Definitions containing béranger, pierre jean de

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Moxie Jean

Moxie Jean

Moxie Jean is an upscale resale site that allows busy moms to buy and sell high-quality, brand-name kids' clothes. By providing a curated stylish selection of like-new kids’ clothes, Moxie Jean makes it easy to keep up with fast-growing little bodies, from Newborn to size 8. And with the free, postage-paid Moxie Jean Mailer Bag, it’s easier than ever to clean out the kids’ closets and get cash or credit toward the clothes they need next.Moxie Jean partners with charities such as the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago to hold “Clean Out Your Closet Fundraisers” where supporters can donate their credits to the patients served by the hospital. Moxie Jean, launched in July of this year and was founded by Chicago moms Sharon Schneider (CEO) and Sandra Pinter (COO).

— CrunchBase

Pierre

Pierre

Pierre is the capital of the U.S. state of South Dakota and the county seat of Hughes County. The population was 13,646 at the 2010 census, making it the second least populous state capital after Montpelier, Vermont. Founded in 1880 on the Missouri River opposite Fort Pierre, Pierre has been the capital since South Dakota gained statehood on November 2, 1889, having been chosen for its location in the geographic center of the state. Fort Pierre itself was named after Pierre Chouteau, Jr., an American fur trader of French origin. Pierre is the principal city of the Pierre Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Hughes and Stanley counties.

— Freebase

Miss Julie

Miss Julie

Miss Julie is a naturalistic play written in 1888 by August Strindberg dealing with class, love, lust, the battle of the sexes, and the interaction among them. Set on Midsummer's Eve on the estate of a Count in Sweden, the young woman of the title, attempting to escape an existence cramped by social mores and have a little fun, dances at the servants' annual midsummer party, where she is drawn to a senior servant, a footman named Jean, who is particularly well-traveled, well-mannered and well-read. The action takes place in the kitchen of Miss Julie's father's manor; here Jean's fiancée, a servant named Kristin, cooks and sometimes sleeps while Jean and Miss Julie talk. The plot is primarily concerned with power in its various forms. Miss Julie has power over Jean because she is upper-class. Jean has power over Miss Julie because he is male and uninhibited by aristocratic values. The count, Miss Julie's father, has power over both of them since he is a nobleman, an employer, and a father. On this night, behavior between Miss Julie and Jean which was previously a flirtatious contest for power rapidly escalates to a love relationship—or is it just lust?—that is fully consummated. Over the course of the play, Miss Julie and Jean battle for control, which swings back and forth between them until Jean convinces her that the only way to escape her predicament is to commit suicide.

— Freebase

Jean-Claude

Jean-Claude

Jean-Claude is a fictional character in the Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series of novels by Laurell K. Hamilton. Within the novels, Jean-Claude's role is as one of the primary love interests of the series heroine, Anita Blake. Jean-Claude is a French-born vampire who is over 400–600 years old. He was a favorite of Belle Morte for his eyes, and, like many vampires of Belle Morte's line, Jean-Claude was selected for his almost perfect mortal beauty. He arrived in St. Louis and, indeed, the United States itself to escape Belle Morte's court with the help of Augustine. Jean-Claude became the Master Vampire of St. Louis after Anita Blake killed Nikolaos. Together with Richard Zeeman, Jean-Claude is a member of Anita's first triumvirate. Jean-Claude's daytime lair is the sub-basement of the Circus of the Damned. As owner of the "JC Corporation," he also owns and runs Guilty Pleasures, The Laughing Corpse, and Danse Macabre, as well as other clubs.

— Freebase

Balmain

Balmain

Balmain is a fashion house that was founded by Pierre Balmain. In the period following World War II, Pierre Balmain was "a king of French fashion" and outfitted stars including Ava Gardner and Brigitte Bardot and the Nicaraguan first lady Hope Portocarrero. His most famous client was Queen Sirikit of Thailand. After Pierre Balmain's death in 1982, the house was led by Erik Mortensen, described by Vogue as Pierre Balmain's "right hand." Oscar de la Renta led the house between 1993 and 2002. Under Pierre Balmain, Mortensen, and de la Renta, the house was known for its classic, luxurious designs. Until 2011, the house was led by designer Christophe Decarnin, whose vision for the house is more modern and edgier. In April 2011, the fashion house announced that Decarnin was succeeded by Olivier Rousteing. Around 2008 and 2009, the clothing line became extremely popular both among fashion magazines, runways and celebrities. His 2010 collection, shown during Paris fashion week, was said to be "totally retro" and "[brought] back the glitz and glitter of the 1970s disco era." In the song, Where Do You Go To? by Peter Sarstedt he says in the lyrics, "Your clothes are all made by Balmain"

— Freebase

Blondel de Nesle

Blondel de Nesle

Blondel de Nesle - either Jean I of Nesle or his son Jean II of Nesle - was a French trouvère. The name 'Blondel de Nesle' is attached to twenty-four or twenty-five courtly songs. He was identified in 1942, by Holger Dyggve, as Jean II of Nesle, who was nicknamed 'Blondel' for his long blond hair. He married at the time of his father's death in 1202, and that same year, went on the Fourth Crusade; he later fought in the Albigensian Crusade. However, in 1994, Yvan Lepage suggested that the poet may have been Jean I, father of Jean II, who was Lord of Nesle from 1180 to 1202; this Jean took part in the Third Crusade, which may explain the subsequent legend linking him with Richard I of England. If the works are correctly identified and dated, he was a significant influence on his European contemporaries, who made much use of his melodies.. His works are fairly conventional, and several have been recorded in modern times.

— Freebase

Saint-Pierre

Saint-Pierre

Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada. Saint-Pierre is the more populated of the two communes making up Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

— Freebase

Chien de Jean de Nivelle

Chien de Jean de Nivelle

Chien de Jean de Nivelle is an animal or a man who does not want to obey when called, as in the expression Here comes the dog of Jean de Nivelle, it flees when it is called. The origins of the expression are unknown. It is thought that this Jean de Nivelle refused to help his father, Jean de Montmorency, to support Louis XI in the war against the duke of Burgundy. Furious, his father disinherited him and Jean de Nivelle fled to Flanders, hoping to avoid further troubles.

— Freebase

Bosman ruling

Bosman ruling

Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman C-415/93 is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision concerning freedom of movement for workers, freedom of association, and direct effect of article 39 of the EC Treaty. The case was an important decision on the free movement of labour and had a profound effect on the transfers of football players within the European Union. The decision banned restrictions on foreign EU players within national leagues and allowed players in the EU to move to another club at the end of a contract without a transfer fee being paid. The ruling was made in a consolidation of three separate legal cases, all involving Belgian player Jean-Marc Bosman: ⁕Belgian Football Association v Jean-Marc Bosman ⁕R.F.C. de Liège v Jean-Marc Bosman and others ⁕UEFA v Jean-Marc Bosman

— Freebase

Blue Jean

Blue Jean

"Blue Jean" is a song from the album Tonight by David Bowie. One of only two tracks on the album to be written entirely by Bowie, it was released as a single ahead of the album. Loosely inspired by Eddie Cochran, the song was an uncomplicated composition, recalling earlier Bowie rockers such as "The Jean Genie," and is generally regarded as one of the better parts of a disappointing album. Following the huge commercial success of Bowie's previous album, Let's Dance, its singles and the Serious Moonlight Tour, "Blue Jean" was launched with massive promotion. Julien Temple was engaged to direct a 21-minute short film to promote the song, Blue Jean. The song performance segment from this was also used as a more conventional music video. "Blue Jean" was a hit in the UK and America, reaching No. 6 and No. 8, respectively. The song would remain in Bowie's live repertoire for the rest of his career, being performed on tours in 1987, 1990 and 2004.

— Freebase

Ramist

Ramist

a follower of Pierre Rame, better known as Ramus, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians

— Webster Dictionary

Du Fu

Du Fu

Du Fu was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. Along with Li Bai, he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations. His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and his last 15 years were a time of almost constant unrest. Although initially he was little-known to other writers, his works came to be hugely influential in both Chinese and Japanese literary culture. Of his poetic writing, nearly fifteen hundred poems have been preserved over the ages. He has been called the "Poet-Historian" and the "Poet-Sage" by Chinese critics, while the range of his work has allowed him to be introduced to Western readers as "the Chinese Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Wordsworth, Béranger, Hugo or Baudelaire".

— Freebase

Stratospheric

Stratospheric

Stratospheric is an instrumental guitar album, released by French guitarist Jean-Pierre Danel in 2000. Several songs from the album hit the web downloading charts, including three #1's. Stratospheric received the Award for the Best Album of the Year 2000 from the Instrumental Rock Guitar Hall Of Fame, and Jean-Pierre also received the Award for the Composer of the Year, for his track “Ballad For a Friend”. Re-released in 2011, it hits the downloading charts at #46 in France.

— Freebase

Girondist

Girondist

The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondists were a group of loosely-affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the States-general from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the revenge killing of radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by Girondist sympathizer, Charlotte Corday. Some prominent Girondists were Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in American Founding Father Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed with the guillotine and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution.

— Freebase

Pilote

Pilote

Pilote was a French comics periodical published from 1959 to 1989. Showcasing most of the major French or Belgian comics talents of its day the magazine introduced major series such as Astérix, Barbe-Rouge, Blueberry, Achille Talon, and Valérian et Laureline. Major comics writers like René Goscinny, Jean-Michel Charlier, Greg, Pierre Christin and Jacques Lob were featured in the magazine, as were artists such as Jijé, Morris, Albert Uderzo, Jean Giraud, Enki Bilal, Jean-Claude Mézières, Jacques Tardi, Philippe Druillet, Marcel Gotlib, Alexis, and Annie Goetzinger. Pilote also published several international talents such as Hugo Pratt, Frank Bellamy and Robert Crumb.

— Freebase

Carlingue

Carlingue

The French Gestapo or Carlingue was the name given to French auxiliaries of the Gestapo, based at 93, rue Lauriston in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, and active between 1941 and 1944. It was headed by Henri Lafont and Pierre Loutrel. The group was formally named Active Group Hesse, after the German SS officer "who'd looked after its foundation". This group drew its members from the same milieu as that of its leaders, the gangsters Henri Lafont and Pierre Loutrel, alias Pierrot le fou, or from those with a criminal background, for example Pierre Bonny, who was wanted by the police for misappropriation of funds and selling influence, and who was a central figure in the Seznec and Stavisky affairs. Their links with the occupiers granted them many contacts with disreputable figures like Joseph Joanovici. They originated from the North African Brigade, made up of Muslims devoted to the Nazi cause, which was involved in suppressing the Maquis in Tulle. According to the retired policeman Henri Longuechaud, "one might be scandalised by the numbers of 30,000 to 32,000 sometimes quoted [as Carlingue's members]. In Paris, when the occupier launched a recruitment drive for 2,000 auxiliary policeman in their service, they received no fewer than 6,000 candidates."

— Freebase

Brainbox

Brainbox

Brainbox is a Dutch rock group from the late 1960s/early 1970s. The band was founded in Amsterdam by guitarist Jan Akkerman, drummer Pierre van der Linden and singer Kazimir Lux. Their debut single was "Down Man", which established their progressive blues sound. They had several hit singles in the Netherlands, including "Between Alpha and Omega", "Doomsday Train", Reason to Believe and "Smile". Soon after they released their first album, Jan Akkerman and Pierre van der Linden left the group to join Focus. After Pierre van der linden and Jan Akkerman left, Brainbox bass player Cyril Havermans also followed to join Focus, replacing the original bass player Bert Ruiter. They were replaced by guitarists Herman Meyer and Rudie de Queljoe and drummer Frans Smit. Meyer was later replaced by John Schuursma. After Kaz Lux left the group in 1971, their popularity waned and they split up in 1972. In 2004 Kaz Lux reassembled the band and they performed in the Netherlands. In 2010 and 2011 the band performed again and recorded a new studio album The 3rd Flood.

— Freebase

Downwind

Downwind

Downwind is an album by Pierre Moerlen's Gong, issued in February, 1979. Like the other Pierre Moerlen's Gong albums, Downwind is predominantly jazz fusion and has little to do with the psychedelic space rock of Daevid Allen's Gong, even though the bands share a common history. It marks a slight departure from the formula of Pierre Moerlen's Gong's previous records Gazeuse! and Expresso II, towards conventional pop/rock. "Aeroplane" and "What You Know" are short-form pop songs featuring lead vocals by Moerlen, the first time vocals appeared on a Gong record since 1975. Keyboards, some of which are provided by Steve Winwood, augment or even replace mallet percussion on a few tracks. Mike Oldfield contributes guitar on the title track.

— Freebase

Horoscope

Horoscope

the planisphere invented by Jean Paduanus

— Webster Dictionary

Jane

Jane

a kind of twilled cotton cloth. See Jean

— Webster Dictionary

Labadist

Labadist

a follower of Jean de Labadie, a religious teacher of the 17th century, who left the Roman Catholic Church and taught a kind of mysticism, and the obligation of community of property among Christians

— Webster Dictionary

Pestalozzian

Pestalozzian

belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher

— Webster Dictionary

South Dakota

South Dakota

A north-central state of the United States of America. Capital: Pierre. West of Minnesota, south of North Dakota, north of Nebraska.

— Wiktionary

Saint-Pierre

Saint-Pierre

Capital of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

— Wiktionary

Laplace

Laplace

Pierre-Simon Laplace, French mathematician 1749-1827, used attributively in the names of various mathematical concepts named after him (see "Derived terms" below)

— Wiktionary

circle-A

circle-A

u24B6; The symbol of anarchism; an A inside a circle (and often extending slightly beyond it). The symbol is derived from the slogan "Anarchy is Order" by French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.

— Wiktionary

Renoir

Renoir

a painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir

— Wiktionary

Renoir

Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter

— Wiktionary

radiophonic

radiophonic

Describing a type of sound art practice that extends the established radio drama and documentary form by the use of sonic abstractions. Perhaps first used by Pierre Schaeffer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Schaeffer in his "Essai Radiophoniques" and subsequently taken up by the BBC to describe their famous sound workshop http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC_Radiophonic_Workshop.

— Wiktionary

Trudeaumania

Trudeaumania

Fervent admiration of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919-2000), especially during his 1968 election campaign and his early years in office.

— Wiktionary

Baudelairean

Baudelairean

Of or pertaining to Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-1867), French poet, critic, and translator, or to his works.

— Wiktionary

mirliton

mirliton

A buzzword created to refer to and advertise a new women's bonnet style (AKA "coiffure de gaze" as seen in the early 19th century French painting Portrait De Jeune Femme (En Coiffure De Gaze) by Henri Pierre-Louis Grevedon see here) of 1723 involving a gauzy cloth or net for which the word was invented. Within months, comedies of the time created songs and verses using the new word to make light of political and social leaders. The word gained the meaning sense as a catch-all phrase such that it might refer to any silly trifle or thing of little value or merit as in the English word folderol. From there, it acquired more serious, specific usages.

— Wiktionary

Althusserian

Althusserian

Of or pertaining to Louis Pierre Althusser (1918-1990), Marxist philosopher.

— Wiktionary

Pigsty

Pigsty

Pigsty is a 1969 Italian film, written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini and starring Jean-Pierre Léaud, Marco Ferreri, Ugo Tognazzi, Pierre Clémenti, Alberto Lionello, Franco Citti, and Anne Wiazemsky. Its cinematographer is Tonino Delli Colli. The film features two parallel stories. The first one is set in an unknown past time and is about a young man who wanders in a volcanic landscape and turns into a cannibal. The man joins forces with a thug and ravages the countryside. At the end, his company gets arrested and during his execution, he recites the famous tagline of the film: "I killed my father, I ate human flesh and I quiver with joy." The story is about the human capacity of destruction and a rebellion against the social prerequisites implied against it. The second story is about Herr Klotz, a German industrialist and his young son Julian who live in 1960s Germany. Julian, instead of passing time with his radically politicised fiancée Ida, prefers to build relationships with pigs. Herr Klotz, on the other hand, with his loyal aide Hans Guenther tries to solve his rivalry with fellow industrialist Herdhitze. The two industrialists join forces while Julian gets eaten by pigs in the sty. Klotz and Herdhitze conceal the event to avoid a scandal. The story attempts to provide a link between the Third Reich and Wirtschaftswunder Germany.

— Freebase

Vinflunine

Vinflunine

Vinflunine is a novel fluorinated Vinca alkaloid undergoing research for the treatment of bladder cancer. It was originally discovered by the team of the Professor Jean-Claude Jacquesy, developed by Laboratoires Pierre Fabre and was licensed to Bristol-Myers Squibb for development in certain countries, including the United States. On November 23, 2007, Pierre Fabre and BMS announced that they are terminating their license agreement for the development of vinflunine.

— Freebase

Jean Lafitte

Jean Lafitte

Jean Lafitte was a French pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his elder brother, Pierre, spelled their last name Laffite, but English-language documents of the time used "Lafitte". The latter has become the common spelling in the United States, including for places named for him. Lafitte is believed to have been born either in France or the French colony of Saint-Domingue. By 1805, he operated a warehouse in New Orleans to help disperse the goods smuggled by his brother Pierre Lafitte. After the United States government passed the Embargo Act of 1807, the Lafittes moved their operations to an island in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. By 1810, their new port was very successful; the Lafittes pursued a successful smuggling operation and also started to engage in piracy. Though Lafitte tried to warn Barataria of a British attack, the American authorities successfully invaded in 1814 and captured most of Lafitte's fleet. In return for a pardon, Lafitte helped General Andrew Jackson defend New Orleans against the British in 1815. The Lafittes became spies for the Spanish during the Mexican War of Independence and moved to Galveston Island, Texas, where they developed a pirate colony called Campeche.

— Freebase

Hara-Kiri

Hara-Kiri

In 1960 France, Georges Bernier, Cavanna and Fred Aristidès created the monthly satirical magazine Hara-Kiri. Hara Kiri Hebdo, its weekly counterpart, was first published in 1969. Other collaborators included Melvin Van Peebles, Reiser, Roland Topor, Moebius, Wolinski, Gébé, Cabu, Delfeil de Ton, Fournier, Jean-Pierre Bouyxou and Bernhard Willem Holtrop. In 1966 it published Les Aventures de Jodelle, drawn by Guy Peellaert and written by Pierre Barbier.

— Freebase

accommodation

accommodation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality

— Princeton's WordNet

arthur honegger

Honegger, Arthur Honegger

Swiss composer (born in France) who was the founding member of a group in Paris that included Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud and Francis Poulenc and Jean Cocteau (1892-1955)

— Princeton's WordNet

assimilation

assimilation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance

— Princeton's WordNet

emile

Emile

the boy whose upbringing was described by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

— Princeton's WordNet

honegger

Honegger, Arthur Honegger

Swiss composer (born in France) who was the founding member of a group in Paris that included Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud and Francis Poulenc and Jean Cocteau (1892-1955)

— Princeton's WordNet

piagetian

Piagetian

of or relating to or like or in the manner of Jean Piaget

— Princeton's WordNet

rousseauan

Rousseauan

of or pertaining to or characteristic of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

— Princeton's WordNet

existentialism

existentialism

A twentieth-century philosophical movement emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence in freely making its self-defining choices, with foundations in the thought of Su00F8ren Kierkegaard (1813-55) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and notably represented in the works of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Gabriel Marcel (1887-1973), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80).

— Wiktionary

jean

jean

Made of denim (as "jean jacket").

— Wiktionary

dungaree

dungaree

Heavy denim fabric, often blue; blue jean material.

— Wiktionary

Rousseau

Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Swiss philosopher

— Wiktionary

Jeanie

Jeanie

A diminutive of the female given name Jean.

— Wiktionary

Jeanette

Jeanette

, a Scottish diminutive of Jean, or an anglicized form of Jeannette.

— Wiktionary

Parisine

Parisine

A typeface developed for the Paris Metro by Jean-Franu00E7ois Porchez

— Wiktionary

Jeannie

Jeannie

A diminutive of the female given name Jean.

— Wiktionary

Sartrean

Sartrean

Of or pertaining to Jean-Paul Sartre or his works

— Wiktionary

Rameau

Rameau

of French origin. Widely known as the surname of the French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764).

— Wiktionary

Molieresque

Molieresque

Reminiscent of (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, 1622u20131673), French playwright and actor.

— Wiktionary

Kerouacian

Kerouacian

Of or pertaining to Jean-Louis "Jack" Kerouac (1922-1969), American beat novelist and poet.

— Wiktionary

Arc de Triomphe

Arc de Triomphe

A monument in Paris, designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, started in 1808 and inaugurated in 1836.

— Wiktionary

Godardian

Godardian

Of or pertaining to Jean-Luc Godard (born 1930) or his cinematic style.

— Wiktionary

Droz

Droz

the name of a Swiss family of mechanicians, one of them, Jean Pierre, an engraver of medals (1746-1833); also of a French moralist and historian, author of "History of Louis XVI." (1773-1850).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Orange Blossom

Orange Blossom

Orange Blossom is a French band that plays a mix of electronic and world music. The band was formed in Nantes in 1993 with Pierre-Jean Chabot on violin and Jean-Christophe Waechter on percussions and vocals. In 1994, Éric joined the band and a first audio tape was recorded in September. In 1995 the band stabilized with the arrival of Carlos Robles Arenas on drums, djembé, and sampler, and the departure of Éric. Their first disc, Orange Blossom, came out in 1997 on the Prikosnovénie label, selling 15,000 copies. Before their second album came out, the group was influenced by ethnic and traditional music. They met and collaborated with several non-French artists, like Ivorian percussion group Yelemba D'Abidjan and Egyptian group Ganoub. They toured in Egypt, France, and Belgium. Vocalist Jay C. left the band in 2000 and created Prajña. In 2002, percussionist Mathias Vaguenez and vocalist Leïla Bounous joined the group. The album Everything Must Change came out in 2005 on the Bonsaï Music label. Carlos Robles Arenas is Mexican. Leïla Bounous is part Algerian, part Breton.

— Freebase

Jansenism

Jansenism

Jansenism was a Christian theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638. It was first popularized by Jansen's friend Jean du Vergier, Abbé de Saint-Cyran, and after Saint-Cyran's death in 1643 was led by Antoine Arnauld. Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement within the Catholic Church. The theological centre of the movement was the Parisian convent of Port-Royal, which was a haven for writers including Saint-Cyran, Arnauld, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal, and Jean Racine. Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustinism, Jesuits coined the term "Jansenism" to identify them as having Calvinist affinities. The papal bull Cum occasione, issued by Pope Innocent X in 1653, condemned five cardinal doctrines of Jansenism as heresy — especially the relationship between human free will and efficacious grace, wherein the teachings of Augustine, as presented by the Jansenists, contradicted the teachings of the Jesuit School. Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the pope's pronouncements while retaining their distinctives, and enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX. However, further controversy led to the bull Unigenitus, issued by Clement XI in 1713, which marked the end of Catholic toleration of Jansenist doctrine.

— Freebase

Pierrot

Pierrot

Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and Commedia dell'Arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a hypocorism of Pierre, via the suffix -ot. His character in postmodern popular culture—in poetry, fiction, the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin. Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat, usually with a close-fitting crown and wide round brim, more rarely with a conical shape like a dunce's cap. But most frequently, since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau, he wears neither collar nor hat, only a black skullcap. The defining characteristic of Pierrot is his naïveté: he is seen as a fool, always the butt of pranks, yet nonetheless trusting. It was a generally buffoonish Pierrot that held the European stage for the first two centuries of his history. And yet early signs of a respectful, even sympathetic attitude toward the character appeared in the plays of Jean-François Regnard and in the paintings of Antoine Watteau, an attitude that would deepen in the nineteenth century, after the Romantics claimed the figure as their own. For Jules Janin and Théophile Gautier, Pierrot was not a fool but an avatar of the post-Revolutionary People, struggling, sometimes tragically, to secure a place in the bourgeois world. And subsequent artistic/cultural movements found him equally amenable to their cause: the Decadents turned him, like themselves, into a disillusioned disciple of Schopenhauer, a foe of Woman and of callow idealism; the Symbolists saw him as a lonely fellow-sufferer, crucified upon the rood of soulful sensitivity, his only friend the distant moon; the Modernists converted him into a Whistlerian subject for canvases devoted to form and color and line. In short, Pierrot became an alter-ego of the artist, specifically of the famously alienated artist of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His physical insularity; his poignant lapses into mutism, the legacy of the great mime Deburau; his white face and costume, suggesting not only innocence but the pallor of the dead; his often frustrated pursuit of Columbine, coupled with his never-to-be vanquished unworldly naïveté—all conspired to lift him out of the circumscribed world of the Commedia dell'Arte and into the larger realm of myth. Much of that mythic quality still adheres to the "sad clown" of the postmodern era.

— Freebase

Profil

Profil

Profil was a band that represented France in Eurovision Song Contest 1980 with the entry Hè Hé M'sieurs dames. The band members were: Martine Havet, Martine Bauer, Francis Rignault, Jean-Claude Corbel and Jean-Pierre Izbinski.

— Freebase

Minoritaire

Minoritaire

Minoritaire was a 1982 album by Jean-Jacques Goldman, his second solo album sung in French. It was certified platinum in France in 1983, another in 1991 and another in 2001, for a total sales of 900,000 copies. It was recorded at the Studio Gang by Olivier do Espirito Santo and Jean-Pierre Janiaud. It was released by NEF and produced by Marc Lumbroso.

— Freebase

Corbeau

Corbeau

Corbeau was a Quebec rock group, very popular at the end of the seventies. The group was formed in 1977 by the film-maker and lyricist Pierre Harel with Michel "Willie" Lamothe and Roger "Wézo" Belval. Donald Hince joined the group some time later, and Jean Millaire completed the make up of Corbeau after a short tenure with Offenbach. Harel was the lead-singer up until the arrival of Marjolaine "Marjo" Morin, whereupon they shared the role until the departure of Harel just before the launching of their first album in 1979. Corbeau broke up in 1984 after the departure of Marjo and Jean Millaire. In 2009 the original members re-united to record one track for Marjo's new album, Marjo et ses hommes. Corbeau re-recorded the track Demain.

— Freebase

Positif

Positif

Positif was a 1984 album by Jean-Jacques Goldman, his third solo album sung in French. It was recorded at Studio Gang by Olivier do Espirito Santo and Jean-Pierre Janiaud. It was released by JRG/BMG Music Publishing. It was certified diamond in France for sales of 1,000,000 copies.

— Freebase

Hans Arp

Hans Arp

Jean Arp / Hans Arp was a German-French, or Alsatian, sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. When Arp spoke in German he referred to himself as "Hans", and when he spoke in French he referred to himself as "Jean". Many people believe that he was born Hans and later changed his name to Jean, but this is not the case.

— Freebase

Jean Cocteau

Jean Cocteau

Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants terribles, and the films Blood of a Poet, Les Parents terribles, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus. His circle of associates, friends and lovers included Kenneth Anger, Pablo Picasso, Jean Hugo, Jean Marais, Henri Bernstein, Yul Brynner, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, Igor Stravinsky, María Félix, Édith Piaf and Raymond Radiguet.

— Freebase

Wampus

Wampus

Wampus is a French comic book character written by Franco Frescura and illustrated by Luciano Bernasconi for French publisher Editions Lug in 1969. Wampus is an alien monster with shapeshifting powers who has been sent by an evil cosmic intelligence, the Great Mind, to destroy Earth. He is discovered and pursued by French secret agent, Jean Sten. In the course of its original six issues, Wampus caused havoc in France, Germany, the USA, Japan, England and Spain. Wampus was originally published in six, digest-sized magazines. The series was then discontinued because of censorship problems. The final episode was eventually serialized in 1985 in Ombrax, another of Lug's magazines. The same concept was also reprised as L'Autre in the magazine Futura in 1973. Wampus returned in 2001, written by Jean-Marc Lofficier and still drawn by Bernasconi for a series of seven new episodes which completed the storyline begun in 1969, depicting the final confrontation between Jean Sten and his alien nemesis. The stories also featured a number of guest-stars from the Lug universe. Wampus is now part of Hexagon Comics which has published a collection of his adventures translated into English.

— Freebase

Billie Jean

Billie Jean

"Billie Jean" is a song by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It is the second single from the singer's sixth solo album, Thriller. It was written and composed by Jackson and produced by him and Quincy Jones. There are contradictory claims to what the song's lyrics refer to. One suggests that they are derived from a real-life experience, in which a female fan claimed that Jackson had fathered one of her twins. However, Jackson himself stated that "Billie Jean" was based on groupies he had encountered. The song is well known for its distinctive bassline by guitarist David Williams, and Jackson's vocal hiccups. The song was mixed 91 times by audio engineer Bruce Swedien before it was finalized. The song became a worldwide commercial and critical success; it was one of the best-selling singles of 1983 and is one of the best-selling singles worldwide. The song topped both the US and UK charts simultaneously. In other countries, it topped the charts of Switzerland and reached the top ten in Austria, Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden. "Billie Jean" was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1989.

— Freebase

Fourier Analysis

Fourier Analysis

Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island

An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Seychelles

Seychelles

A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Jeux

Jeux

Jeux 974 is the last work for orchestra written by Claude Debussy. Described as a "poème dansé", it was originally intended to accompany a ballet, and was written for the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev to choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky. Debussy initially objected to the scenario, but reconsidered the commission when Diaghilev doubled the fee. Debussy wrote the score quickly, from mid-August to mid-September 1912. Robert Orledge has analysed the chronology of Debussy's composition and preserved manuscripts of the score. Jeux was premiered on 15 May 1913 at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Paris, conducted by Pierre Monteux. However, the work was not well received, and soon eclipsed by Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, which was premiered two weeks later by Diaghilev's company. The first commercial recording was made by Victor de Sabata with the Orchestra Stabile Accademica di Santa Cecilia in 1947. A critical edition of the score, prepared by Pierre Boulez and Myriam Chimènes, was published in 1988. The number of tempo markings in Jeux is around 60, sufficient that Émile Vuillermoz described the score as changing "speed and nuance every two measures". The thematic motifs of Jeux are likewise very short, often two measures long or constructed from two single-measure building blocks. L.D. Berman has analysed Jeux in the context of Debussy's earlier Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune. Jann Pasler has analysed in detail Debussy's motivic construction.

— Freebase

Pierre Robin syndrome

Pierre Robin syndrome

Pierre Robin syndrome, is a congenital condition of facial abnormalities in humans. PRS is a sequence, i.e. a chain of certain developmental malformations, one entailing the next. The 3 main features are cleft palate, micrognathia and glossoptosis. A genetic cause to PRS was recently identified. Pierre Robin sequence may be caused by genetic anomalies at chromosomes 2, 11, or 17.

— Freebase

Pierre Laporte Bridge

Pierre Laporte Bridge

The Pierre Laporte Bridge is the longest main span suspension bridge in Canada. It crosses the Saint Lawrence River approximately 200 metres west of the famous Quebec Bridge between historic Quebec City and Lévis, Quebec. It is the longest non-tolled suspension bridge in the world. It was originally named the New Quebec Bridge and was supposed to be called Pont Frontenac until it was renamed in honour of Quebec Vice-Premier Pierre Laporte, who was kidnapped and murdered during the October Crisis of 1970 as construction of the bridge was nearing completion. It was constructed for the Province of Quebec, Department of Roads in a joint venture with the private firm of Parsons Transportation Group. It carries Autoroute 73, north from Autoroute 20, the Trans-Canada Highway, to Quebec City and Autoroute 40, and northwards towards Saguenay, Quebec.

— Freebase

Belem

Belem

Belem is a three-masted barque from France. She was originally a cargo ship, transporting sugar from the West Indies, cocoa, and coffee from Brazil and French Guiana to Nantes, France. By chance she escaped the eruption of the Mount Pelée in Saint-Pierre de la Martinique on 8 May 1902. All Saint Pierre roads were full of vessels, no place to anchor the ship. Captain Julien Chauvelon angrily decided to anchor some miles further on in a beach - sheltered from the exploding volcano. She was sold in 1914 to Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster, who converted her to his private luxurious pleasure yacht, complete with two auxiliary Bolinder Diesel engines 300 HP each. In 1922 she became the property of the beer baron Sir Arthur Ernest Guinness, who renamed her the Fantôme II and revised the rig from a square rigger. Hon. A.E. Guinness was Rear Commodore of the Royal St. George Yacht Club, in Kingstown, Ireland from 1921-1939. He was Vice Commodore from 1940- 1948. Hon. A.E. Guinness took the Fântome II on a great cruise in 1923 with his daughters Aileen, Maureen, and Oonagh. They sailed the seven seas in making a travel round the world via the Panama and Suez Canals including a visit to Spitsbergen. During her approach to Yokohama harbour while sailing the Pacific Ocean the barque managed to escape another catastrophe - an earthquake which destroyed the harbour and parts of Yokohama city. Hon. Arthur E. Guinness died in 1949. The 'Fantome' was moored in the roads of Cowes, Isle of Wight.

— Freebase

Sarrusophone

Sarrusophone

The sarrusophone is a family of transposing musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. It was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus who is credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music.

— Freebase

Ritualization

Ritualization

Ritualization is a behavior that occurs typically in a member of a given species in a highly stereotyped fashion and independent of any direct physiological significance. Ritualization is also associated with the work of the religious studies scholar Catherine Bell. Bell, drawing on the Practice Theory of Pierre Bourdieu, has taken a less functional view of ritual with her elaboration of ritualization. More recently scholars interested in the cognitive science of religion such as Pascal Boyer, Pierre Liénard, and William W. McCorkle Jr. have been involved in experimental, ethnographic, and archival research on how ritualized actions might inform the study of ritualization and ritual forms of action. Boyer, Liénard, and McCorkle argue that ritualized compulsions are in relation to an evolved cognitive architecture where social, cultural, and environmental selection pressures stimulate "hazard-precaution" systems such as predation, contagion, and disgust in human minds. Furthermore, McCorkle advances the hypothesis that these ritualized compulsions were turned into ritual scripts by professional guilds only several thousand years ago with advancement in technology such as the domestication of plants and animals, literacy, and writing.

— Freebase

Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Joliot-Curie was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. Jointly with her husband, Joliot-Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935 for their discovery of artificial radioactivity. This made the Curies the family with the most Nobel laureates to date. Both children of the Joliot-Curies, Hélène and Pierre, are also esteemed scientists.

— Freebase

Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Cambronne

Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre, Viscount Cambronne, was a General of the French Empire. He fought during the wars of the Revolution and the Napoleonic Era. He was wounded at the Battle of Waterloo.

— Freebase

Gazeuse!

Gazeuse!

Gazeuse! is an album by Pierre Moerlen's Gong, issued in 1976. In the U.S., it was called Expresso. The album is jazz fusion and has little to do with the psychedelic space rock of Daevid Allen's Gong, even though the bands share a common history. Although the album was issued under the name of Gong, and the name "Pierre Moerlen's Gong" would not be adopted for a couple of years, the lineup involved and the nature of the music are that of the Moerlen-led band. Writing credits are about half-divided between Holdsworth and Moerlen, except the final track, which is by early Magma bassist Francis Moze.

— Freebase

Diophantus

Diophantus

Diophantus of Alexandria, sometimes called "the father of algebra", was an Alexandrian Greek mathematician and the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost. These texts deal with solving algebraic equations,. While reading Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac's edition of Diophantus' Arithmetica, Pierre de Fermat concluded that a certain equation considered by Diophantus had no solutions, and noted in the margin without elaboration that he had found "a truly marvelous proof of this proposition," now referred to as Fermat's Last Theorem. This led to tremendous advances in number theory, and the study of Diophantine equations and of Diophantine approximations remain important areas of mathematical research. Diophantus coined the term παρισὀτης to refer to an approximate equality. This term was rendered as adaequalitat in Latin, and became the technique of adequality developed by Pierre de Fermat to find maxima for functions and tangent lines to curves. Diophantus was the first Greek mathematician who recognized fractions as numbers; thus he allowed positive rational numbers for the coefficients and solutions. In modern use, Diophantine equations are usually algebraic equations with integer coefficients, for which integer solutions are sought. Diophantus also made advances in mathematical notation.

— Freebase

Catharism

Catharism

Catharism a Christian dualist movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy, northern Spain and southern France, former Occitania and Catalonia, between the 12th and 14th centuries. Cathar beliefs varied between communities because Catharism was initially taught by ascetic priests who had few set guidelines. The Cathars were a direct challenge to the Catholic Church, renouncing Catholic practices and dismissing it outright as the Church of Satan. Catharism had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and the Bogomils of Bulgaria, which took influences from the Paulicians. Though the term "Cathar" has been used for centuries to identify the movement, whether the movement identified itself with this name is debatable. In Cathar texts, the terms "Good Men" or "Good Christians" are the common terms of self-identification. The idea of two Gods or principles, one being good the other evil, was central to Cathar beliefs. The good God was the God of the New Testament and the creator of the spiritual realm as opposed to the bad God who many Cathars identified as Satan creator of the physical world of the Old Testament. All visible matter was created by Satan, it was therefore tainted with sin, this even included the human body. Human souls were thought to be the genderless souls of Angels trapped within the physical creation of Satan cursed to be reincarnated until the Cathar faithful achieved salvation through a ritual called the Consolamentum. From the beginning of his reign, Pope Innocent III attempted to use diplomacy to end Catharism, but in the year 1208 Innocent's papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was murdered while returning to Rome after preaching the Catholic faith in southern France. With the option of sending Catholic missionaries and jurists extinguished, Pope Innocent III declared Pierre of Castelnau a martyr and launched the Albigensian Crusade.

— Freebase

Trudeau

Trudeau

Trudeau is a 2002 television miniseries dramatizing the life of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau. It aired on CBC Television and was written by Wayne Grigsby and directed by Jerry Ciccoritti. The miniseries was one of the highest-rated Canadian television programs of the year. It won several Gemini Awards, including Best Actor, Best Writing and Best Direction. It follows Pierre Trudeau through the major events of his political mandates up to the patriation of the Canadian Constitution. A few of the major characters in the film are fictional, or composite characters. A prequel, Trudeau II: Maverick in the Making, came out in 2005, examining Trudeau's early life.

— Freebase

Octobre

Octobre

Octobre is a 1994 Quebec movie directed by filmmaker and noted separatist Pierre Falardeau. It tells a fictionalized version of the October Crisis from the point of view of the Chénier Cell, the FLQ terrorist cell who in 1970 kidnapped and murdered Quebec minister and Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte. The movie was co-written with and based on a book by Francis Simard, who was one of the members of the Chénier Cell, and co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada.

— Freebase

Basse danse

Basse danse

The basse danse, or "low dance", was the most popular court dance in the 15th and early 16th centuries, especially at the Burgundian court, often in a combination of 6/4 and 3/2 time allowing for use of hemiola. The word basse describes the nature of the dance, in which partners move quietly and gracefully in a slow gliding or walking motion without leaving the floor, and contrasts with livelier dances in which both feet left the floor in jumps or leaps. The basse danse later led to the development of the pavane. The latter half of a basse danse consisted occasionally of a tourdion, due to their contrasting tempi, and both were danced alongside the Pavane and galliard, and the allemande and courante, also in pairs. The earliest record of a basse danse dates to the 1320s and is found in an Occitan poem of Raimon de Cornet, who notes that the joglars performed them. Monophonic songs were based on a tenor cantus firmus; the length of the choreography was often derived from popular chansons. In performance, 3 or 4 instrumentalists would improvise the polyphony based on this tenor. In others, multiple parts were written, though in the style of the day choices regarding instrumentation were left to the performers. Most famous, perhaps, are the basse danses assembled in 1530 by Pierre Attaingnant that remain today in "The Attaingnant Dance Prints", which included parts for four voices which were typically improvised upon by adding melodic embellishment. Basse danses from this collection have been revisited and recorded by various ensembles including the Josef Ulsamer & Ulsamer Collegium. Most basse danses consisted of a binary form with each section repeated, such as the "No. 1: Basse Danse" from the publication "Danseries a 4 parties" by Pierre Attaingnant, published in 1547.

— Freebase

Science

Science

Science creates, scales and acquires successful digital businesses by bringing together ideas, talent, resources and financing through a centralized platform. The company focuses on developing new businesses, providing emerging startups with operational strategy and capital, and transforming later-stage Internet ventures with new talent and innovations.Science is backed by a group of top institutional and independent investors, which include: Rustic Canyon, White Star Capital, The Social+Capital Partnership, Tomorrow Ventures, Siemer Ventures, Philippe Camus, Jean-Marie Messier, Jonathan Miller and Dennis Phelps.

— CrunchBase

Vinfolio

Vinfolio

Based in San Francisco, with a second location opening in Hong Kong in Fall 2008, Vinfolio’s guiding principle is “Fine wine, finer service,” demonstrating the company’s unparalleled level of personalized customer service and collector services. Vinfolio’s wine store is seamlessly integrated with collector services, all designed to make the wine buying, selling and collecting experience effortless and enjoyable. From an extensive selection of fine wine to VinCellar™, its online cellar management software, to collector services (including on-site inventorying and full-service storage), Vinfolio delivers “Fine wine, finer service”.Vinfolio was founded by Stephen J. Bachmann, who incorporated his expertise in technology and finance with his passion for wine. Having amassed a 7,000 bottle collection, Bachmann realized all too well the challenges of building and managing a wine collection. He launched Vinfolio in 2003 as an integrated solution for serious wine lovers and currently serves as the company’s CEO. As he explains it, “finally the administrative tasks associated with amassing and developing a wine collection can be accomplished with efficiency, expertise and convenience, allowing passionate oenophiles to get back to the fun of collecting and drinking wine.”In addition to its expert staff of oenophiles, Vinfolio has a notable group of advisors with deep expertise in all aspects of the wine industry. These include members of the board of directors and personal investors Jean-Michel Valette, M.W., Former Chairman of Robert Mondavi Winery, Colin Lind, Managing Partner of Blum Capital Partners, L.P and Bill Timken, founding partner of Hambrecht & Quist. In addition, Vinfolio’s board of advisors includes Rajat Parr, wine director for the MICHAEL MINA group; Martine Saunier, founder of Martine’s Wines; Vineyard 29 owner Chuck McMinn; and entrepreneur and collector William J. Shea.

— CrunchBase

Bonsoir

Bonsoir

Bonsoir is a 1994 French film directed by Jean-Pierre Mocky.

— Freebase

Conversion disorder

Conversion disorder

A conversion disorder causes patients to suffer from neurological symptoms, such as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits without a definable organic cause. It is thought that symptoms arise in response to stressful situations affecting a patient's mental health and Conversion disorder is considered a psychiatric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. Formerly known as "hysteria", the disorder has arguably been known for millennia, though it came to greatest prominence at the end of the 19th century, when the neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Sigmund Freud and psychiatrist Pierre Janet focused their studies on the subject. Before Freud's studies on hysteria, people who suffered from physical disabilities that were not caused by any physical impairments, known as hysterical patients, were believed to be malingering, suffering from weak nerves, or just suffering from meaningless disturbances. The term "conversion" has its origins in Freud's doctrine that anxiety is "converted" into physical symptoms. Though previously thought to have vanished from the west in the 20th century, some research has suggested it is as common as ever.

— Freebase

Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe is one of France's six national theatres. It is located at 2 rue Corneille in the 6th arrondissement of Paris on the left bank of the Seine, next to the Luxembourg Garden. It was originally built between 1779 and 1782, in the garden of the former Hôtel de Condé, to a Neoclassical design by Charles De Wailly and Marie-Joseph Peyre, originally in order to house the Comédie Française, which, however, preferred to stay at the Théâtre-Français in the Palais Royal. The new theatre was inaugurated by Marie-Antoinette on April 9, 1782. It was there that The Marriage of Figaro play was premiered two years later. An 1808 reconstruction of the theater designed by Jean Chalgrin was officially named the Théâtre de l'Impératrice, but everyone still called it the Odéon. It burned in 1818. The third and present structure, designed by Pierre Thomas Baraguay, was opened in September 1819. In 1990, the theater was given the sobriquet 'Théâtre de l'Europe'. It is a member theater of the Union of the Theatres of Europe.

— Freebase

Blackboard bold

Blackboard bold

Blackboard bold is a typeface style that is often used for certain symbols in mathematical texts, in which certain lines of the symbol are doubled. The symbols usually denote number sets. Blackboard bold symbols are also referred to as double struck, although they cannot actually be produced by double striking on a typewriter. The Chicago Manual of Style in 1993 advises: "blackboard bold should be confined to the classroom" whereas in 2003 it states that "open-faced symbols are reserved for familiar systems of numbers". In some texts these symbols are simply shown in bold type: blackboard bold in fact originated from the attempt to write bold letters on blackboards in a way that clearly differentiated them from non-bold letters, and then made its way back in print form as a separate style from ordinary bold, possibly starting with the original 1965 edition of Gunning and Rossi's textbook on complex analysis. Some mathematicians, therefore, do not recognize blackboard bold as a separate style from bold: Jean-Pierre Serre, for example, has publicly inveighed against the use of "blackboard bold" anywhere other than on a blackboard, and uses double-struck letters when writing bold on the blackboard, whereas his published works consistently use ordinary bold for the same symbols. Donald Knuth also advises against the use of blackboard bold in print.

— Freebase

Aplomb

Aplomb

In classical ballet, aplomb refers to the basic law of ballet – stability. The French ballet master Jean-Étienne Despréaux defined it in 1806 as a specific kind of dynamic balance fundamental to all positions and movements of ballet. A 1905 book Grammar of the Art of Dancing, Theoretical and Practical referring to Bernhard Klemm, wrote: "Aplomb is the absolute safety in rising and falling back which results from the perpendicular attitude of the upper body and the artistic placing of the feet. By means of aplomb the dancer acquires a precision and an elegance which insure the successful execution of every foot-movement, however artistic and difficult, and thereby creates a pleasing and a satisfactory impression upon the observer. Aplomb may be compared with the sureness of touch of the pianist." Aplomb is achieved with straight body with its weight equally distributed over the supporting foot. Aplomb is controlled by feeling and controlling the muscular sensations in the spine, i.e., by "holding the back". The base of aplomb are the five positions of the feet codified by Pierre Beauchamp in 1680. The correct set of the body influences all ballet steps, and the perfection of the aplomb requires years of training. Exercises at the barre begin the training of the stability and balance.

— Freebase

Helene

Helene

Helene is a moon of Saturn. It was discovered by Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from ground-based observations at Pic du Midi Observatory, and was designated S/1980 S 6. In 1988 it was officially named after Helen of Troy, who was the granddaughter of Cronus in Greek mythology. The moon is also designated Saturn XII, a number which it received in 1982, under the designation Dione B, because it is co-orbital with Dione and located in its leading Lagrangian point. It is one of four known trojan moons.

— Freebase

Kathleen

Kathleen

Kathleen Sergerie, known professionally as Kathleen, is a Québécoise pop singer from Quebec, Canada who records only under her first name. She released several albums and scored hits on the Canadian charts in the early 1990s with songs such as "Où aller" and "Ça va bien!" Her 1993 album Ça va bien! was written and produced by Jean-Pierre Isaac.

— Freebase

Amanita verna

Amanita verna

Amanita verna, commonly known as the fool's mushroom, Destroying angel or the mushroom fool, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Occurring in Europe in spring, A. verna associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees. The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn; the caps, stipes and gills are all white in colour. Initially described by the French botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard, the fool's mushroom's specific epithet verna is derived from its springtime fruiting habit.

— Freebase

Folie à deux

Folie à deux

Folie à deux, or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief are transmitted from one individual to another. The same syndrome shared by more than two people may be called folie à trois, folie à quatre, folie en famille or even folie à plusieurs. Recent psychiatric classifications refer to the syndrome as shared psychotic disorder and induced delusional disorder in the ICD-10, although the research literature largely uses the original name. The disorder was first conceptualized in 19th century French psychiatry by Charles Lasègue and Jean-Pierre Falret and so also known as Lasègue-Falret Syndrome.

— Freebase

Squalodon

Squalodon

Squalodon is an extinct genus of whales, belonging to the family Squalodontidae. Named by Jean-Pierre Sylvestre de Grateloup in 1840, it was originally believed to be an iguanodontid dinosaur but has since been reclassified. The name Squalodon comes from Squalus, a genus of shark. As a result its name means "shark tooth."

— Freebase

Fidelio

Fidelio

Fidelio is a German opera with spoken dialogue in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto is by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly which had been used for the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, and for the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer. The opera tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison.

— Freebase

Dromaius

Dromaius

Dromaius is a genus of ratite present in Australia. There is one extant species, Dromaius novaehollandiae commonly known as the Emu. In his original 1816 description of the emu, Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot used two generic names; first Dromiceius, then Dromaius a few pages later. It has been a point of contention ever since which is correct; the latter is more correctly formed, but the convention in taxonomy is that the first name given stands, unless it is clearly a typographical error. Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government, use Dromaius, with Dromiceius mentioned as an alternative spelling. Others misspelling synonyms are descript for genus. However, the Dromiceius spelling was used by Dale Russell in his 1972 naming of the dinosaur Dromiceiomimus.

— Freebase

Molière

Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Among Molière's best-known works are Le Misanthrope, L'École des Femmes, Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur, L'Avare, Le Malade Imaginaire, and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont, Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy. Through the patronage of a few aristocrats, including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans – the brother of Louis XIV – Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, Le Docteur Amoureux, Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances. Later, Molière was granted the use of the Palais-Royal. In both locations he found success among the Parisians with plays such as Les Précieuses ridicules, L'École des Maris and L'École des Femmes. This royal favor brought a royal pension to his troupe and the title "Troupe du Roi". Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments.

— Freebase

Amygdalin

Amygdalin

Amygdalin, C20H27NO11, is a glycoside initially isolated from the seeds of the tree Prunus dulcis, also known as bitter almonds, by Pierre-Jean Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, in 1830 and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler in 1830. Several other related species in the genus of Prunus, including apricot and black cherry, also contain amygdalin. Since the early 1950s, both amygdalin and a modified form named laetrile or Vitamin B17 have been promoted as cancer cures. However, neither of these compounds nor any other derivatives are vitamins in any sense, and studies have found them to be clinically ineffective in the treatment of cancer, as well as dangerously toxic. They are potentially lethal when taken by mouth, because certain enzymes act on them to produce cyanide. The promotion of laetrile to treat cancer has been described in the medical literature as a canonical example of quackery, and as "the slickest, most sophisticated, and certainly the most remunerative cancer quack promotion in medical history."

— Freebase

Entre Nous

Entre Nous

Entre Nous is a 1983 French biographical drama film directed by Diane Kurys, who shares the writing credits with Olivier Cohen. Set in the France of the mid twentieth century, the film stars Isabelle Huppert, Miou-Miou, Guy Marchand, Jean-Pierre Bacri and Christine Pascal. Coup de Foudre means "love at first sight".

— Freebase

Trudeaumania

Trudeaumania

Trudeaumania was the nickname given in early 1968 to the excitement generated by Pierre Trudeau's entry into the leadership race of the Liberal Party of Canada. Trudeaumania continued during the subsequent federal election campaign and during Trudeau's early years as Prime Minister of Canada. Many young people in Canada at this time, especially young women, were influenced by the 1970s counterculture and identified with Trudeau, an energetic nonconformist who was relatively young. They were dazzled by his charm and good looks, and a large fan base was established throughout the country. He would often be stopped in the streets for his autograph or for a quick photograph. Trudeau had once sympathized with Marxists and had spent time in the democratic socialist Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, and many of his fans were attracted to his socially liberal stances. Trudeau was also admired for his laid-back attitude and his celebrity relationships; in that word's prevailing use at the time, describing a modern, hip and happening person, he was described as a swinger. A high point happened during Trudeau's election campaign in 1968 during the annual Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day parade in Montreal, when rioting Quebec separatists threw rocks and bottles at the grandstand where Trudeau was seated. Rejecting the pleas of his aides that he take cover, Trudeau stayed in his seat, facing the rioters, without any sign of fear. The image of the politician showing such courage impressed the Canadian people, and he handily won the election the next day.

— Freebase

Riverman

Riverman

Riverman was a French Thoroughbred racehorse. Foaled in Kentucky, he was bred by Harry F. Guggenheim of the prominent American Guggenheim family. Riverman was from the mare River Lady and sired by Guggenheim's stallion Never Bend, a grandson of the extremely important sire, Nearco. Purchased by French perfume magnate Pierre Wertheimer, head of the House of Chanel, the colt raced under the colors of his wife, Germaine. Trained by Alec Head, Riverman was sent to the track in 1971 where he won the Prix Yacowlef and finished second in the Critérium de Maisons-Laffitte. The following year, he won the Group II Prix Jean Prat plus two Group One races, the Prix d'Ispahan and the Poule d'Essai des Poulains. Sent to race in England, he notably ran third to Brigadier Gerard in July's King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes and second to him in October's Champion Stakes.

— Freebase

Talca

Talca

Talca is a city and commune in Chile located about 255 km south of Santiago, and is the capital of both Talca Province and Maule Region. As of the 2002 census, the city had a population of 193,755. The city is an important economic center, with agricultural and manufacturing activities, as well as wine production. It is also the location of the Universidad de Talca and the Catholic University of Maule, among others. The Catholic Church of Talca has held a prominent role in the history of Chile. The inhabitants of Talca have a saying, Talca, Paris & London, born from a hat shop which had placed a ribbon stating that it had branches in Paris and London. The shop was owned by a French immigrant named Jean-Pierre Lagarde.

— Freebase

Rendez-Vous

Rendez-Vous

Rendez-Vous is an album of instrumental electronic music composed and produced by Jean Michel Jarre, and released on Disques Dreyfus, licensed to Polydor, in 1986. It is his fifth overall studio album. It sold some three million copies worldwide and remains Jarre's longest-running chart album in both the U.S. and UK, with a 20 week run in the U.S. and an impressive 38 week run in the UK. The last track on the album was supposed to have the saxophone part played in outer space by astronaut Ron McNair, but on January 28, 1986 he and the entire Space Shuttle Challenger crew were killed. 73 seconds after lift-off the shuttle disintegrated. In memory, this piece was dedicated to him. On the album the saxophone part is played by saxophonist Pierre Gossez. The album reached #9 in the UK charts and #52 in the U.S. charts. In April 1986, Jarre performed the large-scale outdoor concert Rendez-vous Houston in Houston, Texas, celebrating the 150th anniversary of the founding of Texas, and the 25th anniversary of NASA. The show attracted a then-world record live audience of 1.3 million people. Originally, the track Last Rendez Vous was due to be played by saxophonist astronaut Ron McNair via a live link with the Challenger space shuttle. However, after the Challenger disaster, the concert became a part-tribute to the lost astronauts.

— Freebase

Prank call

Prank call

A prank call is a telephone practical joke. Prank phone calls began to gain an American following over a period of many years, as they became a staple of the obscure and amusing cassette tapes traded amongst musicians, sound engineers, and media traders beginning in the late 1970s. Among the most famous and earliest recorded prank calls are the Tube Bar prank calls tapes, which centered around Louis "Red" Deutsch. Comedian Jerry Lewis was an incorrigible phone prankster, and recordings of his hijinks, dating from the 1960s and possibly earlier, still circulate to this day. Very prominent people have fallen victim to prank callers, for example Elizabeth II, who was fooled by Canadian DJ Pierre Brassard posing as Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, asking her to record a speech in support of Canadian unity ahead of the 1995 Quebec referendum. Two other notable examples of prank calls were made by the Miami-based radio station Radio El Zol. In one, they telephoned Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, and spoke to him pretending to be Cuban president Fidel Castro. They later reversed the prank, calling Castro and pretending to be Chávez. Castro began swearing at the pranksters live on air after they revealed themselves.

— Freebase

Myriorama

Myriorama

Myriorama originally meant a set of illustrated cards which 19th century children could arrange and re-arrange, forming different pictures. Later in the century the name was also applied to shows using a sequence of impressive visual effects to entertain and inform an audience. The word myriorama was invented to mean myriad pictures, following the model of panorama, diorama, cosmorama and other novelties. These were all part of a wider interest in viewing landscape as panorama, and in new ways of presenting "spectacular" scenes. The early myrioramas were cards with people, buildings, and other images on compatible backgrounds, and could be laid out in any order, allowing a child to create a variety of imaginary landscapes. Jean-Pierre Brès, a French children's writer, published an early version which he described as a polyoptic picture in the early 19th century, and John Clark of London took up the idea and designed a set of cards he called a myriorama. Clark's "second series" myriorama, an "Italian landscape", was produced in 1824, the same year as a similar set of English cards called a panoramacopia created by drawing teacher T.T.Dales. Reproductions of cards from the period are on sale today with other "traditional toys". Various contemporary artists have used the idea as inspiration for work they have named myriorama.

— Freebase

Jean Anouilh

Jean Anouilh

Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades. Though his work ranged from high drama to absurdist farce, Anouilh is best known for his 1943 play Antigone, an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, that was seen as an attack on Marshal Pétain's Vichy government. One of France's most prolific writers after World War II, much of Anouilh's work deals with themes of maintaining integrity in a world of moral compromise.

— Freebase

Jaune

Jaune

Jaune is an album by Jean-Pierre Ferland, released in 1970. Considered an enduring classic of Canadian and Quebec music, the album was named the 71st greatest Canadian album of all time in Bob Mersereau's 2007 book The Top 100 Canadian Albums. It was the only francophone album from Quebec named to the list besides the three studio albums by Harmonium. In 2005 Ferland released a 35th anniversary box set version of the album, which included the original album, new recordings of the album's songs by Ferland himself, an audio DVD including a surround sound remastering of the album, and a disc including covers of the album's songs by musicians such as Ariane Moffatt, Champion, Montag, Sixtoo, Kid Loco and Carl Bastien. "Le Chat du café des artistes" was covered by Charlotte Gainsbourg on her 2010 album IRM.

— Freebase

Blood chit

Blood chit

Blood chit is a notice that is carried by the military, usually aircraft personnel, that displays messages aimed at the civilians that ask them to help the servicemember in case they are shot down. Alternative names are escape and identification flags. Chit is a British English term for a small document, note or pass; it is an Anglo-Indian word dating from the late 18th century, derived from the Hindi citthi. The idea of blood chit originates from 1793 when French balloonist Jean-Pierre Blanchard demonstrated his hot air balloon in the USA. Because he could not control the direction of the balloon, no one knew where he would land. Because Blanchard did not speak English, George Washington gave him a letter that said that all US citizens were obliged to assist him to return to Philadelphia. In World War I, British Royal Flying Corps pilots in India and Mesopotamia carried a "goolie chit" printed in four local languages that promised a reward to anyone who would bring an unharmed British aviator back to British lines. The term "goolie" is British slang for "testicles" and was so called because, in the areas where the chits were used, local tribesmen were said to turn over aviators to their womenfolk, who castrated the pilots for use as servants. But the British officer John Masters recorded in his autobiography that Pathan women in the North-West Frontier Province of British India during the Anglo-Afghan Wars would behead and castrate non Muslim soldiers who were captured, like British and Sikhs.

— Freebase

Meise

Meise

Meise is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. The municipality comprises the towns of Meise proper and Wolvertem, and, several smaller villages like Sint-Brixius-Rode, Oppem, Meusegem, Impde/Imde, Rossem, Westrode and quarters as Bouchout, Nerom and Slozen. As of January 1, 2006 Meise has a total population of 18,464. The total area is 34.82 km² which gives a population density of 530 inhabitants per km². Some of Meise's most famous inhabitants are Eddy Merckx, Frank Deboosere, Tony De Pauw, Kris Wauters, Bart Mullie and Jean-Pierre Van Rossem. Also a historical resident, Empress Carlota of Mexico spent many secluded years at the Castle of Bouchout where she died in 1927. Meise is also a last name of a few families originating from Germany.

— Freebase

Normandin

Normandin

Normandin is a city located on the west side of Lac Saint-Jean in the Canadian province of Quebec. Normandin is name after the surveyor Joseph-Laurent Normandin. Its history of European-Canadian settlement began in 1878 when the first pioneers arrived. Alphonse Laliberté was elected as Normandin's first mayor in 1890. In 1926, the village was set up as a municipality distinct from the township; the notary J.S.N. Turcotte occupied the function of first magistrate. The city is the birthplace of radio talk show psychiatrist Pierre Mailloux. It is also the hometown of André Dédé Fortin, the late lead singer of Les Colocs.

— Freebase

Saint Louis River

Saint Louis River

The Saint Louis River is a river in the U.S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin that flows into Lake Superior. The largest U.S. river to flow into the lake, it is 192 miles in length and starts 13 miles east of Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. The river's watershed covers 3,634 square miles. Near the Twin Ports of Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin, the river becomes a freshwater estuary. According to Warren Upham, the Ojibwe name of the river is Gichigami-ziibi. He notes: "The river was probably so named by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, who was a very active explorer, in the years 1731 and onward, of the vast country from Pigeon River and Rainy Lake to the Saskatchewan and Missouri Rivers, establishing trading posts and missions. The king of France in 1749, shortly before the death of La Vérendrye, conferred on him the cross of Saint Louis as a recognition of the importance of his discoveries, and thence the name of the Saint Louis River appears to have come. On Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's map and Philippe Buache's map, it is called the Rivière du Fond du Lac, and the map by Gilles Robert de Vaugondy and Jonathan Carver's map are the earliest to give the present name."

— Freebase

Orders

Orders

Orders is a 1974 Quebec historical drama film about the incarceration of innocent civilians during the 1970 October Crisis and the War Measures Act enacted by the Canadian government of Pierre Trudeau. It is the second film by director Michel Brault. It features entertainer and Senator Jean Lapointe. The film tells the story of five of those incarcerated civilians. It is scripted but is inspired by a number of interviews with actual prisoners made during the events and its style is heavily inspired by the Quebec school of Cinéma vérité. It is a docufiction. It won a Cannes Film Festival Award in 1975 and four Canadian Film Awards the same year. It was also selected as the Canadian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 48th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee.

— Freebase

Cultural capital

Cultural capital

The term cultural capital refers to non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, style of speech, dress, or physical appearance. Cultural capital is a sociological concept that has gained widespread popularity since it was first articulated by Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron first used the term in "Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction". In this work he attempted to explain differences in children's outcomes in France during the 1960s. It has since been elaborated and developed in terms of other types of capital in The Forms of Capital; and in terms of higher education, for instance, in The State Nobility. For Bourdieu, capital acts as a social relation within a system of exchange, and the term is extended ‘to all the goods material and symbolic, without distinction, that present themselves as rare and worthy of being sought after in a particular social formation and cultural capital acts as a social relation within a system of exchange that includes the accumulated cultural knowledge that confers power and status.

— Freebase

Amélie

Amélie

Amélie is a 2001 romantic comedy film directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Written by Jeunet with Guillaume Laurant, the film is a whimsical depiction of contemporary Parisian life, set in Montmartre. It tells the story of a shy waitress, played by Audrey Tautou, who decides to change the lives of those around her for the better, while struggling with her own isolation. The film was an international co-production between companies in France and Germany. Grossing over $33 million in limited theatrical release, it is still the highest-grossing French-language film released in the United States. The film met with critical acclaim and was a major box-office success. Amélie won Best Film at the European Film Awards; it won four César Awards, two BAFTA Awards, and was nominated for five Academy Awards. A Broadway adaptation is in development.

— Freebase

The Child

The Child

L'Enfant is a 2005 Belgian film directed by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne. The film was released under its French title in the US, and as The Child in the UK.

— Freebase

Iberville

Iberville

Iberville is a provincial electoral district in the Montérégie region of the province of Quebec, Canada, and is located south of Montreal. It includes part of the city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, as well as Mont Saint-Grégoire, Rougemont, Marieville and Saint-Césaire. It was created for the 1867 election. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, it lost Saint-Pie to Saint-Hyacinthe. It was named after former New France explorer Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville. Note Manitoba also has a provincial electoral district named Iberville; and there is also a federal Iberville electoral district.

— Freebase

Kookai

Kookai

Kookai is a French fashion label founded in 1983 by Jean-Lou Tepper, Jacques Nataf and Philippe de Hesdin. It has a simple philosophy: "to supply young women with affordable apparel for their wardrobes". It has stores in Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Its clothing line is generally characterised by French fashion trends. Galleries Lafayette carried a large line of Kookai, Claudie Pierlot, Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Lolita Bis by Lolita Lempicka, Plein Sud, P.J. Hohenscheid, and other European labels when it opened its first American store in Trump Tower, in September 1991.

— Freebase

No, No, No

No, No, No

"No, No, No" is an R&B song performed by American group Destiny's Child for their debut studio album Destiny's Child and the track was produced by Vincent Herbert, Rob Fusari and Wyclef Jean and received a positive reception from music critics. The original version and its remix featuring Wyclef Jean was released as the group's debut single in the fourth quarter of 1997 and reached No. 3 in the United States, where it was certified platinum. It was the first single for the group, worldwide. The remix is based around a sample of The Love Unlimited Orchestra's "Strange Games and Things."

— Freebase

Blood Feud

Blood Feud

"Blood Feud" is the twenty-second and final episode of The Simpsons' second season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on July 11, 1991. In the episode, Mr. Burns falls ill and desperately needs a blood transfusion. Homer discovers Bart has Burns' rare blood type and urges his son to donate some, promising that they will be handsomely rewarded. However, after receiving the blood, all Burns does is send the family a card. Enraged, Homer writes an insulting reply, but Marge convinces him at the last minute not to send it, although Bart mails it anyway. The episode was written by George Meyer and directed by David Silverman. Executive producer Sam Simon and writers Al Jean and Mike Reiss came up with the idea for the episode. A co-worker had recently needed a blood transfusion and the writers thought it would be funny if Mr. Burns had one. Although Meyer was credited with writing the episode, Jean and Reiss re-wrote and polished the script. The episode includes the debut of the Olmec head Xtapolapocetl, which would become a common background prop in the Simpson home. "Blood Feud" was part of the season two production run, but was completed behind schedule. It was originally broadcast on July 11, 1991 as part of "premiere week", the Fox Network's attempt to expand the normal 30 week prime time season and gain new viewers for the fall. In its original broadcast, the episode finished 24th in ratings for the week with a Nielsen rating of 10.8.

— Freebase

Funeral Rites

Funeral Rites

Funeral Rites is a 1948 novel by Jean Genet. It is a story of love and betrayal across political divides, written this time for the narrator's lover, Jean Decarnin, killed by the Germans in WWII. The first edition was limited to 1,500 copies; in 1953 the text was revised by Gallimard, excising some possibly offensive passages, which became the basis for the 1953 English translation by Frechtman.

— Freebase

Acadia

Acadia

Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southern-most settlements of Acadia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became Canadian provinces and American states. The population of Acadia included descendants of emigrants from France along with those from the Wabanaki Confederacy. The two communities inter-married, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis. The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613 but it was later rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British conquest of Acadia in 1710. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and later British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton were conceded by Britain to France and renamed Île Saint-Jean and Île Royale. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War, France and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. Finally, during the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.

— Freebase

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin. Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony. He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests. His debut, Hippolyte et Aricie, caused a great stir and was fiercely attacked for its revolutionary use of harmony by the supporters of Lully's style of music. Nevertheless, Rameau's pre-eminence in the field of French opera was soon acknowledged, and he was later attacked as an "establishment" composer by those who favoured Italian opera during the controversy known as the Querelle des Bouffons in the 1750s. Rameau's music had gone out of fashion by the end of the 18th century, and it was not until the 20th that serious efforts were made to revive it. Today, he enjoys renewed appreciation with performances and recordings of his music ever more frequent.

— Freebase

Démodé

Démodé

Démodé is Jean-Jacques Goldman first solo album sung in French, set in 1981. It was recorded at the Studios Pathé in Paris and the Studio Vénus in Longueville. The album has also been released under the names A l'envers and Jean-Jacques Goldman. It was certified platinum in France for sales of 300,000 copies.

— Freebase

Siné

Siné

Maurice Sinet, known as Siné, is a French cartoonist. As a young man he studied drawing and graphic arts, while earning a living as a cabaret singer. His first published drawing appeared in France Dimanche in 1952. Siné received the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection Complainte sans Paroles. His series of drawings on cats was his breakthrough. He then started working for L'Express as a political cartoonist. Siné's anti-colonialism caused controversy during the Algerian war. He was sued a number of times, being defended by Jacques Vergès, then a lawyer for the Algerian Liberation Front. In 1962 Siné left L'Express and launched his own publication, Siné Massacre, noted for its anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, anti-clericalism and anarchism. On reviewing the book, Private Eye described Siné's cartoons as "grotesque", and criticising publisher Penguin Books for its managerial incompetence. In May 1968, together with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, he launched L'Enragé. Siné is a great lover of jazz, and has illustrated several books on jazz as well as record covers. He's a dignitary of the French Collège de 'Pataphysique. His article and cartoons in the magazine Charlie Hebdo relating to Jean Sarkozy's marriage to Jessica Sebaoun-Darty, the Jewish heiress, touched off a controversy, after journalist Claude Askolovitch described them as anti-Semitic. The magazine's editor, Phillipe Val, ordered Siné to write a letter of apology or face termination. The cartoonist said he would rather "cut his own balls off", and was promptly fired. Both sides subsequently filed lawsuits, and in December 2010, Siné won a 40,000-euro court judgment against his former publisher for wrongful termination.

— Freebase

Pure laine

Pure laine

The French term pure laine literally meaning pure wool refers to the people having exclusively original ancestry of the French-Canadians. Another similar term is de souche. While most French-Canadians are able to trace their ancestry back to the original settlers of New France, a number are descended from mixed marriages between the French and Irish settlers. When these shared the same Roman Catholic faith, their unions were approved by the once-powerful Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Another factor was the settlement of many English people in the region, many of whom were ultimately assimilated into the francophone culture. Recently, Quebec has also enjoyed the benefits of a policy of immigration from French-speaking countries, which has added to, and changed, French-Canadian culture. The use of pure laine is sometimes deprecated. Regardless, English-language commentators Brigitte Pellerin of the Ottawa Citizen and Jan Wong of The Globe and Mail have used the term. The mainstream French-language newspaper La Presse, however, still uses both the terms pure laine and de souche. Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society President Jean Dorion has declared "There is no obsession for racial purity in Quebec, definitely not. [...] The expression 'pure laine' is absolutely obsolete.".

— Freebase

Saratoga

Saratoga

Saratoga is a 1937 American romantic comedy film written by Anita Loos and directed by Jack Conway. The movie stars Clark Gable and Jean Harlow in their sixth and final film collaboration, and features Lionel Barrymore, Frank Morgan, Walter Pidgeon, Hattie McDaniel, and Margaret Hamilton. Jean Harlow died before filming was finished, and it was completed using stand-ins. Saratoga was MGM's biggest moneymaker of 1937.

— Freebase

Bombshell

Bombshell

The term bombshell is a forerunner to the term "sex symbol" and originally used to describe popular female sex icons. Modern slang refers to a bombshell as an extremely sexually attractive woman. The Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper attests the usage of the term in this general meaning since 1942, although earlier Jean Harlow was so nicknamed. Bombshells are a special kind of sex symbol. Bombshells are popular icons recognized for their hourglass figures, their large breasts, sex appeal, and originally their blondness. After Jean Harlow, other icons of popular culture who have widely been referred to as a "Bombshell" include Marilyn Monroe, Rita Hayworth, Diana Dors, Jayne Mansfield, Mamie Van Doren, Jane Russell, Ava Gardner, Brigitte Bardot, Kim Novak, Sophia Loren, Ann-Margret, Raquel Welch, Ursula Andress, and, in more recent popular culture, Katy Perry, Kaley Cuoco, Miranda Kerr, Sofia Vergara, Megan Fox, Kate Upton, Anna Nicole Smith, Pamela Anderson, Monica Bellucci, Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, Katie Price, Keeley Hazell, Pixie Lott, and Dita Von Teese. Diosa Costello was known as "the Original Latin Bombshell"

— Freebase

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 and directed it until his death in 1980. The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory." According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."

— Freebase

The Timewriter

The Timewriter

Jean F. Cochois aka The Timewriter is a house music producer. His trademark style can be characterised by its dense and atmospheric sound. UK Muzik magazine wrote: "This is real 21st century soul music, overflowing with magic". Under various pseudonyms he has been releasing 12" and artist albums on labels as Plastic City, Mole Listening Pearls, Elektrolux and American labels such as Wave Music, Driftwood, and Fiji. He amalgamates the deep soul of Motown with synthetic sound productions. While still at boarding school, he eagerly explored the field of composition and became familiar with diverse musical styles. He looked up to bands like Depeche Mode, Tears for Fears, Kraftwerk, Gary Numan, Thomas Dolby, Alan Parsons, Vangelis and Jean Michele Jarre. Motown artists like Bobby Womack, Marvin Gaye or The Four Tops are also among his heroes. Other important sources of inspiration are Roxy Music and Marillion. In some of his songs influence of Michael Stearns is noticeable but he never confirmed this. He has worked for artists such as Enigma, the ex-Kraftwerk member Wolfgang Flür, Mike Oldfield, Yello, Faithless and Boy George to name a few. As a highly sought after DJ, he travels the world and plays in places such as New York, London, Sweden, Spain and Russia. As resident DJ he played in Sven Väth's Cocoon Club and now holds a monthly residency in Budapest.

— Freebase

Kanak people

Kanak people

Kanak are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific. According to the 2009 census, they constitute 40.3% of the total population of New Caledonia. Though Melanesian settlement is recorded on Grande Terre's Presqu'île de Foué peninsula as far back as the Lapita culture, the origin of Kanak people is unclear. Ethnographic research has shown that Polynesian seafarers have intermarried with the Kanaks over the centuries. The Kanaks refer to the European inhabitants of New Caledonia as Caldoches. New Caledonia was annexed to France in 1853, and became an overseas territory of France in 1956. A political movement, restarted by the Kanaks in 1984, after an initial failed revolt in 1967, has strongly pursued total independence status from the French rule. The movement is supported by the United Nations resolution of December 1986. A 2014 referendum will decide whether or not the territory will achieve sovereign status. When the 1988 Matignon agreements were signed between the representatives of France and New Caledonia to decide on holding the referendum for independence, Jean-Marie Tjibaou, the Kanak leader of the independence movement, had mooted a proposal to set up an Agency for the Development of Kanak Culture. After Tjibaou's assassination in 1989, the French President François Mitterrand ordered that a cultural centre on the lines suggested by Tjibaou be set up in Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia; it was to be the last of Mitterrand's Grands Projets. The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre was formally established in May 1998.

— Freebase

Dromomania

Dromomania

Dromomania, also travelling fugue, is an uncontrollable psychological urge to wander. People with this condition spontaneously depart from their routine, travel long distances and take up different identities and occupations. Months may pass before they return to their former identities. The term comes from the Greek: dromos and mania. The most famous case was that of Jean-Albert Dadas, a Bordeaux gas-fitter. Dadas would suddenly set out on foot and reach cities as far away as Prague, Vienna or Moscow with no memory of his travels. A medical student, Philippe Tissie, wrote about Dadas in his doctoral dissertation in 1887. Jean-Martin Charcot presented a similar case he called automatisme ambulatoire - French for "ambulatory automatism" or "walking around without being in control of one's own actions." Only a handful of cases of such behaviour have been documented, nearly all in France in the late nineteenth century. On the other hand, dromomania in wider sense can be characteristic of other mental disorders, e.g. Borderline personality disorder. More generally, the term is sometimes used to describe people who have a strong emotional or even physical need to be constantly traveling and experiencing new places, often at the expense of their normal family, work, and social lives.

— Freebase

Facticity

Facticity

Facticity has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence. The term is first used by Fichte and has a variety of meanings. It can refer to facts and factuality, as in nineteenth-century positivism, but comes to mean that which resists explanation and interpretation in Dilthey and Neo-Kantianism. The Neo-Kantians contrasted facticity with ideality, as does Jürgen Habermas in Between Facts and Norms. It is a term that takes on a more specialized meaning in 20th century continental philosophy, especially in phenomenology and existentialism, including Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Recent philosophers such as Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy, and François Raffoul have taken up the notion of facticity in new ways. Facticity plays a key part in Quentin Meillassoux's philosophical project to challenge the thought-world relationship of correlationism. It is defined by him as “the absence of reason for any reality; in other words, the impossibility of providing an ultimate ground for the existence of any being.”

— Freebase

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau

Androuet du Cerceau was a family of French architects and designers active in the 16th and early 17th century. ⁕Jacques I Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jean Baptiste Androuet du Cerceau ⁕Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau ⁕Jean Androuet du Cerceau

— Freebase

Billie Jean King

Billie Jean King

Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles, including 12 singles, 16 women's doubles, and 11 mixed doubles titles. King won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. King often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup. She was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, King was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King is an advocate for sexual equality. She won the Battle of the Sexes tennis match against Bobby Riggs in 1973 and was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association, World TeamTennis, and the Women's Sports Foundation. King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987. The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on King in 2010. In 1972, King was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975. King has also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and was given the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the year lifetime achievement award. King was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center.

— Freebase

Oedipus rex

Oedipus rex

Oedipus rex is an "Opera-oratorio after Sophocles" by Igor Stravinsky, scored for orchestra, speaker, soloists, and male chorus. The libretto, based on Sophocles's tragedy, was written by Jean Cocteau in French and then translated by Abbé Jean Daniélou into Latin. Oedipus rex was written towards the beginning of Stravinsky's neoclassical period. He had considered setting the work in Ancient Greek, but decided ultimately on Latin: in his words "a medium not dead but turned to stone."

— Freebase

Fourier series

Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series decomposes periodic functions or periodic signals into the sum of a set of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines. The study of Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis. The Fourier series is named in honour of Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, who made important contributions to the study of trigonometric series, after preliminary investigations by Leonhard Euler, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and Daniel Bernoulli. Fourier introduced the series for the purpose of solving the heat equation in a metal plate, publishing his initial results in his 1807 Mémoire sur la propagation de la chaleur dans les corps solides, and publishing his Théorie analytique de la chaleur in 1822. Early ideas of decomposing a periodic function into the sum of simple oscillating functions date back to the 3rd century BC, when ancient astronomers proposed an empiric model of planetary motions, based on deferents and epicycles. The heat equation is a partial differential equation. Prior to Fourier's work, no solution to the heat equation was known in the general case, although particular solutions were known if the heat source behaved in a simple way, in particular, if the heat source was a sine or cosine wave. These simple solutions are now sometimes called eigensolutions. Fourier's idea was to model a complicated heat source as a superposition of simple sine and cosine waves, and to write the solution as a superposition of the corresponding eigensolutions. This superposition or linear combination is called the Fourier series.

— Freebase

Jean Racine

Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine, was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France, and an important literary figure in the Western tradition. Racine was primarily a tragedian, producing such "examples of neoclassical perfection" as Phèdre, Andromaque, and Athalie, although he did write one comedy, Les Plaideurs, and a muted tragedy, Esther, for the young. Racine's plays displayed his mastery of the dodecasyllabic alexandrine; he is renowned for elegance, purity, speed, and fury, and for what Robert Lowell described as a "diamond-edge", and the "glory of its hard, electric rage". The linguistic effects of Racine's poetry are widely considered to be untranslatable, although many eminent poets have attempted to do so, including Lowell, Ted Hughes, and Derek Mahon into English, and Schiller into German. The latest attempt to translate Racine's plays into English earned a 2011 American Book Award for the poet Geoffrey Argent. Racine's dramaturgy is marked by his psychological insight, the prevailing passion of his characters, and the nakedness of both the plot and stage.

— Freebase

Mouchette

Mouchette

Mouchette is a 1967 French film directed by Robert Bresson, starring Nadine Nortier and Jean-Claude Guilbert. It is based on the novel by Georges Bernanos. It was entered into the 1967 Cannes Film Festival, winning the OCIC Award. Mouchette tells the story of a girl entering adolescence, the daughter of a bullying alcoholic father and ailing mother set in a rural French village. One stormy night Mouchette's world changes. It is a coming of age film which Bresson portrays in his own unique style. According to Bresson, "Mouchette offers evidence of misery and cruelty. She is found everywhere: wars, concentration camps, tortures, assassinations." The Criterion Collection DVD release includes a trailer for this film made by Jean-Luc Godard.

— Freebase

Redbeard

Redbeard

Redbeard is a series of Belgian comic books, originally published in French, created by writer Jean-Michel Charlier and artist Victor Hubinon. After their deaths the series was continued by other artists, including Jijé, Christian Gaty, Patrice Pellerin, Jean Ollivier, Christian Perrissin and Marc Bourgne.

— Freebase

Georges Cuvier

Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century, and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the evolutionary theories of Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal. In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter he was known as Baron Cuvier. He died in Paris, during an epidemic of cholera.

— Freebase

Baroque music

Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era follows the Renaissance, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl, a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period. Later, the name came to apply also to the architecture of the same period. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, François Couperin, Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Pachelbel, and Henry Purcell. The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality. During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera, cantata, oratorio, concerto, and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.

— Freebase

Saint-Jean-de-Luz

Saint-Jean-de-Luz

Saint-Jean-de-Luz is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Saint-Jean-de-Luz is part of the Basque province of Labourd and of the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián.

— Freebase

Librettist

Librettist

A librettist is the author of a libretto (It.: small book), the text of a vocal work, particularly opera or oratorio. Among the notorious librettists have been Pietro Metastasio, Lorenzo Da Ponte, Eugene Scribe, Felice Romani, Francesco Maria Piave, Luigi Illica, Arrigo Boito, and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Some composers wrote libretti for themselves or for other composers, for example Richard Wagner, Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Frederick Delius, Michael Tippet, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Gian Carlo Menotti who wrote two libretti for Samuel Barber's operas; others adapted plays for their own use, most notably Claude Debussy, Richard Strauss and Alban Berg. There are also librettists among the famous writers: Bertolt Brecht, Jean Cocteau, Miguel de Cervantes, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Carlo Goldoni, Aleksandr Pushkin, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, and Stefan Zweig. And here are some people one would not expect as librettists: Frederick II of Prussia (the Great), Catherine II of Russia, Pope Clement IX, and Franco Zeffirelli.

— Freebase

Dessalines

Dessalines

Dessalines is a town in the Artibonite Department of Haiti. It is named after Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of independent Haiti. This Town is the First Black Capital in the World. In 1804 The First Black Free Country has born. And Marchand Dessalines, became the Capital of the new Country. Jean-Jacques Dessalines loved so much this town. Most of the fortifications are still in good condition.

— Freebase

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 to 1930. He was a cultural critic in the tradition of Matthew Arnold, and a consistent opponent of romanticism, as represented by the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Politically he can, without serious distortion, be called a follower of Aristotle and Edmund Burke. He was an advocate of classical humanism but also offered an ecumenical defense of religion. His humanism implied a broad knowledge of various moral and religious traditions. Babbitt’s humanism emphasized the need for self-discipline and control, and suppression of the impulses seeking liberation from all restraints. He warned that Jean Jacques Rousseau was the major corrupting influence on modern culture. He complained that Romanticism celebrated too much the individual instinct and uniqueness of personality by denying the universal aspects of human nature as depicted in classical pre-romantic literature. He also attacked naturalism, which was popular at the time because it depicted man as a reflex agent of natural forces, and stressed the dominance of the environment over human institutions.

— Freebase

Cono Christian School

Cono Christian School

Cono, founded in 1951 near Walker, Iowa, by Max and Jean Belz, is a K-12 day and boarding school serving students from around the United States and the world. Boarding students are generally in middle and high school. This Christian boarding school began, and still exists as, a ministry of Bible Presbyterian Church. Max Belz was the pastor of the church at the time of the school's founding. He, Jean, and their eight children lived on the 1-acre of donated property where the church building was built. Today Cono has 200 acres, 25 of which are developed with academic, athletic and student and staff residential facilities. Class sizes are small and average six to eight students for a full academic program.

— Freebase

Overdoor

Overdoor

An "overdoor" is a painting, bas-relief or decorative panel, generally in a horizontal format, that is set, typically within ornamental mouldings, over a door, or was originally intended for this purpose. The overdoor is usually architectural in form, but may take the form of a cartouche in Rococo settings, or it may be little more than a moulded shelf for the placement of ceramic vases, busts or curiosities. An overmantel serves a similar function above a fireplace mantel. From the end of the sixeenth century, at first in interiors such as the Palazzo Sampieri, Bologna, where Annibale Carracci provided overdoor paintings, they developed into a minor genre of their own, in which the trompe l'oeil representations of stone bas-reliefs, or vases of flowers, in which Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer specialized, were heightened by sotto in su perspective, in which the light was often painted to reproduce the light, diffused from below, that was entering the room from its windows. Overdoors of such flower pieces, allegorical subjects, and landscapes were favoured through the end of the eighteenth century. French, Dutch and Flemish animalier artists such as Jean-Baptiste Oudry and Jan Weenix were often commissioned to paint sets of overdoors with groups of live or dead game and dogs for country houses or hunting lodges.

— Freebase

Won

Won

'Won' is Pacewon's debut solo album. Pacewon is a founding member of the rap group The Outsidaz and was on their first and only two albums. The album is produced by Wyclef Jean, of the rap group The Fugees, which Pacewon has worked with. The other producers are Jerry Duplessis and Ski. The album includes 21 songs and features seven guest stars. The featured rappers are Young Zee of the Outsidaz, Wyclef Jean of The Fugees, Azz Izz, Kurupt, Melanie Blatt, Richie Thumbs, and Rah Digga also of the Outsidaz.

— Freebase

Groxis

Groxis

Groxis was a tech company based in San Francisco, California that developed and marketed the web-based federated content access and visual search engine called Grokker. Groxis was founded by Jean-Michel Decombe, Paul Hawken, and R.J. Pittman in 2001, and ceased operations in March 2009. Jean-Michel Decombe was Chief Technology Officer until 2006. Ron Mexico served as interim Chief Technology Officer during a brief absence in November 2005. He conceived the vision and invented the concepts underlying Groxis' flagship product, Grokker, for which he obtained several patents, including 6,879,332, 6,888,554, 7,036,093, and 7,290,223. Paul Hawken was Executive Chairman until 2003. He raised the initial round of capital from angel investors. He assembled a team of advisors including Paul Saffo and John Seely Brown. R.J. Pittman was Chief Executive Officer until 2006. He raised capital from top-tier venture capitalists. He was responsible for all pathfinder customer wins and key partnerships. He also set overall product direction, leading the company and moving Grokker.com into the top 5000 most visited web sites on the Internet. Groxis partners and customers included Sun Microsystems, Stanford University, Fast Search & Transfer, EBSCO Information Services, the Internet Public Library, and Amgen, as well as Yahoo!, Google, and Amazon.

— Freebase

Drain Pipe

Drain Pipe

Jean F. Cochois aka The Timewriter is a house music producer. His trademark style can be characterised by its dense and atmospheric sound. UK Muzik magazine wrote: "This is real 21st century soul music, overflowing with magic". Under various pseudonyms he has been releasing 12" and artist albums on labels as Plastic City, Mole Listening Pearls, Elektrolux and American labels such as Wave Music, Driftwood, and Fiji. He amalgamates the deep soul of Motown with synthetic sound productions. While still at boarding school, he eagerly explored the field of composition and became familiar with diverse musical styles. He looked up to bands like Depeche Mode, Tears for Fears, Kraftwerk, Gary Numan, Thomas Dolby, Alan Parsons, Vangelis and Jean Michele Jarre. Motown artists like Bobby Womack, Marvin Gaye or The Four Tops are also among his heroes. Other important sources of inspiration are Roxy Music and Marillion. In some of his songs influence of Michael Stearns is noticeable but he never confirmed this. He has worked for artists such as Enigma, the ex-Kraftwerk member Wolfgang Flür, Mike Oldfield, Yello, Faithless and Boy George to name a few. As a highly sought after DJ, he travels the world and plays in places such as New York, London, Sweden, Spain and Russia. As resident DJ he played in Sven Väth's Cocoon Club and now holds a monthly residency in Budapest.

— Freebase

Marthe

Marthe

Marthe, histoire d'une fille was the first novel by the French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans, published in 1876. The book is autobiographical in inspiration and tells the story of the love affair between a young journalist called Léo and the heroine of the title, a would-be actress who works in a factory for artificial pearls as well as in a licensed brothel. The love affair breaks up and Marthe goes to live with the alcoholic actor-manager Ginginet. After his death, she is reduced to living on the streets. Huysmans was worried about the response to the book's controversial subject matter, since the author Jean Richepin had recently been imprisoned for a month and fined for writing a book on the theme of prostitution. In spite of this, Marthe is not pornographic. Huysmans intended its squalid realism as an attack on the overidealised view of Bohemian life in Paris he found in such Romantic writers as Henri Murger, whose famous Scènes de la vie bohème had appeared in 1848. Huysmans' style in Marthe owes a great deal to his literary hero at the time, Edmond de Goncourt. To avoid prosecution, Huysmans travelled to Brussels to have Marthe issued by the Belgian publisher Jean Gay, who had considerable experience smuggling contraband books across the French border. The novel appeared for sale in Belgium on October 1, 1876. Huysmans decided against smuggling it into France but when he attempted to take 400 copies through French customs, all but a handful were impounded. Huysmans decided to send some of the few remaining copies to leading figures of the literary scene in Paris. Edmond de Goncourt offered qualified praise but Émile Zola was most enthusiastic. Zola, the head of the new Naturalist school of French fiction, soon became a friend and mentor to the young Huysmans, whose association with the Naturalist group would last until his most famous novel, A rebours, took Huysmans' writing in a completely different direction.

— Freebase

Jean-Roch

Jean-Roch

Jean-Roch Pédri known as just Jean-Roch is a singer-songwriter, and DJ / producer of electronic music and founder of "Vip Room". He is also founder of the record label John-Roch Records.

— Freebase

baud

baud

[simplified from its technical meaning] n. Bits per second. Hence kilobaud or Kbaud, thousands of bits per second. The technical meaning is level transitions per second; this coincides with bps only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop bits. Most hackers are aware of these nuances but blithely ignore them.Historical note: baud was originally a unit of telegraph signalling speed, set at one pulse per second. It was proposed at the November, 1926 conference of the Comité Consultatif International Des Communications Télégraphiques as an improvement on the then standard practice of referring to line speeds in terms of words per minute, and named for Jean Maurice Emile Baudot (1845-1903), a French engineer who did a lot of pioneering work in early teleprinters.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

commonly called Saint-Pierre simply, a celebrated French writer, born at Havre; author of "Paul and Virginia," written on the eve of the Revolution, called by Carlyle "the swan-song of old dying France," (1739-1814).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bienne, Lake of

Bienne, Lake of

in the Swiss canton of Berne; the Aar is led into it when in flood, so as to prevent inundation below; on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings, and an island in it, St. Pierre, the retreat of Rousseau in 1765.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Dupuytren, Baron

Dupuytren, Baron

a celebrated French surgeon, born at Pierre-Buffière; he was a man of firm nerve, signally sure and skilful as an operator, and contributed greatly, both by his inventions and discoveries, to the progress of surgery; a museum of pathological anatomy, in which he made important discoveries, bears his name (1777-1835).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Martin, Aimé

Martin, Aimé

a French writer, born at Lyons, repaired to Paris, became the pupil and friend of Bernardin de St. Pierre; collected his works and married his widow; his letters to Sophia on "Natural History," &c., highly popular (1781-1844).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Paul and Virginia

Paul and Virginia

a celebrated novel by Saint-Pierre, written on the eve of the French Revolution, in which "there rises melodiously, as it were, the wail of a moribund world: everywhere wholesome Nature in unequal conflict with diseased, perfidious art; cannot escape from it in the lowest hut, in the remotest island of the sea"; it records the fate of a child of nature corrupted by the false, artificial sentimentality that prevailed at the time among the upper classes of France.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ramus, Peter

Ramus, Peter

or Pierre de la Ramée, a French philosopher and humanist, son of poor parents; became a servant in the College of Navarre; devoted his leisure to study, and became a great scholar; attacked scholasticism in a work against Aristotle as the main pillar of the system, and was interdicted from teaching philosophy, but the judgment was reversed by Henry II., and he was made a royal professor; he turned Protestant in the end, and was massacred on the eve of St. Bartholomew (1515-1572).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Alençon, Counts and Dukes of

Alençon, Counts and Dukes of

a title borne by several members of the house of Valois—e. g. Charles of Valois, who fell at Crécy (1346); Jean IV., who fell at Agincourt (1415).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bai`reuth

Bai`reuth

the capital of Upper Franconia, in Bavaria, with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions, and with a monument, simple but massive, as was fit, to the memory of Jean Paul, who died there.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bart

Bart

or Barth, Jean, a distinguished French seaman, born at Dunkirk, son of a fisherman, served under De Ruyter, entered the French service at 20, purchased a ship of two guns, was subsidised as a privateer, made numerous prizes; having had other ships placed under his command, was captured by the English, but escaped; defeated the Dutch admiral, De Vries; captured his squadron laden with corn, for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV.; he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent, unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Camisards

Camisards

Huguenots of the Cévennes, who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV., in which others joined, under Jean Cavalier their chief, after, and in consequence of, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685); so called because they wore a camiso (Fr. a chemise), a blouse over their armour; were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Clerc

Clerc

or Leclerc, Jean, a French theologian of the Arminian school, born at Geneva; a prolific author; wrote commentaries on all the books of the Old Testament, on lines since followed by the Rationalist school or Neologians of Germany (1657-1736).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Clootz, Anacharsis

Clootz, Anacharsis

Baron Jean Baptiste de Clootz, a French Revolutionary, born at Clèves; "world-citizen"; his faith that "a world federation is possible, under all manner of customs, provided they hold men"; his pronomen Anacharsis suggested by his resemblance to an ancient Scythian prince who had like him a cosmopolitan spirit; was one of the founders of the worship of Reason, and styled himself the "orator of the human race"; distinguished himself at the great Federation, celebrated on the Champ de Mars, by entering the hall on the great Federation Day, June 19, 1790, "with the human species at his heels"; was guillotined under protest in the name of the human race (1755-1794).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Collinson, Peter

Collinson, Peter

an English horticulturist, to whom we are indebted for the introduction into the country of many ornamental shrubs (1694-1768).

Collot d'Herbois, Jean Marie

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Coquerel, Athanase

Coquerel, Athanase

a Protestant pastor, son of preceding, born at Amsterdam; celebrated for his liberal and tolerant views, too much so for M. Guizot; edited Voltaire's letters on toleration; his chief work, "Jean Calas et sa Famille" (1820-1875).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Cotta

Cotta

German publisher, born at Stuttgart; established in Tübingen; published the works of Goethe, Schiller, Jean Paul, Herder, and others of note among their contemporaries (1764-1832).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Divine Doctor

Divine Doctor

Jean de Ruysbroek, the mystic (1294-1381).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ecstatic Doctor

Ecstatic Doctor

Jean Ruysbroek, a schoolman given to mysticism (1294-1381).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Feuillans

Feuillans

a reformed brotherhood of Cistercian monks, founded in 1577 by Jean de la Barrière, abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Feuillans, in Languedoc. The movement thus organised was a protest against the laxity which had crept into the Church, and probably received some stimulus from the Reformation, which was then in progress. The Feuillans settled in a convent in the Rue St. Honoré, Paris, which in after years became the meeting-place of a revolutionary club, which took the name of Feuillans; founded in 1790 by Lafayette, La Rochefoucauld, &c., and which consisted of members of the respectable property classes, whose views were more moderate than those of the Jacobins. They could not hold out against the flood of revolutionary violence, and on March 28, 1791, a mob burst into their place of meeting and dispersed them.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Flodden, Battle of

Flodden, Battle of

fought on Flodden Hill, a low spur of the Cheviots, 6 m. S. of Coldstream, between James IV. of Scotland and the English under the Earl of Surrey on the 9th of September 1513, which resulted in the crushing defeat of the Scots, who lost their king and the flower of their nobility, an event celebrated in Jean Elliot's "Flowers of the Forest"; a spirited account is given in the sixth canto of Scott's "Marmion."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Förster, Ernst

Förster, Ernst

an art critic, brother of succeeding, author of a number of elaborate and important works bearing on the history of art in Germany and Italy; was the son-in-law of Jean Paul, whose works he edited, and to whose biography he made contributions of great value (1800-1885).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grandville

Grandville

the pseudonym of Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard, a French caricaturist, born at Nancy; his fame was first established by the "Metamorphoses du Jour," a series of satirical sketches representing men with animal faces characteristic of them; his subsequent work embraced political cartoons and illustrations for "Gulliver's Travels," "Don Quixote," "Robinson Crusoe," La Fontaine's "Fables," &c. (1803-1847).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grolier, Jean

Grolier, Jean

a famous bibliophile, whose library was dispersed in 1675; the bindings of the books being ornamented with geometric patterns, have given name to bindings in this style; they bore the inscription, "Io. Grolieri et Amicorum" (the property of Jean Grolier and his friends).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hardinge, Henry, Viscount

Hardinge, Henry, Viscount

a distinguished soldier and Governor-General of India, born at Wrotham, Kent; joined the army in 1798, and served through the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns, but wounded at Ligny he was unable to take part in the final struggle with Napoleon; he now turned his attention to politics; was Secretary of War under Wellington, and subsequently twice Chief Secretary for Ireland; in 1844 he was appointed Governor-General of India, and later distinguished himself under Gough in the first Sikh War; a viscountship and pension followed in 1845, and seven years later he succeeded Wellington as Commander-in-Chief of the British army (1785-1856).

Hardouin, Jean

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hof

Hof

a town of Bavaria, on the Saale, 40 m. NE. of Baireuth; has flourishing textile factories, breweries, and iron-works; is associated with the early struggles of Jean Paul Richter.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Levana

Levana

the title of a book by Jean Paul on the education of children; title from the name of a Roman goddess, the protectress of foundlings.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Orleans, Dukes of

Orleans, Dukes of

the name of four distinct branches of the royal family of France, the first commencing with Philippe, fifth son of Philippe of Valois, in 1344; the second with Louis, brother of Charles VI. (1371-1407); the third with Jean Baptiste Gascon, brother of Louis XIII., who took part in the plots against Richelieu, and was appointed lieutenant-general on the death of his brother (1608-1660); the fourth with Philippe I., brother of Louis XIV. (1640-1701); Philippe II., son of the preceding, governed France during the minority of Louis XV.; involved his finances by his connection with Louis, and did injury to the public morals by the depravity of his life (1674-1723); Louis-Philippe, his grandson, lieutenant-general and governor of Dauphiné (1725-1785); Louis-Philippe Joseph, son of preceding, surnamed Philippe-Egalité, played a conspicuous part in the Revolution, and perished on the scaffold (1747-1793); and Louis-Philippe, his son (q. v.); Prince Louis Robert, eldest son of Comte de Paris, claimant to the throne, b. 1869.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pentateuch

Pentateuch

the name given by Origen to the first five books of the Bible, which the Jews call the Law or Five-fifths of the Law, the composition of which has of late years been subjected to keen critical investigation, and the whole ascribed to documents of different dates and diverse authorship, to the rejection of the old traditional hypothesis that it was the work of Moses, first called in question by Spinoza, and shown to be untenable by Jean Astruc (q. v.).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich

usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece" (1763-1825).

Richthofen, Baron von

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Observations

Observations

Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorables trouvées en Grèce, Asie, Judée, Egypte, Arabie et autres pays étrangèrs is a work of ethnographical, botanical and zoological exploration by Pierre Belon, a French naturalist from Le Mans. Starting in 1546, Belon travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, Arabia and Palestine, returning to France in 1549. His Observations, with illustrations, were first published in 1553. A second edition appeared in 1555. The work was translated into Latin by Charles de l'Écluse and published in 1589 under the title Petri Bellonii Cenomani plurimorum singularium et memorabilium rerum ... observationes. The Latin text was reprinted as an appendix to Clusius's Exoticorum libri decem.

— Freebase

Direct democracy

Direct democracy

Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum, initiative, and recall. Referendums can include the ability to hold a binding vote on whether a given law should be rejected. This effectively grants the populace which holds suffrage a veto on a law adopted by the elected legislature. Initiatives, usually put forward by members of the general public, compel the consideration of laws without the consent of the elected representatives, or even against their expressed opposition. Recalls give public the power to remove elected officials from office before the end of their term, although this is very rare in modern democracies. Writers with anarchist sympathies have argued that direct democracy is opposed to a strong central authority, as decision making power can only reside at one level – with the people themselves or with the central authority. Some of the most important modern thinkers who were inspired by the concept of direct democracy are Cornelius Castoriadis, Hannah Arendt, and Pierre Clastres.

— Freebase

Albigensian Crusade

Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in the south of France. The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavour, resulting in not only a significant reduction in the number of practicing Cathars but also a realignment of Occitania, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of Aragonese influence. The Cathars were a medieval Christian sect with a neo-manichaean philosophy. It originated from a reform movement within the Bogomil churches of Dalmatia and Bulgaria calling for a return to the Christian message of perfection, poverty and preaching. They became known as the Albigensians as it gained many adherents in the city of Albi and surrounding area in the twelfth and thirteenth century. When Innocent III's diplomatic attempts to roll back Catharism met with little success and after the murder of the papal legate, Pierre de Castelnau, Innocent III declared a crusade against Languedoc, offering the lands of the Cathar heretics to any French nobleman willing to take up arms. The violence led to France's acquisition of lands with closer linguistic, cultural, and political ties to Catalonia. The pope declared that all Albigenses "should be imprisoned and their property confiscated".

— Freebase

Herbager

Herbager

Herbager was a French Champion Thoroughbred racehorse and an influential sire in both France and the United States. He was sired by Vandale, a stayer who won the 1946 Prix du Conseil Municipal and whom Herbager would help make the 1959 Leading sire in France. His dam was Flagette who was inbred to St. Leger winner Firdaussi. Owned by Simone Del Duca and trained by Pierre Pelat, Herbager made two starts at age two, finishing second once and winning the Prix Seraphine. At age three, Herbager was the best colt in his age group in France, winning important races including the Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud and the Classic French Derby in which he earned an impressive Timeform rating of 136. In the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe he sustained a serious leg injury, but still managed to finish only two lengths from the winner. This injury ended his racing career.

— Freebase

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon. Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. However, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, hence the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Chlorophyll was first isolated by Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier in 1817. ⁕ Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color and absorbs light that is used in photosynthesis. ⁕ Chlorophyll is found in high concentrations in chloroplasts of plant cells. ⁕ Absorption maxima of chlorophylls against the spectrum of white light. ⁕ SeaWiFS-derived average sea surface chlorophyll for the period 1998 to 2006.

— Freebase

Curium

Curium

Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cm and atomic number 96. This element of the actinide series was named after Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie – both were known for their research on radioactivity. Curium was first intentionally produced and identified in July 1944 by the group of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley. The discovery was kept secret and only released to the public in November 1945. Most curium is produced by bombarding uranium or plutonium with neutrons in nuclear reactors – one tonne of spent nuclear fuel contains about 20 grams of curium. Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide. Whereas it is paramagnetic at ambient conditions, it becomes antiferromagnetic upon cooling, and other magnetic transitions are also observed for many curium compounds. In compounds, curium usually exhibits valence +3 and sometimes +4, and the +3 valence is predominant in solutions. Curium readily oxidizes, and its oxides are a dominant form of this element. It forms strongly fluorescent complexes with various organic compounds, but there is no evidence of its incorporation into bacteria and archaea. When introduced into the human body, curium accumulates in the bones, lungs and liver, where it promotes cancer.238

— Freebase

be

be

.be is the Internet country code top-level domain for Belgium. The domain became active in 1989 and was administrated by Pierre Verbaeten of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. In 2000, the control of the TLD was transferred to DNS Belgium. As of early 2012 there are 1,253,040 domains that are registered. It was announced in November 2005 that the initial registration of domains would be free until the beginning of 2006, though with some limits on the number any individual was allowed to register. This was remarkably popular, with some 17,000 registrations coming in on the first day of the promotion. Domain names are registered directly at second level. Some of Belgian's main academic institutions, such as the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université Libre de Bruxelles, use third-level names under ac.be, but others have abandoned its use. Any .be registration has to be ordered via a registered agent.

— Freebase

Logistic function

Logistic function

A logistic function or logistic curve is a common sigmoid function, given its name in 1844 or 1845 by Pierre François Verhulst who studied it in relation to population growth. A generalized logistic curve can model the "S-shaped" behaviour of growth of some population P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as saturation begins, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops. A simple logistic function may be defined by the formula where the variable P might be considered to denote a population, where e is Euler's number and the variable t might be thought of as time. For values of t in the range of real numbers from −∞ to +∞, the S-curve shown is obtained. In practice, due to the nature of the exponential function e−, it is often sufficient to compute t over a small range of real numbers such as [−6, +6]. The logistic function finds applications in a range of fields, including artificial neural networks, biology, biomathematics, demography, economics, chemistry, mathematical psychology, probability, sociology, political science, and statistics. It has an easily calculated derivative: It also has the property that Thus, the function is odd.

— Freebase

Radiobiology

Radiobiology

Radiobiology, as a field of clinical and basic medical sciences, originated from Leopold Freund's 1896 demonstration of the therapeutic treatment of a hairy mole using a new type of electromagnetic radiation called x-rays, which was discovered 1 year previously by the German physicist, Wilhelm Röntgen. At the same time, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the radioactive polonium and radium later used to treat cancer. In simplest terms, radiobiology is the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things.

— Freebase

Joe Clark

Joe Clark

Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark, PC CC AOE is a Canadian statesman, businessman, and university professor, and former journalist and politician. He served as the 16th Prime Minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. Despite his relative inexperience, Clark rose quickly in federal politics, entering the House of Commons in the 1972 election and winning the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1976. He came to power in the 1979 election, defeating the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau and ending sixteen continuous years of Liberal rule. Taking office the day before his 40th birthday, Clark is the youngest person to become Prime Minister. His tenure was brief as he only won a minority government, and it was defeated on a motion of non-confidence. Clark subsequently lost the 1980 election and the leadership of the party in 1983. He returned to prominence in 1984 as a senior cabinet minister in Brian Mulroney's cabinet, retiring from politics after not standing for re-election for the House of Commons in 1993. He made a political comeback in 1998 to lead the Progressive Conservatives before its dissolution, serving his final term in Parliament from 2000 to 2004. Clark today is recognized as a distinguished scholar and statesman, and serves as a university professor and as president of his own consulting firm.

— Freebase

Eurycoma

Eurycoma

Eurycoma is a small genus of three or four species of flowering plants in the family Simaroubaceae, native to tropical southeastern Asia. They are small evergreen trees with spirally arranged pinnate leaves. The flowers are small, produced in large panicles. ⁕Eurycoma apiculata Benn. ⁕Eurycoma harmandiana Pierre ⁕Eurycoma latifolia Ridl. ⁕Eurycoma longifolia Jack

— Freebase

Noosphere

Noosphere

The Noosphere, according to the thought of Vladimir Vernadsky and Teilhard de Chardin, denotes the "sphere of human thought". The word is derived from the Greek νοῦς and σφαῖρα, in lexical analogy to "atmosphere" and "biosphere". It was introduced by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in 1922 in his Cosmogenesis. Another possibility is the first use of the term by Édouard Le Roy, who together with Teilhard was listening to lectures of Vladimir Vernadsky at Sorbonne. In 1936 Vernadsky accepted the idea of the Noosphere in a letter to Boris Leonidovich Lichkov.

— Freebase

Subconscious

Subconscious

In psychology, the subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness. The word subconscious is an anglicized version of the French subconscient as coined by the psychologist Pierre Janet, who argued that underneath the layers of critical thought functions of the conscious mind lay a powerful awareness that he called the subconscious mind. Since there is a limit to the information that can be held in conscious focal awareness, a storehouse of one's knowledge and prior experience is needed; this is the subconscious.

— Freebase

Laplace distribution

Laplace distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the Laplace distribution is a continuous probability distribution named after Pierre-Simon Laplace. It is also sometimes called the double exponential distribution, because it can be thought of as two exponential distributions spliced together back-to-back, but the term double exponential distribution is also sometimes used to refer to the Gumbel distribution. The difference between two independent identically distributed exponential random variables is governed by a Laplace distribution, as is a Brownian motion evaluated at an exponentially distributed random time. Increments of Laplace motion or a variance gamma process evaluated over the time scale also have a Laplace distribution.

— Freebase

Tutelary deity

Tutelary deity

A tutelary is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture or occupation. Both tutelary and tutelar can be used as either a noun or an adjective. An analogous concept in Christianity is the patron saint, or to a lesser degree guardian angel. One type of tutelary deity is the genius, the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Pierre A. Riffard defines a tutelary spirit as either the genius or a familiar spirit.

— Freebase

Black hole

Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole, there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. The hole is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater. Objects whose gravity fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Long considered a mathematical curiosity, it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed black holes were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.

— Freebase

Metz

Metz

Metz is a city in the northeast of France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the capital and the prefecture of both the Lorraine region and the Moselle department. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, Metz forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. A Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman city, the Merovingian capital of the Austrasia kingdom, the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, a cradle of the Gregorian chant, and one of the oldest republics of the common era in Europe, Metz has a rich 3,000-year-history. The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history. Metz possesses one of the largest Urban Conservation Areas in France, and more than 100 buildings of the city are classified on the Monument Historique list. Because of its historical and cultural background, Metz benefits from its designation as French Town of Art and History. The city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral, the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, its Station Palace, or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France. Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum.

— Freebase

Maine

Maine

Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, New Hampshire to the west, the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast. Maine is both the northernmost and easternmost portion of New England. It is known for its scenery—its jagged, mostly rocky coastline, its low, rolling mountains, its heavily forested interior and picturesque waterways—as well as for its seafood cuisine, especially lobsters and clams. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European encounter, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in Maine was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement in Maine, the short-lived Popham Colony, was established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years. As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements survived. Patriot and British forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts. On March 15, 1820, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state under the Missouri Compromise. Maine is the 39th most extensive and the 41st most populous of the 50 United States.

— Freebase

Peter Minuit

Peter Minuit

Peter Minuit, Pieter Minuit, Pierre Minuit or Peter Minnewit was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. He was Director of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633, and founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638. According to tradition, he purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans on May 24, 1626 for goods valued at 60 Dutch guilders, which in the 19th century was estimated to be the equivalent of $24.

— Freebase

South Dakota

South Dakota

South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. South Dakota is the 17th most extensive, but the 5th least populous and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. Once the southern portion of the Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 simultaneously with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of 159,000, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana. The state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and socially distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, and fertile soil in this area is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, and the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains, are located in the southwest part of the state. The Black Hills are sacred to the Sioux. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is located there. Other attractions in the southwest include Badlands and Wind Cave national parks, Custer State Park, the Crazy Horse Memorial, and historic Deadwood. South Dakota experiences a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west. The ecology of the state features species typical of a North American grassland biome.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, and astronomy. Euler spent most of his adult life in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, Prussia. He is considered to be the pre-eminent mathematician of the 18th century, and one of the greatest mathematicians ever to have lived. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians ever; his collected works fill 60–80 quarto volumes. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."

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Picrotoxin

Picrotoxin

Picrotoxin, also known as cocculin, is a poisonous crystalline plant compound, first isolated by Pierre Boullay in 1812. The name "picrotoxin" is a combination of the Greek words "picros" and "toxicon". Found primarily in the fruit of the climbing plant Anamirta cocculus, it has a strong physiological action. It acts as a noncompetitive antagonist for the GABAA receptor chloride channels. It is therefore a channel blocker rather than a receptor antagonist. As GABA itself is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, infusion of picrotoxin has stimulant and convulsant effects. As such, picrotoxin can be used to counter barbiturate poisoning, that can occur during general anesthesia or during a large intake outside of the hospital.

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Pentathlon

Pentathlon

A pentathlon is a contest featuring five events. The name is derived from Greek: combining the words pente and -athlon. It was originally called the quinquertium, the Roman word for five events. The first pentathlon was documented in Ancient Greece and was part of the Ancient Olympic Games. Five events were contested over one day for the Ancient Olympic pentathlon, starting with the long jump, javelin throw, and discus throw, followed by the stadion and wrestling. Pentathletes were considered to be among the most skilled athletes, and their training was often part of military service—each of the five events in the pentathlon was thought to be useful in war or battle. With the revival of the Olympic Games in the modern era, the pentathlon returned in two formats. The athletics pentathlon was a modern variation on the original events, with a competition over five track and field events. The modern pentathlon, invented by Pierre de Coubertin, was a variation on the military aspect of the Ancient pentathlon. It focused on the skills required by a late 19th-century soldier, with competitions in shooting, swimming, fencing, equestrianism, and cross country running.

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Laplace transform

Laplace transform

The Laplace transform is a widely used integral transform with many applications in physics and engineering. Denoted, it is a linear operator of a function f with a real argument t that transforms it to a function F with a complex argument s. This transformation is essentially bijective for the majority of practical uses; the respective pairs of f and F are matched in tables. The Laplace transform has the useful property that many relationships and operations over the originals f correspond to simpler relationships and operations over the images F. It is named after Pierre-Simon Laplace, who introduced the transform in his work on probability theory. The Laplace transform is related to the Fourier transform, but whereas the Fourier transform expresses a function or signal as a series of modes of vibration, the Laplace transform resolves a function into its moments. Like the Fourier transform, the Laplace transform is used for solving differential and integral equations. In physics and engineering it is used for analysis of linear time-invariant systems such as electrical circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices, and mechanical systems. In such analyses, the Laplace transform is often interpreted as a transformation from the time-domain, in which inputs and outputs are functions of time, to the frequency-domain, where the same inputs and outputs are functions of complex angular frequency, in radians per unit time. Given a simple mathematical or functional description of an input or output to a system, the Laplace transform provides an alternative functional description that often simplifies the process of analyzing the behavior of the system, or in synthesizing a new system based on a set of specifications.

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Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method. In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and fifty prototypes, he invented the mechanical calculator. He built 20 of these machines in the following ten years. Pascal was an important mathematician, helping create two major new areas of research: he wrote a significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry at the age of 16, and later corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science. Following Galileo and Torricelli, in 1646 he refuted Aristotle's followers who insisted that nature abhors a vacuum. Pascal's results caused many disputes before being accepted.

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Duxelles

Duxelles

Duxelles is a finely chopped mixture of mushrooms or mushroom stems, onions, shallots and herbs sautéed in butter, and reduced to a paste. It is a basic preparation used in stuffings and sauces or as a garnish. Duxelles can also be filled into a pocket of raw pastry and baked as a savory tart. Duxelles is made with any cultivated or wild mushroom, depending on the recipe. Duxelles made with wild porcini mushrooms will be much stronger flavored than that made with white or brown mushrooms. Fresh mushrooms are usually used; however, reconstituted dried varieties are used, as well. Duxelles is said to have been created by the 17th-century French chef François Pierre La Varenne and to have been named after his employer, Nicolas Chalon du Blé, marquis d'Uxelles, maréchal de France.

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New France

New France

New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. The territory was then divided into five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Louisiana. The Treaty of Utrecht resulted in the relinquishing of French claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, and the establishment of the colony of Île Royale as the successor to Acadia. France ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War. Britain received the lands east of the Mississippi River, including Canada, Acadia, and parts of Louisiana, while Spain received the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France in 1800 under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, but French leader Napoleon Bonaparte sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland.

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Epicureanism

Epicureanism

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" is the greatest good, but the way to attain such pleasure is to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. This led one to attain a state of tranquility and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain. The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure to be the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood. Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. After the death of Epicurus, his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era. Its best-known Roman proponent was the poet Lucretius. By the end of the Roman Empire, being opposed by philosophies that were now in the ascendance, Epicureanism had all but died out, and would be resurrected in the 17th century by the atomist Pierre Gassendi, who adapted it to the Christian doctrine.

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Fouquieria

Fouquieria

Fouquieria is a genus of 11 species of desert plants, the sole genus in the family Fouquieriaceae. The genus includes the ocotillo and the boojum tree or cirio. They have semi-succulent stems with thinner spikes projecting from them, with leaves on the bases spikes. They are unrelated to cacti and do not look much like them; their stems are proportionately thinner than cactus stems and their leaves are larger. These plants are native to northern Mexico and the bordering US states of Arizona, southern California, New Mexico, and parts of southwestern Texas, favoring low, arid hillsides. The Seri people identify three species of Fouquieria in their area of Mexico: jomjéeziz or xomjéeziz, jomjéeziz caacöl, and cototaj. The genus is named after French physician Pierre Fouquier. The spines of Fouquieria develop in an unusual way, from a woody thickening on the outer side of the leaf petiole, which remains after the leaf blade and most of the petiole separate and fall from the plant.

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Eozoon canadense

Eozoon canadense

Eozoön canadense is a pseudofossil. John William Dawson described the banded structures of coarsely crystalline calcite and serpentine as a gigantic Foraminifera, making it the oldest known fossil. It was found in Precambrian metamorphosed limestone of Canada, at Côte St. Pierre near Grenville in 1863. It was later found in several other localities. Dawson called it "one of the brightest gems in the scientific crown of the Geological Survey of Canada". In 1894, it was shown that the place where it was found was associated with metamorphism. Similar Eozoön structures were subsequently found in metamorphosed limestone blocks erupted from Mt. Vesuvius, where high-temperature physical and chemical processes were responsible for their formation.

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Campbell

Campbell

Campbell is a city in Santa Clara County, California, a suburb of San Jose, and part of Silicon Valley, in the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Campbell's population is 39,349. Although not a major high-tech city like many of its neighbors, Campbell is the original home of eBay and of its creator, Pierre Omidyar. Campbell is home to the Pruneyard Shopping Center, a sprawling open-air retail complex which was involved in a famous U.S. Supreme Court case that established the extent of the right to free speech in California. Today the Pruneyard Shopping Center is home to the South Bay offices of the FBI.

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Kennedia

Kennedia

Kennedia is a genus of plants comprising 16 species, all native to Australia. They are evergreen climbing plants with woody stems. Thet usually have trifoliate leaves and pea-type flowers of various colours from pink to dark red and yellow to black. The genus was named by Étienne Pierre Ventenat after John Kennedy, a partner in the renowned firm of nurserymen, Lee and Kennedy of Hammersmith, London.

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Jeanne d'Arc

Jeanne d'Arc

Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is a folk heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is now eastern France. Claiming divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII of France. She was captured by the Burgundians, transferred to the English in exchange for money, put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon for charges of "insubordination and heterodoxy", and was burned at the stake for heresy when she was 19 years old. Twenty-five years after her execution, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. She is – along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux – one of the patron saints of France. Joan said she had received visions from God instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and caused the lifting of the siege in only nine days. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims.

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Jules Verne

Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne was a French novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his adventure novels and his profound influence on the literary genre of science fiction. Born to bourgeois parents in the seaport of Nantes, Verne was trained to follow in his father's footsteps as a lawyer, but quit the profession early in life to write for magazines and the stage. His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages Extraordinaires, a widely popular series of scrupulously researched adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and Around the World in Eighty Days. Verne is generally considered a major literary author in France and most of Europe, where he has had a wide influence on the literary avant-garde and on surrealism. His reputation is markedly different in Anglophone regions, where he has often been labeled a writer of genre fiction or children's books, not least because of the highly abridged and altered translations in which his novels are often reprinted. Verne is the second most translated author in the world, and his works appear in more translations per year than those of any other writer. Verne is one writer sometimes called "The Father of Science Fiction," as are H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback.

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Spherical harmonics

Spherical harmonics

In mathematics, spherical harmonics are the angular portion of a set of solutions to Laplace's equation. Represented in a system of spherical coordinates, Laplace's spherical harmonics are a specific set of spherical harmonics that forms an orthogonal system, first introduced by Pierre Simon de Laplace in 1782. Spherical harmonics are important in many theoretical and practical applications, particularly in the computation of atomic orbital electron configurations, representation of gravitational fields, geoids, and the magnetic fields of planetary bodies and stars, and characterization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In 3D computer graphics, spherical harmonics play a special role in a wide variety of topics including indirect lighting and recognition of 3D shapes.

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Portato

Portato

Portato in music denotes a smooth, pulsing articulation and is often notated by adding dots under slur markings. Portato, also known as articulated legato or slurred staccato or semi-staccato or mezzo-staccato, that means "moderately detached". It is a style of playing between staccato and legato, and is also referred to as non-legato. Mezzo-staccato notes are held for a longer time than with standard staccato notes, but none of the notes is attached to the next. Portato is a bowing technique for stringed instruments, in which successive notes are gently re-articulated while being joined under a single continuing bow stroke. It achieves a kind of pulsation or undulation, rather than separating the notes. It has been notated in various ways. One early 19th century writer, Pierre Baillot, gives two alternatives: a wavy line, and dots under a slur. Later in the century a third method became common: placing "legato" dashes under a slur. The notation with dots under slurs is ambiguous, because it is also used for very different bowings, including staccato and flying spiccato.

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Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. Its name is from Latin caulis and flower,. Brassica oleracea also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups. For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture, as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy", but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.

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Let It Be Me

Let It Be Me

"Let It Be Me" is a popular song originally published in 1955 as "Je t'appartiens". The score was written and first recorded by Gilbert Bécaud. The lyrics were penned in French by Pierre Delanoë. The English language version used lyrics by Mann Curtis and was performed in 1957 by Jill Corey in the television series Climax!. Corey's version, with orchestration by Jimmy Carroll, was released as a single and was moderately successful. The most popular version of "Let It Be Me" was released in 1960 by The Everly Brothers. It reached 7th position on the Billboard Hot 100. The harmony arrangement of this version was often emulated in subsequent remakes.

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Magnolia

Magnolia

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough. Fossilised specimens of Magnolia acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae dating to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolias that is considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea. The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main centre in east and southeast Asia and a secondary centre in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.

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Derangement

Derangement

In combinatorial mathematics, a derangement is a permutation of the elements of a set such that none of the elements appear in their original position. The numbers of derangements !n for sets of size n are called "de Montmort numbers" or "derangement numbers"; the subfactorial function maps n to !n. No standard notation for subfactorials is agreed upon, and n¡ is sometimes used instead of !n. The problem of counting derangements was first considered by Pierre Raymond de Montmort in 1708; he solved it in 1713, as did Nicholas Bernoulli at about the same time.

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Fructose

Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants, which is also similar to sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. From plant sources, fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. In plants, fructose may be present as the monosaccharide or as a molecular component of sucrose, which is a disaccharide. Commercially, fructose frequently is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and corn and there are three commercially important forms. Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity. The second form, high-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. The third form, sucrose, is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods.

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Broca's area

Broca's area

Broca's area is a region of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production. The production of language has been linked to the Broca's area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients. They had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. Since then, the approximate region he identified has become known as Broca's area, and the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia. Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as areas 44 and 45 of the dominant hemisphere. Studies of chronic aphasia have implicated an essential role of Broca's area in various speech and language functions. Further, functional MRI studies have also identified activation patterns in Broca's area associated with various language tasks. However, slow destruction of the Broca's area by brain tumors can leave speech relatively intact suggesting its functions can shift to nearby areas in the brain.

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Finitary relation

Finitary relation

In set theory and logic, a relation is a property that assigns truth values to -tuples of individuals. Typically, the property describes a possible connection between the components of a -tuple. For a given set of -tuples, a truth value is assigned to each -tuple according to whether the property does or does not hold. An example of a ternary relation is: " was introduced to by ", where is a 3-tuple of persons; for example, "Beatrice Wood was introduced to Henri-Pierre Roché by Marcel Duchamp" is true, while "Karl Marx was introduced to Friedrich Engels by Queen Victoria" is false. The variable giving the number of "places" in the relation, 3 for the above example, is a non-negative integer, called the relation's arity, adicity, or dimension. A relation with places is variously called a -ary, a -adic, or a -dimensional relation. Relations with a finite number of places are called finite-place or finitary relations. It is possible to generalize the concept to include infinitary relations between infinitudes of individuals, for example infinite sequences; however, in this article only finitary relations are discussed, which will from now on simply be called relations.

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Olympic Games

Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered to be the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating, meaning they each occur every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. As a result, the Olympics shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allow participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games.

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Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and an amateur mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica.

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Bauxite

Bauxite

Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO, and diaspore α-AlO, in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France, where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821.

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Becquerel

Becquerel

The becquerel is the SI-derived unit of radioactivity. One Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The Bq unit is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s−1. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity.

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Laplace operator

Laplace operator

In mathematics the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space. It is usually denoted by the symbols ∇·∇, ∇² or ∆. The Laplacian ∆f of a function f at a point p, up to a constant depending on the dimension, is the rate at which the average value of f over spheres centered at p, deviates from f as the radius of the sphere grows. In a Cartesian coordinate system, the Laplacian is given by sum of second partial derivatives of the function with respect to each independent variable. In other coordinate systems such as cylindrical and spherical coordinates, the Laplacian also has a useful form. The Laplace operator is named after the French mathematician Pierre-Simon de Laplace, who first applied the operator to the study of celestial mechanics, where the operator gives a constant multiple of the mass density when it is applied to a given gravitational potential. Solutions of the equation ∆f = 0, now called Laplace's equation, are the so-called harmonic functions, and represent the possible gravitational fields in free space. The Laplacian occurs in differential equations that describe many physical phenomena, such as electric and gravitational potentials, the diffusion equation for heat and fluid flow, wave propagation, and quantum mechanics. The Laplacian represents the flux density of the gradient flow of a function. For instance, the net rate at which a chemical dissolved in a fluid moves toward or away from some point is proportional to the Laplacian of the chemical concentration at that point; expressed symbolically, the resulting equation is the diffusion equation. For these reasons, it is extensively used in the sciences for modelling all kinds of physical phenomena. The Laplacian is the simplest elliptic operator, and is at the core of Hodge theory as well as the results of de Rham cohomology. In image processing and computer vision, the Laplacian operator has been used for various tasks such as blob and edge detection.

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Polonium

Polonium

Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. Applications of polonium are few, and include heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, and sources of neutrons and alpha particles. Because of its position in the periodic table, polonium is sometimes classified as a metalloid. However, other sources say that on the basis of its properties and behavior, it is "unambiguously a metal".

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Calefaction

Calefaction

Calefaction comes from the Latin calor meaning "heated", and facere "to make." Generally, that is what the term means: to heat, or make heated. In the modern sciences, the term calefaction shows up occasionally in relation to the fields of cryogenics, geology, mineralogy, inorganic chemistry, material sciences, and both scientifically and commercially in the study and process of sintering. One example of the usage of the term is given by the French chemist and pharmacologist Pierre H. Boutigny, who became known for his "calefaction experiments," where he studied and expanded our understanding of what is known as the Leidenfrost Phenomenon, which appropriately describes the effect of a liquid on a heated interface above and near the liquids boiling point. The term calefaction has also been used in the manufacturing of steam engines and steam cars. Two examples of this are the Serpollet generator and the Paul Jacquot engine.

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Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man and Piltdown Man. Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of Noosphere. Some of his ideas came into conflict with the Magisterium of the Catholic Church, particularly regarding the doctrine of Original Sin and his views concerning the origin of man. He was severely reprimanded and his works were condemned by the Holy Office. Teilhard's primary book, The Phenomenon of Man, set forth a sweeping account of the unfolding of the cosmos. He abandoned traditional interpretations of creation in the Book of Genesis in favor of a less strict interpretation. This displeased certain officials in the Roman Curia and in his own order who thought that it undermined the doctrine of original sin developed by Saint Augustine. Teilhard's position was opposed by his Church superiors, and some of his work was denied publication during his lifetime by the Roman Holy Office. The 1950 encyclical Humani generis condemned several of Teilhard's opinions while leaving other questions open. However, some of Teilhard's views became influential in the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. More recently, Pope John Paul II indicated a positive attitude towards some of Teilhard's ideas. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI mentioned Teilhard's idea of the universe as a "living host".

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Conclavist

Conclavist

A conclavist was a personal aide of a cardinal present in a papal conclave. The term is sometimes used to refer to all present with a conclave, including the cardinal-electors, but is more properly applied only to the non-cardinals. Conclavists played an important historical role in the negotiations of papal elections and in the evolution of secrecy, writing many of the extant accounts of papal elections. Three popes have been elected from former conclavists, including Pope Pius VI. Other conclavists have later been elevated to the cardinalate, such as Pierre Guérin de Tencin, Niccolò Coscia, Christoph Anton Migazzi, and Carlo Confalonieri. Pope Paul VI in effect eliminated the role of the historical conclavist by banning private aides and creating a common support staff.

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Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary, philosopher, and theorist of collectivist anarchism. Many scholars argue he is the founder of anarchist theory in general. Bakunin grew up in Premukhino, a family estate near Moscow, where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French encyclopédistes, leading to enthusiasm for the philosophy of Fichte. From Fichte, Bakunin went on to immerse himself in the works of Hegel, the most influential thinker among German intellectuals at the time. That led to his whole-hearted embrace of Hegelianism, bedazzled by Hegel's famous maxim; "Everything that exists is rational". In 1840 Bakunin traveled to St. Petersburg and Berlin, aiming at preparing himself for a professorship in philosophy or history at the University of Moscow. Bakunin moved from Berlin, in 1842, to Dresden. Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and Karl Marx. Bakunin's increasing radicalism - including staunch opposition to imperialism in east and central Europe by Russia and other powers - changed his life, putting paid to hopes of a professorial career. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russia's oppression of Poland.

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near Canada. It is the only remnant of the former colonial empire of New France that remains under French control. The islands are situated at the entrance of Fortune Bay, which extends into the southern coast of Newfoundland, near the Grand Banks. They are 3,819 kilometres from Brest, the nearest point in Metropolitan France, but just 20 kilometres off the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland, Canada.

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Saliotite

Saliotite

Saliotite is a rare colorless to pearl white phyllosilicate mineral in the smectite group with formula Al3 (OH)5. It is an ordered 1:1 interstratification of cookeite and paragonite. It has perfect cleavage, a pearly luster and leaves a white streak. Its crystal structure is monoclinic and it is a soft mineral with a hardness rated 2-3 on the Mohs scale. Saliotite was first described in 1994 for an occurrence in an outcrop of high grade schist north of Almeria, Andalusia, Spain. It was named for French geologist Pierre Saliot.

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Depth psychology

Depth psychology

Historically, depth psychology, was coined by Eugen Bleuler to refer to psychoanalytic approaches to therapy and research that take the unconscious into account. The term has come to refer to the ongoing development of theories and therapies pioneered by Pierre Janet, William James, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung. Depth psychology explores the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious and includes both psychoanalysis and Jungian psychology. In practice, depth psychology seeks to explore underlying motives as an approach to various mental disorders, with the belief that the uncovering of these motives is intrinsically healing. It seeks the deep layers underlying behavioral and cognitive processes. Archetypes are primordial elements of the Collective Unconscious in the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Archetypes form the unchanging context from which the contents of cyclic and sequent changes derive their meanings. Duration is the secret of action. The initial work and development of the theories and therapies by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Otto Rank that came to be known as depth psychology have resulted in three perspectives in modern times:

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Consuelo

Consuelo

Consuelo is a novel by George Sand, first published serially in 1842-1843 in La Revue indépendante, a periodical founded in 1841 by Sand, Pierre Leroux and Louis Viardot. According to the Nuttall Encyclopædia, it is "[Sand's] masterpiece; the impersonation of the triumph of moral purity over manifold temptations." The character of Consuelo was supposedly modeled after Louis Viardot's wife, the soprano Pauline Viardot. Pauline Viardot was a good friend of both Sand's and of her lover, Frédéric Chopin.

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Houyhnhnm

Houyhnhnm

Houyhnhnms are a race of intelligent horses described in the last part of Jonathan Swift's satirical Gulliver's Travels. The name is pronounced either or. Houyhnhnms contrast strongly with the Yahoos, savage humanoid creatures: whereas the Yahoos represent all that is bad about humans, Houyhnhnms have a stable, calm, reliable and rational society. Gulliver much prefers the Houyhnhnms' company to the Yahoos', even though the latter are biologically closer to him. Interpretation of the Houyhnhnms has been vexatious. It is possible, for example, to regard them as a veiled criticism by Swift of the British Empire's treatment of non-whites as lesser humans, and it is similarly possible to regard Gulliver's preference as absurd and the sign of his self-deception. In a modern context it can be seen as presenting an early example of animal rights concerns, especially in Gulliver's account of how horses are cruelly treated in his society and the reversal of roles, and a possible inspiration for Pierre Boulle's novel Planet of the Apes.

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Champlain

Champlain

Champlain is a provincial electoral riding in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada, which elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It includes the municipalities of Saint-Stanislas, Saint-Narcisse and Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade and the eastern portions of the city of Trois-Rivières. It is named after the founder of Quebec City in 1608, Samuel de Champlain. It was created for the 1867 election, and an electoral district of that name existed even earlier: see Champlain and Champlain. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, its territory was unchanged. In the 2003 election there was a tie between PQ candidate Noëlla Champagne and Liberal candidate Pierre-A. Brouillette; although the initial tally was 11,867 to 11,859, a judicial recount produced a tally of 11,852 each. A new election was held on May 20 and was won by Champagne by a margin of 642 votes.

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Percé

Percé

Percé is a small city near the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada. Within the territory of the city there is a village community also called Percé. Percé, member of the association of Most Beautiful Villages of Quebec, is mainly a tourist location particularly well known for the attractions of Percé Rock and Bonaventure Island. In addition to Percé itself, the town's territory also includes the communities of Barachois, Belle-Anse, Bougainville, Bridgeville, Cap-d'Espoir, Cannes-de-Roches, Coin-du-Banc, L'Anse-à-Beaufils, Pointe-Saint-Pierre, Rameau, Saint-Georges-de-Malbaie, and Val-d'Espoir. Percé is the seat of the judicial district of Gaspé.

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Sarazen

Sarazen

Sarazen was an American Hall of Fame Champion Thoroughbred racehorse. Owned by Colonel Phil T. Chinn's Himyar Stud, Sarazen won his first three starts in impressive fashion. Chinn then sold him for a huge profit to Virginia Fair Vanderbilt, who raced him under her Fair Stable banner. A small horse at only fifteen hands tall, Sarazen had a difficult temperament that made him hard to handle and his original owner had him gelded. After his sale to Fair Stable, Sarazen was trained by Max Hirsch and he wound up his two-year-old racing season undefeated, capturing all ten races he entered. At age three, health problems saw Sarazen's handlers pass up the U.S. Triple Crown races. When he came back to the track, he dominated racing and earned the first of his two consecutive unofficial United States Horse of the Year awards. Sarazen's 1925 wins included the Dixie Stakes on Preakness Day on the turf at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland. He also won the International Special No.3 at the Latonia Race Track in Covington, Kentucky, over a field of top American and European horses. While setting a Latonia track record, 3-year-old Sarazen defeated Belmont Stakes winner Mad Play, the future Hall of Fame filly Princess Doreen., and Pierre Wertheimer's 4-year-old colt Epinard, the champion 2-year-old of France who was unofficially named American Champion Older Male Horse.

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Pur et dur

Pur et dur

Pur et dur is a term used in Quebec politics to refer to hardliners of the Parti Québécois and the Quebec independence movement. It is most commonly used in the media, where it was popularized. It is also used to criticize some members of the Parti Québécois. Some within the party resent the use of the term by the media, but some have embraced it. It is similar to the term "SNP fundamentalist", used in Scotland politics for a faction of the Scottish National Party, another pro-independence party. Many of the first "purs et durs" came from the Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale who, through entryism, joined the Parti Québécois in the early days of the 1960s. They are associated with strong opinions about independence and language protection. Some also criticize the party for not being social democratic enough. These militants have famously made the leadership of the Parti Québécois a test and daunting task. The media has tied the resignation of every former PQ leader except Jacques Parizeau to the disapproval of the "pur et dur", especially in the case of Pierre-Marc Johnson. Parizeau, a former Premier of Quebec, has sometimes been portrayed as "pur et dur".

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Marie Curie

Marie Curie

Marie Curie, née Maria Salomea Skłodowska, was a Polish physicist and chemist, working mainly in France, who is famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences. She was also the first female professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in Paris' Panthéon. She was born in Warsaw, in the Congress Kingdom of Poland, then part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared her 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres.

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Modernity

Modernity

Modernity typically refers to a post-traditional, post-medieval historical period, one marked by the move from feudalism toward capitalism, industrialization, secularization, rationalization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance. Charles Pierre Baudelaire is credited with coining the term "modernity" to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, and the responsibility art has to capture that experience. Conceptually, modernity relates to the modern era and to modernism, but forms a distinct concept. Whereas the Enlightenment invokes a specific movement in Western philosophy, modernity tends to refer only to the social relations associated with the rise of capitalism. Modernity may also refer to tendencies in intellectual culture, particularly the movements intertwined with secularisation and post-industrial life, such as Marxism, existentialism, and the formal establishment of social science. In context, modernity has been associated with cultural and intellectual movements of 1436–1789 and extending to the 1970s or later.

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