Definitions containing bĂ dtcher, ludwig

We've found 135 definitions:

wittgensteinian

Wittgensteinian

in the manner of Ludwig Wittgenstein

— Princeton's WordNet

Beethoven

Beethoven

A surname, usually applying to Ludwig van Beethoven

— Wiktionary

beethovenian

Beethovenian

of or relating to Ludwig van Beethoven or his music

— Princeton's WordNet

Wittgensteinian

Wittgensteinian

One who believes or follows the principles of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

— Wiktionary

Misesian

Misesian

A person who substantially agrees with the economic analyses of Ludwig von Mises.

— Wiktionary

Beethovenian

Beethovenian

Of or pertaining to Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer and pianist.

— Wiktionary

Ludwig

Ludwig

Ludwig is a 1972 film directed by Italian director Luchino Visconti about the life and death of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Helmut Berger stars as Ludwig, Romy Schneider reprises her role as Empress Elisabeth of Austria. The film was made in Munich and other parts of Bavaria at these locations: Berg Castle, Castle Herrenchiemsee, Castle Hohenschwangau, Linderhof Palace, Ettal and Neuschwanstein Castle.

— Freebase

Boltzmannian

Boltzmannian

Of or pertaining to Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844u20131906), Austrian physicist who made pioneering contributions to statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics.

— Wiktionary

Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian-born twentieth-century philosopher noted for the idea of "family resemblance" as that which individual objects of a sense of a term have in common.

— Wiktionary

Wittgensteinian

Wittgensteinian

Of or pertaining to the person or ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian-born twentieth-century philosopher noted for the idea of "family resemblance" as that which individual objects of a sense of a term have in common.

— Wiktionary

Alexander Ludwig

Alexander Ludwig

Alexander Ludwig is a Canadian actor, singer and model. He played Will Stanton in the 2007 fantasy film, The Seeker: The Dark Is Rising. In March 2009, Ludwig appeared in a lead role in Disney's Race to Witch Mountain. In 2012, he played Cato, the male tribute from District Two, in The Hunger Games.

— Freebase

Sangaree

Sangaree

Sangaree is a 1953 film directed by Edward Ludwig.

— Freebase

Eurydike

Eurydike

Eurydike is a film directed by Ludwig Cremer released on Aug 20, 1964.

— Freebase

Gustav Ludwig Hertz

Gustav Ludwig Hertz

Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.

— Freebase

Max DelbrĂŒck

Max DelbrĂŒck

Max Ludwig Henning DelbrĂŒck, ForMemRS was a German–American biophysicist. He won the Nobel prize for discovering that bacteria become resistant to viruses as a result of genetic mutations.

— Freebase

Arnim, Bettine von

Arnim, Bettine von

sister of Clemens Brentano, wife of Ludwig Arnim, a native of Frankfort; at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe, then in his 60th year, visited him at Weimar, and corresponded with him afterwards, part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Uhland

Uhland

Uhland is a city in Caldwell and Hays Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 1,014 at the 2010 census. Uhland is named after the German poet Ludwig Uhland.

— Freebase

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was an Austrian physicist whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms determine the visible properties of matter.

— Freebase

Dindorf, Wilhelm

Dindorf, Wilhelm

a German philologist, born at Leipzig; devoted his life to the study of the ancient Greek classics, particularly the dramatists, and edited the chief of them, as well as the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" of Homer, with notes; was joint-editor with his brothers Ludwig and Hase of the "Thesaurus Græcæ Linguæ" of Stephanus (1802-1883).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig was a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. His father, who was syndic of Eisfeld, died when he was twelve years old, and he was brought up amidst uncongenial conditions. He had devoted his leisure time to poetry and music, which unfitted him for the mercantile career planned for him. The attention of the Duke of Meiningen was directed to one of his musical compositions, an opera, Die Köhlerin, and Ludwig was enabled in 1839 to continue his musical studies under Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig. But ill health and constitutional shyness caused him to give up a musical career and he turned exclusively to literary studies, and wrote several stories and dramas. Of the latter, Der Erbförster attracted immediate attention as a masterly psychological study. It was followed by Die MakkabÀer, in which the realistic method of Der Erbförster was transferred to an historical milieu, which allowed more brilliant coloring and a freer play of the imagination. With these tragedies, to which may be added Die Rechte des Herzens and Das FrÀulein von Scuderi, the comedy Hans Frey, and an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Agnes Bernauer, Ludwig ranks immediately after Christian Friedrich Hebbel as Germany's most notable dramatic poet at the middle of the 19th century.

— Freebase

Bulb of penis

Bulb of penis

Just before each crus of the penis meets its fellow it presents a slight enlargement, which Georg Ludwig Kobelt named the bulb of the corpus spongiosum penis. It is homologous to the vestibular bulbs in females.

— Freebase

Walter Gropius

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.

— Freebase

Praxeology

Praxeology

Praxeology is the deductive study of human action based on the action axiom. The most common use of the term is in connection with the Austrian School of Economics, as established by economist Ludwig von Mises.

— Freebase

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze

Leo von Klenze was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, Leo von Klenze was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival style.

— Freebase

Classical period

Classical period

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1730 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense to describe a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1750 to 1820. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic. Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.

— Freebase

Boltzmann constant

Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature. It is the gas constant R divided by the Avogadro constant NA: It has the same dimension as entropy.

— Freebase

Rudolf Mössbauer

Rudolf Mössbauer

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer was a German physicist best known for his 1957 discovery of recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics. This effect, called the Mössbauer effect, is the basis for Mössbauer spectroscopy.

— Freebase

Barcelona chair

Barcelona chair

The Barcelona chair is a chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Lilly Reich. It was originally designed for the German Pavilion, that country's entry for the International Exposition of 1929, which was hosted by Barcelona, Spain.

— Freebase

Zinkenite

Zinkenite

Zinkenite is a steel-gray metallic sulfosalt mineral composed of lead antimony sulfide Pb9Sb22S42. Zinkenite occurs as acicular needle-like crystals. It was first described in 1826 for an occurrence in the Harz Mountains, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany and named after its discoverer, German mineralogist and mining geologist, Johann Karl Ludwig Zinken.

— Freebase

Ferdinand Buisson

Ferdinand Buisson

Ferdinand Édouard Buisson was a French academic, educational bureaucrat, pacifist and Radical-Socialist politician. He presided over the Human Rights League from 1914 to 1926. Buisson helped create France's system of universal, nonsecratarian primary education in the 1880s. He received together with the German politician Ludwig Quidde the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927.

— Freebase

Boltzmann brain

Boltzmann brain

A Boltzmann brain is a hypothesized self-aware entity which arises due to random fluctuations out of a state of chaos. The idea is named for the physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who advanced an idea that the known universe arose as a random fluctuation, similar to a process through which Boltzmann brains might arise.

— Freebase

Gerhard Stoltenberg

Gerhard Stoltenberg

Gerhard Stoltenberg was a German politician and minister in the cabinets of Ludwig Erhard, Kurt Georg Kiesinger and Helmut Kohl. He served as minister-president of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein from 1971 to 1982 and as such as President of the Bundesrat in 1977/78.

— Freebase

Kinsky catalog

Kinsky catalog

Werke ohne Opuszahl is a German musical catalogue prepared in 1955 by Hans Halm and Georg Kinsky, listing all of the compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven that were not originally published with an opus number, or survived only as fragments. The abbreviation WoO is also used sometime to refer to works without opus by other composers.

— Freebase

Aschoff body

Aschoff body

In medicine, Aschoff bodies are nodules found in the hearts of individuals with rheumatic fever. They result from inflammation in the heart muscle and are characteristic of rheumatic heart disease. These nodules were discovered independently by Ludwig Aschoff and Paul Rudolf Geipel, and for this reason they are occasionally called Aschoff-Geipel bodies.

— Freebase

Alcmena

Alcmena

Alcmena is a genus of jumping spiders. The genus was first described by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1846 based on the species Alcmena psittacina and Alcmena amabilis. The genus consists of four species endemic to North and South America. A fifth species, Alcmena trifasciata, was described by Caporiacco in 1954, but declared a nomen dubium by Ruiz and Brescovit in 2008.

— Freebase

Amyloid degeneration

Amyloid degeneration

Amyloid degeneration is a type of degeneration with the deposit of lardacein in the tissues. It indicates impairment of nutritive function and is seen in wasting diseases. ⁕Also sometimes called Abercrombie's disease, Abercrombie's syndrome, Virchow's syndrome, bacony disease, cellulose disease, hyaloid disease, lardaceous disease, and waxy disease. It's alternate names honour Scottish physician John Abercrombie and German physician Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow.

— Freebase

Miles

Miles

Miles is a small town in Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Miles had a population of 1,164. The town is situated on the Warrego Highway, 340 kilometres west of Brisbane, the state capital. Formerly known as Dogwood Crossing, the town is situated on Dogwood Creek, named by German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt in 1844. The town was renamed Miles in honour of the Queensland Colonial Secretary, William Miles.

— Freebase

Phenazone

Phenazone

Phenazone, phenazon, antipyrine, or analgesine is an analgesic and antipyretic. It was first synthesized by Ludwig Knorr in 1883. It is formed by reducing diortho- dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150 °C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156 °C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid. Phenazone has an elimination half life of about 12 hours.

— Freebase

Beethoven

Beethoven

Beethoven is a 1992 family comedy film, directed by Brian Levant and starring Charles Grodin and Bonnie Hunt. The film is the first in the Beethoven film series. It was written by John Hughes and Amy Holden Jones. The story centers on a St. Bernard dog named after the composer Ludwig van Beethoven owned by the Newton family and co-stars Nicholle Tom, Christopher Castile, Sarah Rose Karr, Stanley Tucci, Oliver Platt and Dean Jones.

— Freebase

Knoll

Knoll

Knoll is a design firm that produces office systems, seating, files and storage, tables and desks, textiles, and accessories for office and for the home. The company also manufactures furniture for the home by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Harry Bertoia, Florence Knoll, Frank Gehry, Maya Lin and Eero Saarinen under the company's KnollStudio division. Over 40 Knoll designs can be found in the permanent design collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

— Freebase

Heimia

Heimia

Heimia is a genus of flowering plants in the loosestrife family, Lythraceae. It contains two or three species of closely related shrubs commonly known as sun opener or shrubby yellowcrest. They are native to the Americas, from northern Argentina north to the southernmost United States. The leaves are 2–5 cm long and 1 cm broad, entire, and variably arranged alternate, opposite or whorled on the stems. All species produce five-petaled yellow flowers. The plants have a history of medicinal use in a variety of American cultures. Several pharmacologically active alkaloids have been detected in the plants. The generic names honours German physician Ernst Ludwig Heim.

— Freebase

Fidelio

Fidelio

Fidelio is a German opera with spoken dialogue in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto is by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly which had been used for the 1798 opera LĂ©onore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, and for the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer. The opera tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison.

— Freebase

Lotte Lehmann

Lotte Lehmann

Charlotte "Lotte" Lehmann was a German soprano who was especially associated with German repertory. She gave memorable performances in the operas of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner, Ludwig van Beethoven, Puccini, Mozart, and Massenet. The Marschallin in Der Rosenkavalier, Sieglinde in Die WalkĂŒre and the title-role in Fidelio are considered her greatest roles. During her long career, Lehmann also made more than five hundred recordings. Her performances in the world of Lieder are considered among the best ever recorded.

— Freebase

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die BrĂŒcke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis and in 1937 over 600 of his works were sold or destroyed. In 1938 he committed suicide by gunshot.

— Freebase

Hanover

Hanover

a Prussian province since 1866, formerly an independent kingdom; stretches N. from Westphalia to the German Ocean, between Holland on the W. and Saxony on the E.; the district is well watered by the Elbe, Weser, and Ems; in the S. are the Harz Mountains; for the rest the land is flat, and much of it is occupied by uncultivated moors; agriculture and cattle-rearing are, however, the chief industries, while the minerals of the Harz are extensively wrought; in 1714 George Ludwig, second Elector of Hanover, succeeded Anne on the English throne as her nearest Protestant kinsman, and till 1837 the dual rule was maintained, Hanover meanwhile in 1814 having been made a kingdom; in 1837 the Hanoverian crown passed to the Duke of Cumberland, Queen Victoria, as a woman, being ineligible; in 1866 the kingdom was conquered and annexed by Prussia.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ludwigite

Ludwigite

Ludwigite is a magnesium-iron borate mineral: Mg2FeBO5. Ludwigite typically occurs in magnesian iron skarn and other high temperature contact metamorphic deposits. It occurs in association with magnetite, forsterite, clinohumite and the borates vonsenite and szaibelyite. It forma a solid solution series with the iron-iron borate mineral vonsenite. It was first described in 1874 for an occurrence in Ocna de Fier, Banat Mountains, Caras-Severin, Romania and named for Ernst Ludwig, an Austrian chemist at the University of Vienna.

— Freebase

Max Planck

Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics.

— Freebase

Destructionism

Destructionism

Destructionism is a term used by Ludwig Von Mises, a classical liberal economist, to refer to policies that consume capital but do not accumulate it. It is the title of Part V of his seminal work Socialism. Since accumulation of capital is the basis for economic progress, Von Mises warned that pursuing socialist and etatist policies will eventually lead to the consumption and reliance on old capital, borrowed capital, or printed "capital" as these policies cannot create any new capital, instead only consuming the old.

— Freebase

Thermophoresis

Thermophoresis

Thermophoresis, or thermodiffusion, or thermomigration, or the Soret effect, or the Ludwig-Soret effect is a phenomenon observed in mixtures of mobile particles where the different particle types exhibit different responses to the force of a temperature gradient. The term thermophoresis most often applies to aerosol mixtures, but may also commonly refer to the phenomenon in all phases of matter. The term Soret effect normally applies to liquid mixtures, which behave according to different, less well-understood mechanisms than gaseous mixtures.

— Freebase

symphony

symphony

A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, scored almost always for orchestra. A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle. Many symphonies are tonal works in four movements with the first in sonata form, which is often described by music theorists as the structure of a "classical" symphony, although many symphonies by the acknowledged classical masters of the form, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven do not conform to this model.

— Freebase

Skatole

Skatole

Skatole or 3-methylindole is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound belonging to the indole family. It occurs naturally in feces and coal tar and has a strong fecal odor. In low concentrations, it has a flowery smell and is found in several flowers and essential oils, including those of orange blossoms, jasmine, and Ziziphus mauritiana. It is used as a fragrance and fixative in many perfumes and as an aroma compound. Its name is derived from the Greek root skato- meaning "dung". Skatole was discovered in 1877 by the German physician Ludwig Brieger.

— Freebase

Disgregation

Disgregation

In the history of thermodynamics, disgregation was defined in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as the magnitude of the degree in which the molecules of a body are separated from each other. This term was modeled on certain passages in French physicist Sadi Carnot's 1824 paper On the Motive Power of Fire that characterized the "transformations" of "working substances" of an engine cycle, namely "mode of aggregation", which was a precursor to the concept of entropy, which Clausius coined in 1865. It was also a precursor to that of Ludwig Boltzmann's 1870s theories of entropy and order and disorder.

— Freebase

Lola Montez

Lola Montez

Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, Countess of Landsfeld, better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld. She used her influence to institute liberal reforms. At the start of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, she was forced to flee. She proceeded to the United States via Switzerland, France and London, returning to her work as an entertainer and lecturer. For a time she visited Australia.

— Freebase

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene. In his lifetime, Brahms's popularity and influence were considerable; following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von BĂŒlow, he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs". Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished. Brahms is often considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. He was a master of counterpoint, the complex and highly disciplined art for which Johann Sebastian Bach is famous, and of development, a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and other composers. Brahms aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers.

— Freebase

Karl Baedeker

Karl Baedeker

Karl Ludwig Johannes Baedeker, known universally as Karl Baedeker, was a German publisher whose company Baedeker set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. Karl Baedeker was descended from a long line of printers, booksellers and publishers. He was the eldest of ten children of Gottschalk Diederich BĂ€deker, who had inherited the publishing house founded by his own father, Zacharias Gerhard BĂ€deker. The company also published the local newspaper, the Essendische Zeitung, and the family expected that Karl, too, would eventually join the firm. Karl changed the spelling of the family name from BĂ€deker with the umlaut to Baedeker around 1850.

— Freebase

Toxin

Toxin

A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger. For a toxic substance not produced within living organisms, "toxicant" and "toxics" are also sometimes used. Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute to almost immediately deadly.

— Freebase

Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein is a 1993 film by the English director Derek Jarman. It is loosely based on the life story as well as the philosophical thinking of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The adult Wittgenstein is played by Karl Johnson. The original screenplay was by the literary critic Terry Eagleton. Jarman heavily rewrote the script during pre-production and shooting, radically altering the style and structure, although retaining much of Eagleton's dialogue. The story is not played out in a traditional setting, but rather against a black backdrop within which the actors and key props are placed, as if in a theatre setting.

— Freebase

Madeline

Madeline

Madeline is a children's book series written by Ludwig Bemelmans, an Austrian author. The books have been adapted into numerous formats, spawning telefilms, television series and also into a live action feature film. The adaptations are famous for the closing line, first uttered by actress Ethel Barrymore in a play, "That's all there is; there isn't any more." The first book in the series, Madeline, was published in 1939. It proved to be a success, and Bemelmans wrote many sequels to the original during the 1940s and 1950s. The series continues to this day, written by Bemelmans' grandson John Bemelmans-Marciano.

— Freebase

Absolute music

Absolute music

Absolute music is music that is not explicitly "about" anything; in contrast to program music, it is non-representational. The idea of absolute music developed at the end of the 18th century in the writings of authors of early German Romanticism, such as Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck and E. T. A. Hoffmann but the term was not coined until 1846 where it was first used by Richard Wagner in a programme to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. A related idea from 19th-century composers, but often contested, considers absolute music as a form of divinity itself which could be evoked by music. The aesthetic ideas underlying the absolute music debate relate to Kant's aesthetic disinterestedness from his Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, and has led to numerous arguments among musicians, composers, music historians and critics.

— Freebase

Vincent Persichetti

Vincent Persichetti

Vincent Ludwig Persichetti was an American composer, teacher, and pianist. An important musical educator and writer, Persichetti was a native of Philadelphia. He was known for his integration of various new ideas in musical composition into his own work and teaching as well as for training many noted composers in composition at the Juilliard School. His students at Juilliard included Philip Glass, Michael Jeffrey Shapiro, Kenneth Fuchs, Richard Danielpour, Robert Dennis, Peter Schickele, Lowell Liebermann, Robert Witt, Randell Croley, William Schimmel, and Leo Brouwer. He also taught composition to conductor James DePreist at the Philadelphia Conservatory.

— Freebase

Hedenbergite

Hedenbergite

Hedenbergite, CaFeSi2O6, is the iron rich end member of the pyroxene group having a monoclinic crystal system. The mineral is extremely rarely found as a pure substance, and usually has to be synthesized in a lab. It was named in 1819 after M.A. Ludwig Hedenberg, who was the first to define hedenbergite as a mineral. Contact metamorphic rocks high in iron are the primary geologic setting for hedenbergite. This mineral is unique because it can be found in chondrites and skarns. Since it is a member of the pyroxene family, there is a great deal of interest in its importance to general geologic processes.

— Freebase

Human Action

Human Action

Human Action: A Treatise on Economics is the thirteenth work of the Austrian economist and philosopher Ludwig von Mises. Widely considered Mises' magnum opus, it presents the case for laissez-faire capitalism based on praxeology, or rational investigation of human decision-making. It rejects positivism within economics. It defends an a priori epistemology and underpins praxeology with a foundation of methodological individualism and speculative laws of apodictic certainty. Mises argues that the free-market economy not only outdistances any government-planned system, but ultimately serves as the foundation of civilization itself. Nationalökonomie: Theorie des Handelns und Wirtschaftens is the 1940 German-language predecessor to Human Action.

— Freebase

Spendthrift

Spendthrift

A spendthrift is someone who spends money prodigiously and who is extravagant and recklessly wasteful, often to a point where the spending climbs well beyond his or her means. The word derives from an obsolete sense of the word "thrift" to mean prosperity rather than frugality, so that a "spendthrift" is one who has spent his prosperity. Historical figures who have been characterized as spendthrifts include German philosopher Karl Marx George IV of Great Britain, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and Marie Antoinette. The term is often used by the press as an adjective applied to governments who are thought to be wasting public money.

— Freebase

Blackwater

Blackwater

Blackwater is the major town of a significant coal mining area in Central Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Blackwater had a population of 5,031. Six major open cut coal mines and one underground dot the landscape surrounding the town and provide its main employment opportunities. The town is also situated close to the Blackdown Tableland National Park which lies to the south. Emerald is 74km to the west. Blackwater is supposedly named after the Blackwater Creek which apparently was first observed to flow with black water, this may have been caused by tree roots growing into the creek. Coal deposits were discovered there by Ludwig Leichhardt in 1845.

— Freebase

Otto Preminger

Otto Preminger

Otto Ludwig Preminger was an Austro–Hungarian-American theatre and film director. After moving from the theatre to Hollywood, he directed over 35 feature films in a five-decade career. He rose to prominence for stylish film noir mysteries such as Laura and Fallen Angel. In the 1950s and 1960s, he directed a number of high-profile adaptations of popular novels and stage works. Several of these pushed the boundaries of censorship by dealing with topics which were then taboo in Hollywood, such as drug addiction, rape and homosexuality. He was twice nominated for the Best Director Academy Award. He also had a few acting roles.

— Freebase

Molly Pitcher

Molly Pitcher

Molly Pitcher was a nickname given to a woman said to have fought in the American Battle of Monmouth, who is generally believed to have been Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley. Since various Molly Pitcher tales grew in the telling, many historians regard Molly Pitcher as folklore rather than history, or suggest that Molly Pitcher may be a composite image inspired by the actions of a number of real women. The name itself may have originated as a nickname given to women who carried water to men on the battlefield during the war. Army base Fort Bragg holds an annual event called "Molly Pitcher Day" showcasing weapon systems for family members, Airborne Operations, and Field Artillery.

— Freebase

Albrecht Penck

Albrecht Penck

Albrecht Penck, was a German geographer and geologist and the father of Walther Penck. Born in Reudnitz near Leipzig, Penck became a university professor in Vienna from 1885 to 1906, and in Berlin from 1906 to 1927. There he was also the director of the Institute and Museum for Oceanography by 1918. Penck dedicated himself to geomorphology and climatology and raised the international profile of the Vienna School of physical geography. In 1945, Penck died in Prague. Since 1886, he was married to the sister of the successful Bavarian regional writer Ludwig Ganghofer. In memory of Penck, the painter and sculptor Ralf Winkler adopted the nom de plume A. R. Penck in 1966. Albrecht Penck was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1905.

— Freebase

Angelic acid

Angelic acid

Angelic acid is a monocarboxylic unsaturated organic acid. It is mostly found in the plants of the family Apiaceae. German pharmacist Ludwig Andreas Buchner isolated angelic acid in 1842 from the roots of garden angelica which gave the acid its name. Angelic acid is a volatile solid with a biting taste and pungent sour odor. It is the trans isomer of 2-methyl-2-butenoic acid, which easily converts to the cis isomer, tiglic acid, upon heating or reaction with inorganic acids. The reverse transformation occurs much less readily. The salts and esters of angelic acid are called angelates. Angelic acid esters are the active components of herbal medicine used against a wide range of various health disturbances including pains, fever, gout, heartburn, etc.

— Freebase

Song cycle

Song cycle

A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in a sequence as a single entity. As a rule, all of the songs are by the same composer and often use words from the same poet or lyricist. Unification can be achieved by a narrative or a persona common to the songs, or even, as in Robert Schumann's second Liederkreis, by the atmospheric setting of the forest. The unity of the cycle is often underlined by musical means, famously in the return in the last song of the opening music in Ludwig van Beethoven's An die ferne Geliebte. The term originated to describe cycles of art songs in classical music, and has been extended to apply to popular music.

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Winterreise

Winterreise

Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert, a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm MĂŒller. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on MĂŒller's poems, the earlier being Die schöne MĂŒllerin. Both were originally written for tenor voice but are frequently transposed to suit other vocal ranges - the precedent being established by Schubert himself. These two works have posed interpretative demands on listeners and performers due to their scale and structural coherence. Although Ludwig van Beethoven's cycle An die ferne Geliebte had been published earlier, in 1816, Schubert's two cycles hold the foremost place in the history of the genre.

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Hausmannite

Hausmannite

Hausmannite is a complex oxide of manganese containing both di- and tri-valent manganese. The formula can be represented as Mn2+Mn3+2O4. It belongs to the spinel group and forms tetragonal crystals. Hausmannite is a brown to black metallic mineral with Mohs hardness of 5.5 and a specific gravity of 4.8. The type locality is Oehrenstock, Ilmenau, Thuringian Forest, Thuringia, Germany. Locations include Batesville, Arkansas, USA; Ilfeld, Germany; Langban, Sweden; and the Ural Mountains, Russia. The best samples have been found in South Africa and Namibia where it is associated with other manganese oxides, pyrolusite and psilomelane and the iron-manganese mineral bixbyite. Wilhelm Haidinger named it in honour of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, professor of mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany.

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George Edward Moore

George Edward Moore

George Edward Moore OM, FBA was an English philosopher. He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy. Along with Russell, he led the turn away from idealism in British philosophy, and became well known for his advocacy of common sense concepts, his contributions to ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics, and "his exceptional personality and moral character." He was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge, highly influential among the Bloomsbury Group, and the editor of the influential journal Mind. He was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1918. He is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with his wife Dorothy Moore, née Ely.

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Demag

Demag

Demag or Demag Cranes AG is a German heavy equipment manufacturer now controlled by US based Terex. The roots of Demag date back prior to its formation, but became MĂ€rkische Maschinenbau-Anstalt, Ludwig A.-G in 1906 as the biggest crane building company in Germany employing 250-300 people. The company was a manufacturer of industrial cranes that included types like, bridge cranes, hoist, overhead cranes, Gantry crane to name a few. In 1910 came the hour of the Deutsche Maschinenfabrik in Duisburg – known worldwide by its telegram abbreviation Demag. In 1973 The Mannesmann group assumed ownership of Demag. Since that time the company has continued to grow and change. Parts of the company under core business structuring moved from its ownership to focus the main concept of the company.

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Kymograph

Kymograph

A kymograph is a device that gives a graphical representation of spatial position over time in which a spatial axis represents time. It basically consists of a revolving drum wrapped with a sheet of paper on which a stylus moves back and forth recording perceived changes of phenomena such as motion or pressure. It was invented by German physiologist Carl Ludwig in the 1840s and found its first use as a means to intrusively monitor blood pressure, and has found several applications in the field of medicine. Its primary use was to measure phenomena such as changes in muscular contractions or other physiological processes, including speech sounds. Kymographs were also used to measure atmospheric pressure, tuning fork vibrations, and the functioning of steam engines.

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Écossaise

Écossaise

Écossaise is a type of contra dance in a Scottish style that was popular in France and Great Britain at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th. The Ă©cossaise was usually danced in 2/4 time. The musical form was also adopted by some classical composers including Franz Schubert, Ludwig van Beethoven and FrĂ©dĂ©ric Chopin who wrote a number of Ă©cossaises for the piano, which are recognized for their lively rhythm. This music usually has significant dynamic contrast — it will use fortissimos and pianissimos very close together. It has a unique dynamic energy to it. They sometimes have a central tune which some of the strains are based on. One by J. N. Hummel is in the second volume for piano in the Suzuki Method.

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Logocentrism

Logocentrism

Logocentrism is a term coined by the German philosopher Ludwig Klages in the 1920s. It refers to the tradition of "Western" science and philosophy that situates the logos, ‘the word’ or the ‘act of speech’, as epistemologically superior in a system, or structure, in which we may only know, or be present in, the world by way of a logocentric metaphysics. For this structure to hold true it must be assumed that there is an original, irreducible object to which the logos is representative, and therefore, that our presence in the world is necessarily mediated. If there is a Platonic Ideal Form then there must be an ideal representation of such a form. This ideal representation is according to logocentrist thought, the logos.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science. In physiology and psychology, he is known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism. In physics, he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy, work in electrodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics. As a philosopher, he is known for his philosophy of science, ideas on the relation between the laws of perception and the laws of nature, the science of aesthetics, and ideas on the civilizing power of science. The largest German association of research institutions, the Helmholtz Association, is named after him.

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Dachau

Dachau

Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th-century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance. Dachau was founded in the 8th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th century; well-known author and editor Ludwig Thoma lived here for two years. The town is also known for its proximity to the infamous Dachau concentration camp built in 1933 by the Nazis, in which tens of thousands of prisoners were murdered.

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Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse

Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse

Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel ĂŒber der Spree in Berlin and Die Krokodile in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas. The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910 "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories." Wirsen, one of the Nobel judges, said that "Germany has not had a greater literary genius since Goethe." Heyse is the fourth oldest laureate in literature, after Doris Lessing, Theodor Mommsen and Jaroslav Seifert.

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Predominant chord

Predominant chord

In music theory, a predominant chord is any chord which normally resolves to a dominant chord. Examples of predominant chords are the subdominant, supertonic, Neapolitan sixth and German sixth. Other examples are the submediant, secondary dominant, iv and ii°. The predominant harmonic function is part of the fundamental harmonic progression of many classical works. The dominant preparation is a chord or series of chords that precedes the dominant chord in a musical composition. Usually, the dominant preparation is derived from a circle of fifths progression. The most common dominant preparation chords are the supertonic, the subdominant, the V7/V, the Neapolitan chord, and the augmented sixth chords.66 In sonata form, the dominant preparation is in the development, immediately preceding the recapitulation. Ludwig van Beethoven's sonata-form works generally have extensive dominant preparation — for example, in the first movement of the Sonata PathĂ©tique, the dominant preparation lasts for 29 measures.

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Donna

Donna

"Donna" is a song written and sung by Ritchie Valens, featuring the 50s progression. The song was released in 1958 on Del-Fi Records. It reached #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart the following year, becoming Valens' highest-charting single. It was written as a tribute to his high school sweetheart Donna Ludwig, now known as Donna Fox. "Donna", the second Ritchie Valens single released, was the A side of the influential and more famous song "La Bamba". This single was only one of three, along with the previous single and the follow-up ever released in Valens's lifetime. Original Del-Fi pressings of "Donna"/"La Bamba" include black and sea green labels with circles, later replaced with solid sea green or solid dark green labels. Early 1960s pressings have black labels with sea green "sawtooth" outer edge.

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Logical atomism

Logical atomism

Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy. Its principal exponents were the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, the early work of his Austrian-born pupil and colleague Ludwig Wittgenstein, and his German counterpart Rudolf Carnap. The theory holds that the world consists of ultimate logical "facts" that cannot be broken down any further. Having originally propounded this stance in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittgenstein rejected it in his later Philosophical Investigations. The name for this kind of theory was coined in 1918 by Russell in response to what he called "logical holism"; i.e. the belief that the world operates in such a way that no part can be known without the whole being known first. This belief is commonly called monism, and in particular, Russell were reacting to the absolute idealism dominant then in Britain.

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Hippocratic Oath

Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine honestly. It is widely believed to have been written either by Hippocrates, often regarded as the father of western medicine, or by one of his students. The oath is written in Ionic Greek, and is usually included in the Hippocratic Corpus. Classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein proposed that the oath was written by Pythagoreans, a theory that has been questioned due to the lack of evidence for a school of Pythagorean medicine. Of historic and traditional value, the oath is considered a rite of passage for practitioners of medicine in many countries, although nowadays the modernized version of the text varies among them. The Hippocratic Oath is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards.

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Neo-expressionism

Neo-expressionism

Neo-expressionism is a style of modern painting and sculpture that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. Related to American Lyrical Abstraction of the 60s and 70s, Bay Area Figurative School of the 50s and 60s, the continuation of Abstract Expressionism, New Image Painting and precedents in Pop painting, it developed as a reaction against the conceptual art and minimal art of the 1970s. Neo-expressionists returned to portraying recognizable objects, such as the human body, in a rough and violently emotional way using vivid colours and banal colour harmonies. Overtly inspired by the so-called German Expressionist painters--Emil Nolde, Max Beckmann, George Grosz, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner--and other expressionist artists such as James Ensor and Edvard Munch. Neo-expressionists were sometimes called Neue Wilden. The style emerged internationally and was viewed by many critics such as Achille Bonito Oliva and Donald Kuspit as a revival of traditional themes of self-expression in European art after decades of American dominance. The social and economic value of the movement was hotly debated.

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Joseph Haydn

Joseph Haydn

Franz Joseph Haydn, known as Joseph Haydn, was an Austrian composer, one of the most prolific and prominent of the Classical period. He is often called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet" because of his important contributions to these forms. He was also instrumental in the development of the piano trio and in the evolution of sonata form. A lifelong resident of Austria, Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy EsterhĂĄzy family on their remote estate. Isolated from other composers and trends in music until the later part of his long life, he was, as he put it, "forced to become original". At the time of his death, he was one of the most celebrated composers in Europe. Joseph Haydn was the brother of Michael Haydn, himself a highly regarded composer, and Johann Evangelist Haydn, a tenor. He was also a close friend of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and a teacher of Ludwig van Beethoven.

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Pittacal

Pittacal

Pittacal was the first synthetic dyestuff to be produced commercially. It was accidentally discovered by German chemist Carl Ludwig Reichenbach in 1832, who was also the discoverer of kerosene, phenol, eupion, paraffin wax and creosote. As the history goes, Reichenbach applied creosote to the wooden posts of his home, in order to drive away dogs who urinated on them. The strategy was ineffectual, however, and he noted that the dog's urine reacted with creosote to form an intense dark blue deposit. He named the new substance pĂ­ttacal. He later was able to produce pure pittacal by treating beechwood tar with barium oxide and using alumina as a mordant to the dye's fabrics. Although sold commercially as a dyestuff, it did not fare well. Eupittone is a yellow crystalline substance resembling aurin, and obtained by the oxidation of pittacal. It is also called also eupittonic acid or eupitton.

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Hakea

Hakea

Hakea is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. They are found throughout the country, with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australia. They can reach 1–6 m in height, and have spirally arranged leaves 2–20 cm long, simple or compound, sometimes with the leaflets thin cylindrical and rush-like. The flowers are produced in dense flowerheads of variable shape, globose to cylindrical, 3–10 cm long, with numerous small red, yellow, pink, purple, pale blue or white flowers. Hakeas are named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake, the 18th century German patron of botany, following Heinrich Schrader's description of Hakea teretifolia in 1797. It is now beginning to become accepted that Grevillea is paraphyletic with respect to Hakea. It is likely, therefore, that Hakea may soon be transferred into Grevillea.

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Truth table

Truth table

A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—to compute the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, on each combination of values taken by their logical variables. In particular, truth tables can be used to tell whether a propositional expression is true for all legitimate input values, that is, logically valid. Practically, a truth table is composed of one column for each input variable, and one final column for all of the possible results of the logical operation that the table is meant to represent. Each row of the truth table therefore contains one possible configuration of the input variables, and the result of the operation for those values. See the examples below for further clarification. Ludwig Wittgenstein is often credited with their invention in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation, in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern thought, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers; his faith in "transcendental ideality" led him to accept atheism and learn from Christian philosophy. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced a long list of thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges.

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International Style

International Style

The International Style is a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of Modern architecture. The term originated from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style, that identified, categorized and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects. The authors identified three principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, the emphasis on balance rather than preconceived symmetry, and the expulsion of applied ornament. The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to define a style that would encapsulate this modern architecture, doing this by the inclusion of specific architects. The book was written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932. All the works in the exhibition were carefully selected, only displaying those that strictly followed these rules. Previous uses of the term in the same context can be attributed to Walter Gropius in Internationale Architektur, and Ludwig Hilberseimer in Internationale neue Baukunst.

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Albrecht Kossel

Albrecht Kossel

Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift fĂŒr Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.

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D major

D major

D major is a major scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F♯, G, A, B, and C♯. Its key signature consists of two sharps. Its relative minor is B minor and its parallel minor is D minor. D major is well-suited to violin music because of the structure of the instrument, which is tuned G D A E. The open strings resonate sympathetically with the D string, producing a sound that is especially brilliant. It is thus no coincidence that many classical composers throughout the centuries have chosen to write violin concertos in D major, including those by Mozart; Ludwig van Beethoven; Paganini; Brahms; Tchaikovsky; Prokofiev; Stravinsky; and Korngold. It is appropriate for guitar music, with drop D tuning making two Ds available as open strings. A famous example is the pop song "Hey There Delilah", which utilizes the solo acoustic guitar in D major. For some beginning wind instrument students, however, D major is not a very suitable key, since it transposes to E major on B-flat wind instruments, and beginning methods generally tend to avoid keys with more than three sharps.

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Ulexite

Ulexite

Ulexite, sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes, by internal reflection. Ulexite was named for the German chemist Georg Ludwig Ulex who first discovered it. Ulexite is a structurally complex mineral, with a basic structure containing chains of sodium, water and hydroxide octahedra. The chains are linked together by calcium, water, hydroxide and oxygen polyhedra and massive boron units. The boron units have a formula of B5O6(OH)6 and a charge of −3. They are composed of three borate tetrahedra and two borate triangular groups. Ulexite is found in evaporite deposits and the precipitated ulexite commonly forms a "cotton ball" tuft of acicular crystals. Ulexite is frequently found associated with colemanite, borax, meyerhofferite, hydroboracite, probertite, glauberite, trona, mirabilite, calcite, gypsum and halite. It is found principally in California and Nevada, USA; Tarapacá Region in Chile, and Kazakhstan. Ulexite is also found in a vein-like bedding habit composed of closely packed fibrous crystals.

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Cellulitis

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a localized or diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by normal skin flora or by exogenous bacteria, and often occurs where the skin has previously been broken: cracks in the skin, cuts, blisters, burns, insect bites, surgical wounds, intravenous drug injection or sites of intravenous catheter insertion. Skin on the face or lower legs is most commonly affected by this infection, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body. The mainstay of therapy remains treatment with appropriate antibiotics, and recovery periods last from 48 hours to six months. Erysipelas is the term used for a more superficial infection of the dermis and upper subcutaneous layer that presents clinically with a well-defined edge. Erysipelas and cellulitis often coexist, so it is often difficult to make a distinction between the two. In Ludwig's angina, an acute and potentially life threatening condition, cellulitis occurs within the submandibular space. Cellulitis is unrelated to cellulite, a cosmetic condition featuring dimpling of the skin.

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Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born, and generally known in English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. A grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family, although initially he was raised without religion and was later baptised as a Reformed Christian. Mendelssohn was recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent. Early success in Germany, where he also revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, was followed by travel throughout Europe. Mendelssohn was particularly well received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there – during which many of his major works were premiered – form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The Leipzig Conservatoire, which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy is a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Scandinavia, Australia, and New Zealand, the vast majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments. The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to: ⁕A broad philosophical tradition characterized by an emphasis on clarity and argument and a respect for the natural sciences. ⁕The more specific set of developments of early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the broad sense: e.g., the work of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege, and logical positivists. In this latter, narrower sense, analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical commitments, such as: ⁕The logical positivist principle that there are not any specifically philosophical truths and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts. This may be contrasted with the traditional foundationalism, which considers philosophy as a special, elite science that investigates the fundamental reasons and principles of everything. As a result, many analytic philosophers have considered their inquiries as continuous with, or subordinate to, those of the natural sciences.

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Hans Geiger

Hans Geiger

Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm Geiger was a German physicist. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geiger counter and for the Geiger-Marsden experiment which discovered the Atomic nucleus. Geiger was born at Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He was one of five children born to the Indologist Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger, who was professor at the University of Erlangen. In 1902, Geiger started studying physics and mathematics in University of Erlangen and was awarded a doctorate in 1906. In 1907 he began work with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester and in 1909, along with Ernest Marsden, conducted the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment called the "gold foil experiment". Together they created the Geiger counter. In 1911 Geiger and John Mitchell Nuttall discovered the Geiger-Nuttall law and performed experiments that led to Rutherford's atomic model. In 1928 Geiger and his student Walther MĂŒller created an improved version of the Geiger counter, the Geiger-MĂŒller counter. Geiger also worked with James Chadwick. In 1912 he became leader of the Physical-Technical Reichsanstalt in Berlin, 1925 professor in Kiel, 1929 in TĂŒbingen, and from 1936 in Berlin.

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QWERTZ

QWERTZ

The QWERTZ or QWERTZU keyboard is a widely used computer and typewriter keyboard layout that is mostly used in Central Europe. The name comes from the first six letters at the top left of the keyboard: Q, W, E, R, T, and Z. The QWERTZ layout differs from the QWERTY layout in four major ways: ⁕The positions of the "Z" and "Y" keys are switched, this change being made for two major reasons: ⁕"Z" is a much more common letter than "Y" in German; the latter rarely appears outside words whose spellings reflect either their importation from a foreign language or the Hellenization of an older German form under the influence of Ludwig I of Bavaria. ⁕"T" and "Z" often appear next to each other in the German orthography, and placing the two keys next to each other minimizes the effort needed for typing the two characters in sequence. ⁕Part of the keyboard is adapted to include umlauted vowels. ⁕The placements of some special symbols and command keys are changed, some of special key inscriptions are changed from an abbreviation to a graphical symbol, and most of the other abbreviations are replaced by German abbreviations. "Esc" for "escape" is not translated however.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music, choral works, and songs. Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and Christian Gottlob Neefe. During his first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 and began studying with Haydn, quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. In about 1800 his hearing began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf. He gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works come from this period.

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J. Willard Gibbs

J. Willard Gibbs

Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous deductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics, explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of large ensembles of particles. Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwell's equations to problems in physical optics. As a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus. In 1863, Yale awarded Gibbs the first American doctorate in engineering. After a three-year sojourn in Europe, Gibbs spent the rest of his career at Yale, where he was professor of mathematical physics from 1871 until his death. Working in relative isolation, he became the earliest theoretical scientist in the United States to earn an international reputation and was praised by Albert Einstein as "the greatest mind in American history". In 1901 Gibbs received what was then considered the highest honor awarded by the international scientific community, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London, "for his contributions to mathematical physics".

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GfK

GfK

The GfK Group, established in 1934 as Gesellschaft fĂŒr Konsumforschung is Germany's largest market research institute, and the fourth largest market research organisation in the world, after Nielsen Company, Kantar Group and Ipsos. It was founded by an association of university teachers, among them Ludwig Erhard, later Minister for Economics and Chancellor of Germany. In April 2005 it acquired NOP World, based mostly in the United Kingdom, the United States and Italy, which was rated the ninth largest market research business in the world, a move described by the company as "the most important decision made by GfK since going public in 1999." In May 2008 it acquired an equity stake in Deep-Packet Inspection company Qosmos in order to track and monitor Internet usage for marketing research. In December 2011, GfK acquired Knowledge Networks, based in Palo Alto, the United States, which does online research for consumer products and services, pharmaceuticals, retail, media, and public policy. KN's Dimestore platform offers unique platform for measuring the effectiveness of digital ad campaign with simple surveys of streaming video ads, that allows real-time reporting also.

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Draisine

Draisine

A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle, driven by service personnel, equipped to transport crew and material necessary for the maintenance of railway infrastructure. The eponymous term is derived from German Baron Karl Christian Ludwig Drais von Sauerbronn, who invented his Laufmaschine in 1817, that was called Draisine or Draisienne by the press. It is the first reliable claim for a practically used bicycle, basically the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine commonly called a velocipede, nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse. Later, the name draisine came to be applied only to versions used on rails and was extended to similar vehicles, even when not human-powered. Because of their low weight and small size, they can be put on and taken off the rails at any place, allowing trains to pass. In the United States, motor-powered draisines are known as speeders while human-powered ones are referred as handcars. Vehicles that can be driven on both the highway and the rail line are called hy-rails, or more properly, road-rail vehicles.

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Anticor

Anticor

An anticor, also known as anticoeur or avant-cƓur, among farriers, is a dangerous swelling or inflammation in a horse's breast, of the size and shape of an apple, just opposite the heart. The term literally means anti heart or before heart. The swelling may appear as a hard tumor, slow to develop, or as an inflammation. A traditional remedy, in the first case, involves splitting the skin along the breadth of the tumor, allowing the matter contained to escape, and stopping the hemorrhage by using an amadou or a hot iron. This kind of operation is best done by a veterinarian. If the tumor is inflammatory, one resorts to an oil of pompillion, an ointment made of buds of black poplar, lard and sheets of poppy, belladonna, etc. If it has formed an abscess, one first applies a soft poultice. In pre-modern medicine, this was thought to be caused by a sanguine and bilious humour. The disease has also been erroneously attributed to the heart, whence it was called by Jacques de Solleysell a swelling of the pericardium, whereas it is really an inflammation in the gullet and throat. In humans, this is called Ludwig's angina, or squinancy.

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Table talk

Table talk

Table talk is a species of memoir in which a collector records impromptu comments by some famous person, in anticipation of their lasting value. The collector may go on to publish the remarks in book form. "Table talk" may also refer to a similar informal conversation, more deliberately engaged in by the famous person, with the direct intent of publication. Collections of such table talks by royal persons, celebrities, and other important personalities dating back to the 3rd century exist. The phrase table talk has been in use in the English language since the 16th century. As examples, published table talks exist for: ⁕Frederick the Great; ⁕Martin Luther, see Table Talk; ⁕John Milton; ⁕Samuel Johnson; ⁕Samuel Taylor Coleridge; ⁕Ludwig van Beethoven; ⁕Napoleon Bonaparte; ⁕John Selden; ⁕Johann von Goethe; ⁕Amos Bronson Alcott; ⁕George Bernard Shaw; ⁕Adolf Hitler, see Hitler's Table Talk. Occasionally, comments are collected from others by a notable person as part of that person's working notes and may survive in the papers of that person. Ralph Waldo Emerson, for example, kept notes on the conversations of his family and friends, many of whom, of course, were noteworthy.

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Androgenic alopecia

Androgenic alopecia

Androgenic alopecia is hair loss that occurs due to an underlying susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization. It is the most common cause of hair loss and will affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetime. Men typically present with hairline recession at the temples and vertex balding while women normally diffusely thin over the top of their scalps. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role, and many etiologies remain unknown. Classic androgenic hair loss in males begins above the temples and vertex, or calvaria, of the scalp. As it progresses, a rim of hair at the sides and rear of the head remains. This has been referred to as a 'Hippocratic wreath', and rarely progresses to complete baldness. The Hamilton-Norwood scale has been developed to grade androgenic alopecia in males. Female androgenic alopecia has been colloquially referred to as 'female pattern baldness', although its characteristics can occur in males as well. It more often causes diffuse thinning without hairline recession, and like its male counterpart rarely leads to total hair loss. The Ludwig scale grades severity of androgenic alopecia in females.

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Catatonia

Catatonia

Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility, and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor. It was first described, in 1874, by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum in Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein. In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association it is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, as well as drug abuse or overdose. It may also be seen in many medical disorders including infections, autoimmune disorders, focal neurologic lesions, metabolic disturbances, alcohol withdrawal and abrupt or overly rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal. It can be an adverse reaction to prescribed medication. It bears similarity to conditions such as encephalitis lethargica and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. There are a variety of treatments available; benzodiazepines are a first-line treatment strategy. Electro-convulsive therapy is also sometimes used. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of NMDA antagonists for benzodiazepine resistant catatonia. Antipsychotics are sometimes employed but require caution as they can worsen symptoms and have serious adverse effects.

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Johann Maier

Johann Maier

Johann Maier was from 1939 until his death a preacher at Regensburg Cathedral. On 22 April 1945, Reich Defence Commissar Ludwig Ruckdeschel took city defence to the extreme in Regensburg when United States Army tanks had already reached the Danube. The next day, an excited crowd of people gathered at the Moltkeplatz – nowadays known as Dachauplatz. Johann Maier was there and bade the crowd be quiet as he had something to say. He called for the town's peaceful handover. Even before he had finished his speech, he was seized by plainclothes police. Likewise, several other demonstrators were arrested. That evening, Maier was brought before a drumhead court and sentenced to death by hanging. Michael Buchberger, the Bishop of Regensburg, was frightened into silence and hid himself in a cellar. On the morning of 24 April 1945 at 3:25, Maier was hanged at Moltkeplatz. About his neck, he wore a sign that said "I am a saboteur". Later the Wehrmacht and the SS both fled southwards out of town; Regensburg fell without a fight. Maier's grave can be found in the Cathedral among the bishops' graves. There is also a memorial plaque at the Cathedral.

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Story

Story

Story was a magazine founded in 1931 by journalist-editor Whit Burnett and his first wife, Martha Foley, in Vienna, Austria. Showcasing short stories by new authors, 67 copies of the debut issue were mimeographed in Vienna, and two years later, Story moved to New York City where Burnett and Foley created The Story Press in 1936. By the late 1930s, the circulation of Story had climbed to 21,000 copies. Authors introduced in Story included Charles Bukowski, Erskine Caldwell, John Cheever, Junot Diaz, James T. Farrell, Joseph Heller, J. D. Salinger, Tennessee Williams and Richard Wright. Other authors in the pages of Story included Ludwig Bemelmans, Carson McCullers and William Saroyan. The magazine sponsored various awards, and it held an annual college fiction contest. Burnett's second wife, Hallie Southgate Burnett, began collaborating with him in 1942. During this period, Story published the early work of Truman Capote, John Knowles and Norman Mailer. Story was briefly published in book form during the early 1950s, returning to a magazine format in 1960. Due to a lack of funds, Story folded in 1967, but it maintained its reputation through the Story College Creative Awards, which Burnett directed from 1966 to 1971.

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Catallactics

Catallactics

Catallactics is the praxeological theory of the way the free market system reaches exchange ratios and prices. It aims to analyse all actions based on monetary calculation and trace the formation of prices back to the point where an agent makes his or her choices. It explains prices as they are and not as they should be. The laws of catallactics are not value judgments, but aim to be exact, objective and of universal validity. It was first used extensively by the Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Friedrich Hayek used the term catallaxy to describe "the order brought about by the mutual adjustment of many individual economies in a market." He was dissatisfied with the usage of the word "economy" because its Greek root, which translates as "household management", implies that economic agents in a market economy possess shared goals. Hayek derived the word "Catallaxy" from the Greek verb katallasso which meant not only "to exchange" but also "to admit in the community" and "to change from enemy into friend." According to Mises and Hayek it was Richard Whately who coined the term "catallactics". Whately's Introductory Lectures on Political Economy reads:

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Tautology

Tautology

In logic, a tautology is a formula which is true in every possible interpretation. Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein first applied the term to redundancies of propositional logic in 1921; it had been used earlier to refer to rhetorical tautologies, and continues to be used in that alternate sense. A formula is satisfiable if it is true under at least one interpretation, and thus a tautology is a formula whose negation is unsatisfiable. Unsatisfiable statements, both through negation and affirmation, are known formally as contradictions. A formula that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is said to be logically contingent. Such a formula can be made either true or false based on the values assigned to its propositional variables. The double turnstile notation is used to indicate that S is a tautology. Tautology is sometimes symbolized by "Vpq", and contradiction by "Opq". The tee symbol is sometimes used to denote an arbitrary tautology, with the dual symbol representing an arbitrary contradiction. Tautologies are a key concept in propositional logic, where a tautology is defined as a propositional formula that is true under any possible Boolean valuation of its propositional variables. A key property of tautologies in propositional logic is that an effective method exists for testing whether a given formula is always satisfied.

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Futura

Futura

In typography, Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It was designed as a contribution on the New Frankfurt-project. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative of visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–1933. Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry, in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's seminal Erbar of 1922, Futura was commercially released in 1936. The family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold, and Bold Oblique fonts in 1928. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. Book font was released in 1932. Book Oblique font was released in 1939. Extra Bold font was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1952. Extra Bold Italic font was designed in 1955 by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype. Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's initial design included several geometrically constructed alternative characters and ranging figures, which can be found in the typeface Architype Renner.

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LĂ€ndler

LĂ€ndler

The lÀndler is a folk dance in 3/4 time which was popular in Austria, south Germany, German Switzerland, and Slovenia at the end of the 18th century. It is a dance for couples which strongly features hopping and stamping. It was sometimes purely instrumental and sometimes had a vocal part, sometimes featuring yodeling. When dance halls became popular in Europe in the 19th century, the lÀndler was made quicker and more elegant, and the men shed the hobnail boots which they wore to dance it. Along with a number of other folk dances from Germany and Bohemia, it is thought to have contributed to the evolution of the waltz. A number of classical composers wrote or included lÀndler in their music, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert and Anton Bruckner. In several of his symphonies Gustav Mahler replaced the scherzo with a lÀndler. The Carinthian folk tune quoted in Alban Berg's Violin Concerto is a lÀndler, and another features in Act II of his opera Wozzeck. The "German Dances" of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn also resemble lÀndler. The Johann Strauss Jr, Waltz, "Tales from the Vienna Woods", features a Zither playing in the style of a Landler. Britten's Peter Grimes features a LÀndler in the scene where a dance night is occurring in the Hall.

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Ostensive definition

Ostensive definition

An ostensive definition conveys the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. This type of definition is often used where the term is difficult to define verbally, either because the words will not be understood or because of the nature of the term. It is usually accompanied with a gesture pointing out the object serving as an example, and for this reason is also often referred to as "definition by pointing". Ostensive definitions rely on an analogical or case-based reasoning by the subject they are intended to. For example, defining "red" by pointing out red objects—apples, stop signs, roses—is giving ostensive definition, as is naming. Ostensive definition assumes the questioner has sufficient understanding to recognize the type of information being given. Ludwig Wittgenstein writes: So one might say: the ostensive definition explains the use—the meaning—of the word when the overall role of the word in language is clear. Thus if I know that someone means to explain a colour-word to me the ostensive definition "That is called 'sepia' " will help me to understand the word.... One has already to know something in order to be capable of asking a thing's name. But what does one have to know?

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Bauhaus

Bauhaus

Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term Bauhaus, literally "house of construction", stood for "School of Building". The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. The school existed in three German cities, under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.

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Altbayern

Altbayern

Altbayern is the territory and people of the three oldest parts of the Free State of Bavaria, which were earlier known as Kurbayern after the former Electorate of Bavaria. Altbayern mainly consists of the following Bavarian Regierungsbezirke: ⁕Upper Bavaria ⁕Lower Bavaria ⁕Upper Palatinate Since the term Altbayern targets the cultural difference compared to Franconia as well as with Swabia, some areas surrounding the Upper Franconian town of Wunsiedel as well as the Swabian Aichach-Friedberg district are counted as part of Altbayern, because they share the same history, dialect and culture as the three previously mentioned districts. Strictly speaking, the Upper Austrian Innviertel also belongs to Altbayern, since it was part of the Bavarian electorate until it was attached to the Archduchy of Austria according to the 1779 Treaty of Teschen. The State of "Baiern" has been called "Bayern" since the reign of King Ludwig I. During the reforms Minister Maximilian Josef Montgelas the official spelling of Bavaria was changed from "Baiern" to "Bayern" because of the king's love for Ancient Greek culture. Ideally, the term "Baiern" would be a logical description for the "Altbayern" Region, but since there is no difference in sound between the words "Baiern" and "Bayern" and there is still a great danger of confusing them in writing, the term "Altbayern" is used.

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Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne

Cryptocoryne is a genus of about 50-60 species of aquatic monocot plants from the family Araceae. The genus is naturally distributed in tropical regions of Asia and New Guinea. The typical habitats of Cryptocoryne are mostly streams and rivers with not too rapidly flowing water, in the lowland forest. They also live in seasonally inundated forest pools or on river banks submerged only at high water. Although the proper scientific name of the genus is Cryptocoryne, they are commonly referred to as crypts. The English name "water trumpet" refers to their inflorescence, a spadix enclosed by a spathe, which resembles a trumpet. The first Cryptocoryne species was described in 1779 as Arum spirale by Retzius. The genus was described by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer in 1828. However, the scientific classification of Cryptocoryne species is very complicated and there are different opinions about it. Lagenandra is another genus closely related to the genus Cryptocoryne. The two can be easily told apart since the leaves of Cryptocoryne species exhibit convolute vernation whereas Lagenandra species exhibit involute vernation. The name Cryptocoryne is derived from the Greek crypto, hidden, and koryne, meaning club. The common name refers to the shape of its inflorescence, which is typical of the arum family.

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He is commonly referred to, and was addressed, as Mies, his surname. He served as the last director of Berlin's Bauhaus, and then headed the department of architecture, Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, where he developed the Second Chicago School. Along with Le Corbusier, Alvar Aalto, and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture. Mies, like many of his post-World War I contemporaries, sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created an influential twentieth century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. He strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of free-flowing open space. He called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture. He sought a rational approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but he was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era. He is often associated with his quotation of the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details".

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Oasification

Oasification

In hydrology, oasification is the antonym to desertification by soil erosion; this technique has limited application and is normally considered for much smaller areas than those threatened by desertification. To help the oasification process, engineers aim to develop a thriving dense woody plant cover to redress the hydrological, edaphic and botanical degradation affecting a slope. This is done through appropriate soil preparation and the introduction of suitable plant species. It is also necessary to make adequate water harvesting systems—ideally taking advantage of the degradation process of the slope, collecting runoff water in ponds around the sites to be forested. The term "oasification" was coined in 1999 by AndrĂ©s MartĂ­nez de Azagra Paredes, PhD Forest Engineer and professor on Hydraulics and Forest Hydrology at E.T.S. of Agroforestry Engineering in Palencia, University of Valladolid, Spain. In oasification, soil and nutrient harvesting are regarded as fundamental component parts in the reclamation process of a degraded slope. Besides harvesting water, oasification preserves and accumulates soil and nutrients, helping to control water erosion—a common problem in dry climates. Ludwig et al. reported about sloping areas under semiarid conditions in Australia where the landscape is naturally divided into source and sink zones, which are sometimes reclaimed by plant species through retention of water soil and litter.

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Ironhorse

Ironhorse

Ironhorse was a Canadian rock band from Vancouver, formed by the former The Guess Who and Bachman-Turner Overdrive member, Randy Bachman along with Tom Sparks, Chris Leighton and Ron Foos. They had a minor U.S. hit single in April 1979 with "Sweet Lui-Louise", which peaked at #36 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. In Canada, the song peaked slightly higher at #26. The same track reached #60 in the UK Singles Chart. Ironhorse released two albums on the Scotti Brothers label: 1979's Ironhorse and 1980's Everything is Grey. The second release had Frank Ludwig replacing Sparks, and featured a minor Canadian hit single in "What's Your Hurry Darlin'", which peaked at #84. Foos left to rejoin Paul Revere and the Raiders. In 1980, Ironhorse evolved into Union with the addition of Bachman's former BTO bandmate Fred Turner. Union put out one album On Strike on the CBS subsidiary Portrait Records. As of May, 2013, Randy Bachman has been able to secure the rights to the two Ironhorse albums and plans on releasing them with along with previously unrealeased material in the next couple years. Bachman also has stated he is considering reuniting the band and doing a tour to support the new album.

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Munich

Munich

Munich is the capital and the largest city of the German state of Bavaria. It is located on the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, behind Berlin and Hamburg. About 1.42 million people live within the city limits. Munich was the host city of the 1972 Summer Olympics. Its inhabitants are sometimes called Munichers in English. The city's motto is "MĂŒnchen mag dich". Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz". Its native name, MĂŒnchen, is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Black and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the city's official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian. Modern Munich is a financial and publishing hub, and a frequently top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location in livability rankings. Munich achieved 4th place in frequently quoted Mercer livability rankings in 2011 and 2012. For economic and social innovation, the city was ranked 15th globally out of 289 cities in 2010, and 5th in Germany by the 2thinknow Innovation Cities Index based on analysis of 162 indicators. In 2010, Monocle ranked Munich as the world's most livable city.

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Vinylogy

Vinylogy

Vinylogy has been defined as the transmission of electronic effects through a conjugated organic bonding system. The concept was introduced in 1926 by Ludwig Claisen to explain the acidic properties of formylacetone and related ketoaldehydes. Its adjectival form, vinylogous, is used to apply the concept of vinylogy taught in intermediate undergraduate through graduate/research organic chemistry. To be specific, the concept describes structures and reactivity that involve an atom attached via a carbon-carbon double bond to a further electropositive atom/group. Vinylogous reactivity is the modified behavior observed of the atom/group that is attached via the double bond, which is therefore in conjugation with the electropositive center — where the attached group's reactivity is observed to be analogous to reactions with the EWG itself. For instance, an hydroxyl group attached directly to a carbonyl is by definition a carboxylic acid that can ionize by loss of the proton from the hydroxyl group with an equilibrium constant termed the acid's pKa, a numerical value that reflects the acid's strength. Likewise, when a hydroxyl group is "indirectly" attached to a carbonyl via an intervening vinyl moiety, it is termed a vinylogous carboxylic acid, and it also ionizes by loss of a proton, and with an equilibrium constant very similar to that of the analogous parent carboxylic acid.

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Malinvestment

Malinvestment

Malinvestment is a concept developed by the Austrian School of economic thought, that refers to investments of firms being badly allocated due to what they assert to be an artificially low cost of credit and an unsustainable increase in money supply, often blamed on a central bank. This concept is central to the Austrian business cycle theory. Austrian economists such as Nobel laureate F. A. Hayek advocate the idea that malinvestment occurs due to the combination of fractional reserve banking and artificially low interest rates misleading relative price signals which eventually necessitate a corrective contraction—a boom followed by a bust. The concept dates back to at least 1867. In 1940, Ludwig von Mises wrote, "The popularity of inflation and credit expansion, the ultimate source of the repeated attempts to render people prosperous by credit expansion, and thus the cause of the cyclical fluctuations of business, manifests itself clearly in the customary terminology. The boom is called good business, prosperity, and upswing. Its unavoidable aftermath, the readjustment of conditions to the real data of the market, is called crisis, slump, bad business, depression. People rebel against the insight that the disturbing element is to be seen in the malinvestment and the overconsumption of the boom period and that such an artificially induced boom is doomed. They are looking for the philosophers' stone to make it last."

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Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri was an Italian classical composer, conductor and teacher born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, but who spent his adult life and career as a faithful subject of the Habsburg monarchy. Salieri was a pivotal figure in the development of late 18th-century opera. As a student of Florian Leopold Gassmann, and a protégé of Gluck, Salieri was a cosmopolitan composer who wrote operas in three languages. Salieri helped to develop and shape many of the features of operatic compositional vocabulary and his music was a powerful influence on contemporary composers. Appointed the director of the Italian opera by the Habsburg court, a post he held from 1774 to 1792, Salieri dominated Italian language opera in Vienna. During his career he also spent time writing works for opera houses in Venice, Rome, and Paris. His dramatic works were widely performed throughout Europe during his lifetime. As the Austrian imperial Kapellmeister from 1788 to 1824, he was responsible for music at the court chapel and attached school. Even as his works dropped from performance, and he wrote no new operas after 1804, he still remained one of the most important and sought-after teachers of his generation, and his influence was felt in every aspect of Vienna's musical life. Franz Schubert, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Liszt were among the most famous of his pupils.

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Mond process

Mond process

The Mond process, sometimes known as the carbonyl process is a technique created by Ludwig Mond in 1890 to extract and purify nickel. The process was used commercially before the end of the 19th century. It is done by converting nickel oxides into pure nickel. This process makes use of the fact that carbon monoxide complexes with nickel readily and reversibly to give nickel carbonyl. No other element forms a carbonyl compound under the mild conditions used in the process. This process has three steps: 1. Nickel oxide is reacted with Syngas at 200 °C to remove oxygen, leaving impure nickel. Impurities include iron and cobalt. 2. The impure nickel is reacted with excess carbon monoxide at 50–60 °C to form nickel carbonyl. 3. The mixture of excess carbon monoxide and nickel carbonyl is heated to 220–250 °C. On heating, nickel tetracarbonyl decomposes to give nickel: The decomposition may be engineered to produce powder, but more commonly an existing substrate is coated with nickel. For example, nickel pellets are made by dropping small, hot pellets through the carbonyl gas; this deposits a layer of nickel onto the pellets. This process has also been used for plating nickel onto other metals, where a complex shape or sharp corners made good results difficult by electroplating. Although the results are good, the toxicity makes it impractical as an industrial process. Such parts are now plated by electroless nickel plating instead.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these in any profound sense. He was born in Monmouthshire, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. Russell led the British "revolt against idealism" in the early 20th century. He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. He co-authored, with A. N. Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, an attempt to ground mathematics on logic. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy". His work has had a considerable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics, computer science, and philosophy, especially philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed anti-imperialism and went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States of America in the Vietnam War, and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. In 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."

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Sonor

Sonor

Sonor is a German percussion manufacturer. Founded in 1875 as a percussion manufacturer, Sonor drum sets and hardware are historically known for being constructed in a very durable, and therefore, unusually heavy manner. One of the oldest existing models of drums manufactured by Sonor is a 1942 Johannes Link Parade Snare, a very heavy snare drum with an alumininum shell and thick tension rods. Sonor drums historically had a reputation for being very expensive, and were well respected by many studios and professional musicians; although their current models span the range from beginner to professional. In the 1980s, Sonor's tagline was "The Rolls of drums". This was an allusion to the perfectionist way they constructed their drum shells. They made very thick and heavy shells that were beech wood, with an innermost and outermost ply of furniture-grade veneers, such as rosewood and bubinga. Nicko McBrain of Iron Maiden was one of the most prominent Sonor artists of the 80's, along with Steve Smith of Journey, Phil Rudd of AC/DC, Thomas Haake of Meshuggah and jazz legend Jack DeJohnette. Sonor is the inventor of the modern screw thread drum-construction, that laid the foundation for today's modern drum set, and the inventor of the metal snare drum. Both were invented in the early 20th century. William F. Ludwig got this idea in his early years back in Germany from Sonor and began to use it later in Chicago.

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Phase space

Phase space

In mathematics and physics, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state of the system corresponding to one unique point in the phase space. For mechanical systems, the phase space usually consists of all possible values of position and momentum variables. The concept of phase space was developed in the late 19th century by Ludwig Boltzmann, Henri Poincaré, and Willard Gibbs. A plot of position and momentum variables as a function of time is sometimes called a phase plot or a phase diagram. Phase diagram, however, is more usually reserved in the physical sciences for a diagram showing the various regions of stability of the thermodynamic phases of a chemical system, which consists of pressure, temperature, and composition. In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane. For every possible state of the system, or allowed combination of values of the system's parameters, a point is plotted in the multidimensional space. Often this succession of plotted points is analogous to the system's state evolving over time. In the end, the phase diagram represents all that the system can be, and its shape can easily elucidate qualities of the system that might not be obvious otherwise. A phase space may contain a great many dimensions. For instance, a gas containing many molecules may require a separate dimension for each particle's x, y and z positions and momenta as well as any number of other properties.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1939 till 1947 Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. He published few works in his lifetime, including one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In 1999, Baruch Poll rated his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations as the most important book of the 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "...the one crossover masterpiece ... appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations". Philosopher Bertrand Russell described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". Born in Vienna into one of Europe's wealthiest families, he gave away his entire inheritance. Three of his brothers committed suicide, with Wittgenstein contemplating it too. He left academia several times: serving as an officer on the frontline during World War I, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage; teaching in schools in remote Austrian villages, where he encountered controversy for hitting children when they made mistakes in mathematics; and working during World War II as a hospital porter in London, where he told patients not to take the drugs they were prescribed, and where he largely managed to keep secret the fact that he was one of the world's most famous philosophers. He described philosophy, however, as "the only work that gives me real satisfaction."

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Vomeronasal organ

Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ, or Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals. It was discovered by Frederik Ruysch and later by Ludwig Jacobson in 1813. This organ is the sense organ involved in the flehmen response in mammals. The VNO is the first stage of the accessory olfactory system, and contains sensory neurons that detect chemical stimuli. The axons from these neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb, which targets the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which in turn project to the hypothalamus. The vomeronasal organ is mainly used to detect pheromones, chemical messengers that carry information between individuals of the same species. As with other olfactory systems, chemical messages are detected by their binding to G protein-coupled receptors. The neurons in the VNO express receptors from 3 families, called V1R, V2R, and FPR. The receptors are distinct from each other and from the large family of receptors in the main olfactory system. Stimuli reach the VNO in liquid phase via a pumping mechanism; the primary cues for the VNO are therefore non-volatile and require direct physical contact. Its presence in many animals has been widely studied and the importance of the vomeronasal system to the role of reproduction and social behavior has been shown in many studies. Its presence and functionality in humans was controversial, though most studies agree the organ regresses during fetal development. Many genes essential for VNO function in animals are non-functional in humans. Chemical communication does appear to occur among humans, but this does not necessarily imply that the human vomeronasal organ is functional.

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Septet

Septet

A septet is a formation containing exactly seven members. It is commonly associated with musical groups, but can be applied to any situation where seven similar or related objects are considered a single unit, such as a seven-line stanza of poetry. In jazz music a septet is any group of seven players, usually containing a drum set, string bass or electric bass, and groups of one or two of the following instruments, guitar, piano, trumpet, saxophone, clarinet, or trombone. One of the most famous classical septets is the Septet in E-flat major, Op. 20, by Ludwig van Beethoven, composed around 1799–1800, for clarinet, bassoon, French horn, violin, viola, cello, and double bass. The popularity of Beethoven's septet made its combination of instruments a standard for subsequent composers, including Conradin Kreutzer, Franz Berwald,and Adolphe Blanc, and, with small changes in the instrumentation, Franz Lachner, and Max Bruch. When Franz Schubert added a second violin in 1824, he created a standard octet that influenced many other subsequent composers. The Septet in E-flat major, Op. 65, for trumpet, piano, string quartet, and double bass by Camille Saint-SaĂ«ns from 1881 is one of that composer's works. The modern composer Bohuslav MartinĆŻ wrote three septets: a group of six dances called Les Rondes for oboe, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, two violins, and piano; a piece called Serenade No. 3 for oboe, clarinet, four violins, and cello; and a Fantasie for theremin, oboe, piano, and string quartet. Darius Milhaud composed a String Septet in 1964 for string sextet and double bass. Paul Hindemith composed a wind septet in 1948 for flute, oboe, clarinet, bass clarinet, bassoon, horn, and trumpet.

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Incidental music

Incidental music

Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film or some other form not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack". Incidental music is often "background" music, and adds atmosphere to the action. It may take the form of something as simple as a low, ominous tone suggesting an impending startling event or to enhance the depiction of a story-advancing sequence. It may also include pieces such as overtures, music played during scene changes, or at the end of an act, immediately preceding an interlude, as was customary with several nineteenth-century plays. It may also be required in plays that have musicians performing on-stage. The use of incidental music dates back at least as far as Greek drama. A number of classical composers have written incidental music for various plays, with the more famous examples including Ludwig van Beethoven's Egmont music, Franz Schubert's Rosamunde music, Felix Mendelssohn's Midsummer Night's Dream music, Georges Bizet's L'Arlésienne music, and Edvard Grieg's music for Henrik Ibsen's Peer Gynt. Parts of all of these are often performed in concerts outside the context of the play. Vocal incidental music, which is included in the classical scores mentioned above, should never be confused with the score of a Broadway or film musical, in which the songs often reveal character and further the storyline. Since the score of a Broadway or film musical is what actually makes the work a musical, it is far more essential to the work than mere incidental music, which nearly always amounts to little more than a background score; indeed, many plays have no incidental music whatsoever.

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Hans Christian Korting

Hans Christian Korting

Hans Christian Korting was a German dermatologist and medical researcher specializing in causes and treatment of infectious and non-infectious inflammatory skin diseases as well as non-melanoma skin cancer". Korting graduated with an M.D. from the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in 1977, and subsequently was trained in medical microbiology at central medical services units of the German Army until 1979. Thereupon he was trained as a dermatologist at the Department of Dermatology and Allergology of Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. In 1985 he obtained his post-doctoral degree. He has been working there ever since, currently as a professor and Executive Academic Director. The focus of his scientific activities is on the characterization of the development of localized fungal infections of the skin and related mucosal surfaces. He concentrates on secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans as virulence factors and toll-like receptors as relevant mediators of the inflammatory host response. It is his prime concern to develop active pharmaceutical ingredients for the treatment and prevention of fungal infections reflecting the increased understanding of pathogenesis. In particular, it is intended to address virulence factors rather than structure and function of the pathogen cell wall according to the motto "targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antifungals". Moreover, he is interested in the development of new biological drugs such as plasmin as well as small molecules which are capable of influencing inflammation in the context of signal transduction such as sphingosine-1-phosphate. In addition, there now is a focus on small molecules modulating the function of human polymerase alpha which at a time modulates proliferation of keratinocytes and various viruses including human papilloma viruses, which is most relevant in the context of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment.

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Duino

Duino

Duino is a town at the Adriatic coast in the municipality of Duino-Aurisina, part of the region of Friuli–Venezia Giulia in the province of Trieste, northeastern Italy. The total population is recorded as 8,753, the population density as 193.8, and number of housing units as 3,983. Duino is noted for being the place where the physicist Ludwig Boltzmann committed suicide and for inspiring the poet Rainer Maria Rilke to write his Duino Elegies. It is also the place where the well-known Slovene folk legend Lepa Vida takes place. The two castles are the main attraction. The older castle, dating back to the eleventh century, is in ruins, while the newer castle is inhabited to this day and can be visited by tourists. Below the ruins of the ancient castle there lies a white rock projecting into the sea, the Dama Bianca, which resembles a veiled woman and gave origin to many gothic legends. Since 1982 the town has been home to UWC Adriatic, an international school attended by students from 80 different countries, and one of the 13 UWCs around the world. Until the 1950s, Duino was a predominantly Slovene-speaking village with a sizeable Italian-speaking minority. According to the last Austrian census of 1910, 63.5% of the inhabitants of the town were Slovenes and 25.1% were Italians. The Italian census of 1921 confirmed the Slovene ethnic character of the town, and even showed an increase of the proportion of Slovene speaking population to 78.4%. During the years of the Free Territory of Trieste, however, its ethnic composition changed considerably, as many Istrian Italians fleeing from Yugoslavia settled in Duino. Nowadays, Duino is a predominantly Italian-speaking town, with a numerous Slovene-speaking minority. Most signs are written in both languages, and the municipality of Duino-Aurisina is an officially bilingual one.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from 1916, he and his deputy, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg gradually gained more influence in Germany than the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany. Hindenburg, as German President, appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. Hindenburg personally despised Hitler, condescendingly referring to Hitler as that "Bohemian corporal". Hitler repeatedly and forcefully pressured Hindenburg to appoint him as Chancellor, Hindenburg repeatedly refused Hitler's demand. Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. Although he was opposing Hitler, the deteriorating political stability of the Weimar Republic let him play an important role in the Nazi Party's rise to power. He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In February, he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act, in which the parliament gave Hitler's administration legislative powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and, as "FĂŒhrer und Reichskanzler", made himself head of state.

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Useful idiot

Useful idiot

In political jargon, useful idiot is a pejorative term for people perceived as propagandists for a cause whose goals they do not understand, and who are used cynically by the leaders of the cause. The term has been used to refer to Soviet sympathizers in Western countries. The implication was that, although the people in question naĂŻvely thought of themselves as an ally of the Soviet Union, they were actually held in contempt and were being cynically used. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naĂŻvely believe to be a force for good. Despite often being attributed to Lenin, in 1987, Grant Harris, senior reference librarian at the Library of Congress, declared that "We have not been able to identify this phrase among [Lenin's] published works." A New York Times article from 1948, on contemporary Italian politics, documented usage of the term in an article from the social-democratic Italian paper L'Umanita. The French equivalent, "idiots utiles", was used in a newspaper article title as early as 1946. An earlier usage of a similar term, useful innocents, appears in Austrian-American economist Ludwig von Mises' "Planned Chaos". Von Mises claims the term was used by communists for liberals that von Mises describes as "confused and misguided sympathizers". The term useful innocents also appears in a Readers Digest article titled "Yugoslavia's Tragic Lesson to the World", an excerpt from a, at the time, forthcoming book authored by Bogdan Raditsa, a "high ranking official of the Yugoslav Government". Raditsa says: "In the Serbo-Croat language the communists have a phrase for true democrats who consent to collaborate with them for 'democracy.' It is Korisne Budale, or Useful Innocents." Although Raditsa translates the phrase as "Useful Innocents", the word budala actually translates as "fool" and synonyms thereof.

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