Definitions containing bähr, felix
We've found 140 definitions:
, feminine form of Felix.
a rare element supposed by Bahr to have been extracted from wasite, but now identified with thorium
— Webster Dictionary
The Chari or Shari River is a 949-kilometer-long river of central Africa. It flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it joins the Logone River waters. Much of Chad's population, including Sarh and the capital N'Djamena, is concentrated around it. It provides 90% of the water flowing into Lake Chad. The watershed of the river covers 548,747 km². The principal tributary is the Logone River, while minor tributaries are the Bahr Salamat, the Bahr Sarh, the Bahr Aouk and the Bahr Kéita. The river supports an important local fishing industry. One of the most highly prized local fishes is the Nile Perch.
Lake No is a lake in South Sudan. It is located just north of the vast swamp of the Sudd, at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal rivers. It marks the transition between the Bahr al Jabal and White Nile proper. Lake No is located approximately 1,156 km downstream of Uganda's Lake Albert, the major lake on the White Nile preceding Lake No. The lake is considered the center of the Reweng people of Panrou section of Dinka peoples.
an old Egyptian prov. including the district watered by the tributaries of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal; it was wrested from Egypt by the Mahdi, 1884; a district of French Congo lies W. of it, and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
one of a monastic order founded in Rome in 1198 by St. John of Matha, and an old French hermit, Felix of Valois, for the purpose of redeeming Christian captives from the Mohammedans
— Webster Dictionary
Bahr is a hamlet and former Knight banneret in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality Zevenaar, about 3 km southeast of Rheden. According to the 19th century historian A.J. van der Aa, it had about 170 inhabitants in the middle of the 19th century. The large castle "Bahr" was located here, until it was demolished after a siege in 1495.
Hermann Bahr was an Austrian writer, playwright, director, and critic.
Wasium was the suggested name of chemical element found J. F. Bahr. The name derived from the House of Vasa the Royal House of Sweden In 1862 Bahr analysed the mineral Orthite—Allanite-—from the Norwegian island Rönsholm and found an oxide which he concluded contained a new element. In the following years several articles were published making clear that the wasium oxide was a mixture of several other elements.
Lakes is one of the 10 states of South Sudan. It has an area of 40,235 km². Rumbek is the capital of the state. Lakes is in the Bahr el Ghazal region of South Sudan, in addition to Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Western Bahr el Ghazal, and Warrap states. Bahr el Ghazal itself was a former province which was split from the Anglo-Egyptian mudiriyat, or province of Equatoria in 1948. The eastern border is the White Nile with Jonglei on the opposite bank. To the northeast lies Unity State. Other borders include Warrap State towards the northwest, Western Equatoria to the south and west, and Central Equatoria to the south. As of July 2011, Ramciel in Lakes state is under consideration by the federal government as a site for a new national capital, which would replace Juba. Like all states in South Sudan, Lakes is divided into counties; there are 8 counties, each headed by a County Commissioner. The counties are further divided into Payams, then Bomas.
|Felix the Cat|
Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat is a funny animal cartoon character created in the silent film era. The anthropomorphic black cat with his black body, white eyes, and giant grin, coupled with the surrealism of the situations in which his cartoons place him, combine to make Felix one of the most recognized cartoon characters in film history. Felix was the first character from animation to attain a level of popularity sufficient to draw movie audiences. Felix's origins remain disputed. Australian cartoonist/film entrepreneur Pat Sullivan, owner of the Felix character, claimed during his lifetime to be its creator. American animator Otto Messmer, Sullivan's lead animator, has been credited as such. What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, and cartoons featuring the character enjoyed success and popularity in 1920s popular culture. Aside from the animated shorts, Felix starred in a comic strip beginning in 1923, and his image soon adorned merchandise such as ceramics, toys and postcards. Several manufacturers made stuffed Felix toys. Jazz bands such as Paul Whiteman's played songs about him.
The Gollo are an ethnic group living in the South Sudanese state of Western Bahr el Ghazal.
Felix is a British DJ and producer.
Felix Bloch was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S.
The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile from Egypt, the other being the Blue Nile. In the strict meaning, "White Nile" refers to the river formed at Lake No at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal Rivers. In the wider sense, "White Nile" refers to the approximately 3,700 kilometres of rivers draining from Lake Victoria into the White Nile proper. It may also, depending on the speaker, refer to the headwaters of Lake Victoria. The 19th century search by Europeans for the source of the Nile was mainly focused on the White Nile, which disappeared into the depths of what was then known as "Darkest Africa". The discovery of the source of the White Nile thus came to symbolise European penetration of unknown jungle.
Felix culpa is a Latin phrase that comes from the words Felix and Culpa, and in the Catholic tradition is most often translated "Fortunate Fall." The Latin expression felix culpa derives from the writings of St. Augustine regarding the Fall of Man, the source of original sin: “For God judged it better to bring good out of evil than not to permit any evil to exist.” The phrase appears in lyric form sung annually in the Exsultet of the Easter Vigil: "O felix culpa quae talem et tantum meruit habere redemptorem," "O happy fault that merited such and so great a Redeemer." The medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas cited this line when he explained how the principle that "God allows evils to happen in order to bring a greater good therefrom" underlies the causal relation between original sin and the Divine Redeemer's Incarnation, thus concluding that a higher state is not inhibited by sin. The Catholic saint Ambrose also speaks of the fortunate ruin of Adam in the Garden of Eden in that his sin brought more good to humanity than if he had stayed perfectly innocent. In the appendix to Leibniz's Theodicy, he answers the objection concerning he who does not choose the best course must lack either power, knowledge, or goodness, and in doing so he refers to the felix culpa.
Paul Felix von Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.
Felix Salten was an Austrian author and critic in Vienna. His most famous work is Bambi, a Life in the Woods.
Felix Grundy was a U.S. Congressman and U.S. Senator from Tennessee who also served as the 13th Attorney General of the United States.
the longest river of Africa, and one of the most noted in the world's history; the Shimiyu, Isanga, and other streams which flow into Victoria Nyanza from the S. are regarded as its ultimate head-waters; from Victoria Nyanza, the Victoria Nile or Somerset River holds a north-westerly course to Albert Nyanza, whence it issues under the name of the Bahr-el-Jebel, swelled by the waters of the Semliki from Albert Edward Nyanza; about 650 m. N. it is joined by the Bahr-el-Ghazal from the W., and bending to the E., now under the name White Nile, receives on that side the Sobat, and as a sluggish navigable stream flows past Fashoda on to Khartoum, where it is met by the Bahr-al-Azrak or Blue Nile; 200 m. lower it receives the Atbara or Black Nile. Through Egypt the river's course is confined to a valley some 10 m. broad, which owes its great fertility to the alluvial deposits left by the river during it annual overflow (July to October, caused by seasonal rains in Abyssinia, &c.). From Khartoum to Assouan occur the cataracts; below this the stream is navigable. A few miles N. of Cairo begins the delta which lies within the Rosetta and Damietta—two main branches of the divided river—and is some 150 m. broad at its base. From Victoria Nyanza to the coast the river measures about 3400 m.Nilsson, Christine
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
the holy land of the Moslems, a district of Arabia Felix, and so called by containing the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Al Madinah Region|
Al Madinah Region
The Madinah Region is a province of Saudi Arabia, located on the country's west side, along the Red Sea coast. It has an area of 151,990 km² and a population of 1,777,973, subdivided into seven governorates: Its capital is the sacred city of Madinah. Other cities in the Province include Yanbu' al Bahr and Badr Hunayn. It also contains Mada'in Saleh, a pre-Islamic UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The great peninsula of southwest Asia comprising most of the present countries of the Middle East. It has been known since the first millennium B.C. In early times it was divided into Arabia Petraea, the northwest part, the only part ever conquered, becoming a Roman province; Arabia Deserta, the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia; and Arabia Felix, the main part of the peninsula but by some geographers restricted to modern Yemen. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p63)
— U.S. National Library of Medicine
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born, and generally known in English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. A grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family, although initially he was raised without religion and was later baptised as a Reformed Christian. Mendelssohn was recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent. Early success in Germany, where he also revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, was followed by travel throughout Europe. Mendelssohn was particularly well received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there – during which many of his major works were premiered – form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The Leipzig Conservatoire, which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook.
1st duke of Savoy, increased his dominions, and retired into a monastery on the death of his wife; he was elected Pope as Felix V., but was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|The Off Season|
The Off Season
The Off Season is a 2004 independent horror film directed by James Felix McKenney and produced by Larry Fessenden's Glass Eye Pix. It was filmed in Old Orchard Beach, Maine and distributed through Lionsgate Home Entertainment.
Destroy! was an American crust punk band from Minneapolis from 1988 to 1994. Vocalist Felix Havoc founded Havoc Records in 1992 as a vehicle for Destroy!'s Burn this Racist System Down 7" EP.
a French prelate, bishop of Orleans, born at St. Felix, in Savoy; a singularly able and eloquent man; devoted himself to educational emancipation and reform; protested vigorously against papal infallibility; yielded at length, and stood up in defence of the Church (1802-1878).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Salal is a town in Chad, lying 380 kilometres north of N'Djamena on the road to Faya-Largeau. Salal is the second largest city after Moussoro in Bahr el Gazel Region. A garrison was once at Salal during the conflict with Libya in 1978. On 15 April 1978, FROLINAT forces, led by Goukouni Oueddei, took Salal before marching south to the Chadian capital, N'Djamena.
Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist. Examples of Nadar's photographic portraits are held by many of the great national collections of photographs.
|Al Madinah Province|
Al Madinah Province
The Madinah Province is a province of Saudi Arabia, located on the country's west side, along the Red Sea coast. It has an area of 151,990 km² and a population of 1,512,724, subdivided into seven governorates: Its capital is the sacred city of Madinah. Other cities in the Province include Yanbu' al Bahr and Badr Hunayn. It also contains Mada'in Saleh, a pre-Islamic UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Felix Heinrich Wankel was a German mechanical engineer and inventor after whom the Wankel engine was named. He is the only twentieth century engineer to have designed an internal combustion engine which went into production.
Felix Adler was a German American professor of political and social ethics, rationalist, popular lecturer, religious leader and social reformer who founded the Ethical Culture movement, and is often considered one of the main influences on modern Humanistic Judaism.
|Basel, Council of|
Basel, Council of
met in 1431, and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation of the Church from within. It effected some compromise with the Hussites, but was hampered at every step by the opposition of Pope Eugenius IV. Asserting the authority of a general council over the Pope himself, it cited him on two occasions to appear at its bar, on his refusal declared him contumacious, and ultimately endeavoured to suspend him. Failing to effect its purpose, owing to the secession of his supporters, it elected a rival pope, Felix V., who was, however, but scantily recognised. The Emperor Frederick III. supported Eugenius, and the council gradually melted away. At length, in 1449, the pope died, Felix resigned, and Nicholas V. was recognised by the whole Church. The decrees of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy, the indecorousness of certain festivals, the papal prerogatives and exactions, and dealt with the election of popes and the procedure of the College of Cardinals. They were all confirmed by Nicholas V., but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
a province in the SW. of Arabia, bounded on the N. by Hedjaz, bordering on the Red Sea, and forming the Arabia Felix of the ancients; about 400 m. in length and 150 m. in breadth; it is a highly fertile region, and yields tropical and sub-tropical fruits, in particular coffee, dates, gums, spices, and wheat.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau was a French Post-Impressionist painter in the Naïve or Primitive manner. He was also known as Le Douanier, a humorous description of his occupation as a toll collector. Ridiculed during his lifetime, he came to be recognized as a self-taught genius whose works are of high artistic quality.
king of Sardinia, succeeded Charles Felix in 1831; conceived a design to emancipate and unite Italy; in the pursuit of this object he declared war against Austria; though at first successful, was defeated at Novara, and to save his kingdom was compelled to resign in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel; retired to Oporto, and died of a broken heart (1798-1849).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Saint Dominic, also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán, was a Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers.
"Dardanella" is a popular song published in 1919 by Fred Fisher, who wrote the lyrics for the music written by Felix Bernard and Johnny S. Black. Band conductor Ben Selvin led into the 1920s with his hit instrumental version of Dardanella. The song held the No. 1 spot on the U.S. charts for 13 weeks, and sold a seemingly incredible five million copies. Its chorus is:
Automatons is a 2006 black-and-white horror film about a war against robots. The movie was made under the working title Death to the Automatons. Christine Spencer, Angus Scrimm, and Brenda Cooney star. John Levene, Don Wood and Executive Producer Larry Fessenden have supporting roles. The film was directed by James Felix McKenney.
The uncus is an anterior extremity of the Parahippocampal gyrus. It is separated from the apex of the temporal lobe by a slight fissure called the incisura temporalis. Although superficially continuous with the hippocampal gyrus, the uncus forms morphologically a part of the rhinencephalon. The term uncus was coined by Felix Vicq d’Azyr.
Ecosophy and ecophilosophy are neologisms formed by contracting the phrase ecological philosophy. Confusion as to the meaning of ecosophy is primarily the consequence of it being used to designate different and often contradictory concepts by the Norwegian father of deep ecology, Arne Næss, and French post-Marxist philosopher and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari.
Christian Felix Klein was a German mathematician, known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory. His 1872 Erlangen Program, classifying geometries by their underlying symmetry groups, was a hugely influential synthesis of much of the mathematics of the day.
Fondo is a comune in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 40 km north of Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,462 and an area of 30.8 km². The municipality of Fondo contains the frazioni Tret and Vasio. Fondo borders the following municipalities: Brez, Castelfondo, Malosco, Ronzone, Sarnonico, Eppan and Unsere Liebe Frau im Walde-St. Felix.
Australia Felix was an early name given by Thomas Mitchell to lush pasture in parts of western Victoria he explored in 1836 on his third expedition. On this expedition Mitchell was instructed to travel to Menindee, then down the Darling River to the sea, if it flowed there; or, if it flowed into the Murray River to go up the Murray to the inhabited parts of the colony. However lack of water forced Mitchell to follow the Lachlan River to the south-west as the only practicable route. He reached the Murrumbidgee on 12 May and followed it to the Murray. At the end of May, Mitchell reached the Darling and turned north upstream. He soon decided, while still about 200 km in a direct line from Menindee, to abandon the survey of the deserts around the Darling and to use his resources to explore the more promising country along the Murray. Retracing his steps Mitchell went up the Murray until 20 June when he reached the junction of the Loddon where the country seemed so promising that he turned south-west into what is now Victoria and was so enchanted by the area he called it “Australia Felix”. The reports of excellent farming land from Mitchell's return to Sydney with the news, started a land rush.
Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius was a Late Roman aristocrat and official, whose career spanned seven decades in the highest offices of both the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire. He held the highest governmental offices of Italy, Gaul, and Egypt, "an accomplishment not often recorded -- Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte are the only parallels that come to mind!" as James O'Donnell observes in his biographical study of the man.
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento, known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo that flourished at the end of the 19th century. Darío has had a great and lasting influence on 20th-century Spanish literature and journalism. He has been praised as the "Prince of Castilian Letters" and undisputed father of the modernismo literary movement.
In biostratigraphy, a local-range zone, topozone or teilzone is the stratigraphic range of the rock unit between the first and last appearance datum of a particular taxon in a local area. It is a subset of the global biozone for that taxon. For the teilzone data to be meaningful, the local area must be identified. The term was coined in 1914 by German paleontologist and geologist Josef Felix Pompeckj.
Salmonberries is a 1991 drama film directed by Percy Adlon and written by Adlon and his son Felix. It stars k.d. lang as Kotzebue, a young woman of androgynous appearance who works as a miner in Alaska, and Rosel Zech as Roswitha, an East German immigrant and librarian. The movie takes place in Kotzebue, Alaska and Berlin, Germany, shortly after reunification; the dialog is mostly English but includes some German with English subtitles.
Rise Above is the latest release from the band For Felix. This EP jumpstarted the band's career despite the changes in the band lineup. Produced by John Neclerio, who has worked with Brand New and Matchbook Romance. After the release of Rise Above, the band has been on many tours and contributed to numerous compilations. Paul Carabello, who now plays guitar in The Ataris, co-engineered the album alongside of John.
The Sudd, also known as the Bahr al Jabal, As Sudd or Al Sudd, is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile. The word “sudd” is derived from the Arabic word سد, “sadd”, or "barrier" The term has come to refer to any large solid floating vegetation island or mat. The area which the swamp covers is one of the world's largest wetlands and the largest freshwater wetland in the Nile basin. For many years the swamp, and especially its thicket of vegetation, proved an impenetrable barrier to navigation along the Nile. For this reason, the search for the source of the Nile was particularly difficult; it eventually involved overland expeditions from the central African coast, so as to avoid having to travel through the Sudd.
Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants terribles, and the films Blood of a Poet, Les Parents terribles, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus. His circle of associates, friends and lovers included Kenneth Anger, Pablo Picasso, Jean Hugo, Jean Marais, Henri Bernstein, Yul Brynner, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, Igor Stravinsky, María Félix, Édith Piaf and Raymond Radiguet.
Felix Josef von Mottl was an Austrian conductor and composer. He was regarded as one of the most brilliant conductors of his day. He composed three operas, of which Agnes Bernauer was the most successful, as well as a string quartet and numerous songs and other music. His orchestration of Richard Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder is still the most commonly performed version. He was also a teacher, counting among his pupils Ernest van Dyck and Wilhelm Petersen.
Neverless is a collaboration between ambient composers and musicians Hans-Joachim Roedelius and Morgan Fisher. Basic tracks were recorded at Roedelius Studio in Austria and The Handmade Studio in Tokyo. Tracks were overdubbed and mixed by Morgan Fisher at The Handmade Studio between July, 2002 and August, 2003. All tracks were composed or improvised by Roedelius and Fisher with the exceptions of "However" by Roedelius, Fisher, and Felix Jay, and "Inparticular" by Roedelius, Fisher, and Fabio Capanni. After an introduction by Walter Robotka of Klanggalerie, a label which had previously released works by both artists, Roedelius sent Morgan Fisher a number of recordings including two collaborative pieces, one with guitarist Fabio Capanni, whom Roedelius had worked with in his Aquarello project, and the other with guitarist Felix Jay. Fisher added layers of music and sound to the material to complete the project. The two men never met until after the album was completed. Roedelius and Fisher gave a joint concert in Vienna in October, 2005. Neverless was released on the Klanggalerie label on November 21, 2005. The Eurock review of the album says, in part: "Achim’s patented cerebral synthetic tapestries are complimented to perfection here by Fisher’s delicate melodies and spatial treatments. There layers of wafting classical overtones, spatial tone colors, and layers of shape shifting undulations, all which melt together forming a magical soundscape of dynamic, warmly meditative electronics..."
Punchdrunk is a British theatre company, formed in 2000, the pioneer of a form of "immersive" theatre in which the audience is free to choose what to watch and where to go. This format is related to "promenade theatre". The company was founded by its artistic director Felix Barrett. Its executive director is Griselda Yorke. Company members include associate director and choreographer Maxine Doyle, enrichment director Peter Higgin, producer Colin Nightingale, sound and graphic designer Stephen Dobbie, technical director Euan Maybank and design associates Livi Vaughan and Bea Minns. The company is a National Portfolio Organisation with Arts Council England.
Redbird is Heather Nova's eighth album, released on August 30, 2005. The album includes a cover of Chris Isaak's "Wicked Game". The first track, "Welcome", was also released in 2005 as a single in Europe. "Welcome" also appeared on the U.S./Canadian release of South. The album was produced by Nova's husband and long term producer Felix Tod, except for "Welcome" which was produced by The Matrix. When talking about the album, Heather has said:
The Nazarenes were a sect of 4th-century Christianity first mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis, who considered them heretics. The group was later mentioned by Jerome and Augustine of Hippo. Epiphanius, and other writers such as Jerome, distinguished the 4th Century Nazarenes from the earlier use of "Sect of the Nazarenes" applied to the New Testament Church in Acts 24:5, where Paul the Apostle is accused before Felix at Caesarea by Tertullus of being "a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes."
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space, separated space or T2 space is a topological space in which distinct points have disjoint neighbourhoods. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom.
Felix Frankfurter was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Frankfurter was born in Vienna and immigrated to New York at the age of 12. He graduated from Harvard Law School and was active politically, helping to found the American Civil Liberties Union. He was a friend and adviser of President Franklin Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939. Frankfurter served on the Supreme Court for 23 years, and was a noted advocate of judicial restraint in the judgements of the Court.
In the 1st century BCE, the Arabian city Eudaemon was a transshipping port in the Red Sea trade. The city and surrounding country were the Latin Arabia Felix. It was described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as if it had fallen on hard times. Of the auspiciously named port we read in the periplus that The new development in trade during the 1st century CE avoided the middlemen at Eudaemon and made the courageous direct crossing of the Arabian Sea to the coast of India.
|Jack and the Beanstalk|
Jack and the Beanstalk
"Jack and the Beanstalk" is a British fairy tale. The tale is closely associated with the tale of "Jack the Giant Killer", and is known under a number of versions. Benjamin Tabart's moralised version of 1807 is the first appearance in print, but "Felix Summerly" popularised it in The Home Treasury, and Joseph Jacobs rewrote it in English Fairy Tales. Jacobs' version is most commonly reprinted today and is believed to more closely adhere to the oral versions than Tabart's because it lacks the moralising of that version.
Dzerzhinsk is a city in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located along the Oka River, about 400 kilometers east of Moscow. Population: 240,742; 261,334; 285,071. First mentioned in 1606 as Rastyapino, it has been named after Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Bolshevik leader who was the first head of the Soviet Cheka, since 1929. Modern-day Dzerzhinsk is a large center of the Russian chemicals production industry. In the past, the city was also among Russia's principal production sites for chemical weapons. Owing to its strategic significance, this city was, until recently, officially closed to foreign visitors.
Hermann Gustav Goetz was a German composer. Goetz was born in Königsberg, then in East Prussia. After studying in Berlin, he moved to Switzerland in 1863. After ten years spent as a critic, pianist and conductor as well, he spent the last three years of his life composing. The conductor Felix Weingartner found it "incomprehensible that his delightful opera comique, Der Widerspanstigen Zähmung, should have entirely disappeared from the repertoire." Another great admirer of Goetz's compositions was George Bernard Shaw, who praised Goetz's Symphony in F above anything in the genre by Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahms.
A torque wrench is a tool used to precisely apply a specific torque to a fastener such as a nut or bolt. It is usually in the form of a socket wrench with special internal mechanisms. It was invented by Conrad Bahr in 1918 while working for the New York City Water Department. It was designed to prevent overtightening bolts on water main and steam pipe repairs underground. A torque wrench is used where the tightness of screws and bolts is crucial. It allows the operator to measure the torque applied to the fastener so it can be matched to the specifications for a particular application. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts. A torque wrench measures torque as a proxy for bolt tension. The technique suffers from inaccuracy due to inconsistent or uncalibrated friction between the fastener and its mating hole. Measuring bolt tension is more accurate but often torque is the only practical means of measurement. Torque screwdrivers and torque wrenches have similar purposes and mechanisms.
Neue Ostpolitik, or Ostpolitik for short, refers to the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic beginning in 1969. Influenced by Egon Bahr, who proposed "change through rapprochement" in a 1963 speech, the policies were implemented beginning with Willy Brandt, fourth Chancellor of the FRG from 1969 to 1974. Ostpolitik was an effort to break with the policies of the Christian Democratic Union, which was the elected government of West Germany from 1949 until 1969. The Christian Democrats under Konrad Adenauer and his successors tried to combat the Communist regime of East Germany, while Brandt's Social Democrats tried to achieve a certain degree of cooperation with East Germany. The term Ostpolitik has since been applied to Pope Paul VI's efforts to engage Eastern European countries during the same period. The term Nordpolitik was also coined to describe similar rapprochement policies between North and South Korea beginning in the 1980s.
Sikyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia. The king-list given by Pausanias comprises twenty-four kings, beginning with the autochthonous Aegialeus. The penultimate king of the list, Agamemnon, compels the submission of Sicyon to Mycenae; after him comes the Dorian usurper Phalces. Pausanias shares his source with Castor of Rhodes, who used the king-list in compiling tables of history; the common source was convincingly identified by Felix Jacoby as a lost Sicyonica by the late 4th-century poet Menaechmus of Sicyon.
The Río Coco, formerly known as the Río Segovia, Cape River, or Yara River, is a river in southern southern Honduras and northern Nicaragua. The Miskito Indians who live along the river know it as the Wanki or Wanks River. The river originates near San Marcos de Colón in present-day Honduras, and flows 750 kilometers into the Caribbean Sea; the middle and lower reaches form the Honduras-Nicaragua border to the Atlantic Coast. On September 7, 2007, major international news wires reported that the Río Coco was over 11 meters above normal stage, two days after category 5 Hurricane Felix made landfall.
|Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag|
Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag
"Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag, and Smile, Smile, Smile" is the full name of a World War I marching song, published in 1915 in London. It was written by George Henry Powell under the pseudonym of "George Asaf", and set to music by his brother Felix Powell. A play presented by the National Theatre recounts how these music hall stars rescued the song from their rejects pile and re-scored it to win a wartime competition for a marching song. It became very popular, boosting British morale despite the horrors of that war. It was one of a large number of music hall songs aimed at maintaining morale, recruiting for the forces, or defending Britain's war aims.
Cat's Cradle is the fourth novel by American writer Kurt Vonnegut, first published in 1963. It explores issues of science, technology, and religion, satirizing the arms race and many other targets along the way. After turning down his original thesis, in 1971 the University of Chicago awarded Vonnegut his Master's degree in anthropology for Cat's Cradle. The title of the book derives from the string game "cat's cradle." Early in the book it is learned that Felix Hoenikker was playing cat's cradle when the bomb was dropped, and the game is later referenced by his son, Newton Hoenikker.
"Fortune Teller" is a song written by Allen Toussaint under the pseudonym Naomi Neville and first recorded by Benny Spellman Cover versions exist by The Rolling Stones, The Hollies, The Who, The Merseybeats, Felix the Cat, Tony Jackson, The Downliners Sect, The Iguanas, the Hardtimes, the Stellas, Strawberry Alarm Clock, and many others, including more recently the October 2007 album Raising Sand, performed by Robert Plant and Alison Krauss. The song was also a hit in Australia, recorded by The Throb. Rumour has it that the Australian band were played the Rolling Stones version by their studio producer before they recorded their version, to get an idea of how it should sound.
Equatoria is a region in the south of present-day South Sudan, along the upper reaches of the White Nile. Originally a province of Egypt, it also contained most of northern parts of present day Uganda, including Lake Albert. It was an idealistic effort to create a model state in the interior of Africa that never consisted of more than a handful of adventurers and soldiers in isolated outposts. Equatoria was established by Samuel Baker in 1870. Charles George Gordon took over as Governor in 1874, followed by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt put an end to Equatoria as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Later British Governors included Martin Parr. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile and Wadelai. The last two are in the part of Equatoria that is now in Uganda. Under Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, most of Equatoria became one of the eight original provinces. The state of Bahr el Ghazal was split from Equatoria in 1948. In 1976, Equatoria was further split into the states of East and West Equatoria. The region has been troubled with violence during both the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars, as well as the anti-Ugandan insurgencies based in Sudan, such as the Lord's Resistance Army and West Nile Bank Front.
In mathematics, the Hausdorff dimension is an extended non-negative real number associated with any metric space. The Hausdorff dimension generalizes the notion of the dimension of a real vector space. That is, the Hausdorff dimension of an n-dimensional inner product space equals n. This means, for example, the Hausdorff dimension of a point is zero, the Hausdorff dimension of a line is one, and the Hausdorff dimension of the plane is two. There are, however, many irregular sets that have noninteger Hausdorff dimension. The concept was introduced in 1918 by the mathematician Felix Hausdorff. Many of the technical developments used to compute the Hausdorff dimension for highly irregular sets were obtained by Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch.
Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer. In a short lifespan of less than 32 years, Schubert was a prolific composer, writing some 600 Lieder, nine symphonies, liturgical music, operas, some incidental music and a large body of chamber and solo piano music. Appreciation of Schubert's music during his lifetime was limited, but interest in his work increased significantly in the decades following his death. Franz Liszt, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn, among others, discovered and championed his works in the 19th century. Today, Schubert is seen as one of the leading exponents of the early Romantic era in music and he remains one of the most frequently performed composers.
In mathematics, the Klein bottle is an example of a non-orientable surface; informally, it is a surface in which notions of left and right cannot be consistently defined. Other related non-orientable objects include the Möbius strip and the real projective plane. Whereas a Möbius strip is a surface with boundary, a Klein bottle has no boundary. The Klein bottle was first described in 1882 by the German mathematician Felix Klein. It may have been originally named the Kleinsche Fläche and that this was incorrectly interpreted as Kleinsche Flasche, which ultimately led to the adoption of this term in the German language as well.
Kristján Kristjánsson also known as KK is an Icelandic blues and folk musician. His stage name is pronounced "cow cow." KK was born on March 26, 1956 in Minnesota, USA, but later moved to Iceland with his family. He attended music school in Malmö, Sweden for four years and then played his way across Europe, returning to Iceland in 1990. He has been nominated for the Gríma Prize twice and has been awarded the Icelandic Music Prize twice. In 2007 he toured to Shanghai with Magnús Eiríksson and Óttar Felix Hauksson in advance of the release of their next recording there and in Iceland.
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic hereditary skin disorder associated with a high risk of carcinoma of the skin. It is characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses of the skin. The resulting uncontrolled HPV infections result in the growth of scaly macules and papules, particularly on the hands and feet. It is typically associated with HPV types 5 and 8, which are found in about 80 percent of the normal population as asymptomatic infections, although other types may also contribute. The condition usually has an onset of between the ages of 1–20, but can occasionally present in middle-age. It is named after the physicians who first documented it, Felix Lewandowsky and Wilhelm Lutz.
Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, the Untere Schwabach. Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants. Erlangen is today dominated by the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the numerous branch offices of Siemens AG, as well as a large research Institute of the Fraunhofer Society and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light. An event that left its mark on the city was the settlement of Huguenots after the withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Felix Klein's Erlangen program, considering the future of research in mathematics, is so called because Klein was then at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
Involver is a progressive house and breaks mix compilation by Sasha. Tracks which Sasha admired by other artists were chosen for this album and have each been remixed to give Sasha's own interpretation of them. It received generally favorable reviews for its track selection and creative mixing techniques. Charlie May and Simon Wright assisted as co-producers for the compilation. In 2005, the Grammy committee debated whether Involver was eligible for nomination as Best Electronic/Dance Album. The Recording Academy decided that the album was eligible, but Involver did not receive a nomination. Sasha did receive a Grammy nomination for his remix of Felix da Housecat's "Watching Cars Go By", which was featured on Involver.
The Dinka are an ethnic group inhabiting the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. They are mainly agripastoral people, relying on cattle herding at riverside camps in the dry season and growing millet and other varieties of grains in fixed settlements during the rainy season. They number around 4.5 million people according to the 2008 Sudan census, constituting about 18% of the population of the entire country, and the largest ethnic tribe in South Sudan. Dinka, or as they refer to themselves, Muonyjang and jieng, are one of the branches of the River Lake Nilotes. Dinka are sometimes noted for their height. With the Tutsi of Rwanda, they are believed to be the tallest people in Africa. Roberts and Bainbridge reported the average height of 182.6 cm in a sample of 52 Dinka Ageir and 181.3 cm in 227 Dinka Ruweng measured in 1953–1954. However, it seems the stature of today's Dinka males is lower, possibly as a consequence of undernutrition and conflicts. An anthropometric survey of Dinka men, war refugees in Ethiopia, published in 1995 found a mean height of 176.4 cm. Other studies of comparative historical height data and nutrition place the Dinka as the tallest people in the world.
Deterritorialization is a concept created by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in Anti-Oedipus, which, in accordance to Deleuze's desire and philosophy, quickly became used by others, for example in anthropology, and transformed in this reappropriation. Deleuze and Guattari encouraged this use of their concepts in other senses than that they were "originally created for", since they did not believe in this conception of an "original sense", which could be related to phenomenology. Deleuze said, for example, that the people who had best understood the Anti-Oedipus were persons that were neither philosophers nor psychoanalysts. He particularly liked a letter sent to him by an origami-maker, who had seen new inspiration in the book Le Pli.
James Felix "Jim" Bridger was among the foremost mountain men, trappers, scouts and guides who explored and trapped the Western United States during the decades of 1820-1850, as well as mediating between native tribes and encroaching whites. He was of English ancestry, and his family had been in North America since the early colonial period. Jim Bridger had a strong constitution that allowed him to survive the extreme conditions he encountered walking the Rocky Mountains from what would become southern Colorado to the Canadian border. He had conversational knowledge of French, Spanish and several native languages. He would come to know many of the major figures of the early west, including Brigham Young, Kit Carson, George Armstrong Custer, John Fremont, Joseph Meek, and John Sutter.
Neo-impressionism is a term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Georges Seurat. Seurat’s greatest masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, marked the beginning of this movement when it first made its appearance at an exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants in Paris. Around this time, the peak of France’s modern era emerged and many painters were in search of new methods. Followers of neo-impressionism, in particular, were drawn to modern urban scenes as well as landscapes and seashores. Science-based interpretation of lines and colors influenced neo-impressionists’ characterization of their own contemporary art. Pointillism technique is often mentioned, because it was the dominant technique in the beginning.
The Warren Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Warren's predecessor Fred M. Vinson had died on September 8, 1953 after 2,633 days in this position. Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and the federal power in dramatic ways. The court was both applauded and criticized for bringing an end to racial segregation in the United States, incorporating the Bill of Rights, and ending officially sanctioned voluntary prayer in public schools. The period is recognized as a high point in judicial power that has receded ever since, but with a substantial continuing impact. Prominent members of the Court during the Warren era besides the Chief Justice included Justices William J. Brennan, Jr., William O. Douglas, Hugo Black, Felix Frankfurter, and John Marshall Harlan II.
Leopold Maximiliaan Felix Timmermans is a much translated author of Flanders. Timmermans was born in the Belgian city of Lier, as the thirteenth of fourteen children. He died in Lier at age 60. He was an autodidact, and wrote plays, historical novels, religious works, and poems. His best-known book is Pallieter. Timmermans also wrote under the pen-name Polleke van Mher. He was a painter and drawer as well as an author. During the first years of the Second World War, Timmermans was editor of the Flemish nationalist Volk. He also attended meetings of the Europäische Schriftsteller-Vereinigung, which was initiated by Joseph Goebbels. Because of this, and because of the Rembrandt prize he received in 1942 from the University of Hamburg, he was wrongly seen as a collaborator, which may have caused health problems and premature death.
|Paulinus of Nola|
Paulinus of Nola
Paulinus of Nola was a Latin poet and letter-writer, and a convert to the Christian faith. His renunciation of wealth and a senatorial career in favour of a Christian ascetic and philanthropic life was held up as an example by many of his contemporaries, including Augustine, Jerome, Martin of Tours, and Ambrose. After his conversion he wrote to his friend and teacher, the poet Ausonius, affirming his friendship but insisting on the priorities of his new life. He and his wife settled at Nola near Naples, where he wrote poems in honor of St. Felix and corresponded with Christian leaders throughout the Roman Empire. After his wife's death he became Bishop of Nola, and was invited to help resolve the disputed election of Pope Boniface I. He was recognized as a saint in the undivided Church and is commemorated on 22 June.
Louis Eugène Félix Néel ForMemRS was a French physicist born in Lyon. He studied at the Lycée du Parc in Lyon and was accepted at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He obtained the degree of Doctor of Science at the University of Strasbourg. He was corecipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. His contributions to solid state physics have found numerous useful applications, particularly in the development of improved computer memory units. About 1930 he suggested that a new form of magnetic behavior might exist; called antiferromagnetism, as opposed to ferromagnetism. Above a certain temperature this behaviour stops. Néel pointed out that materials could also exist showing ferrimagnetism. Néel has also given an explanation of the weak magnetism of certain rocks, making possible the study of the history of Earth's magnetic field.
Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power. It asserts that judges should hesitate to strike down laws unless they are obviously unconstitutional, though what counts as obviously unconstitutional is itself a matter of some debate. Judicial restraint is sometimes regarded as the opposite of judicial activism. In deciding questions of constitutional law, judicially-restrained jurists go to great lengths to defer to the legislature. Former Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., considered to be one of the first major advocates of the philosophy, would describe the importance of judicial restraint in many of his books. Former Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter, a Democrat appointed by Franklin Roosevelt, is generally seen as the "model of judicial restraint". Judicially-restrained judges respect stare decisis, the principle of upholding established precedent handed down by past judges. When Chief Justice Rehnquist overturned some of the precedents of the Warren Court, Time magazine said he was not following the theory of judicial restraint. However, Rehnquist was also acknowledged as a more conservative advocate of the philosophy.
"J'accuse" was an open letter published on 13 January 1898 in the newspaper L'Aurore by the influential writer Émile Zola. In the letter, Zola addressed President of France Félix Faure, and accused the government of anti-Semitism and the unlawful jailing of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Army General Staff officer sentenced to penal servitude for life for espionage. Zola pointed out judicial errors and lack of serious evidence. The letter was printed on the front page of the newspaper, and caused a stir in France and abroad. Zola was prosecuted and found guilty of libel on 23 February 1898. To avoid imprisonment, he fled to England, returning home in June 1899. Other pamphlets proclaiming Dreyfus's innocence include Bernard Lazare's A Miscarriage of Justice: The Truth about the Dreyfus Affair. As a result of the popularity of the letter, even in the English-speaking world, J'accuse! has become a common generic expression of outrage and accusation against someone powerful.
Guayana City, in Spanish Ciudad Guayana, is a city in Bolívar State, Venezuela. It lies south of the Orinoco, where the river is joined by the Caroní River. The city, officially founded in 1961, is actually composed of the old town of San Félix at the east and the new town of Puerto Ordaz at the west, which lie either banks of the Caroní and are connected by three bridges. The city stretches 40 kilometers along the south bank of the Orinoco. With approximately one million people, it is a large city by Venezuelan standards. It is also the country's fastest-growing city, due to its important iron industry. It is one of Venezuela's five most important ports, since most goods produced in Bolívar are shipped through it into the Atlantic Ocean, via the Orinoco river. Ciudad Guayana is also the location of the Second Orinoco crossing. It is served by Manuel Carlos Piar Guayana Airport.
Charles Calvert was a wealthy English brewer and Member of Parliament in the early 19th century. Calvert was the third son of Southwark brewer Felix Calvert, and was educated at Tonbridge and Harrow Schools. In 1802, he inherited a half-share in his father’s brewery. A Whig, he stood for Parliament and was elected as MP for Southwark from 1812 to 1830 and then from 1830 until his death in 1832. In Parliament, he allied himself with brewers’ interests, often opposing taxes on tobacco, beer and tea for their impacts on the working classes and on manufacturers. He opposed the blockage of Norway in 1814 and the resumption of hostilities with Napoleon, and supported parliamentary reform. He married Jane, youngest daughter of Sir William Rowley of Tendring Hall, Suffolk, in 1823, and lived at Ockley Court in Surrey and Kneller Hall in Twickenham, west London, up to his death from cholera in September 1832.
The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler. Individual chapter organizations are generically referred to as "Ethical Societies", though their names may include "Ethical Society," "Ethical Culture Society," "Society for Ethical Culture," "Ethical Humanist Society," or other variations on the theme of "Ethical." Ethical Culture is premised on the idea that honoring and living in accordance with ethical principles is central to what it takes to live meaningful and fulfilling lives, and to creating a world that is good for all. Practitioners of Ethical Culture focus on supporting one another in becoming better people, and on doing good in the world. The American Ethical Union is a federation of about 25 Ethical Societies in the United States, representing the Ethical Culture movement. It is one of the founding member organizations of the International Humanist and Ethical Union.
Laguardia is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The site of a 10th-century castle, of which two towers remain, the present village has medieval walls dating back to the 15th century surrounding the houses and old cobblestoned streets. The village has many tunnels dug out of the rock, used for storage of the local Rioja wine, some of which can be visited. It is the hometown of the Spanish fabulist Félix María de Samaniego. Located in the south of Alava, la Rioja Alavesa is clearly bounded by the Cantabria mountain range to the north; from here its lands slope gently downwards as far as the Ebro river, where its south boundary is. Laguardia itself is bounded by the mountains of Cantabria to the north and by the left bank of the Ebro to the south. The San Ginés river splits the districts of Elvillar and Laguardia in the east, and it is bounded by Navaridas to the west. Páganos, El Campillar and Laserna are villages within the jurisdiction of Laguardia These geographic nuances provide this area with its particular landscapes and climate, which have clearly made a mark both in its history and in the villagers' character.
or "The Land of the Blacks," the cradle of the negro race, a vast tract of territory stretching E. and W. across the African continent from the Atlantic (W.) to the Red Sea and Highlands of Abyssinia (E.), between the Sahara (W.) and the Gulf of Guinea and the central equatorial provinces (S.); divided into (a) Upper Soudan, embracing Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Dahomey, Liberia, and west coast-lands; (6) Lower Soudan, including the Fulah States, Massina, Gando, Sokoto, &c.; (c) Egyptian Soudan, which in 1882 was subdivided into (1) West Soudan, including Dar-Fur, Kordofan, Bahr-el-Ghazal, and Dongola; (2) Central Soudan, comprising Khartoum, Sennaar, Berber, Fashoda, and the Equatorial Province, &c.; (3) Eastern Soudan, bordering on the Red Sea, and embracing Taka, Suakim, and Massowah; (4) Harar, stretching E. of Abyssinia. The extension of Egyptian rule into this territory began in 1819 with the capture of Khartoum, which became the base of military operations, ending in the gradual conquest of the surrounding regions in 1874. A serious revolt, fanned by religious fanaticism, broke out in 1882, and headed by the Mahdi (q. v.) and his lieutenant Osman Digna, ended in the utter rout of the Egyptian forces under Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha; Gordon, after a vain attempt to relieve him, perished in Khartoum; but Stanley was more successful in relieving Emin Bey in the Equatorial Province. Anarchy and despotism ensued until the victorious campaign of Kitchener (q. v.) again restored the lost provinces to Egypt.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Aegidius was a Gallo-Roman warlord of northern Gaul. He had been promoted as magister militum in Gaul under Aëtius around 450. An ardent supporter of Majorian, Aegidius rebelled when Ricimer deposed Majorian, engaging in several campaigns against the Visigoths and creating a Roman rump state that came to be known as the Domain of Soissons. After winning an important victory over the Visigoths he died suddenly, and was succeeded by his son Syagrius. Ralph Mathisen points out the name of Aegidius' son, Syagrius, "would suggest that he was related to the Syagrii of Lyons, one of the oldest, most aristocratic families of Gaul. Aegidius, in fact, has been proposed as a grandson of Flavius Afranius Syagrius, consul in 382". Other Syagrii Mathisen lists with a connection to Gaul are a great-grandson of Afranius, who had an estate at Taionnacus near Lyons, and a wealthy Syagria of Lyons who was described by Magnus Felix Ennodius as thesaurus ecclesiae.
Staffa from the Old Norse for stave or pillar island, is an island of the Inner Hebrides in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. The Vikings gave it this name as its columnar basalt reminded them of their houses, which were built from vertically placed tree-logs. Staffa lies about 10 kilometres west of the Isle of Mull. The area is 33 hectares and the highest point is 42 metres above sea level. The island came to prominence in the late 18th century after a visit by Sir Joseph Banks. He and his fellow-travellers extolled the natural beauty of the basalt columns in general and of the island's main sea cavern, which Banks renamed 'Fingal's Cave'. Their visit was followed by those of many other prominent personalities throughout the next two centuries, including Queen Victoria and Felix Mendelssohn. The latter's Hebrides Overture brought further fame to the island, which was by then uninhabited. It is now in the care of the National Trust for Scotland.
John Felix Anthony Cena is an American professional wrestler, bodybuilder, and actor. He is currently signed to WWE, where he is the current WWE Champion in his record-breaking eleventh reign. In WWE, Cena has won 20 championships in total. He is also a 13 time World Champion, a company record shared with Triple H. In addition, Cena has also won the WWE United States Championship three times, and is a four-time Tag Team Champion, having held the World Tag Team Championship twice, and the WWE Tag Team Championship twice. Cena also won the Royal Rumble match twice, the 2012 Money in the Bank contract for the WWE Title, and is a three-time Superstar of the Year Slammy Award winner. He has the fourth highest number of combined days as WWE Champion behind Bob Backlund, Hulk Hogan and Bruno Sammartino. He is the 7th longest-reigning WWE Champion in history. He is also the only man to fail to capture a world championship upon cashing in a Money in the Bank contract.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.
Campania is a region in southern Italy. The region has a population of around 5.8 million people, making it the second-most-populous region of Italy; its total area of 13,590 km² makes it the most densely populated region in the country. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Located on the Italian Peninsula, Campania was colonised by Ancient Greeks and was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture. The capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture, especially in regards to gastronomy, music, architecture, archeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Paestum and Velia. The name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri.
In mathematics, more specifically algebraic topology, the fundamental group is a group associated to any given pointed topological space that provides a way of determining when two paths, starting and ending at a fixed base point, can be continuously deformed into each other. Intuitively, it records information about the basic shape, or holes, of the topological space. The fundamental group is the first and simplest of the homotopy groups. It is a topological invariant: homeomorphic topological spaces have the same fundamental group. Fundamental groups can be studied using the theory of covering spaces, since a fundamental group coincides with the group of deck transformations of the associated universal covering space. Its abelianisation can be identified with the first homology group of the space. When the topological space is homeomorphic to a simplicial complex, its fundamental group can be described explicitly in terms of generators and relations. Historically, the concept of fundamental group first emerged in the theory of Riemann surfaces, in the work of Bernhard Riemann, Henri Poincaré and Felix Klein, where it describes the monodromy properties of complex functions, as well as providing a complete topological classification of closed surfaces.
The Festgesang, also known as Festgesang zur Eröffnung der am ersten Tage der vierten Säkularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, was composed by Felix Mendelssohn in the first half of 1840 for performance in Leipzig at the celebrations to mark the putative quatercentenary of the invention of printing with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg. It was first performed in the market-square at Leipzig on 24 June 1840. The piece is scored for male chorus with two brass orchestras and timpani, and consists of four parts, the first and last based on established Lutheran chorales. Part 2, beginning "Vaterland, in deinen Gauen", was later adapted to the words of Wesley's Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing". The original German words for the Festgesang were by Adolf Eduard Proelss. The use of a large choir and two orchestras was designed to make use of the natural acoustics of the market-place to produce an impressive, resonant sound. Mendelssohn wrote at least two other "Festgesänge", with which the present work are sometimes confused, known as "Festgesang an die Künstler" and "Festgesang".
|A Beautiful Morning|
A Beautiful Morning
"A Beautiful Morning" is a song written by Felix Cavaliere and Eddie Brigati and recorded by The Rascals. Coming out in early 1968, it was the group's first single released under that name rather than The Young Rascals. The first album on which the song appeared was Time Peace: The Rascals' Greatest Hits. It continued the theme of carefree optimism that had distinguished the previous year's "Groovin'". The song was a big hit in the United States, reaching number three on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and also reaching number thirty-six on the Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles chart. It was RIAA-certified as a Million Seller on June 28, 1968. The song had an introductory sound of mystical wind chimes and bells. A Beautiful Morning was used in advertisements for the drug Vioxx produced by Merck & Co. and also used for Bounce commercials. The song also featured in a Scrubs episode, at the start of a season 6 episode with Zach Braff who plays JD dancing to it. It was also featured at the end of a second season episode of The Greatest American Hero in which Ralph had to disarm a nuclear missile. It was also featured in the movie Kingpin immediately following the scene that shows how Roy got his rubber hand. The song was featured during the 1969 college graduation scene in The First Wives Club.
A rebozo is a long flat garment used by women mostly in Mexico. It can be worn in various ways, usually folded or wrapped around the head and/or upper body to shade from the sun, provide warmth and as an accessory to an outfit. It is also used to carry babies and large bundles, especially among indigenous women. The origin of the garment is unclear, but most likely derived in the early colonial period, as traditional versions of the garment show indigenous, European and Asian influences. Traditional rebozos are handwoven from cotton, wool, silk and rayon in various lengths but all have some kind of pattern and have fringe, which can be finger weaved into complicated designs. The garment is considered to be part of Mexican identity and nearly all Mexican women own at least one. It has been prominently worn by women such as Frida Kahlo, actress María Félix and former Mexican first lady Margarita Zavala and still popular in rural areas of the country. However, its use has diminished in urban areas.
|Fruit of the poisonous tree|
Fruit of the poisonous tree
Fruit of the poisonous tree is a legal metaphor in the United States used to describe evidence that is obtained illegally. The logic of the terminology is that if the source of the evidence is tainted, then anything gained from it is tainted as well. The term fruit of the poisonous tree was first used in Nardone v. United States in the opinion by Justice Felix Frankfurter. Such evidence is not generally admissible in court. For example, if a police officer conducted an unconstitutional search of a home and obtained a key to a train station locker, and evidence of a crime came from the locker, that evidence would most likely be excluded under the fruit of the poisonous tree legal doctrine. The discovery of a witness is not evidence in itself because the witness is attenuated by separate interviews, in-court testimony and his or her own statements. The doctrine is an extension of the exclusionary rule, which, subject to some exceptions, prevents evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment from being admitted in a criminal trial. Like the exclusionary rule, the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine is intended to deter police from using illegal means to obtain evidence.
The porphyrias are a group of rare inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes that normally participate in the production of porphyrins and heme. They manifest with either neurological complications or skin problems or occasionally both. Porphyrias are classified in two ways, by symptoms and by pathophysiology. Symptomatically, acute porphyrias primarily present with nervous system involvement, often with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, neuropathy and mental disturbances. Cutaneous porphyrias present with skin manifestations often after exposure to sun due to the accumulation of excess porphyrins near the surface of the skin. Physiologically, porphyrias are classified as hepatic or erythropoietic based on the sites of accumulation of heme precursors, either in the liver or bone marrow and red blood cells. The term "porphyria" is derived from the Greek πορφύρα, porphyra, meaning "purple pigment". The name is likely to have been a reference to the purple discolouration of feces and urine when exposed to light in patients during an attack. Although original descriptions are attributed to Hippocrates, the disease was first explained biochemically by Felix Hoppe-Seyler in 1871 and acute porphyrias were described by the Dutch physician Barend Stokvis in 1889.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and reaching global dimensions during the Cold War. Most anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim that the socialist state will "wither away" when it becomes unnecessary in a true communist society. Anti-communists argue that the repression in the early years of Bolshevik rule, while not as extreme as that during Joseph Stalin's rule, was still severe by reasonable standards, citing examples such as Felix Dzerzhinsky's secret police, which eliminated numerous political opponents by extrajudicial executions, and the brutal crushing of the Kronstadt rebellion and Tambov rebellion. Some anti-communists refer to both Communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Historian Robert Conquest has argued that Communism was responsible for tens of millions of deaths during the 20th century.
Emmy Noether, was an influential German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, Norbert Wiener and others as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether's theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws. She was born to a Jewish family in the Bavarian town of Erlangen; her father was mathematician Max Noether. Emmy originally planned to teach French and English after passing the required examinations, but instead studied mathematics at the University of Erlangen, where her father lectured. After completing her dissertation in 1907 under the supervision of Paul Gordan, she worked at the Mathematical Institute of Erlangen without pay for seven years. In 1915, she was invited by David Hilbert and Felix Klein to join the mathematics department at the University of Göttingen, a world-renowned center of mathematical research. The philosophical faculty objected, however, and she spent four years lecturing under Hilbert's name. Her habilitation was approved in 1919, allowing her to obtain the rank of Privatdozent.
Bambi is a 1942 American animated drama film directed by David Hand, produced by Walt Disney and based on the book Bambi, A Life in the Woods by Austrian author Felix Salten. The film was released by RKO Radio Pictures on August 13, 1942, and is the fifth film in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series. The main characters are Bambi, a white-tailed deer, his parents, his friends Thumper, and Flower, and his childhood friend and future mate, Faline. For the movie, Disney took the liberty of changing Bambi's species into a white-tailed deer from his original species of roe deer, since roe deer do not inhabit the United States, and the white-tailed deer is more familiar to Americans. The film received three Academy Award nominations: Best Sound, Best Song and Original Music Score. In June 2008, the American Film Institute presented a list of its "10 Top 10"—the best ten films in each of ten classic American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Bambi placed third in animation. In December 2011, the film was added to the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress.
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle takes place in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a rotor that is similar in shape to a Reuleaux triangle but with sides that are somewhat flatter. The very compact Wankel engine delivers smooth high-rpm power. It is commonly called a rotary engine, though this name applies also to other completely different designs. The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. He received his first patent for the engine in 1929, began development in the early 1950s at NSU, completing a working prototype in 1957. NSU then licensed the concept to companies around the world, which have continued to improve the design. It is the only internal combustion engine invented in the twentieth century to go into production. Thanks to their compact design, Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices including automobiles, motorcycles, racers, aircraft, go-karts, jet skis, snowmobiles, chain saws, and auxiliary power units.
|Line of flight|
Line of flight
A line of flight is a concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and used extensively in his work with Félix Guattari. Translator Brian Massumi notes that in French, "Fuite covers not only the act of fleeing or eluding but also flowing, leaking, and disappearing into the distance. It has no relation to flying." In the first chapter of the second volume of their Capitalism and Schizophrenia project, A Thousand Plateaus, the concept is used to define a "rhizome": Multiplicities are defined by the outside: by the abstract line, the line of flight or deterritorialization according to which they change in nature and connect with other multiplicities. The plane of consistency is the outside of all multiplicities. The line of flight marks: the reality of a finite number of dimensions that the multiplicity effectively fills; the impossibility of a supplementary dimension, unless the multiplicity is transformed by the line of flight; the possibility and necessity of flattening all of the multiplicities on a single plane of consistency or exteriority, regardless of their number of dimensions. In Manuel De Landa's book Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy, the Line of Flight is described as an operator which transcends the real and ascends to the virtual. It is used as a synonym with Deleuze's terms "Dark Precursor"
Sasha is a Welsh DJ and record producer. Sasha began his career playing acid house dance music in the late 1980s. He partnered with fellow DJ John Digweed in 1993, touring internationally and producing a series of mixes. Sasha has produced multiple UK-charting singles and has remixed tracks for artists such as Madonna, The Chemical Brothers and Hot Chip. His remix of Felix da Housecat's "Watching Cars Go By" earned him a 2004 Grammy nomination. Sasha's remixing and production often combine electronic music genres, making it difficult for critics to pinpoint his musical style, including on his debut album of original work, Airdrawndagger. After achieving success as a producer and DJ, Sasha worked with younger DJs and producers such as BT and James Zabiela, influencing their musical styles and techniques. His use of live audio engineering equipment helped popularise technological innovations among DJs who formerly relied on records and turntables. Despite the changing trends in electronic dance music, Sasha continues to perform in large dance venues. In 2007, he formed a record label with Renaissance Records called emFire, which is the exclusive outlet for his new music.
In the terminology of Islam, duʿāʾ literally meaning invocation, is an act of supplication. The term is derived from an Arabic word meaning to 'call out' or to 'summon', and Muslims regard this as a profound act of worship. This is when Muslims from all over connect with God and ask him for forgiveness and favors. The Islamic prophet Muhammad is reported to have said "Dua is the very essence of worship," while one of God's commands expressed through the Quran is for them to call out to Him: There is a special emphasis on du'a in Muslim spirituality and early Muslims took great care to record the supplications of Muhammad and transmit them to subsequent generations. These traditions precipitated new genres of literature in which prophetic supplications were gathered together in single volumes that were memorized and taught. Collections such as Al-Nawawi's Kitab al-adhkar and Shams al-Din al-Jazari's al-Hisn al-Hasin exemplify this literary trend and gained significant currency among Muslim devotees keen to learn how Muhammad supplicated to God. However, Du'a literature is not restricted to prophetic supplications; many later Muslim scholars and sages composed their own supplications, often in elaborate rhyming prose that would be recited by their disciples. Popular du'as would include Muhammad al-Jazuli's Dala'il al-Khayrat, which at its peak spread throughout the Muslim world, and Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili's Hizb al-Bahr which also had widespread appeal. Du'a literature reaches its most lyrical form in the Munajat, or 'whispered intimate prayers' such as those of Ibn 'Ata Allah. Among the Shia schools, the Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya records du'as attributed to Ali and his grandson Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-'Abidin.
E major is a major scale based on E, with the pitches E, F♯, G♯, A, B, C♯, and D♯. Its key signature has four sharps. Its relative minor is C-sharp minor, and its parallel minor is E minor. Only two of Haydn's 104 symphonies are in E major, No. 12 and No. 29. Even in the 19th Century, symphonies in this key were rare, with Bruckner's Symphony No. 7 being one of very few examples. For Bruckner, "the key of E major is frequently associated with music of contemplation." Two symphonies that begin in D minor and end in E major are Havergal Brian's Gothic Symphony and Nielsen's Symphony No. 4. More typically, however, some symphonies that begin in E minor switch to E major for the finale, such as Sergei Rachmaninoff's Symphony No. 2, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 5 and Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 10. Johann Sebastian Bach used E major for a violin concerto, as well as for his third partita for solo violin; the key is especially appropriate for the latter piece because its tonic and subdominant correspond to open strings on the violin, enhancing the tone color of the bariolage in the first movement. Felix Mendelssohn used E major for the finale of his well-known violin concerto, switching from a beginning in E minor, exploiting these advantages for the solo voice.
|Lope de Vega|
Lope de Vega
Félix Arturo Lope de Vega y Carpio was a Spanish playwright and poet. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish Golden Century Baroque literature. His reputation in the world of Spanish literature is second only to that of Cervantes, while the sheer volume of his literary output is unequalled, making him one of the most prolific authors in the history of literature. Nicknamed "The Phoenix of Wits" and "Monster of Nature" by Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega renewed the Spanish theatre at a time when it was starting to become a mass cultural phenomenon. He defined the key characteristics of it, and along with Calderón de la Barca and Tirso de Molina, he took Spanish baroque theatre to its greater limits. Because of the insight, depth and ease of his plays, he is regarded among the best dramatists of Western literature, his plays still being represented worldwide. He was also one of the best lyric poets in the Spanish language, and author of various novels. Although not well known in the English-speaking world, his plays were presented in England as late as the 1660s, when diarist Samuel Pepys recorded having attended some adaptations and translations of them, although he omits mentioning the author.
Jules François Felix Fleury-Husson, who wrote under the name Champfleury, was a French art critic and novelist, a prominent supporter of the Realist movement in painting and fiction. In 1843 Fleury-Husson moved to Paris. He met Charles Baudelaire and the next year started writing art criticism under the pen-name "Champfleury" for the journal L'Artiste. He was one of the first to promote the work of Gustave Courbet, in an article appearing in an issue of Le Pamphlet in 1848. In 1850 he advocated the work of El Greco, and wrote about the Le Nain brothers and Maurice Quentin de La Tour. He also had a brief affair in 1851 with Eveline Hańska, the widow of his friend Honoré de Balzac. He edited the periodical Le réalisme in 1856 and 1857. His novels, of which the best-known is Les bourgeois de Molinchart, were among the earliest Realist works. In 1869 his book Les Chats, a series of essays about cats including portrayals of cats by prominent artists of the time, was published by Librarie de la Societe Botanique de France, edited by J. Rothschild. From 1872 until his death in 1889 he was Chief of Collections at the Sèvres porcelain factory.
name of a celebrated family of Italian origin settled in Corsica; the principal members of it were: Charles Marie, born at Ajaccio, 1744; died at Montpellier, 1785; married, 1767. Marie-Lætitia Ramolino, born at Ajaccio, 1750; died at Rome, 1836; of this union were born eight children: Joseph, became king of Naples, 1806; king of Spain from 1808 to 1813; retired to United States after Waterloo; returned to Europe, and died at Florence, 1844. Napoleon I. (q. v.). Lucien, b. 1775; became president of the Council of the Five Hundred, and prince of Canino; died in Viterbo, 1840. Marie-Anne-Eliza, b. 1777; married Felix Bacciochi, who became prince of Lucca; died at Trieste, 1826. Louis, b. 1778; married Hortense de Beauharnais; father of Napoleon III.; king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810); died at Leghorn, 1846. Marie Pauline, b. 1780; married General Leclerc, 1801; afterwards, in 1803, Prince Camille Borghese; became Duchess of Guastalla; died at Florence, 1825. Caroline-Marie, b. 1782; married Marat in 1800; became Grand-duchess of Berg and Clèves, then queen of Naples; died at Florence, 1839. Jerome, b. 1784, king of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813); marshal of France in 1850; married, by second marriage, Princess Catherine of Würtemburg; died in 1860; his daughter, the Princess Mathilde, b. 1820, and his son, Prince Napoleon, called Jerome, b. 1822, married Princess Clothilde, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862.
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Kir is a popular French cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis topped up with white wine. In France it is usually drunk as an apéritif before a meal or snack. Originally the wine used was Bourgogne Aligoté, a lesser white wine of Burgundy. Nowadays, various white wines are used throughout France, according to the region and the whim of the barkeeper. Many prefer a white Chardonnay-based Burgundy, such as Chablis. Originally called blanc-cassis, the drink is now named after Félix Kir, mayor of Dijon in Burgundy, who as a pioneer of the twinning movement in the aftermath of the Second World War popularized the drink by offering it at receptions to visiting delegations. Besides treating his international guests well, he was also promoting two vital economic products of the region. Kir initially allowed one of Dijon's producers of crème de cassis to use his name, but subsequently extended the right to their competitors as well. According to Rolland, the reinvention of blanc-cassis was necessitated by the German Army's confiscation of all the local red Burgundy during the war. Faced with an excess of white wine, Kir renovated a drink that previously was made primarily with the red.
The Tonette is a small, end-blown flute made of plastic, which was once popular in American elementary music education. Though the Tonette has been superseded by the recorder in many areas, due to their price, durability and simplicity, plastic Tonettes, as well as Flutophones, are still in use in elementary schools around the nation. The range of the Tonette is from C4 to D5. It is also known as a song flute. The Tonette was introduced in 1938. Designed as a pre-band instrument, the tonette was nearly unbreakable, chromatic, and tunable. It was easy to blow and the fingering was simple. By 1941 over half of the grammar schools in the United States had adopted the Tonette as standard pre-band equipment. The Tonette's pleasant flute-like sound was also used for special novelty effects in radio, television and film. In World War II the armed services found the Tonette to be an inexpensive and entertaining way for idle troops to pass the time. Peter Schickele has described the tonette as "a cheap, synthetic recorder with amusing pretensions"; it is one of the instruments featured in the Gross Concerto by P. D. Q. Bach. This instrument was played by Felix Pappalardi on "Pressed Rat and Warthog" on Cream's "Wheels of Fire" album.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin was first isolated by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist with the German company Bayer in 1897. Salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, is an integral part of human and animal metabolism. While in humans much of it is attributable to diet, a substantial part is synthesized endogenously. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue. Aspirin may be effective at preventing certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.
Luba is a Canadian musician, singer, songwriter and recording artist from Ukrainian descent. She was commercially active from 1980 to 1990, 2000 to 2001 and is active again from 2007 to present. She was initially the vocalist for a band named Luba before signing as a solo artist under the one-name moniker. She has released a total of six albums as a solo artist. Two of her albums are certified platinum by the Canadian music industry. She has nine top-40 hits on the Canadian pop charts. Her signature song is "Everytime I See Your Picture". Her most successful song is a cover of Percy Sledge's "When a Man Loves a Woman" which reached #6 on the Canadian pop chart and #3 on the Canadian adult contemporary chart. She is a three-time winner of the Canadian music industry Juno Award for Female Vocalist of the Year. Her success is limited to her native Canada as she has never charted in the US or elsewhere. In addition to her Juno Awards, Luba has also received CASBY and Félix Awards, and a Black Music Association Award for "Female Entertainer of the Year". Most recently, her music has been featured on Canadian Idol. She continues to record music under her own independent label.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Sulla Felix. In the culmination of over twenty years of almost continuous military and government service, he became the main conqueror of the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship in diverse situations, most famously during the siege of Cyzicus, 73-2 BC, and at the Battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene, 69 BC. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, and his campaigns appear to have been studied as examples of skillful generalship. Lucullus returned to Rome from the east with so much captured booty that the whole could not be fully accounted, and poured enormous sums into private building, husbandry and even aquaculture projects which shocked and amazed his contemporaries by their magnitude. He also patronized the arts and sciences lavishly, transforming his hereditary estate in the highlands of Tusculum into a hotel-and-library complex for scholars and philosophers. He built the horti Lucullani, the famous Gardens of Lucullus, on the Pincian Hill in Rome, and in general became a cultural innovator in the deployment of imperial wealth. He died during the winter of 57-56 BC. and was buried at the family estate near Tusculum.
Cheka was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in various cities, at multiple levels including: oblast, guberniya, raion, uyezd, and volost Chekas, with Raion and Volost Extraordinary Commissioners. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by various Cheka groups. After 1922, Cheka groups underwent a series of reorganizations, with the NKVD, into bodies whose members continued to be referred to as "Chekisty" into the late 1980s. With Vladimir Putin's rise to power, the reference to the FSB members as "Chekists" arose, particularly by Putin's political opponents, often with negative connotations. From its founding, the Cheka was an important military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. In 1921 the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic numbered 200,000. These troops policed labor camps; ran the Gulag system; conducted requisitions of food; subjected political opponents to torture and summary execution; and put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.
Inki is the lead character in an animated cartoon series of Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies short films by animator Chuck Jones. Inki is a little African boy who usually dresses in a simple loincloth, armband, legband, earrings, and a bone through his hair. He never speaks, and his usual pastime seems to be hunting jungle creatures. The character's look was designed by Disney veteran Charlie Thorson. The plot of the cartoon focuses on little Inki out hunting, oblivious to the fact that he himself is being hunted by a hungry lion. As such, it is very similar to "Little Hiawatha", a Silly Symphonies cartoon Thorson had worked on in 1937. Technically, he was originally created for the Merrie Melodies series, as all his cartoons until Caveman Inki were issued as part of that series. Also central to the series is a minimalist and expressionless mynah bird. The bird hops in time to Felix Mendelssohn's Fingal's Cave Overture, utterly disregarding any obstacles or dangers. The minah bird, shown as nearly almighty, appears randomly in the films, always intervening against the other characters. Occasionally, the bird's intervention benefits Inki by stopping Inki's pursuers. Inki then tries to thank the bird, but the latter ends up being disrespectful to Inki, too.
Otto Ludwig was a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. His father, who was syndic of Eisfeld, died when he was twelve years old, and he was brought up amidst uncongenial conditions. He had devoted his leisure time to poetry and music, which unfitted him for the mercantile career planned for him. The attention of the Duke of Meiningen was directed to one of his musical compositions, an opera, Die Köhlerin, and Ludwig was enabled in 1839 to continue his musical studies under Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig. But ill health and constitutional shyness caused him to give up a musical career and he turned exclusively to literary studies, and wrote several stories and dramas. Of the latter, Der Erbförster attracted immediate attention as a masterly psychological study. It was followed by Die Makkabäer, in which the realistic method of Der Erbförster was transferred to an historical milieu, which allowed more brilliant coloring and a freer play of the imagination. With these tragedies, to which may be added Die Rechte des Herzens and Das Fräulein von Scuderi, the comedy Hans Frey, and an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Agnes Bernauer, Ludwig ranks immediately after Christian Friedrich Hebbel as Germany's most notable dramatic poet at the middle of the 19th century.
Donatism was a Christian sect within the Roman province of Africa that flourished in the fourth and fifth centuries among Berber Christians. Donatism had its roots in the social pressures among the long-established Christian community of Roman North Africa, during the persecutions of Christians under Diocletian. The Donatists were members of a schismatic church not in communion with the churches of the Catholic tradition in Late Antiquity. Donatism was an indirect outcome of Diocletian's persecutions. The governor of Africa had been lenient towards the large Christian minority under his rule during the persecutions. He was satisfied if Christians handed over their Scriptures as a token repudiation of their faith. Some Christians acceded to this convenient action. When the persecutions came to an end, however, they were branded traditores, "those who handed over" by the zealous, mostly from the poorer classes. Like the Novatianist schism of the previous century, the Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of "saints," not "sinners," and that sacraments, such as baptism, administered by traditores were invalid. Probably in 311, a new bishop of Carthage, Caecilian, was consecrated by someone who had allegedly been a traditor, Felix of Aptungi; his opponents consecrated a short-lived rival, who was succeeded by Donatus, after whom the schism was named.
Blender was an American music magazine that billed itself as "the ultimate guide to music and more". It was also known for sometimes steamy pictorials of celebrities. It compiled lists of albums, artists, and songs, including both "best of" lists and "worst of" lists. In each issue, there was a review of an artist's entire discography, with each album being analyzed in turn. Blender was published by Dennis Publishing. The magazine began in 1994 as the first digital CD-ROM magazine by Jason Pearson, David Cherry & Regina Joseph, acquired by Felix Dennis/Dennis Publishing, UK it published 15 digital CD issues, and launched on the web in 1997. It started publishing a print edition again in 1999 in its most recent form. Blender CD-ROM showcased the earliest digital editorial formats, as well as the first forms of digital advertising. The first digital advertisers included: Calvin Klein, Apple Computer, Stephen Colbert, Toyota and Nike. Owner Alpha Media Group closed Blender magazine March 26, 2009, going to an online-only format in a move that eliminated 30 jobs and reduced the company's portfolio of titles to Maxim alone. Blender's final print issue was the April 2009 issue. Subscribers to the magazine were sent issues of Maxim magazine to make up for the unsent Blender issues.
Johnny Whitney is a singer, author and multi-instrumentalist from Seattle. He is probably most well known for his vocals alongside Jordan Blilie in the now defunct post-hardcore band, The Blood Brothers. He is currently the vocalist of Jaguar Love. Johnny has also provided vocals for The Vogue, Soiled Doves, and Neon Blonde. Johnny has gone on to remix songs from Jaguar Love, as well as songs by other artists: "Positive Tension" by Bloc Party, Maps by Yeah Yeah Yeahs and a clash of "Heartbeats" by The Knife with The Notorious B.I.G.'s "Juicy", and is featured on Daryl Palumbo's Remix of Cage's song "Shoot Frank". Some of his remixes can be found on his "DJ Johnny Whitney" MySpace page. In 2010, Johnny provided vocals for Felix Cartal's track "Volcano", featured on the album "Popular Music". He runs a clothing company called Crystal City Clothing along with his wife Amy Carlsen. On the 21st July, 2010, Johnny released volume 1 of his acoustic mixtapes through Crystal City clothing: On October 1, 2010 Johnny released the short story "The Mermaid and the Actor" through www.crystalcityclothing.com In 2011 Whitney collaborated with Belgium electro-pop group Arsenal on their album Lokemo. He joined them on several live gigs in Belgium. They headlined the Rock Werchter festival.
|John Philip Sousa|
John Philip Sousa
John Philip Sousa was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches. Because of his mastery of march composition, he is known as "The March King" or the "American March King" due to his British counterpart Kenneth J. Alford also being known as "The March King". Among his best-known marches are "The Washington Post", "Semper Fidelis" (Official March of the United States Marine Corps), and "The Stars and Stripes Forever" (National March of the United States of America). Sousa's father was Portuguese, and his mother of Bavarian ancestry. Sousa began his career playing violin and studying music theory and composition under John Esputa and George Felix Benkert. His father eventually enlisted him in the United States Marine Band as an apprentice in 1868. After departing the band in 1875, Sousa eventually learned to conduct. From 1880 until his death, he focused exclusively on conducting and the writing of marches. He eventually rejoined the Marine Band and served there for 12 years as director. On leaving the Marine Band, Sousa organized his own band. He toured Europe and Australia and developed the sousaphone, a large brass instrument similar to the tuba. On the outbreak of World War I, Sousa was commissioned as a Lieutenant Commander and led the Naval Reserve Band in Illinois. Following his tenure, he returned to conduct the Sousa Band until his death in 1932.
Boothia Peninsula is a large peninsula in Nunavut's northern Canadian Arctic, south of Somerset Island. The northern part, Murchison Promontory, is the northernmost point of mainland Canada, and thus North America. Bellot Strait separates the peninsula from Somerset Island to the north. Babbage Bay is on the east coast, as is Abernethy Bay, just to the south. The community of Taloyoak lies in the far south and is its only significant population centre. Paisley Bay is on the west coast, as is Wrottesley Inlet. John Ross was frozen in for four years at its easternmost point starting in 1829. He named it after his patron Sir Felix Booth. Ross encountered a large Inuit community whom he described as living in "snow cottages" and immortalized in Ross's painting North Hendon. In 1831 his nephew James Clark Ross went overland and reached the north magnetic pole which was then on its western side. He also crossed west to King William Island. Both Roald Amundsen's first successful traverse of the Northwest Passage and Henry Larsen's second successful traverse of the Northwest Passage passed through the Bellot Strait. Larsen found the strait too shallow for larger vessels, and described how his vessel was almost crushed by ice floes when there was a change in the wind's direction. On his return voyage Larsen passed north of Somerset Island.
Valencia, or València, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 809,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Valencia is also Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million. The city has global city status. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the largest on the Mediterranean Sea, with a trade volume of 4.21 million TEU's. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony in 138 BC. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea. Its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with approximately 169 acres; this heritage of ancient monuments, views and cultural attractions makes Valencia one of the country's most popular tourist destinations. Major monuments include Valencia Cathedral, the Torres de Serranos, the Torres de Quart, the Llotja de la Seda, and the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela. The Museu de Belles Arts de València houses a large collection of paintings from the 14th to the 18th centuries, including works by Velázquez, El Greco, and Goya, as well as an important series of engravings by Piranesi. The Institut Valencià d'Art Modern houses both permanent collections and temporary exhibitions of contemporary art and photography.
Johanna Maria Lind, better known as Jenny Lind, was a Swedish opera singer, often known as the "Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music from 1840. Lind became famous after her performance in Der Freischütz in Sweden in 1838. Within a few years, she had suffered vocal damage, but the singing teacher Manuel García saved her voice. She was in great demand in opera roles throughout Sweden and northern Europe during the 1840s, becoming the protégée of Felix Mendelssohn. After two acclaimed seasons in London, she announced her retirement from opera at the age of 29. In 1850, Lind went to America at the invitation of the showman P. T. Barnum. She gave 93 large-scale concerts for him and then continued to tour under her own management. She earned more than $350,000 from these concerts, donating the proceeds to charities, principally the endowment of free schools in Sweden. With her new husband, Otto Goldschmidt, she returned to Europe in 1852 where she had three children and gave occasional concerts over the next two decades, settling in England in 1855. From 1882, for some years, she was a professor of singing at the Royal College of Music in London.
A part song is a form of choral music which consists of a secular song which has been written or arranged for several vocal parts, commonly SATB choir, but also for an all-male or all-female ensemble. It is usually primarily homophonic, with the highest part carrying the melody and the other voices supplying the accompanying harmonies, rather than contrapuntal like a madrigal. Part songs are intended to be sung unaccompanied unless an instrumental accompaniment is specified. The part song in Great Britain grew from, and gradually superseded, the earlier form of the Glee as well as being particularly influenced by the choral works of Felix Mendelssohn. This was linked with the growth of choral societies during the 19th Century which were larger groups than glee clubs had been. Early British composers of part songs include R. J. S. Stevens, Henry Smart and George Macfarren, who was renowned for his Shakespeare settings. Around the turn of the 20th Century, the heyday of the form, Hubert Parry, Charles Villiers Stanford and Edward Elgar were the principal exponents, often bringing a high minded seriousness to their settings of great English poetry both contemporary and from earlier epochs. More recent major contributors to the genre include Ralph Vaughan Williams, Granville Bantock, Arnold Bax, Peter Warlock, Gustav Holst and Benjamin Britten. The development of the part song has been marked by increasing complexity of form and contrapuntal content.
A perfect game is defined by Major League Baseball as a game in which a pitcher pitches a victory that lasts a minimum of nine innings and in which no opposing player reaches base. Thus, the pitcher cannot allow any hits, walks, hit batsmen, or any opposing player to reach base safely for any other reason: in short, "27 up, 27 down". The feat has been achieved 23 times in the history of major league baseball—21 times since the modern era began in 1900, most recently by Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners on August 15, 2012. A perfect game is also a no-hitter and a shutout. Since the pitcher cannot control whether or not his teammates commit any errors, the pitcher must be backed up by solid fielding to pitch a perfect game. An error that does not allow a batter to get on base, such as a misplayed foul ball, does not spoil a perfect game. Weather-shortened contests in which a team has no baserunners and games in which a team reaches first base only in extra innings do not qualify as official perfect games under the present definition. The first confirmed use of the term "perfect game" was in 1908; the current official definition of the term was formalized in 1991. Although it is possible for multiple pitchers to combine for a perfect game, to date, every major league perfect game has been thrown by a single pitcher.
Taken, also known as Steven Spielberg Presents Taken, is a science fiction miniseries which first aired on the Sci-Fi Channel in 2002 and won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Miniseries. Filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, it was written by Leslie Bohem, and directed by Breck Eisner, Félix Enríquez Alcalá, John Fawcett, Tobe Hooper, Jeremy Paul Kagan, Michael Katleman, Sergio Mimica-Gezzan, Bryan Spicer, Jeff Woolnough and Thomas J. Wright. The executive producers were Leslie Bohem and Steven Spielberg. The show takes place from 1944 to 2002 and follows the lives of three families: the Crawfords, who seek to cover up the Roswell crash and the existence of aliens; the Keys, who are subject to frequent experimentation by the aliens; and the Clarkes, who sheltered one of the surviving aliens from the crash. As a result of the decades-long storyline, not a single actor or character appears in every episode of the series. Reception was positive, and the series won an Emmy Award. When the show was launched, the Sci-Fi Channel used the simultaneous establishment of the organization Coalition for Freedom of Information in its promotion campaign. Both the Sci-Fi Channel and the Coalition for Freedom of Information are clients of Washington, D.C. public relations firm PodestaMattoon, and this apparent co-mingling of clients was criticized. The Coalition for Freedom of Information is a group which seeks the release of classified governmental UFO files as well as scientific, congressional, and media credibility for the study of this subject.
The FED is a Soviet rangefinder camera, mass-produced from 1934 until around 1990, and also the name of the factory that made it. FED is indirectly named after Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka. It was his name that was given to the labour commune at Kharkiv whose manager, Anton Makarenko, encouraged a workshop education for indigent children and who decided to copy the Leica in 1932. Large-scale production began in 1934, and in the same year the factory was put under NKVD control and Makarenko was fired. Production continued until 1941, when German forces destroyed the factory, and resumed in 1946. Until 1955, the factory made a huge number of cameras that resemble the Leica rather closely. However, the design is cruder: for example, the rangefinder cam is not fitted with a wheel. From 1955, FED began to innovate, combining the rangefinder with the viewfinder in the FED 2 and all its successors. The FED-3 added slow shutter speeds and on the later version FED-3 the film advance was changed from a thumbwheel to a lever. The FED 4 added a non-coupled selenium exposure meter. The FED 5 marked the end of the FED rangefinder family, and was meant as a replacement for both the FED-3 and FED-4 that were in production at the time of its introduction. There were versions of the FED-5: the original FED-5 had an exposure meter, the FED-5B was a cheaper version without meter, and the later FED-5C had reflected framelines showing field of view of 50mm lens and an exposure meter. All FED-5 cameras were delivered with an Industar I-61L/D lens. Production of FED rangefinder cameras ended in the mid 1990s
Locomotion was a TV channel that aired in Latin America from November 1, 1996 until July 31, 2005. The network, whose corporate offices were based in Miami, Florida was a joint venture between the US-based Hearst Corporation and Claxson Interactive Group, Inc. In May 2002, Cisneros Group sold its shares in the network to Canadian-based Corus Entertainment and in mid-2004, the channel was brought by PRAMER. Following its acquisition by PRAMER, the channel transmitted from its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was also broadcast in Portugal through Cabovisão and TVCabo and Spain until 2003 due to financial reasons. Initially, Locomotion was a children's channel dedicated to classic animation for all ages, but in 1997, the channel became a youth-oriented channel, airing titles from King Features like Phantom 2040, Popeye, and The Legend of Prince Valiant, and shows like Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light, G.I. Joe, He-Man, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Galaxy Rangers, Felix the Cat, Lupin III. However, the channel did not want to face competition against the already-established Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network, so the channel began removing the children's animation in favor for alternative animation, adult series, and anime by 1998, and by 2000, they began airing more alternative and adult-oriented animation from the US, the United Kingdom, and Latin America, as well as anime series. As the network grew, most of their programming consisted of Japanese animation titles from the likes of ADV Films, Bandai Entertainment, & Geneon and others as well as adult shows like South Park, The Critic, Crapston Villas and Duckman.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny, affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux, was the first President of Côte d'Ivoire. Originally a village chief, he worked as a doctor, an administrator of a plantation, and a union leader, before being elected to the French Parliament and serving in a number of ministerial positions in the French government. From the 1940s until his death, he played a leading role in the decolonization of Africa and in his country's politics. Under Houphouët-Boigny's politically moderate leadership, Côte d'Ivoire prospered economically. This success, uncommon in poverty-ridden West Africa, became known as the "Ivorian miracle" and was due to a combination of sound planning, the maintenance of strong ties with the West, and development of the country's significant coffee and cocoa industries. However, the exploitation of the agricultural sector caused difficulties in 1980, after a sharp drop in the prices of coffee and cocoa. Throughout his presidency, Houphouët-Boigny maintained a close relationship with France, a policy known as Françafrique, and he built a close friendship with Jacques Foccart, the chief adviser on African policy in the de Gaulle and Pompidou governments. He aided the conspirators who ousted Kwame Nkrumah from power in 1966, took part in the coup against Mathieu Kérékou in 1977, and was suspected of involvement in the 1987 coup that removed Thomas Sankara from power in Burkina Faso. Houphouët-Boigny maintained an ardently anti-communist foreign policy, which resulted in, among other things, severing diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1969 and reestablishing them in February 1986, refusing to recognise the People's Republic of China until 1983, and providing assistance to UNITA, a United States-supported, anti-communist rebel movement in Angola.
Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film or some other form not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack". Incidental music is often "background" music, and adds atmosphere to the action. It may take the form of something as simple as a low, ominous tone suggesting an impending startling event or to enhance the depiction of a story-advancing sequence. It may also include pieces such as overtures, music played during scene changes, or at the end of an act, immediately preceding an interlude, as was customary with several nineteenth-century plays. It may also be required in plays that have musicians performing on-stage. The use of incidental music dates back at least as far as Greek drama. A number of classical composers have written incidental music for various plays, with the more famous examples including Ludwig van Beethoven's Egmont music, Franz Schubert's Rosamunde music, Felix Mendelssohn's Midsummer Night's Dream music, Georges Bizet's L'Arlésienne music, and Edvard Grieg's music for Henrik Ibsen's Peer Gynt. Parts of all of these are often performed in concerts outside the context of the play. Vocal incidental music, which is included in the classical scores mentioned above, should never be confused with the score of a Broadway or film musical, in which the songs often reveal character and further the storyline. Since the score of a Broadway or film musical is what actually makes the work a musical, it is far more essential to the work than mere incidental music, which nearly always amounts to little more than a background score; indeed, many plays have no incidental music whatsoever.
Max Born was a German-British physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle. In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.
|Central African Republic|
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It borders Chad in the north, Sudan in the northeast, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo in the south and Cameroon in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 4.4 million as of 2008. The capital is Bangui. France called the colony it carved out in this region Oubangui-Chari, as most of the territory was located in the Ubangi and Chari river basins. It became a semi-autonomous territory of the French Community in 1958 and then an independent nation on 13 August 1960, taking its present name. For over three decades after independence, the CAR was ruled by presidents or an emperor, who either were unelected or who took power by force. Local discontent with this system was eventually reinforced by international pressure, following the end of the Cold War. The first multi-party democratic elections in the CAR were held in 1993, with the aid of resources provided by the country's donors and help from the United Nations. The elections brought Ange-Félix Patassé to power, but he lost popular support during his presidency and was overthrown in 2003 by the French-backed General François Bozizé, who went on to win a democratic election in May 2005. Bozizé's inability to pay public sector workers led to strikes in 2007, which led him to appoint a new government on 22 January 2008, headed by Faustin-Archange Touadéra. In February 2010, Bozizé signed a presidential decree which set 25 April 2010 as the date for the next presidential election. This was postponed, but elections were held in January and March 2011, which were won by Bozizé and his party. Despite maintaining a veneer of stability, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption, underdevelopment, nepotism and authoritarianism, which led to an open rebellion against his government. The rebellion was led by an alliance of armed opposition factions known as the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict. This eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013.
A simar, as defined in the 1913 Webster's Dictionary, is "a woman's long dress or robe; also light covering; a scarf." The word is derived from French simarre, and is also written as cimar, cymar, samare, and simare. Collins English Dictionary defines "simar" and its variant "cymar" as "a woman's short fur-trimmed jacket, popular in the 17th and 18th centuries". The form "cymar" was used by John Dryden: "Her body shaded with a light cymar". Walter Scott used the spelling "simarre": "her sable tresses, which, each arranged in its own little spiral of twisted curls, fell down upon as much of a lovely neck and bosom as a simarre of the richest Persian silk, exhibiting flowers in their natural colors embossed upon a purple ground, permitted to be visible". In his 1909 book, Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church, John Abel Felix Prosper Nainfa proposed the use of the English word "simar", instead of the word "cassock", for the cassock with the pellegrina worn by Catholic clergy, which he treated as distinct from the cassock proper. Others too have made the same distinction between the "simar" and the "cassock", but many scholars disagree with Nainfa's distinction. More particularly, the documents of the Holy See do not make this distinction, and use the term "cassock" or "vestis talaris" whether a pellegrina is attached or is not. Thus the Instruction on the Dress, Titles and Coats-of-Arms of Cardinals, Bishops and Lesser Prelates of 28 March 1969 states that, for cardinals and bishops, "the elbow-length cape, trimmed in the same manner as this cassock, may be worn over it". "Cassock", rather than "simar" is the term that is usually applied to the dress of Popes and other Catholic ecclesiastics. The Instruction also gives no support to Nainfa's claim that the cassock with shoulder cape should not be worn in church services. Nainfa wrote that the garment with the shoulder cape was at that time called a zimarra in Italian. However, the Italian term zimarra is today used rather of a historical loose-fitting overgown, quite unlike the close-fitting cassock with shoulder cape worn today by some Catholic clergy, and similar to the fur-lined Schaube that was used in northern Europe. Images of the historical zimarra as worn by women can be seen at Dressing the Italian Way and The Italian Showcase On the ecclesiastical simar, as defined by Nainfa, see Cassock.