl was described as "the greatest European leader of the second half of the 20th century" by U.S. Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism

Logical positivism or logical empiricism are variants of neopositivism that embraced verificationism, a theory of knowledge combining strong empiricism—basing all knowledge on sensory experience—with mathematical logic and linguistics so that scientific statements could be conclusively proved false or true. Verificationism was inextricably tied with the covering law model of scientific explanation. As variants of analytic philosophy, verificationism dominated Anglo-American philosophy from the 1930s into the 1960s. In the early 1920s, appalled both by the racism, bigotry, and nationalism flaring in Western society—as in the negative eugenics movement and World War I—and by the countermovement toward metaphysics, mysticism, and intuition, a group of scientists and philosophers were inspired by developments in mathematics, logic, linguistics, and physics, especially relativity theory, and sought to offer the world a transparent, meaningful, universal language. Hans Reichenbach led the Berlin Circle, while Moritz Schlick led the Vienna Circle, gathered around the University of Vienna and the CafĂ© Central. A 1929 pamphlet written by Otto Neurath, Hans Hahn, and Rudolf Carnap summarized the Vienna Circle's positions.

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Depth psychology

Depth psychology

Historically, depth psychology, was coined by Eugen Bleuler to refer to psychoanalytic approaches to therapy and research that take the unconscious into account. The term has come to refer to the ongoing development of theories and therapies pioneered by Pierre Janet, William James, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung. Depth psychology explores the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious and includes both psychoanalysis and Jungian psychology. In practice, depth psychology seeks to explore underlying motives as an approach to various mental disorders, with the belief that the uncovering of these motives is intrinsically healing. It seeks the deep layers underlying behavioral and cognitive processes. Archetypes are primordial elements of the Collective Unconscious in the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Archetypes form the unchanging context from which the contents of cyclic and sequent changes derive their meanings. Duration is the secret of action. The initial work and development of the theories and therapies by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Otto Rank that came to be known as depth psychology have resulted in three perspectives in modern times:

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Felix the Cat

Felix the Cat

Felix the Cat is a funny animal cartoon character created in the silent film era. The anthropomorphic black cat with his black body, white eyes, and giant grin, coupled with the surrealism of the situations in which his cartoons place him, combine to make Felix one of the most recognized cartoon characters in film history. Felix was the first character from animation to attain a level of popularity sufficient to draw movie audiences. Felix's origins remain disputed. Australian cartoonist/film entrepreneur Pat Sullivan, owner of the Felix character, claimed during his lifetime to be its creator. American animator Otto Messmer, Sullivan's lead animator, has been credited as such. What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, and cartoons featuring the character enjoyed success and popularity in 1920s popular culture. Aside from the animated shorts, Felix starred in a comic strip beginning in 1923, and his image soon adorned merchandise such as ceramics, toys and postcards. Several manufacturers made stuffed Felix toys. Jazz bands such as Paul Whiteman's played songs about him.

— Freebase

Zhoukoudian

Zhoukoudian

Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien is a cave system in Beijing, China. It has yielded many archaeological discoveries, including one of the first specimens of Homo erectus, dubbed Peking Man, and a fine assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris. Peking Man lived in this cave approximately 750,000 to 200,000 years ago. The Peking Man Site was discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated by Otto Zdansky in 1921 and 1923 unearthing two human teeth. These were later identified by Davidson Black as belonging to a previously unknown species and extensive excavations followed. Fissures in the limestone containing middle Pleistocene deposits have yielded the remains of about 45 individuals as well as animal remains and stone flake and chopping tools. The oldest are 750,000 years old. During the Upper Palaeolithic, the site was re-occupied and remains of Homo sapiens and its stone and bone tools have also been recovered from the Upper Cave. The crater Choukoutien on asteroid 243 Ida was named after the location.

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Physicalism

Physicalism

Physicalism is a philosophical theory holding that everything that exists is physical, that is, that there are no things other than physical things. Physicalism is often called "materialism", though some attempt to draw a distinction between the two. The term "physicalism" was coined by Otto Neurath in a series of early twentieth century essays on the subject: In contemporary philosophy, physicalism is frequently associated with the mind-body problem in philosophy of mind. This view responds to the challenge of the mind-body problem by claiming that mental states are ultimately physical states, or that mental states supervene on physical states, or that all mental states are necessitated by physical states. These physical states are usually thought to be states realized by the brain. The related position of methodological naturalism states that philosophy and science ought to operate under the assumption that there are only physical entities or, likewise, that non-observable supernatural entities do not exist. Physicalism is a strong form of metaphysical naturalism. The ontology of physicalism ultimately includes whatever is described by physics. Because it claims that only physical things exist, physicalism is a form of ontological monism.

— Freebase

Guatemala

Guatemala

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast. Its area is 108,890 kmÂČ with an estimated population of 13,276,517. A representative democracy, its capital is Nueva Guatemala de la AsunciĂłn, also known as Guatemala City. The former Mayan civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization, which continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. They had lived in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, the southern part of Mexico and eastern parts of El Salvador. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot. After independence, it was ruled by a series of dictators, assisted by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala underwent a civil war fought between the government and leftist rebels. Following the war, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections. In the most recent election, held in 2011, Otto PĂ©rez Molina of the Patriotic Party won the presidency.

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Allometry

Allometry

Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 and Julian Huxley in 1932. Allometry is a well-known study, particularly in statistical shape analysis for its theoretical developments, as well as in biology for practical applications to the differential growth rates of the parts of a living organism's body. One application is in the study of various insect species, where a small change in overall body size can lead to an enormous and disproportionate increase in the dimensions of appendages such as legs, antennae, or horns. The relationship between the two measured quantities is often expressed as a power law: where is the scaling exponent of the law. Methods for estimating this exponent from data use type 2 regressions such as major axis regression or reduced major axis regression as these account for the variation in both variables, contrary to least squares regression, which does not account for error variance in the independent variable. Other methods include measurement error models and a particular kind of principal component analysis.

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Brunfelsia

Brunfelsia

Brunfelsia is a genus of about 50 species of neotropical shrubs and small trees. The leaves are alternate and simple, with shapes generally elliptic to ovate. The flowers are large and tubular, with five broad petals. Typical habitat is light woodland and thickets. Species in cultivation include Brunfelsia americana and Brunfelsia pauciflora. Linnaeus named the genus for early German herbalist Otto Brunfels. The cultivated plant is commonly called "yesterday, today, and tomorrow" due to its color changes. Many members of this genus contain toxic and medicinal alkaloids. Brunfelsia grandiflora is used by curanderos in South America as an additive to ayahuasca and contains the psychoactive chemical scopoletin. Scopoletin has no N atoms and is not an alkaloid. Brunfelsia hopeana contains the alkaloid hopeanine. Brunfelsia australis is actively promoted by nurserymen for its dramatic tri-colored blooms and drought resistance. Brunfelsia has always been placed in the family Solanaceae, where it is a member of the tribe Petunieae, the same group that also includes Petunia. This placement is also supported by molecular data. Toxicities in dogs have been reported, with strychnine-like gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiac symptoms reported.

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Turbocharger

Turbocharger

A turbocharger, or turbo, from the Latin "turbƍ, turbin-" is a forced induction device used to allow more power to be produced by an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers; nowadays the term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanicallydriven forced induction devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is driven by the engine's exhaust gas turbine. Compared to a mechanically-driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine which has both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbos are commonly used on truck, car, train, and construction equipment engines. Turbos are popularly used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells.

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Geopolitik

Geopolitik

Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race, and regarding economic space, demonstrate continuity from the German Imperial time up through Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, Imperial geostrategist, German geopoliticians, and Nazi strategists did not have extensive contacts with one another, suggesting that German geopolitik was not copied or passed on to successive generations, but perhaps reflected the more permanent aspects of German geography, political geography, and cultural geography. Geopolitik developed from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler, Alexander Humboldt, Karl Ritter, Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, and Karl Haushofer. It was eventually adapted to accommodate the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Its defining characteristic is the inclusion of organic state theory, informed by Social Darwinism. It was characterized by clash of civilizations-style theorizing. It is perhaps the closest of any school of geostrategy to a purely nationalistic conception of geostrategy, which ended up masking other more universal elements.

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Carbon suboxide

Carbon suboxide

Carbon suboxide, or tricarbon dioxide, is an oxide of carbon with chemical formula C3O2 or O=C=C=C=O. Its four cumulative double bonds make it a cumulene. It is one of the stable members of the series of linear oxocarbons O=Cn=O, which also includes carbon dioxide and pentacarbon dioxide. The substance was discovered in 1873 by Benjamin Brodie by submitting carbon monoxide to an electric current. He claimed that the product was part of a series of "oxycarbons" with formulas Cx+1Ox, namely C, C2O, C3O2, C4O3, C5O4, ..., and to have identified the last two; however only C3O2 is known. In 1891 Marcellin Berthelot observed that heating pure carbon monoxide at about 550 °C created small amounts of carbon dioxide but no trace of carbon, and assumed that a carbon-rich oxide was created instead, which he named "sub-oxide". He assumed it was the same product obtained by electric discharge and proposed the formula C2O. Otto Diels later stated that the more organic names dicarbonyl methane and dioxallene were also correct. It is commonly described as an oily liquid or gas at room temperature with an extremely noxious odor.

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Draw play

Draw play

A draw play, or simply draw for short, is a type of American football play. The draw appears to be a passing play, but is actually a running play; in this way, it can be considered the opposite of the play action pass. Historically, the draw play was first developed by the Cleveland Browns during their years in the All-America Football Conference. A botched play, originally designed to be a pass play, caused quarterback Otto Graham to improvise a hand-off to fullback Marion Motley. A surprised Motley, who had been expecting to block on the play, ran instead for a big gain. Coach Paul Brown noted the success of the improvised play and began to work it in as a regular play, quickly creating four different versions of it. The idea behind a draw play is to attack aggressive, pass-rushing defenses by "drawing" them downfield, leaving more open space to run the ball. Draw plays are often run out of the shotgun formation, but can also be run when the quarterback is under center. These types of draw plays are sometimes referred to as delayed handoffs. The running back will most often run straight upfield in the "A-Gap", although there are more complicated versions.

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Gemen

Gemen

Gemen was an immediate, sovereign lordship of the Holy Roman Empire, in the Lower Rhine region. Since Gemen had a vote in the Imperial Diet it was also an Imperial Estate. It was centered on Gemen, a small town and castle in the present municipality of Borken, western North Rhine-Westphalia. Gemen is first mentioned in 962. In 1282 Gemen becomes a fief of the Counts of Cleves. The Lords of Gemen became extinct in 1492, and Gemen passed to Counts of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg through the heiress Cordula of Gemen, to form County of Schaumburg and Gemen. In 1640, the immediate lordship of Gemen passed for two centuries to the Counts of Limburg Stirum. In a partition in 1644, Gemen passed to the line of Limburg Stirum Gemen, then in 1782, with extinction of Gemen branch of the House of Limburg Stirum, Gemen was inherited by the line of Limburg Stirum Iller-Aichheim. When Ferdinand IV of Limburg Stirum died at the age of 15 in 1800, the line Limburg-Styrum-Styrum failed to inherit Gemen, which then passed to the barons of Boyneburg-Bömelberg for 6 years, until the mediatisation of 1806. ⁕1640-1644 - Herman Otto I, count of Limburg and Bronckhorst, Sovereign Lord zu Gemen; ⁕1644-1657 - Adolf Ernst, count of Limburg Stirum, Sovereign Lord zu Gemen, second son of the above;

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Kulturkampf

Kulturkampf

The German term Kulturkampf refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck. The Kulturkampf did not extend to the other German states such as Bavaria. As one scholar put it, "the attack on the church included a series of Prussian, discriminatory laws that made Catholics feel understandably persecuted within a predominantly Protestant nation." Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and other orders were expelled in the culmination of twenty years of anti-Jesuit and antimonastic hysteria. In 1871, the Catholic Church comprised 36,5% of the population of the German Empire. In this newly founded Empire, Bismarck sought to appeal to liberals and Protestants by reducing the political and social influence of the Catholic Church. Priests and bishops who resisted the Kulturkampf were arrested or removed from their positions. By the height of anti-Catholic legislation, half of the Prussian bishops were in prison or in exile, a quarter of the parishes had no priest, half the monks and nuns had left Prussia, a third of the monasteries and convents were closed, 1800 parish priests were imprisoned or exiled, and thousands of laypeople were imprisoned for helping the priests.

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Dalton Trumbo

Dalton Trumbo

James Dalton Trumbo was an American screenwriter and novelist. As one of the Hollywood Ten, he refused to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947 during the committee's investigation of Communist influences in the motion picture industry. Trumbo won two Academy Awards while blacklisted; one was originally given to a front writer, and one was awarded to "Robert Rich," Trumbo's pseudonym. Blacklisting effectively ended in 1960 when it lost credibility. Trumbo was publicly given credit for two blockbuster films: Otto Preminger made public that Trumbo wrote the screenplay for the smash hit, Exodus, and Kirk Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus. Further, President John F. Kennedy crossed picket lines to see the movie. His son Christopher Trumbo wrote a play based on his letters during the period of the blacklist, entitled Red, White and Blacklisted, produced in New York in 2003. He adapted it as a film, adding material from documentary footage, Trumbo. On December 19, 2011, The Writers Guild of America announced that Trumbo will get full credit for his work on the screenplay of the 1953 romantic comedy Roman Holiday, sixty years after the fact.

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Chlorella

Chlorella

Chlorella is a genus of single-cell green algae, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. It is spherical in shape, about 2 to 10 ÎŒm in diameter, and is without flagella. Chlorella contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast. Through photosynthesis, it multiplies rapidly, requiring only carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and a small amount of minerals to reproduce. The name Chlorella is taken from the Greek chloros, meaning green, and the Latin diminutive suffix ella, meaning small. German biochemist and cell physiologist Otto Heinrich Warburg, awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931 for his research on cell respiration, also studied photosynthesis in Chlorella. In 1961, Melvin Calvin of the University of California received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the pathways of carbon dioxide assimilation in plants using Chlorella. In recent years, researchers have made less use of Chlorella as an experimental organism because it lacks a sexual cycle and, therefore, the research advantages of genetics are unavailable. Many people believed Chlorella could serve as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can, in theory, reach 8%, comparable with other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane.

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Erepsin

Erepsin

Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas. It is also found widely in other cells. Erepsin was discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century by German physiologist Otto Cohnheim who found a substance that breaks down peptones into amino acid in the intestines. He termed this hypothetical protease in his protein extract "erepsin", derived from a Greek word meaning "I break down". His discovery was significant as it overturned the previous "hypothesis of resynthesis" which proposed that proteins were broken down into peptones from which proteins were then resynthesized, and helped establish the idea of free amino acids instead of peptones as the building blocks of protein. Later, it was found that erepsin is a complex mixture of different peptidases. It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present in other cells. The term erepsin however had gradually fallen from use in scientific literature in the latter half of the twentieth century as more precise terms were preferred, and may be now considered obsolete.

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Acrylic glass

Acrylic glass

Poly(methyl methacrylate) is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. Although it is not technically a type of glass, the substance has sometimes historically been called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. The material was developed in 1928 in various laboratories by many chemists such as William Chalmers, Otto Röhm and Walter Bauer and was first brought to market in 1933 by the Rohm and Haas Company, under the trademark Plexiglas. It has since been sold under many different names, including ACRYLITEÂź, Lucite and Perspex. PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate when extreme strength is not necessary. Additionally, PMMA does not contain the potentially harmful bisphenol-A subunits found in polycarbonate. It is often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, and low cost. The non-modified PMMA behaves in a brittle manner when loaded, especially under an impact force, and is more prone to scratching than conventional inorganic glass. However, the modified PMMA achieves very high scratch and impact resistance. The often-seen spelling poly—that is, spelled with an instead of en—is a misspelling of poly.

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Great Year

Great Year

The term Great Year has a variety of related meanings. It is defined by NASA as "The period of one complete cycle of the equinoxes around the ecliptic, about 25,800 years [
] also known as [a] Platonic Year." One complete cycle of the equinoxes here means one complete cycle of axial precession, however such precession was unknown to Plato, who defined the "perfect year" as the return of the celestial bodies and the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars to their original positions. Cicero followed Plato in defining the Great Year as a combination of solar, lunar and planetary cycles Nicholas Campion writes of "periods of History, analogous to the solar year, known as 'Great Years' " Plato's description of the perfect year is found in his dialogue Timaeus In De Natura Deorum, Cicero wrote By extension, the term "Great Year" can also be used for any concept of eternal return in the world's mythologies or philosophies. Otto Neugebauer wrote Macrobius in his commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipiones states that 'the philosophers' reckon the Great Year as 15,000 years. Censorinus wrote that Aristarchus of Samos reckoned a Great Year of 2484 years: it has been argued that this is a miscopying of 2434, which represents 15 Exeligmos cycles.

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Coprecipitation

Coprecipitation

In chemistry, coprecipitation or co-precipitation is the carrying down by a precipitate of substances normally soluble under the conditions employed. Analogously, in medicine, coprecipitation is specifically the precipitation of an unbound "antigen along with an antigen-antibody complex". Coprecipitation is an important issue in chemical analysis, where it is often undesirable, but in some cases it can be exploited. In gravimetric analysis, which consists on precipitating the analyte and measuring its mass to determine its concentration or purity, coprecipitation is a problem because undesired impurities often coprecipitate with the analyte, resulting in excess mass. This problem can often be mitigated by "digestion" or by redissolving the sample and precipitating it again. On the other hand, in the analysis of trace elements, as is often the case in radiochemistry, coprecipitation is often the only way of separating an element. Since the trace element is too dilute to precipitate by conventional means, it is typically coprecipitated with a carrier, a substance that has a similar crystalline structure that can incorporate the desired element. An example is the separation of francium from other radioactive elements by coprecipitating it with caesium salts such as caesium perchlorate. Otto Hahn is credited for promoting the use of coprecipitation in radiochemistry.

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Protactinium

Protactinium

Protactinium is a chemical element with the symbol Pa and atomic number 91. It is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. It forms various chemical compounds where protactinium is usually present in the oxidation state +5, but can also assume +4 and even +2 or +3 states. The average concentrations of protactinium in the Earth's crust is typically on the order of a few parts per trillion, but may reach up to a few parts per million in some uraninite ore deposits. Because of its scarcity, high radioactivity and high toxicity, there are currently no uses for protactinium outside of scientific research, and for this purpose, protactinium is mostly extracted from spent nuclear fuel. Protactinium was first identified in 1913 by Kasimir Fajans and Oswald Helmuth Göhring and named brevium because of the short half-life of the specific isotope studied, namely protactinium-234. A more stable isotope of protactinium was discovered in 1917/18 by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, and they chose the name proto-actinium, but then the IUPAC named it finally protactinium in 1949 and confirmed Hahn and Meitner as discoverers. The new name meant "parent of actinium" and reflected the fact that actinium is a product of radioactive decay of protactinium.

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Rubidium-strontium dating

Rubidium-strontium dating

The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium and strontium. Development of this process was aided by German chemist Fritz Strassmann, who later went on to discover nuclear fission with German chemist Otto Hahn and Swedish physicist Lise Meitner. The utility of the rubidium-strontium isotope system results from the fact that 87Rb decays to 87Sr with a half life of 48.8 billion years. In addition, Rb is a highly incompatible element that, during fractional crystallization of the mantle, stays in the magmatic melt rather than becoming part of mantle minerals. The radiogenic daughter, 87Sr, is produced in this decay process and was produced in rounds of stellar nucleosynthesis predating the creation of the Solar System. Different minerals in a given geologic setting can acquire distinctly different ratios of radiogenic strontium-87 to naturally occurring strontium-86 through time; and their age can be calculated by measuring the 87Sr/86Sr in a mass spectrometer, knowing the amount of 87Sr present when the rock or mineral formed, and calculating the amount of 87Rb from a measurement of the Rb present and knowledge of the 85Rb/87Rb weight ratio.8786878786

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Franco-Prussian War

Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, crafted in 1867 after Prussia's victory against the Austrian Empire and of which it was a leading member, and the South German states of Baden, WĂŒrttemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1870 France mobilized and declared war on Prussia only, but the other German states quickly joined on Prussia's side. The conflict marked the outbreak of rising tension between the two powers, following the failure of Napoleon III's plan to annex Luxembourg, an event which ended a relatively balanced relationship with Otto von Bismarck. Relations further soured because of the growing influence exerted by Prussia on the southern German states of the former German Confederation, with things coming to a head over the issue of a Hohenzollern candidate for the vacant Spanish throne in 1868. The public release of the Ems Dispatch, which played up alleged insults between the Prussian king and the French ambassador, inflamed public opinion on both sides. The war and its resulting German victory brought about many important economic, political and social events that had a lasting impact on European and world developments.

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Chromocene

Chromocene

Chromocene, formally known as bischromium, is a chemical compound with the condensed structural formula [Cr(C5H5)2]. Each molecule contains an atom of chromium bound between two planar systems of five carbon atoms known as cyclopentadienyl rings in a sandwich arrangement, which is the reason its formula is often abbreviated as Cp2Cr. It is an organometallic compound as it has covalent chromium–carbon bonds. Chromocene is structurally similar to ferrocene, the prototype for the metallocene class of compounds; however, as it has only 16 valence electrons, it does not follow the 18-electron rule. It is a paramagnetic compound and also highly reducing, both consequences of its low valence electron count. Like structurally related metallocenes, chromocene readily sublimes in a vacuum and is soluble in non-polar organic solvents. Ernst Otto Fischer, who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on sandwich compounds, was the first to report a synthesis for chromocene. One simple method of preparation involves the reaction of chromium chloride with sodium cyclopentadienide: Such syntheses are typically conducted in THF; decamethylchromocene, Cr[C5(CH3)5]2, can be prepared analogously from LiC5(CH3)5. Chromocene can also be prepared from chromium chloride in a redox process:

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Stork

Stork

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. They belong to the family Ciconiidae. They are the only family in the biological order Ciconiiformes, which was once much larger and held a number of families. Storks occur in many regions of the world and tend to live in drier habitats than the related herons, spoonbills and ibises; they also lack the powder down that those groups use to clean off fish slime. Storks have no syrinx and are mute, giving no call; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Many species are migratory. Most storks eat frogs, fish, insects, earthworms, small birds and small mammals. There are 19 living species of storks in six genera. Various terms are used to refer to groups of storks, two frequently used ones being a muster of storks and a phalanx of storks. Storks tend to use soaring, gliding flight, which conserves energy. Soaring requires thermal air currents. Ottomar AnschĂŒtz's famous 1884 album of photographs of storks inspired the design of Otto Lilienthal's experimental gliders of the late 19th century. Storks are heavy, with wide wingspans: the Marabou Stork, with a wingspan of 3.2 m, joins the Andean Condor in having the widest wingspan of all living land birds.

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Sigillography

Sigillography

Sigillography is one of the auxiliary sciences of history. It refers to the study of seals attached to documents as a source of historical information. It concentrates on the legal and social meaning of seals, as well as the evolution of their design. It has links to diplomatics, heraldry, social history, and the history of art. Antiquaries began to record historic seals in the 15th century, and in the 16th and 17th centuries their study became a fairly widespread antiquarian activity. The term sigillography is first found in the works of Jean Mabillon in the late 17th century, and in those of Johann Michael Heineccius soon afterwards. Initially thought as a branch of diplomatics, the discipline gradually became an independent branch of historical studies. In the second half of the 19th century sigillography was further developed by German and French historians, among them Hermann Grotefend, Otto Posse, Louis-Claude Douet d'Arcq and Germain Demay. Sigillography is also an important subdiscipline of Byzantine studies, involving the study of Byzantine lead seal impressions and the text and images thereon. Its importance derives from both the scarcity of surviving Byzantine documents themselves, and from the large number of extant seals. One of the largest compendiums of Byzantine seals can be found in the large-volume by Gustave Schlumberger, "Sigillographie de l'empire Byzantin," published in 1904.

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Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig was a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. His father, who was syndic of Eisfeld, died when he was twelve years old, and he was brought up amidst uncongenial conditions. He had devoted his leisure time to poetry and music, which unfitted him for the mercantile career planned for him. The attention of the Duke of Meiningen was directed to one of his musical compositions, an opera, Die Köhlerin, and Ludwig was enabled in 1839 to continue his musical studies under Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig. But ill health and constitutional shyness caused him to give up a musical career and he turned exclusively to literary studies, and wrote several stories and dramas. Of the latter, Der Erbförster attracted immediate attention as a masterly psychological study. It was followed by Die MakkabÀer, in which the realistic method of Der Erbförster was transferred to an historical milieu, which allowed more brilliant coloring and a freer play of the imagination. With these tragedies, to which may be added Die Rechte des Herzens and Das FrÀulein von Scuderi, the comedy Hans Frey, and an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Agnes Bernauer, Ludwig ranks immediately after Christian Friedrich Hebbel as Germany's most notable dramatic poet at the middle of the 19th century.

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Maenad

Maenad

In Greek mythology, maenads were the female followers of Dionysus, the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue. Their name literally translates as "raving ones". Often the maenads were portrayed as inspired by Dionysus into a state of ecstatic frenzy, through a combination of dancing and drunken intoxication. In this state, they would lose all self-control, begin shouting excitedly, engage in uncontrolled sexual behavior, and ritualistically hunt down and tear to pieces animals—and, at least in myth, sometimes men and children—devouring the raw flesh. During these rites, the maenads would dress in fawn skins and carry a thyrsus, a long stick wrapped in ivy or vine leaves and tipped by a cluster of leaves; they would weave ivy-wreaths around their heads or wear a bull helmet in honor of their god, and often handle or wear snakes. German philologist Walter Friedrich Otto writes that The maddened Hellenic women of real life were mythologized as the mad women who were nurses of Dionysus in Nysa: Lycurgus "chased the Nurses of the frenzied Dionysus through the holy hills of Nysa, and the sacred implements dropped to the ground from the hands of one and all, as the murderous Lycurgus struck them down with his ox-goad." They went into the mountains at night and practised strange rites.

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Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire was a complex political union of territories in Central Europe existing from 962 to 1806. The empire grew out of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire, and explicitly proclaimed itself the continuation of the Western Roman Empire under the doctrine of translatio imperii. Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned as emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, restoring the title in the West after more than three centuries. The title was passed in a desultory manner during the decline and fragmentation of the Carolingian dynasty, eventually falling into abeyance. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, beginning an unbroken line of emperors running for over eight centuries. The territories making up the Empire lay predominantly in Central Europe. At its peak in 1050, under Emperor Henry III, it included the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Burgundy. The Holy Roman Empire never achieved the extent of political unification formed in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains. The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords and kings of the Empire were his vassals and subjects, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto sovereignty within their territories.

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Deutsches Theater

Deutsches Theater

The Deutsches Theater in Berlin is a well-known German theatre. It was built in 1850 as Friedrich-Wilhelm-StÀdtisches Theater, after Frederick William IV of Prussia. Located on Schumann Street, the Deutsches Theater consists of two adjoining stages that share a common, classical facade. The main stage was built in 1850, originally for operettas. Adolf L'Arronge founded the Deutsches Theater in 1883 with the ambition of providing Berliners with a high-quality ensemble-based repertory company on the model of the German court theatre, the Meiningen Ensemble, which had been developed by Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his colleagues to become "the most widely admired and imitated company in Europe", thanks to its historically accurate sets and costumes, vividly-realized crowd scenes, and meticulous directorial control. Otto Brahm, the leading exponent of theatrical Naturalism in Germany, took over the direction of the theatre in 1894, and applied that approach to a combination of classical productions and stagings of the work of the new realistic playwrights. One of Brahm's ensemble, the legendary theatre director Max Reinhardt, took over the directorship in 1904. Under his leadership it acquired a reputation as one of the most significant theatres in the world. In 1905 he founded a theatre-school and built a chamber theatre. Reinhardt remained the artistic director of the theatre until he fled Nazi Germany in 1933.

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Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. This results in motion even at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure at any temperature because of its zero-point energy. The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913, as a corrective term added to a zero-grounded formula developed by Max Planck in 1900. The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie. An alternative form of the German term is Nullpunktenergie. Vacuum energy is the zero-point energy of all the fields in space, which in the Standard Model includes the electromagnetic field, other gauge fields, fermionic fields, and the Higgs field. It is the energy of the vacuum, which in quantum field theory is defined not as empty space but as the ground state of the fields. In cosmology, the vacuum energy is one possible explanation for the cosmological constant. A related term is zero-point field, which is the lowest energy state of a particular field.

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House of Habsburg

House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg, also spelled Hapsburg, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, England, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian countries. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain and her colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.

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Gynophobia

Gynophobia

Gynophobia is an abnormal fear of women. In the past, the Latin term was used, horror feminae, meaning "fear of women". The word caligynephobia is also coined to mean the fear of beautiful women. For the latter one, the expression venustraphobia is also used. In many cases, it may also be rooted in social phobia or social anxiety disorder. Gynophobia used to be considered a driving force toward homosexuality. Havelock Ellis in his 1896 Studies in the Psychology of Sex wrote: "It is, perhaps, not difficult to account for the horror — much stronger than that normally felt toward a person of the same sex — with which the invert often regards the sexual organs of persons of the opposite sex. It cannot be said that the sexual organs of either sex under the influence of sexual excitement are esthetically pleasing; they only become emotionally desirable through the parallel excitement of the beholder. When the absence of parallel excitement is accompanied in the beholder by the sense of unfamiliarity as in childhood, or by a neurotic hypersensitiveness, the conditions are present for the production of intense horror feminae or horror masculis, as the case may be. It is possible that, as Otto Rank argues in his interesting study, "Die Nacktheit in Sage und Dichtung," [sic] this horror of the sexual organs of the opposite sex, to some extent felt even by normal people, is embodied in the Melusine type of legend."

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Archimedean property

Archimedean property

In abstract algebra and analysis, the Archimedean property, named after the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse, is a property held by some ordered or normed groups, fields, and other algebraic structures. Roughly speaking, it is the property of having no infinitely large or infinitely small elements. It was Otto Stolz who gave the axiom of Archimedes its name because it appears as Axiom V of Archimedes’ On the Sphere and Cylinder. The notion arose from the theory of magnitudes of Ancient Greece; it still plays an important role in modern mathematics such as David Hilbert's axioms for geometry, and the theories of ordered groups, ordered fields, and local fields. An algebraic structure in which any two non-zero elements are comparable, in the sense that neither of them is infinitesimal with respect to the other, is said to be Archimedean. A structure which has a pair of non-zero elements, one of which is infinitesimal with respect to the other, is said to be non-Archimedean. For example, a linearly ordered group that is Archimedean is an Archimedean group. This can be made precise in various contexts with slightly different ways of formulation. For example, in the context of ordered fields, one has the axiom of Archimedes which formulates this property, where the field of real numbers is Archimedean, but that of rational functions in real coefficients is not.

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Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar, also spelt Bhubaneshwar, is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha, formerly known as Orissa. The city has a history of over 3,000 years starting with the Mahamegha-bahana Chedi dynasty which had its capital at Sisupalgarh, nearby. Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord of the Three World, which refers to Shiva. Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari. It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India. With many Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a Temple City of India and together with Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja; one of eastern India's most visited destinations. Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the twin-cities of Odisha. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.4 million in 2011. Bhubaneswar is categorized as a Tier-2 city. An emerging Information Technology and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of country's fastest developing cities.

— Freebase

Howard Pyle

Howard Pyle

Howard Pyle was an American illustrator and author, primarily of books for young people. A native of Wilmington, Delaware, he spent the last year of his life in Florence, Italy. In 1894 he began teaching illustration at the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry. After 1900, he founded his own school of art and illustration, named the Howard Pyle School of Illustration Art. The scholar Pitz later used the term Brandywine School for the illustration artists and Wyeth family artists of the Brandywine region, several of whom had studied with Pyle. Some of his more notable students were N. C. Wyeth, Frank Schoonover, Elenore Abbott, Ethel Franklin Betts, Anna Whelan Betts, Harvey Dunn, Clyde O. DeLand, Philip R. Goodwin, Violet Oakley, Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle, Olive Rush, Allen Tupper True, and Jessie Willcox Smith. His 1883 classic publication The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood remains in print, and his other books, frequently with medieval European settings, include a four-volume set on King Arthur. He is also well known for his illustrations of pirates, and is credited with creating what has become the modern stereotype of pirate dress. He published his first novel, Otto of the Silver Hand, in 1888. He also illustrated historical and adventure stories for periodicals such as Harper's Weekly and St. Nicholas Magazine. His novel Men of Iron was adapted as the movie The Black Shield of Falworth.

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Cincinnatian

Cincinnatian

The Cincinnatian was a named passenger train operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The B&O inaugurated service on January 19, 1947, with service between Baltimore, Maryland and Cincinnati, Ohio, essentially a truncated route of the National Limited which operated between Jersey City, New Jersey and St. Louis. This route was unsuccessful due to the thin population along the line, and the route was changed on June 25, 1950 from a Baltimore-Cincinnati daylight schedule to a Detroit-Cincinnati daylight schedule where it would remain until the creation of Amtrak. On this new routing, the train sets became successful almost from the beginning. The Cincinnatian on this route used many mail cars, which contributed to the route's success. The Cincinnatian is most famed for its original dedicated equipment, rebuilt in the B&O Mount Clare Shops. The design work was done by Olive Dennis, a pioneering civil engineer employed by the railroad and appointed by Daniel Willard to special position in charge of such work for passenger service. Four P-7 "president" class Pacific locomotives were rebuilt and shrouded as class P-7d, with roller bearings on all axles and larger six-axle tenders. Older heavyweight passenger cars were completely stripped and rebuilt as streamliners. The livery used the blue and gray scheme designed by Otto Kuhler, which Dennis laid on the engine and tender in a pattern of horizontal stripes and angled lines.

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Jenny Lind

Jenny Lind

Johanna Maria Lind, better known as Jenny Lind, was a Swedish opera singer, often known as the "Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music from 1840. Lind became famous after her performance in Der FreischĂŒtz in Sweden in 1838. Within a few years, she had suffered vocal damage, but the singing teacher Manuel GarcĂ­a saved her voice. She was in great demand in opera roles throughout Sweden and northern Europe during the 1840s, becoming the protĂ©gĂ©e of Felix Mendelssohn. After two acclaimed seasons in London, she announced her retirement from opera at the age of 29. In 1850, Lind went to America at the invitation of the showman P. T. Barnum. She gave 93 large-scale concerts for him and then continued to tour under her own management. She earned more than $350,000 from these concerts, donating the proceeds to charities, principally the endowment of free schools in Sweden. With her new husband, Otto Goldschmidt, she returned to Europe in 1852 where she had three children and gave occasional concerts over the next two decades, settling in England in 1855. From 1882, for some years, she was a professor of singing at the Royal College of Music in London.

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Adamsite

Adamsite

Adamsite or DM is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine, that can be used as a riot control agent. DM belongs to the group of chemical warfare agents known as vomiting agents or sneeze gases. First synthesized in Germany by Heinrich Otto Wieland in 1915, it was independently developed by the US chemist Roger Adams at the University of Illinois in 1918. DM was produced and stockpiled by the Americans at the end of World War I, but never deployed on the battlefield. It was used against the Bonus Army who demonstrated in Washington, DC, in 1932, reportedly causing the death and serious injury of several children who had accompanied their parents on the protests. DM is an odourless crystalline compound with a very low vapour pressure. The colour of the crystals ranges from bright yellow to dark green depending on the purity. It is readily soluble in some organic solvents, but nearly insoluble in water. In vaporous form it appears as a canary yellow smoke. Adamsite is usually dispersed as an aerosol, making the upper respiratory tract the primary site of action. Although the effects are similar to those caused by typical riot control agents, they are slower in onset and longer in duration, often lasting several hours. After a latency period of 5–10 minutes irritation of the eyes, lungs and mucous membranes develops followed by headache, nausea and persistent vomiting.

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Otto Luening

Otto Luening

Otto Clarence Luening was a German-American composer and conductor, and an early pioneer of tape music and electronic music. Luening was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to German parents, Eugene,a conductor and composer, and Emma, an amateur singer. When he was 12, his family moved to Munich, where he studied music at the State Academy of Music. At age 17, he moved to Switzerland and attended the Municipal Conservatory of Music in Zurich and University of Zurich, where he studied with Ferruccio Busoni and Philipp Jarnach, and was also an actor and stage manager for James Joyce's English Players Company. He returned to the United States in 1924, and appeared mainly as a conductor of operas, in Chicago and the Eastman School of Music. His conducting premieres included Virgil Thomson's The Mother of Us All, Gian Carlo Menotti's The Medium, and his own Evangeline. Luening's 'Tape Music', including A Poem in Cycles & Bells, Gargoyles for Violin & Synthesized Sound, and Sounds of New Music demonstrated the early potential of synthesizers and special editing techniques for electronic music. An October 28, 1952 concert with Vladimir Ussachevsky at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City introduced Fantasy in Space, flute recordings manipulated on magnetic tape, and led to an appearance on The Today Show with Dave Garroway. Luening was co-founder, along with Ussachevsky, of the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1958. He also co-founded Composers Recordings, Inc. in 1954, with Douglas Moore and Oliver Daniel.

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Reich

Reich

Reich is one of the three major German empires that have existed. These were, respectively: ⁕the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which lasted from the coronation of Otto I as a Holy Roman Emperor in 962 to 1806, when it was dissolved during the Napoleonic Wars; ⁕the German Empire, which lasted from the unification of Germany in 1871 to its collapse after World War I, during the German Revolution of 1918–1919; ⁕the National Socialist state commonly known as the Third Reich or Nazi Germany, which lasted from the Machtergreifung in 1933 to the End of World War II in Europe in 1945. The term reich derives from the German word meaning realm, kingdom, or empire. It is a word cognate with the English word rich with the same meaning as an adjective, but more importantly its homonym as a noun, Reich, is usually used in German to designate a kingdom or an empire and also the Roman Empire. The terms Kaisertum and Kaiserreich are used in German to more specifically define an empire led by an emperor. To some extent Reich is comparable in meaning and development to the English word realm. In the case of the Hohenzollern Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich, which is literally translated as "German Realm", because formally the official position of its head of state, in the Constitution of the German Empire, was a "presidency" of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia. He assumed the title of "German Emperor", which referred to the German nation rather than directly to the "country" of Germany.

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Maternal deprivation

Maternal deprivation

The term maternal deprivation is a catch-phrase summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951, which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. Bowlby drew together such empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA, including Spitz and Goldfarb. His main conclusions, that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so might have significant and irreversible mental health consequences, were both controversial and influential. The monograph was published in 14 different languages and sold over 400,000 copies in the English version alone. Bowlby's work went beyond the suggestions of Otto Rank and Ian Suttie that mothering care was essential for development, and focused on the potential outcomes for children deprived of such care.

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Åhus

Åhus

Åhus is the second largest locality in Kristianstad Municipality, SkĂ„ne County, Sweden with 9,423 inhabitants in 2010, but it triples during the summer due to tourists who come seeking the beaches and nature of the HelgeĂ„ and Hanöbukten area. Åhus is also famous for hosting one of the largest beach handball tournaments in the world with approximately 20,000 participants. In 2011, nearby Åhus in the village of Rinkaby the World Scout Meeting also known as the Jamboree will be held. An old town, Åhus gained its city privileges in 1149, but lost them in 1617 when Kristianstad was built, following the burning of VĂ€ by Swedish king Gustav II Adolf during the Kalmar War, 1611-13. Built during the 12th century, one of Åhus oldest buildings is Sankta Maria kyrka. The town is also center for the famous Swedish Eel-parties, where people come together during August and September to eat eel and drink considerable amounts of schnapps, mostly the world famous locally produced Absolut Vodka. In 1950 an ice-cream factory was built in Åhus, Åhus Glass. The factory was bought by another company and is now made and sold under the name Ingeman Glass. Today, the original owners of Åhus Glass have reopened under a new brand, Otto Glass, producing ice cream with the original Åhus Glass recipes -- the company is famous for its chocolate-dipped waffle cones. Another ice cream factory in SkĂ„ne is Engelholms Glass.

— Freebase

Jerome Kern

Jerome Kern

Jerome David Kern was an American composer of musical theatre and popular music. One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century, he wrote more than 700 songs, used in over 100 stage works, including such classics as "Ol' Man River", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man", "A Fine Romance", "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", "All the Things You Are", "The Way You Look Tonight", "Long Ago" and "Who?". He collaborated with many of the leading librettists and lyricists of his era, including George Grossmith Jr., Guy Bolton, P. G. Wodehouse, Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein II, Dorothy Fields, Johnny Mercer, Ira Gershwin and E. Y. Harburg. A native New Yorker, Kern created dozens of Broadway musicals and Hollywood films in a career that lasted for more than four decades. His musical innovations, such as 4/4 dance rhythms and the employment of syncopation and jazz progressions, built on, rather than rejected, earlier musical theatre tradition. He and his collaborators also employed his melodies to further the action or develop characterization to a greater extent than in the other musicals of his day, creating the model for later musicals. Although dozens of Kern's musicals and musical films were hits, only Show Boat is now regularly revived. Songs from his other shows, however, are still frequently performed and adapted. Although Kern detested jazz arrangements of his songs, many have been adopted by jazz musicians to become standard tunes.

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WeltenBrand

WeltenBrand

Weltenbrand is a darkwave band from The principality of Liechtenstein formed in 1995 by Oliver Falk with Ritchie Wenaweser and Simone Steiner joined for vocals. That same year, the band secured a record deal with Witchhunt Records and subsequently released their debut Das Rabenland a romantically inclined Darkwave album that immediately found acceptance within the genre. A year later, WeltenBrand signed to Oliver Falks own M.O.S. Records Ltd. to record and release their second offering, Das Nachtvolk, in 1997. This release featured WeltenBrand violinist Daniela Nipp fort he first time and remained true to the bands sound, while improving upon both the musical and vocal arrangements Der Untergang Von Trisona was released in 1999. The bands third album quickly received much praise from the media for its bombastic appeal and relentless energy apparent on each track. Its Neo Dark Classic style, boasting of medieval influences, also caught the attention of Liv Kristine and Alexander Krull, whose enthusiasm can be heard on the album, as both of them contribruted vocally to this work. WeltenBrand released In Gottes Oder Des Teufels Namen in 2002. The album concentrated on featuring clear vocal arrangements and straightforward compositions without losing the uniqueness attributed to the band. While each WeltenBrand album presents a different perspective of the bands sound, they do share a common thread. The lyrics always stem from Liechtensteins myths and legends as told by Dr. Otto Seger.

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Karzer

Karzer

A Karzer was a designated lock-up or detention room to incarcerate students for punishment, within a jurisdiction of some institutions of learning in Germany. Karzers existed both at universities and at gymnasiums in Germany until the beginning of the twentieth century. Marburg's last Karzer inmate, for example, was registered as late as 1931. Responsible for the administration of the Karzer was the so-called Pedell, or during later times KarzerwĂ€rter. While Karzer arrest originally would have been a severe punishment, the respect for these punishment diminished with time, particularly in the 19th century, as it came a matter of honour to have been incarcerated at least once during one's time at university. At the end of 19th century, as the students in the cell became responsible for their own food and drink and receiving of visitors became permitted, the "punishment" would often turn into a social occasion with excessive consumption of alcohol. Karzers have been preserved at the universities of Heidelberg, Jena, Marburg, Freiburg, TĂŒbingen, Freiberg, Greifswald, Göttingen and at Friedrich-Alexander-UniversitĂ€t Erlangen-NĂŒrnberg in Erlangen. The Karzer in Göttingen was known, after the Pedell BrĂŒhbach, as Hotel de BrĂŒhbach; it was moved in the 19th century, because of the extension of the university library, to the Aula building; a cell door, preserved from the old Karzer, shows graffiti by Otto von Bismarck. Bearing witness to how the students spent the time in the cell are the many memorable wall, table and door paintings left by students in the cells and today shown as tourist attractions in the older German universities.

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Anne Frank

Anne Frank

Annelies "Anne" Marie Frank is one of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Her diary has been the basis for several plays and films. Born in the city of Frankfurt am Main in Weimar Germany, she lived most of her life in or near Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. Born a German national, Frank lost her citizenship in 1941. She gained international fame posthumously after her diary was published. It documents her experiences hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. The Frank family moved from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933, the year the Nazis gained control over Germany. By the beginning of 1940, they were trapped in Amsterdam by the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in some concealed rooms in the building where Anne's father worked. After two years, the group was betrayed and transported to concentration camps. Anne Frank and her sister, Margot, were eventually transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they died of typhus in March 1945. Otto Frank, the only survivor of the family, returned to Amsterdam after the war to find that Anne's diary had been saved, and his efforts led to its publication in 1947. It was translated from its original Dutch and first published in English in 1952 as The Diary of a Young Girl. It has since been translated into many languages. The diary, which was given to Anne on her 13th birthday, chronicles her life from 12 June 1942 until 1 August 1944.

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Megastructure

Megastructure

A megastructure is a very large manmade object, though the limits of precisely how large this is vary considerably. Some apply the term to any especially large or tall building. Some sources define a megastructure as an enormous self-supporting artificial construct. Other criteria such as rigidity or contiguousness are sometimes also applied, so large clusters of associated smaller structures may or may not qualify. The products of megascale engineering or astroengineering are megastructures. Most megastructure designs could not be constructed with today's level of industrial technology. This makes their design examples of speculative engineering. Those that could be constructed easily qualify as megaprojects. Megastructures are also an architectural concept popularized in the 1960s where a city could be encased in a single building, or a relatively small number of buildings interconnected. Such arcology concepts are popular in science fiction. Megastructures often play a part in the plot or setting of science fiction movies and books, such as Rendezvous with Rama by Arthur C. Clarke. In 1968, Ralph Wilcoxon defined a megastructure as any structural framework into which rooms, houses, or other small buildings can later be installed, uninstalled, and replaced; and which is capable of "unlimited" extension. Many architects have designed such megastructures. Some of the more notable such architects and architectural groups include the Metabolist Movement, Archigram, Cedric Price, Frei Otto, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Yona Friedman, and Buckminster Fuller. This type of framework allows the structure to adapt to the individual wishes of its residents, even as those wishes change with time.

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Hugo Winckler

Hugo Winckler

Hugo Winckler was a German archaeologist and historian who uncovered the capital of the Hittite Empire at Boğazkale, Turkey. Winckler was a student of the languages of the ancient Middle East. He wrote extensively on Assyrian cuneiform and the Old Testament, compiled a history of Babylonia and Assyrian that was published in 1891, and translated both the Code of Hammurabi and the Amarna letters. In 1904, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Berlin. Winckler began excavations at Boğazkale in 1906 with support from the German Orient Society together with Ottoman archeologist Theodore Makridi. His excavations revealed a stockpile of thousands of hardened clay tablets, many written in the hitherto unknown Hittite language, that allowed Winckler to draw a preliminary outline of Hittite history in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. Winckler continued excavations at the site until 1912, during which time his finds proved that the city was once the capital of a great empire. Otto Rank references Winckler in Art and Artist as the, "rediscoverer of the ancient Oriental world picture, in the fifth to sixth millenia B.C... Winckler's popular description: "The whole universe is the great world, the macrocosm; it's parts are small universes in themselves, microcosms. Such a *microcosm* is man, who is himself an image of the universe and a perfect being. But the great universe is likewise a man, and as it is `God,' God has human form. *`In his own image,'* therefore, was man created. This was still the belief of medieval medicine, which we know to have had a method of dividing up the human body according to the twelve signs of the zodiac. On this `scientific' treatment of a patient was based... "

— Freebase

Supergirl

Supergirl

Supergirl is a female counterpart to Superman. As his cousin, she shares his super powers and vulnerability to Kryptonite. She was created by writer Otto Binder and designed by artist Al Plastino in 1959. She first appeared in the Action Comics comic book series and later branched out into animation, film, television, and merchandising. In May 2011, Supergirl placed 94th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time. Supergirl plays a supporting role in various DC Comics publications, including Action Comics, Superman, and several comic book series unrelated to Superman. In 1969, Supergirl's adventures became the lead feature in Adventure Comics, and she later starred in an eponymous comic book series which debuted in 1972 and ran until 1974, followed by a second monthly comic book series titled The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl, which ran from 1982 to 1984. Supergirl dies in the 1985 limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, and DC Comics subsequently rebooted the continuity of the DC Comics Universe, reestablishing Superman's character as the sole survivor of Krypton's destruction. Following the conclusion of Crisis on Infinite Earths, several different characters written as having no familial relationship to Superman have assumed the role of Supergirl, including Matrix, Linda Danvers, and Cir-El. Following the cancellation of the third Supergirl comic book series, starring the Linda Danvers version of the character, a modern version of Kara Zor-El was reintroduced into the DC Comics continuity in issue #8 of the Superman/Batman comic book series titled "The Supergirl from Krypton". The modern Kara Zor-El stars as Supergirl in an eponymous comic book series, in addition to playing a supporting role in various other DC Comics publications.

— Freebase

Rudolf Caracciola

Rudolf Caracciola

Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola, more commonly Rudolf Caracciola, was a racing driver from Remagen, Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship, the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship, an unsurpassed three times. He also won the European Hillclimbing Championship three times – twice in sports cars, and once in Grand Prix cars. Caracciola raced for Mercedes-Benz during their original dominating Silver Arrows period, named after the silver colour of the cars, and set speed records for the firm. He was affectionately dubbed Caratsch by the German public, and was known by the title of Regenmeister, or "Rainmaster", for his prowess in wet conditions. Caracciola began racing while he was working as apprentice at the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen during the early 1920s, first on motorcycles and then in cars. Racing for Mercedes-Benz, he won his first two Hillclimbing Championships in 1930 and 1931, and moved to Alfa Romeo for 1932, where he won the Hillclimbing Championship for the third time. In 1933, he established the privateer team Scuderia C.C. with his fellow driver Louis Chiron, but a crash in practice for the Monaco Grand Prix left him with multiple fractures of his right thigh, which ruled him out of racing for more than a year. He returned to the newly reformed Mercedes-Benz racing team in 1934, with whom he won three European Championships, in 1935, 1937 and 1938. Like most German racing drivers in the 1930s, Caracciola was a member of the Nazi paramilitary group National Socialist Motor Corps, but never a member of the Nazi Party. He returned to racing after the Second World War, but crashed in qualifying for the 1946 Indianapolis 500. A second comeback in 1952 was halted by another crash, in a sports car race in Switzerland.

— Freebase

B. Traven

B. Traven

B. Traven was the pen name of a presumably German novelist, whose real name, nationality, date and place of birth and details of biography are all subject to dispute. A rare certainty is that B. Traven lived much of his life in Mexico, where the majority of his fiction is also set—including The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, which was adapted for the Academy Award winning film of the same name in 1948. Virtually every detail of Traven's life has been disputed and hotly debated. There were many hypotheses on the true identity of B. Traven, some of them wildly fantastic. Most agree that Traven was Ret Marut, a German stage actor and anarchist, who supposedly left Europe for Mexico around 1924. There are also reasons to believe that Marut/Traven's real name was Otto Feige and that he was born in Schwiebus in Brandenburg, modern day ƚwiebodzin in Poland. B. Traven in Mexico is also connected with Berick Traven Torsvan and Hal Croves, both of whom appeared and acted in different periods of the writer's life. Both, however, denied being Traven and claimed that they were his literary agents only, representing him in contacts with his publishers. B. Traven is the author of twelve novels, one book of reportage and several short stories, in which the sensational and adventure subjects combine with a critical attitude towards capitalism, reflecting the socialist and even anarchist sympathies of the writer. B. Traven's best known works include the novels The Death Ship from 1926 and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre from 1927, in 1948 filmed by John Huston, and the so-called Jungle Novels, also known as the Caoba cyclus, a group of six novels, published in the years 1930–1939, set among Mexican Indians just before and during the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. B. Traven's novels and short stories became very popular as early as the interwar period and retained this popularity after the second world war; they were also translated into many languages. Most of B. Traven's books were published in German first and their English editions appeared later; nevertheless the author always claimed that the English versions were the original ones and that the German versions were only their translations. This claim is not taken seriously.

— Freebase


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