Definitions containing Bleeding

We've found 250 definitions:

Coagulopathy

Coagulopathy

Coagulopathy is a condition in which the blood’s ability to clot is impaired. This condition can cause prolonged or excessive bleeding, which may occur spontaneously or following an injury or medical and dental procedures. The normal clotting process depends on the interplay of various proteins in the blood. Coagulopathy may be caused by reduced levels or absence of blood-clotting proteins, known as clotting factors or coagulation factors. Genetic disorders, such as hemophilia and Von Willebrand's disease, can cause a reduction in clotting factors. Coagulopathy may also occur as a result of dysfunction or reduced levels of platelets. If someone has coagulopathy, their health care provider may help them manage their symptoms with medications or replacement therapy. In replacement therapy, the reduced or absent clotting factors are replaced with proteins derived from human blood or created in the laboratory. This therapy may be given either to treat bleeding that has already begun or to prevent bleeding from occurring. Coagulopathy may cause uncontrolled internal or external bleeding. Left untreated, uncontrolled bleeding may cause damage to joints, muscles, or internal organs and may be life threatening. Patients should seek immediate medical care for serious symptoms, including heavy external bleeding, blood in the urine or stool, double vision, severe head or neck pain, repeated vomiting, difficulty walking, convulsions, or seizures. They should seek prompt medical care if they experience mild but unstoppable external bleeding or joint swelling and stiffness.

— Freebase

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy, or eccysis, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity. With rare exceptions, ectopic pregnancies are not viable. Furthermore, they are dangerous for the mother, since internal haemorrhage is a life-threatening complication. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube, but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen. An ectopic pregnancy is a potential medical emergency, and, if not treated properly, can lead to death. In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg enters the uterus and settles into the uterine lining where it has plenty of room to divide and grow. About 1% of pregnancies are in an ectopic location with implantation not occurring inside of the womb, and of these 98% occur in the Fallopian tubes. Detection of ectopic pregnancy in early gestation has been achieved mainly due to enhanced diagnostic capability. Despite all these notable successes in diagnostics and detection techniques ectopic pregnancy remains a source of serious maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in countries with poor prenatal care. In a typical ectopic pregnancy, the embryo adheres to the lining of the fallopian tube and burrows into the tubal lining. Most commonly this invades vessels and will cause bleeding. This intratubal bleeding hematosalpinx expels the implantation out of the tubal end as a tubal abortion. Tubal abortion is a common type of miscarriage. There is no inflammation of the tube in ectopic pregnancy. The pain is caused by prostaglandins released at the implantation site, and by free blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is a local irritant. Sometimes the bleeding might be heavy enough to threaten the health or life of the woman. Usually this degree of bleeding is due to delay in diagnosis, but sometimes, especially if the implantation is in the proximal tube, it may invade into the nearby Sampson artery, causing heavy bleeding earlier than usual.

— Freebase

Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia is uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between the expected menstrual periods. In some women, menstrual spotting between periods occurs as a normal and harmless part of ovulation. Some women experience acute mid-cycle abdominal pain around the time of ovulation. This may also occur at the same time as menstrual spotting. The term breakthrough bleeding or breakthrough spotting is usually used for women using hormonal contraceptives, such as IUDs or oral contraceptives, in which it refers to bleeding or spotting between any expected withdrawal bleedings, or bleeding or spotting at any time if none is expected. If spotting continues beyond the first three cycles of oral contraceptive use, a woman should have her prescription changed to a pill containing either more estrogen or more progesterone. Metrorrhagia may also be a sign of an underlying disorder, such as hormone imbalance, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or cancer of the reproductive organs. Due to repeated bleeding, it may cause significant iron deficiency anemia.

— Freebase

Bleeding edge technology

Bleeding edge technology

Bleeding edge technology is a category of technologies incorporating those so new that they could have a high risk of being unreliable and lead adopters to incur greater expense in order to make use of them. The term bleeding edge was formed as an allusion to the similar terms "leading edge" and "cutting edge". It tends to imply even greater advancement, albeit at an increased risk of "metaphorically cutting until bleeding" because of the unreliability of the software or other technology. The phrase was originally coined in an article entitled "Rumors of the Future and the Digital Circus" by Jack Dale, published in Editor & Publisher Magazine, February 12, 1994. By its nature, a proportion of bleeding edge technology will make it into the mainstream. For example, electronic mail was once considered to be bleeding edge.

— Freebase

Bleeding on probing

Bleeding on probing

Bleeding on probing which is also known as bleeding gums or gingival bleeding is a term used by dentists and dental hygienists when referring to bleeding that is induced by gentle manipulation of the tissue at the depth of the gingival sulcus, or interface between the gingiva and a tooth. Bleeding on probing, often abbreviated BOP, is a sign of inflammation and indicates some sort of destruction and erosion to the lining of the sulcus or the ulceration of sulcular epithelium. The blood comes from lamina propria after the ulceration of the lining.

— Freebase

Styptic

Styptic

producing contraction; stopping bleeding; having the quality of restraining hemorrhage when applied to the bleeding part; astringent

— Webster Dictionary

Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia is a common anemia caused by insufficient dietary intake and absorption of iron, and/or iron loss from bleeding which can originate from a range of sources such as the intestinal, uterine or urinary tract. Iron deficiency causes approximately half of all anemia cases worldwide, and affects women more often than men. World estimates of iron deficiency occurrence are somewhat vague, but the true number probably exceeds one billion people. This can result if: ⁕The body does not make enough red blood cells ⁕Bleeding causes loss of red blood cells more quickly than they can be replaced The most significant cause of iron-deficiency anemia in third world children is parasitic worms: hookworms, whipworms, and roundworms. Worms cause intestinal bleeding, which is not always noticeable in faeces, and is especially damaging to growing children. Malaria, hookworms and vitamin A deficiency contribute to anemia during pregnancy in most underdeveloped countries. In women over 50 years old, the most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia is chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from nonparasitic causes, such as gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal cancer.

— Freebase

Blood rule

Blood rule

The Blood rule is a rule used in many sports that states that an athlete that receives an open wound, is bleeding, or who has blood on them or their clothes, must immediately leave the playing area to receive medical attention. Though they may be able to play again later, they cannot go back and play again until the wound is taken care of, bleeding has stopped, and all contaminated equipment has been replaced. The main concern addressed by this rule is the spread of infectious diseases like Human immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis, and other diseases that can be spread through the contact of blood. Before this rule was enforced, the chance of spreading diseases through blood to teammates of the injured player, the opposing team, the officials, and even the injured player himself/herself in some cases where it could be spread through contact of saliva, mucus, or blood from another injured player, was great since an injured player's wound may have ended up touching all the other players by the end of the game as the player would continue playing unless they were bleeding enough for them to possibly die from a loss of a blood. Though there are two options that can be chosen: The first option is that the player be substituted and play resumes, or the official can halt play until the player has returned, the former being the most commonly chosen. In the National Rugby League, the latter option in first employed; play stops whilst the player's medical staff attends to the wound. If the bleeding is not staunched to the referee's satisfaction, the player must then leave the field for further attention.

— Freebase

Hyperfibrinolysis

Hyperfibrinolysis

The fibrinolysis system is responsible for removing blood clots. Hyperfibrinolysis describes a situation with markedly enhanced fibrinolytic activity, resulting in increased, sometimes catastrophic bleeding. Hyperfibrinolysis can be caused by acquired or congenital reasons. Among the congenital conditions for hyperfibrinolysis, deficiency of alpha-2-antiplasmin or plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 are very rare. The affected individuals show a hemophilia-like bleeding phenotype. Acquired hyperfibrinolysis is found in liver disease, in patients with severe trauma, during major surgical procedures, and other conditions. A special situation with temporarily enhanced fibrinolysis is thrombolytic therapy with drugs which activate plasminogen, e.g. for use in acute ischemic events or in patients with stroke. In patients with severe trauma, hyperfibrinolysis is associated with poor outcome. Bleeding is caused by the generation of fibrinogen degradation products which interfere with regular fibrin polymerization and inhibit platelet aggregation. Moreover, plasmin which is formed in excess in hyperfibrinolysis can proteolytically activate or inactivate many plasmatic or cellular proteins involved in hemostasis. Especially the degradation of fibrinogen, an essential protein for platelet aggregation and clot stability, may be a major cause for clinical bleeding.

— Freebase

bleeding time

bleeding time

The time it takes for bleeding to stop in a bleeding time test.

— Wiktionary

Bruise

Bruise

A bruise, also called a contusion, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues. Not blanching on pressure, bruises can involve capillaries at the level of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or bone. Bruises are not to be confused with other lesions primarily known by their diameter. These lesions include petechia, purpura, and ecchymosis, all of which also do not blanch on pressure, and are caused by internal bleeding not associated with trauma. As a type of hematoma, a bruise is always caused by internal bleeding into the interstitial tissues which does not break through the skin, usually initiated by blunt trauma, which causes damage through physical compression and deceleration forces. Trauma sufficient to cause bruising can occur from a wide variety of situations including accidents, falls, and surgeries. Disease states such as insufficient or malfunctioning platelets, other coagulation deficiencies, or vascular disorders, such as venous blockage associated with severe allergies can lead to the formation of purpura which is not to be confused with trauma-related bruising/contusion. If the trauma is sufficient to break the skin and allow blood to escape the interstitial tissues, the injury is not a bruise but instead a different variety of hemorrhage called bleeding. However, such injuries may be accompanied by bruising elsewhere.

— Freebase

Factor XIII deficiency

Factor XIII deficiency

Factor XIII deficiency may occur very rarely, and can cause a severe bleeding tendency. Incidence is 1 in a million to 1 in 5 million people. Most are due to mutations in the A subunit. Administration of recombinant A subunit improves clot stability and is becoming a therapeutic option for patients with this condition. This deficiency leads to defective cross-linking of fibrin and vulnerability to late re-bleeds when the primary hemostatic plug is overwhelmed. Bleeding tendencies similar to hemophiliacs develop such as hemarthroses and deep tissue bleeding.

— Freebase

Tourniquet

Tourniquet

A tourniquet is a constricting or compressing device, specifically a bandage, used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time. Pressure is applied circumferentially upon the skin and underlying tissues of a limb; this pressure is transferred to the walls of vessels, causing them to become temporarily occluded. It is generally used as a tool for a medical professional in applications such as cannulation or to stem the flow of traumatic bleeding, especially by military medics. The tourniquet is usually applied when the patient is in a life-threatening state as a result of continuous bleeding. A stick, a baton or any other elongated but inelastic object is used to support the tourniquet by first tying the stick to the tourniquet. The stick is then twisted to tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding comes to a halt. This is a traditional device which an individual can employ when experiencing a very serious threat. To further improve this device, modern tourniquet systems have been employed for use.

— Freebase

Tamponade

Tamponade

Tamponade is the closure or blockage as if by a tampon especially to stop bleeding. Tamponade is a useful method of stopping a hemorrhage. This can be achieved by applying an absorbent dressing directly onto a wound, thereby absorbing excess blood and creating a blockage, or by applying direct pressure with a hand or a tourniquet. There can, however, be disastrous consequences when tamponade occurs as a result of health problems, as in the case of cardiac tamponade. In this situation, fluid collects between the heart muscle and the pericardium. The pressure within the pericardium prevents the heart from expanding fully and filling the ventricles, with the result that a significantly reduced amount of blood circulates within the body. If left unchecked, this condition will result in death. Bladder tamponade is obstruction of the urinary bladder outlet due to heavy blood clot formation within it. It generally requires surgery. Such heavy bleeding is usually due to bladder cancer. Pressing Bone Wax into bleeding bone is considered hemostasis by tamponade, as opposed to methods which physically or biochemicaly activate the clotting cascade.

— Freebase

Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion is a true surgical procedure typically performed only in a professional medical setting by a dermatologist or plastic surgeon trained specifically in this invasive procedure . Dermabrasion is a type of surgical skin planing that has been practiced for many years and involves the controlled deeper abrasion of the upper to mid layers of the skin with any variety of strong abrasive devices including a wire brush, diamond wheel or fraise, sterilized sandpaper, salt crystals, or other mechanical means . Dermabrasion should not be confused with microdermabrasion which is a newer and non-surgical cosmetic procedure performed by non-physician personnel, nurses, estheticians, medical assistants, and most recently untrained individuals in their homes. Dermabrasion procedures are surgical, invasive procedures that typically require a local anaesthetic. Often they are performed in surgical suites or in professional medical centers. Since the procedure can typically remove the top to deeper layers of the epidermis, and extend into the reticular dermis, there is always minor skin bleeding. The procedure carries risks of scarring, skin discoloration, infections, and facial herpes virus reactivation. In aggressive dermabrasion cases, there is often tremendous skin bleeding and spray during the procedure that has to be controlled with pressure. Afterward, the skin is normally very red and raw-looking. Depending of the level of skin removal with dermabrasion, it takes an average of 7–30 days for the skin to fully heal. Often this procedure was performed for deeper acne scarring and deep surgical scars. Dermabrasion is rarely practiced currently and there are very few doctors who are trained and still perform this surgery. Dermabrasion has largely been replaced all over the world by newer and somewhat simpler technologies including lasers CO2 or Erbium:YAG laser. Laser technologies carry the advantage of no to little bleeding and are often much less operator dependent than dermabrasion.

— Freebase

Antifibrinolytic

Antifibrinolytic

Antifibrinolytics, such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid are used as inhibitors of fibrinolysis. These lysine-like drugs interfere with the formation of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin from its precursor plasminogen by plasminogen activators which takes place mainly in lysine rich areas on the surface of fibrin. These drugs block the binding sites of the enzymes or plasminogen respectively and thus stop plasmin formation. They are used in menorrhagia and bleeding tendency due to various causes. Their application may be beneficial in patients with hyperfibrinolysis because they arrest bleeding rapidly if the other components of the haemostatic system are not severely affected. This may help to avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or anaphylactic reactions. In 2010, the CRASH-2 trial showed that the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid safely reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients. The antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin was abandoned after identification of major side effects, especially on kidney. The indication for use of antifibrinolytic drugs is made with various methods. The most rapid and suitable one is thromboelastometry in whole blood, which is even possible in patients on heparin. With various assays, an enhanced fibrinolysis becomes visible in the curve signature and from the calculated values, e.g. the maximum lysis parameter. A special test for the identification of increased fibrinolysis compares the TEM in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. In severe cases of activated fibrinolysis, this assay confirms the syndrome already in less than 15 min during the early phases of clot formation

— Freebase

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu disease and Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and often in organs such as the lungs, liver, and brain. It may lead to nosebleeds, acute and chronic digestive tract bleeding, and various problems due to the involvement of other organs. Treatment focuses on reducing bleeding from blood vessel lesions, and sometimes surgery or other targeted interventions to remove arteriovenous malformations in organs. Chronic bleeding often requires iron supplements and sometimes blood transfusions. HHT is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, and occurs in one in 5,000 people. The disease carries the names of Sir William Osler, Henri Jules Louis Marie Rendu and Frederick Parkes Weber, who described it in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

— Freebase

Entellus Medical

Entellus Medical

Founded in 2006, Entellus Medical is focused on providing unique solutions to the unmet needs of the ENT (ear, nose and throat) physician, their patients, and payers through the development of innovative device technology and treatment solutions. Entellus is based in Maple Grove, MN and markets products throughout the United States.Entellus Medical works closely with leading researchers and clinicians to develop solutions that benefit patients, physicians, and payers. Entellus provides a simple, direct and effective treatment for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) that is less invasive, reduces pain and bleeding, shortens recovery time, and eliminates the need for general anesthesia.Entellus recently introduced FinESSâ„¢ Sinus Treatment, a simple and direct approach to effectively treat patients with CRS. FinESS can be performed under local anesthesia, with or without light sedation, and remodels the maxillary ostium and the ethmoid infundibulum using a micro endoscope and a small balloon catheter. Unlike sinus surgery techniques, FinESS does not require the removal of delicate bone or sinus tissue, resulting in shorter treatment time with very little pain or bleeding. Recovery time is usually one to two days with many patients resuming normal activity within a day.

— CrunchBase

Hemostatics

Hemostatics

Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Bleeder

Bleeder

one in whom slight wounds give rise to profuse or uncontrollable bleeding

— Webster Dictionary

Bloodletting

Bloodletting

the act or process of letting blood or bleeding, as by opening a vein or artery, or by cupping or leeches; -- esp. applied to venesection

— Webster Dictionary

Dicentra

Dicentra

a genus of herbaceous plants, with racemes of two-spurred or heart-shaped flowers, including the Dutchman's breeches, and the more showy Bleeding heart (D. spectabilis)

— Webster Dictionary

Epistaxis

Epistaxis

bleeding at the nose

— Webster Dictionary

Ergot

Ergot

the mycelium or spawn of this fungus infecting grains of rye and wheat. It is a powerful remedial agent, and also a dangerous poison, and is used as a means of hastening childbirth, and to arrest bleeding

— Webster Dictionary

Floramour

Floramour

the plant love-lies-bleeding

— Webster Dictionary

Menorrhagia

Menorrhagia

any profuse bleeding from the uterus; Metrorrhagia

— Webster Dictionary

Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia

profuse bleeding from the womb, esp. such as does not occur at the menstrual period

— Webster Dictionary

Nosebleed

Nosebleed

a bleeding at the nose

— Webster Dictionary

Scurvy

Scurvy

a disease characterized by livid spots, especially about the thighs and legs, due to extravasation of blood, and by spongy gums, and bleeding from almost all the mucous membranes. It is accompanied by paleness, languor, depression, and general debility. It is occasioned by confinement, innutritious food, and hard labor, but especially by lack of fresh vegetable food, or confinement for a long time to a limited range of food, which is incapable of repairing the waste of the system. It was formerly prevalent among sailors and soldiers

— Webster Dictionary

Coagulation

Coagulation

Coagulation is the process by which blood forms clots. It is an important part of hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, wherein a damaged blood vessel wall is covered by a platelet and fibrin-containing clot to stop bleeding and begin repair of the damaged vessel. Disorders of coagulation can lead to an increased risk of bleeding or obstructive clotting. Coagulation is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular and a protein component. The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood. Coagulation begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel. Exposure of the blood to proteins such as tissue factor initiates changes to blood platelets and the plasma protein fibrinogen, a clotting factor. Platelets immediately form a plug at the site of injury; this is called primary hemostasis. Secondary hemostasis occurs simultaneously: Proteins in the blood plasma, called coagulation factors or clotting factors, respond in a complex cascade to form fibrin strands, which strengthen the platelet plug.

— Freebase

Hematochezia

Hematochezia

Haematochezia is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools. Haematochezia is commonly associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but may also occur from a brisk upper gastrointestinal bleed. The difference between haematochezia and rectorrhagia is that the latter rectal bleeding is not associated with defaecation. Instead, it is associated with expulsion of fresh bright red blood without stools.

— Freebase

Black eye

Black eye

A black eye, periorbital hematoma, or a shiner, is ecchymosis around the eye commonly due to an injury to the face rather than eye injury. The name is given due to the color of bruising. The so-called black eye is caused by bleeding beneath the skin and around the eye. Sometimes, a black eye indicates a more extensive injury, even a skull fracture, particularly if the area around both eyes is bruised, or if there has been a prior head injury. Although most black eye injuries aren't serious, bleeding within the eye, called a hyphema, is serious and can reduce vision and damage the cornea. In some cases, abnormally high pressure inside the eyeball also can result.

— Freebase

Bleeding time

Bleeding time

Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelet function The term "template bleeding time" is used when the test is performed to standardized parameters. This makes it easier to compare data collected at different facilities.

— Freebase

Factor VII

Factor VII

Factor VII is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme of the serine protease class. A recombinant form of human factor VIIa has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for uncontrolled bleeding in hemophilia patients. It is sometimes used unlicensed in severe uncontrollable bleeding, although there have been safety concerns. A Biosimilar form of recombinant activated factor VII is manufacturing by AryoGen Biopharma and since 2012 is available in the market.

— Freebase

Blading

Blading

In professional wrestling, blading is the practice of intentionally cutting oneself to provoke bleeding. It is also known as juicing, gigging, or getting color. Similarly, a blade is an object used for blading, and a bladejob is a specific act of blading. The blood in pro wrestling is almost never, as often suspected, theatrical makeup, but actual blood, and the scars borne by longtime pro wrestlers are real ones. The act is usually done a good length into the match as the blood will mix with the flowing sweat to make the wound look like much more blood is flowing from it than there actually is. "Juicing" which occurs outside the storyline is said to be juicing the hardway, or legitimately bleeding.

— Freebase

Platelet

Platelet

Platelets, or thrombocytes, are small, disk shaped clear cell fragments, 2–3 µm in diameter, which are derived from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes. The average lifespan of a platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days. Platelets are a natural source of growth factors. They circulate in the blood of mammals and are involved in hemostasis, leading to the formation of blood clots. If the number of platelets is too low, excessive bleeding can occur. However, if the number of platelets is too high, blood clots can form, which may obstruct blood vessels and result in such events as a stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism or the blockage of blood vessels to other parts of the body, such as the extremities of the arms or legs. An abnormality or disease of the platelets is called a thrombocytopathy, which could be either a low number of platelets, a decrease in function of platelets, or an increase in the number of platelets. There are disorders that reduce the number of platelets, such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura that typically cause thromboses, or clots, instead of bleeding.

— Freebase

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

A subarachnoid hemorrhage, or subarachnoid haemorrhage in British English, is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from head injury. Symptoms of SAH include a severe headache with a rapid onset, vomiting, confusion or a lowered level of consciousness, and sometimes seizures. The diagnosis is generally confirmed with a CT scan of the head, or occasionally by lumbar puncture. Treatment is by prompt neurosurgery or radiologically guided interventions with medications and other treatments to help prevent recurrence of the bleeding and complications. Surgery for aneurysms was introduced in the 1930s, but since the 1990s many aneurysms are treated by a less invasive procedure called "coiling", which is carried out by instrumentation through large blood vessels. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1–7% of all strokes. It is a medical emergency and can lead to death or severe disability—even when recognized and treated at an early stage. Up to half of all cases of SAH are fatal and 10–15% of casualties die before reaching a hospital, and those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment.

— Freebase

Apoplexy

Apoplexy

Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms. For example, ovarian apoplexy is bleeding in the ovaries. The term formerly referred to what is now called a stroke; nowadays, health care professionals typically specify the type of apoplexy, such as pituitary apoplexy and ovarian apoplexy.

— Freebase

Amaranthus caudatus

Amaranthus caudatus

Amaranthus caudatus is a species of annual flowering plant. It goes by common names such as love-lies-bleeding, love-lies-a'bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, velvet flower, foxtail amaranth, and quilete. Many parts of the plants, including the leaves and seeds, are edible, and are frequently used as a source of food in India and South America — where it is the most important Andean species of Amaranthus, known as kiwicha. This species, as with many other of the amaranths, are originally from the American tropics. The exact origin is unknown, as A. caudatus is believed to be a wild Amaranthus hybridus aggregate. The red color of the inflorescences is due to a high content of betacyanins, as in the related species known as "Hopi red dye" amaranth. Ornamental garden varieties sold under the latter name are either Amaranthus cruentus or a hybrid between A. cruentus and A. powelli. In indigenous agriculture, A. cruentus is the Central American counterpart to South American A. caudatus.

— Freebase

Bleeding

Bleeding

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or hæmorrhaging, is the loss of blood or blood escaping from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Desanguination is a massive blood loss, and the complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume.

— Freebase

Banding

Banding

Banding is a medical procedure which uses elastic bands for constriction. Banding may be used to tie off blood vessels in order to stop bleeding, as in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. The band restricts blood flow to the ligated tissue, so that it eventually dies and sloughs away from the supporting tissue. This same principle underlies banding as treatment for hemorrhoids. Banding may also be used to restrict the function of an organ without killing it. In gastric banding to treat obesity, the size of the stomach is reduced so that digestion is slowed and the patient feels full more quickly.

— Freebase

Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia is an uncommon cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. The condition is associated with dilated small blood vessels in the antrum, or the last part of the stomach. The dilated vessels result in intestinal bleeding. It is also called watermelon stomach because streaky long red areas that are present in the stomach may resemble the markings on watermelon. The condition was first discovered in 1952, and reported in the literature in 1953. Watermelon disease was first diagnosed by Wheeler et al. in 1979, and definitively described in four living patients by Jabbari et al. only in 1984. As of 2011, the etiology and pathogenesis are still not known. However, there are several competing hypotheses as to various etiologies.

— Freebase

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, also known as primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, is defined as isolated low platelet count with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. It causes a characteristic purpuric rash and an increased tendency to bleed. Two distinct clinical syndromes manifest as an acute condition in children and a chronic condition in adults. The acute form often follows an infection and has a spontaneous resolution within 2 months. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura persists longer than 6 months without a specific cause. ITP is an autoimmune condition with antibodies detectable against several platelet surface antigens. ITP is diagnosed by a low platelet count in a complete blood count. However, since the diagnosis depends on the exclusion of other causes of a low platelet count, additional investigations may be necessary in some cases. In mild cases, only careful observation may be required but very low counts or significant bleeding may prompt treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, or immunosuppressive drugs. Refractory ITP may require splenectomy, the surgical removal of the spleen. Platelet transfusions may be used in severe bleeding together with a very low count. Sometimes the body may compensate by making abnormally large platelets.

— Freebase

Oral irrigator

Oral irrigator

An oral irrigator is a home care device that uses a stream of pulsating water to remove plaque and food debris between teeth and below the gumline and improve gingival health. The first oral irrigator was developed in 1962 by a dentist and an engineer, both from Fort Collins, CO. Since that time, the oral irrigators have been evaluated in more than 50 scientific studies. It has been tested and shown effective on people in periodontal maintenance, and those with gingivitis, diabetes, orthodontic appliances, crowns, and implants. The strongest evidence on the oral irrigator shows that it is extremely effective at reducing bleeding and gingivitis. Recent studies have demonstrated that it is superior to dental floss in reducing bleeding and as effective in reducing plaque. A study at the University of Southern California found that a 3 second treatment of pulsating water at medium pressure removed 99.9% of plaque biofilm from treated areas. Clinical efficacy has been shown through the medium setting and above.

— Freebase

Bloody show

Bloody show

Bloody show is the passage of a small amount of blood or blood-tinged mucus through the vagina near the end of pregnancy. It can occur just before labor or in early labor as the cervix changes shape, freeing mucus and blood that occupied the cervical glands or cervical os. Bloody show is a relatively common feature of pregnancy, and it does not signify increased risk to the mother or baby. A larger amount of bleeding, however, may signify a more dangerous, abnormal complication of pregnancy, such as placental abruption or placenta previa. Large amounts of bleeding during or after childbirth itself may come from uterine atony or laceration of the cervix, vagina, or perineum. 3 common signs of the onset of labor are: ⁕A bloody show ⁕Rupture of membranes ⁕Onset of tightenings or contractions However, these may occur at any time and in any order. Some women neither experience a bloody show nor have their "water break" until well into advanced labor. Therefore, neither bloody show nor rupture of membranes are required to establish labor.

— Freebase

Bone wax

Bone wax

Bone wax is a waxy substance used to help mechanically control bleeding from bone surfaces during surgical procedures. It is generally made of beeswax with a softening agent such as paraffin or petroleum jelly and is smeared across the bleeding edge of the bone, blocking the holes and causing immediate bone hemostasis through a tamponade effect. Bone wax is most commonly supplied in sterile sticks, and usually requires softening before it can be applied.

— Freebase

Hematospermia

Hematospermia

Hematospermia or the presence of blood in semen, is most often a benign and idiopathic symptom, but can sometimes result from medical problems such as a urethral stricture, infection of the prostate, or a congenital bleeding disorder, and can occur transiently after surgical procedures such as a prostate biopsy. It is present in less than 2% of urology referrals, although prevalence in the overall population is unknown. Hematospermia can be a distressing symptom for patients, but most cases are effectively managed by a primary care physician. Although the condition is usually benign, significant underlying pathology must be excluded by history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and, in select cases, other diagnostic modalities. In men younger than 40 years without risk factors and in men with no associated symptoms, hematospermia is often self-limited and requires no further evaluation or treatment other than patient reassurance. Many cases are attributable to sexually transmitted infections or other urogenital infections in men younger than 40 years who present with hematospermia associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Workup in these patients can be limited to urinalysis and testing for sexually transmitted infections, with treatment as indicated. In men 40 years and older, iatrogenic hematospermia from urogenital instrumentation or prostate biopsy is the most common cause of blood in the semen. However, recurrent or persistent hematospermia or associated symptoms should prompt further investigation, starting with a prostate examination and prostate-specific antigen testing to evaluate for prostate cancer. Other etiologies to consider in those 40 years and older include genitourinary infections, inflammations, vascular malformations, stones, tumors, and systemic disorders that increase bleeding risk.

— Freebase

Bleeding Kansas

Bleeding Kansas

Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of the state of Missouri between 1854 and 1861. The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for "popular sovereignty"—that is, the decision about slavery was to be made by the settlers. It would be decided by votes—or more exactly which side had more votes counted by officials. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would allow or outlaw slavery, and thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state. Pro-slavery forces said every settler had the right to bring his own property, including slaves, into the territory. Anti-slavery "free soil" forces said the rich slaveholders would buy up all the good farmland and work them with black slaves, leaving little or no opportunity for non-slaveholders. As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between anti-slavery forces in the North and pro-slavery forces from the South over the issue of slavery in the United States.

— Freebase

bleed

bleed

An incident of bleeding, as in haemophilia.

— Wiktionary

blooming

blooming

Bloody; bleeding; extremely

— Wiktionary

Ebola fever

Ebola fever

An extremely contagious and often fatal illness caused by the Ebola virus, characterised by fever and internal bleeding, contracted through infected body fluids.

— Wiktionary

scurvy

scurvy

A disease caused by insufficient intake of vitamin C leading to the formation of livid spots on the skin, spongy gums, loosening of the teeth and bleeding into the skin and from almost all mucous membranes.

— Wiktionary

haemophilia

haemophilia

Any of several hereditary illnesses that impair the body's ability to control bleeding, usually passed from mother to son.

— Wiktionary

hematochezia

hematochezia

The presence of fresh blood in stools, often due to lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

— Wiktionary

haemostat

haemostat

A clamp used in surgery to close the severed end of a blood vessel to stop bleeding.

— Wiktionary

Marburg disease

Marburg disease

A viral infection characterised by a high fever, encephalitis, diarrhea, vomiting, and severe bleeding from bodily orifices, and which is often fatal.

— Wiktionary

tourniquet

tourniquet

A tightly-compressed bandage used to stop bleeding by stopping the flow of blood through a large artery in a limb.

— Wiktionary

petechia

petechia

a small spot, especially on an organ, caused by bleeding underneath the skin

— Wiktionary

adrenochrome

adrenochrome

An oxidation product of adrenaline or epinephrine; its semicarbazone is used as a drug to reduce bleeding.

— Wiktionary

styptic

styptic

Bringing about contraction of tissues, especially to stop bleeding

— Wiktionary

styptic pencil

styptic pencil

A short medicated stick, typically containing alum, used to stop bleeding from small wounds (as in shaving).

— Wiktionary

saignu00E9e

saignu00E9e

a method of rosu00E9 production that involves bleeding off the juice after limited contact with the skins. Pronounced 'sonyay'.

— Wiktionary

blooded

blooded

bloody, bleeding.

— Wiktionary

melena

melena

A passage of dark, tarry stools containing blood, as the result of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

— Wiktionary

ecchymosis

ecchymosis

A skin discoloration caused by bleeding underneath the skin; a bruise.

— Wiktionary

purpura

purpura

The appearance of red or purple discolorations on the skin that do not blanch when pressure is applied, caused by subdermal bleeding.

— Wiktionary

incruental

incruental

Bloodless; characterized by no blood loss or very little bleeding.

— Wiktionary

arteriovenous malformation

arteriovenous malformation

A congenital disorder in which arteries are connected directly to veins rather than through capillaries that distribute oxygen and nutrients. These connections, often called a nidus, can be extremely fragile and prone to bleeding.

— Wiktionary

leading edge

leading edge

At the forefront of practice or technology, contrast with bleeding edge

— Wiktionary

bleeding time test

bleeding time test

A test used to assess the ability of a person's blood to clot, carried out by cutting the skin and measuring the time it takes for the resulting bleeding to stop.

— Wiktionary

broadhead

broadhead

(bowhunting) a flat arrow head with razor-sharp sides, intended to kill prey by causing severe bleeding.

— Wiktionary

bone wax

bone wax

beeswax with the addition of paraffin, or some other agent, to soften it, used to stop bleeding from bones during surgery.

— Wiktionary

bleed to death

bleed to death

To die from massive bloodloss, usually from severe arterial bleeding.

— Wiktionary

blood replacement

blood replacement

A temporary substitution for an visibly-bleeding player who must leave the field of play for first-aid treatment.

— Wiktionary

dacryohemorrhea

dacryohemorrhea

Bloody tears; bleeding from the tear ducts while crying; crying blood.

— Wiktionary

blood bin

blood bin

A temporary substitution for an visibly-bleeding player who must leave the field of play for first-aid treatment.

— Wiktionary

flesh wound

flesh wound

An injury which pierces the skin and causes bleeding, but which does not injure any bones or vital organs, and does not carry a serious threat of death.

— Wiktionary

aprotinin

aprotinin

A polypeptide, obtained from bovine lung tissue, that acts as a protease inhibitor, and is used in surgery to reduce bleeding

— Wiktionary

molimina

molimina

The premenstrual time frame. Any symptoms, other than bleeding, that precedes menstruation are moliminal symptoms.

— Wiktionary

prothrombin

prothrombin

A glycoprotein, produced in the liver, that is converted into thrombin during bleeding and subsequent clotting

— Wiktionary

haemorrhaging

haemorrhaging

bleeding

— Wiktionary

ICH

ICH

Bleeding inside the skull.

— Wiktionary

enterohaemorrhagic

enterohaemorrhagic

That causes bleeding in the intestines

— Wiktionary

trench mouth

trench mouth

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a severe bacterial infection of the gums, typically characterized by inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration, necrotized tissue, pain, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, and halitosis.

— Wiktionary

antibleeding

antibleeding

Serving to prevent bleeding.

— Wiktionary

rectorrhagia

rectorrhagia

rectal bleeding

— Wiktionary

bleeding heck

bleeding heck

minced oath for bleeding hell.

— Wiktionary

Blood in the Water

Blood in the Water

A particularly violent water polo match between the USSR and Hungary, played at the 1956 Melbourne Summer Olympics contemporaneously with the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Images of a Hungarian player leaving the pool with a bleeding head wound led to exaggerated reports of blood in the water.

— Wiktionary

ergometrine

ergometrine

An ergoline (and lysergamide) derivative, one of the primary ergot and morning glory alkaloids, chemically similar to LSD and used in medicine to facilitate delivery of the placenta and to prevent bleeding after childbirth.

— Wiktionary

hemostasis

hemostasis

The process of keeping blood inside a damaged vessel to stop bleeding.

— Wiktionary

hemarthrosis

hemarthrosis

bleeding in the joints

— Wiktionary

antihemophilic

antihemophilic

That counteracts bleeding in hemophiliacs

— Wiktionary

bloodied nose

bloodied nose

A nose that is bleeding internally.

— Wiktionary

bloody nose

bloody nose

A nose that is bleeding internally.

— Wiktionary

tranexamic acid

tranexamic acid

An alicyclic amino acid trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid that is used to control heavy bleeding

— Wiktionary

metrorrhagia

metrorrhagia

uterine bleeding, other than the menses

— Wiktionary

menorrhoea

menorrhoea

menstrual bleeding

— Wiktionary

hemostatic

hemostatic

Any medicine that stops bleeding.

— Wiktionary

hemostatic

hemostatic

That checks bleeding; styptic

— Wiktionary

menometrorrhagia

menometrorrhagia

Excessive uterine bleeding occurring outside of the normal menstrual period.

— Wiktionary

blood rule

blood rule

A rule requiring that a player receive medical attention before continuing to play if he is bleeding or there is blood on him or his clothes.

— Wiktionary

blood substitution

blood substitution

A temporary substitution for an visibly-bleeding player who must leave the field of play for first-aid treatment.

— Wiktionary

implantation bleeding

implantation bleeding

Light bleeding from the vagina caused when a fertilized ovum attaches to the wall of the uterus.

— Wiktionary

hematophobia

hematophobia

Fear of bleeding or the sight of blood.

— Wiktionary

afibrinogenemia

afibrinogenemia

the absence of fibrinogen in the plasma leading to prolonged bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

angiohemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

bleeder

hemophiliac, haemophiliac, bleeder, hemophile, haemophile

someone who has hemophilia and is subject to uncontrollable bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

bleeder's disease

hemophilia, haemophilia, bleeder's disease

congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son

— Princeton's WordNet

cerebral hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhage

bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain

— Princeton's WordNet

d and c

dilation and curettage, dilatation and curettage, D and C

a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion

— Princeton's WordNet

dilatation and curettage

dilation and curettage, dilatation and curettage, D and C

a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion

— Princeton's WordNet

dilation and curettage

dilation and curettage, dilatation and curettage, D and C

a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion

— Princeton's WordNet

ebola fever

Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola fever, Ebola

a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa

— Princeton's WordNet

ebola hemorrhagic fever

Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola fever, Ebola

a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa

— Princeton's WordNet

ebola

Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola fever, Ebola

a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa

— Princeton's WordNet

epistaxis

nosebleed, epistaxis

bleeding from the nose

— Princeton's WordNet

family fumariaceae

Fumariaceae, family Fumariaceae, fumitory family

erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory; squirrel corn

— Princeton's WordNet

fumariaceae

Fumariaceae, family Fumariaceae, fumitory family

erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory; squirrel corn

— Princeton's WordNet

fumitory family

Fumariaceae, family Fumariaceae, fumitory family

erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory; squirrel corn

— Princeton's WordNet

haemophile

hemophiliac, haemophiliac, bleeder, hemophile, haemophile

someone who has hemophilia and is subject to uncontrollable bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

haemophiliac

hemophiliac, haemophiliac, bleeder, hemophile, haemophile

someone who has hemophilia and is subject to uncontrollable bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

haemophilia

hemophilia, haemophilia, bleeder's disease

congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son

— Princeton's WordNet

haemostat

hemostat, haemostat

a surgical instrument that stops bleeding by clamping the blood vessel

— Princeton's WordNet

hemophile

hemophiliac, haemophiliac, bleeder, hemophile, haemophile

someone who has hemophilia and is subject to uncontrollable bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

hemophiliac

hemophiliac, haemophiliac, bleeder, hemophile, haemophile

someone who has hemophilia and is subject to uncontrollable bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

hemophilia

hemophilia, haemophilia, bleeder's disease

congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son

— Princeton's WordNet

hemostat

hemostat, haemostat

a surgical instrument that stops bleeding by clamping the blood vessel

— Princeton's WordNet

hemostatic

styptic, hemostatic

tending to check bleeding by contracting the tissues or blood vessels

— Princeton's WordNet

hyphema

hyphema

bleeding into the interior chamber of the eye

— Princeton's WordNet

hypothrombinemia

hypothrombinemia

a low level of prothrombin (factor II) in the circulating blood; results in long clotting time and poor clot formation and sometimes excessive bleeding; can result from vitamin K deficiency

— Princeton's WordNet

iron deficiency anaemia

iron deficiency anemia, iron deficiency anaemia

a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

iron deficiency anemia

iron deficiency anemia, iron deficiency anaemia

a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

ligation

ligation

(surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)

— Princeton's WordNet

melaena

melena, melaena

abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)

— Princeton's WordNet

melena

melena, melaena

abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)

— Princeton's WordNet

metrorrhagia

metrorrhagia

bleeding from the uterus that is not due to menstruation; usually indicative of disease (as cervical cancer)

— Princeton's WordNet

norethynodrel

norethynodrel

a progesterone derivative used in oral contraceptives and in the control of menstruation and the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

nosebleed

nosebleed, epistaxis

bleeding from the nose

— Princeton's WordNet

peliosis

purpura, peliosis

any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

placenta previa

placenta previa

pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus (instead of the upper part); can cause bleeding late in pregnancy; delivery by cesarean section may be necessary

— Princeton's WordNet

pressure point

pressure point

any of several points on the body where the pulse can be felt and where pressure on an underlying artery will control bleeding from that artery at a more distal point

— Princeton's WordNet

purpura

purpura, peliosis

any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

styptic

styptic, hemostatic

tending to check bleeding by contracting the tissues or blood vessels

— Princeton's WordNet

tamponade

tamponade, tamponage

blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)

— Princeton's WordNet

tamponage

tamponade, tamponage

blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)

— Princeton's WordNet

ulemorrhagia

ulemorrhagia

bleeding of the gums

— Princeton's WordNet

vascular hemophilia

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

von willebrand's disease

von Willebrand's disease, angiohemophilia, vascular hemophilia

a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding

— Princeton's WordNet

Abortion, Threatened

Abortion, Threatened

UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia

Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Thrombasthenia

Thrombasthenia

A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Uterine Hemorrhage

Uterine Hemorrhage

Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hemostasis, Endoscopic

Hemostasis, Endoscopic

Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic

Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic

Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Arch Therapeutics

Arch Therapeutics

Arch Therapeutics, Inc. (Arch) is a medical device company offering an innovative, elegant, and superior approach to the rapid cessation of bleeding (hemostasis*) and control of fluid leakage (sealant) during surgery and trauma care. The underlying technology, exclusively licensed from a leading university, supports an innovative platform of smart materials that fulfill the criteria as a solution for a specialized field we call, "stasis and barrier applications." - See more at: http://www.archtherapeutics.com/company/about-arch-therapeutics#sthash.fIw94WNC.dpuf

— CrunchBase

Channel Medsystems

Channel Medsystems

Channel Medystems is a clinical-stage medical technology company based in San Francisco. The company is developing proprietary cryo-ablation delivery technologies. Channel Medsystems is currently focused on women’s healthcare and addressing the problem of heavy menstrual bleeding. The company is the fifth spin-out of incubator TheraNova.

— CrunchBase

Clear Catheter Systems

Clear Catheter Systems

Clear Catheter Systems is a Bend, Oregon based medical device company pioneering new technologies that will revolutionize medical tube drainage. The company is developing its anti-clogging platform of surgical drainage devices. The company's lead product is the PleuraFlow® Active Tube Clearance™ System. By solving the clogging problem the company's products will allow doctors to manage bleeding and clogging in large diameter chest tubes in a safer fashion. A further benefit is that surgeons will be able to utilize minimally invasive drainage tubes, resulting in a reduction in concern for clogging and increased patient comfort. The company has a pipeline of products based on its proprietary tube clearance technology to treat tube clogging in other medical market segments, including its system for the urinary catheter drainage market, and GastroFlow catheter system, for the enteral feeding market sector as well as systems for standard surgical drains.

— CrunchBase

FemmePharma Global Healthcare

FemmePharma Global Healthcare

FemmePharma Global Healthcare, Inc., a pharmaceutical company, engages in developing drugs for diseases and disorders affecting women internationally. It focuses on developing therapeutic regimens for various women’s health issues, such as urinary incontinence, mastalgia, dysmenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and sexually transmitted diseases/HIV. The company was founded in 1996 and is based in Wayne, Pennsylvania. FemmePharma Global Healthcare, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of FemmePharma, Inc.

— CrunchBase

Forge Medical

Forge Medical

Forge Medical, Inc. provides hemostasis devices for dialysis units and phlebotomy laboratories in the United States. It offers VasoStat, a device for assisting hemostasis in patients with various problems, including prolonged bleeding following dialysis graft, fistula puncture, and routine blood draws. The company was incorporated in 2009 and is based in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

— CrunchBase

Minimally invasive devices

Minimally invasive devices

Minimally Invasive Devices Inc. (MID) was founded by a laparoscopic surgeon to develop surgical tools that facilitate and enable the performance of Minimally Invasive Surgery.MID has developed the FloShield system, a franchise of products that substantially improve visualization during laparoscopic surgery. During laparoscopic surgery it is common for condensation to form on the end of the laparoscope obscuring vision. It is also common for debris from the ultrasonic scalpel, cautery, or even blood products themselves to degrade the surgical view. Most commonly, surgeons will need to remove the laparoscope for manual cleaning. Rarely, this may also occur during active bleeding when time spent cleaning the scope may allow blood products to accumulate at the surgical site.FloShield addresses the main unsolved problem in laparoscopic visualization: debris settling on the end of the scope that blocks the surgeon’s view and requires frequent interruptions for scope removal and manual cleaning.

— CrunchBase

PEAK Surgical

PEAK Surgical

PEAK Surgical is a medical device company that is committed to providing physicians with surgical tools that have the precision of a scalpel and the bleeding control of traditional electrosurgery without the extensive collateral damage " a revolutionary benefit that fills a critical market gap.The PEAK Surgery System is cleared for use in general, plastic and reconstructive, ENT, gynecologic, orthopedic, arthroscopic, spinal and neurological surgical procedures in the United States and for use in general surgery in the EU.PEAK Surgical is headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

— CrunchBase

Pluromed

Pluromed

Pluromed, Inc. develops, manufactures, and markets disposable medical devices based on reverse thermosensitive polymer technology in Europe, Canada, and the United States. It offers LeGoo Internal Vessel Occluder, a liquid polymer for the temporary occlusion of blood vessels; and LeGoo Endovascular Occlusion Gel for clampless vascular and cardiovascular surgery. The company also provides BackStop, an atraumatic device to prevent stone migration and stone fragment retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy; and Lumagel, an oncology product for cancer therapies, partial nephrectomy, hepatic resection, radiofrequency ablation, and chemotherapy. Its products are used to control bleeding during various surgical and interventional procedures including cardiac and vascular surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, kidney and liver cancer therapies, and trauma/battlefield injuries. The company was founded in 2003 and is based in Woburn, Massachusetts. As of April 2, 2012, Pluromed, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of Sanofi.

— CrunchBase

Reflectance Medical

Reflectance Medical

Reflectance Medical Inc. is an early stage company developing new technology to revolutionize the care of critically ill patients by reducing medical costs and deaths associated with conditions which result in poor tissue perfusion and acidosis. The company’s noninvasive CareGuide patient monitor continuously and quantitatively displays levels of microvascular oxygen, pH and hematocrit to provide treatment goals to assure rapid and successful reversal of microvascular abnormalities associated with internal bleeding, trauma, cardiac failure and sepsis.

— CrunchBase

Thrombolytic Science International

Thrombolytic Science International

Thrombolytic Science is focused on developing a proprietary product, M5, a mutant of pro-urokinase (proUK). M5 is a thrombolytic that follows a different paradigm than tPA, has superior efficacy and is accompanied by little bleeding risk.

— CrunchBase

Emergency medical technician

Emergency medical technician

Emergency Medical Technician or Ambulance Technician are terms used in some countries to denote a healthcare provider of emergency medical services. Common terms, pejorative or obsolete in some cases, include ambulance driver, ambulance orderly, ambulance attendant and ambulanceman or woman. The precise meaning of the term varies by jurisdiction, many countries EMTs respond to emergency calls, perform certain medical procedures and transport patients to hospital in accordance with protocols and guidelines established by physician medical directors. They may work in an ambulance service, as a member of technical rescue teams/squads, or as part of an allied service such as a fire or police department. EMTs are trained to assess a patient's condition, and to perform such emergency medical procedures as are needed to maintain a patent airway with adequate breathing and cardiovascular circulation until the patient can be transferred to an appropriate destination for advanced medical care. Interventions include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, controlling severe external bleeding, preventing shock, body immobilization to prevent spinal damage, and splinting of bone fractures. EMT's are trained in BLS, or basic life support. If the patient requires more advanced care during transport that is out of the scope of practice of the EMT, a paramedic or RN will assist in transport. A national exam is required for certification following the mandated in- class hours and patient- contact requirements.

— Freebase

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome or hemorrhagic adrenalitis or Fulminant meningococcemia, is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, caused by severe bacterial infection. The bacterial infection leads to massive hemorrhage into one or both adrenal glands. It is characterized by overwhelming bacterial infection meningococcemia leading to massive blood invasion, organ failure, coma, low blood pressure and shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation with widespread purpura, rapidly developing adrenocortical insufficiency and death.

— Freebase

Menometrorrhagia

Menometrorrhagia

Menometrorrhagia is a condition in which prolonged or excessive uterine bleeding occurs irregularly and more frequently than normal.

— Freebase

Menarche

Menarche

Menarche is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans. From both social and medical perspectives, it is often considered the central event of female puberty, as it signals the possibility of fertility. Girls experience menarche at different ages. The timing of menarche is influenced by female biology, as well as genetic and environmental factors, especially nutritional factors. The average age of menarche has declined over the last century, but the magnitude of the decline and the factors responsible remain subjects of contention. The worldwide average age of menarche is very difficult to estimate accurately, and it varies significantly by geographical region, race, ethnicity and other characteristics. Various estimates have placed it at 13. Some estimates suggest that the median age of menarche worldwide is 14, and that there is a later age of onset in Asian populations compared to the West. The average age of menarche is about 12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK and 13.06 ± 0.10 years in Iceland. A study on girls in Istanbul, Turkey, found the median age at menarche to be 12.74 years.

— Freebase

Platelet storage pool deficiency

Platelet storage pool deficiency

Platelet storage pool deficiency is a type of coagulopathy characterized by defects in the granules in platelets, particularly a lack of granular non-metabolic ADP. Patients with ADP deficient "Storage Pool Disease" present a prolongued bleeding time due to impaired aggregation response to fibrillar collagen. It may involve the alpha granules or the dense granules.

— Freebase

High-sticking

High-sticking

High-sticking is the name of two infractions in the sport of ice hockey that may occur when a player intentionally or inadvertently plays with his or her stick above the height of the shoulders or above the cross bar of a hockey goal. This can result in a stoppage of play or in a penalty. In the rules of the National Hockey League, high-sticking is defined as a penalty in Rule 60 and as a non-penalty foul in Rule 80. ⁕A stoppage in play results if a high stick comes in contact with the puck and the team who touched it regains control of the puck. However, play usually continues if a player touches the puck with a high stick and the opposing team gains control of the puck. If the puck goes into the opposing net after coming into contact with a high stick, the goal is disallowed. The level at which a stick is considered too high for a goal is the crossbar of the net. However, if a player knocks the puck into his own net with a high stick, the goal is allowed. ⁕A penalty is assessed if a player strikes another player with a high stick. The player is given a minor penalty unless his high stick caused an injury, in which case the referee has the option to assess a double-minor, major or match penalty. It is the referee's discretion which penalty to assess: the rule calls for a double minor for an accidental injury, or a match penalty for a deliberate attempt to injure. Injury is usually decided by the high stick causing bleeding, but the presence of blood does not automatically mean an extra penalty is awarded. Some referees have been known to award an extra penalty without the presence of blood if the referee determines that the injury sustained was sufficient to warrant a double-minor penalty.

— Freebase

Hepatorenal syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome is a life-threatening medical condition that consists of rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure. HRS is usually fatal unless a liver transplant is performed, although various treatments, such as dialysis, can prevent advancement of the condition. HRS can affect individuals with cirrhosis, severe alcoholic hepatitis, or fulminant hepatic failure, and usually occurs when liver function deteriorates rapidly because of an acute injury such as an infection, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, or overuse of diuretic medications. HRS is a relatively common complication of cirrhosis, occurring in 18% of cirrhotics within one year of their diagnosis, and in 39% of cirrhotics within five years of their diagnosis. Deteriorating liver function is believed to cause changes in the circulation that supplies the intestines, altering blood flow and blood vessel tone in the kidneys. The renal failure of HRS is a consequence of these changes in blood flow, rather than direct damage to the kidney; the kidneys themselves appear normal to the naked eye and tissue is normal when viewed under the microscope, and the kidneys even function normally when placed in an otherwise healthy environment. The diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome is based on laboratory tests of individuals susceptible to the condition. Two forms of hepatorenal syndrome have been defined: Type 1 HRS entails a rapidly progressive decline in kidney function, while type 2 HRS is associated with ascites that does not improve with standard diuretic medications.

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Traiteur

Traiteur

In French Acadiana, the term traiteur describes a man or woman who practises what is sometimes called faith healing. A traiteur is Cajun healer, or else a traditional healer of the French-speaking Houma Tribe, whose primary method of treatment involves using the laying on of hands. An important part of Cajun folk religion, the traiteur combines Catholic prayer and medicinal remedies. They are called to treat a variety of ailments, including: earaches, toothaches, warts, tumors, angina, and bleeding. In the past, they substituted for trained physicians in remote rural areas of Acadiana. Most traiteurs consider their healing abilities a gift from God, and therefore refuse to accept payment in exchange for their services. Traiteurism is a very old tradition that is dying out, and very few traiteurs now exist. Traditionally, the rituals of the traiteur are passed down to the opposite gender. So a male must pass it down to a female, and vice versa. The traiteur must be asked to perform the treatments and will rarely offer them outright unless the need is great, and they can not ask for a payment of any kind, although it is acceptable to accept gifts for treating a person. However gifts for a true traiteur are never required.

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Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cyst

An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. Such cysts range in size from as small as a pea to larger than an orange. Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature and harmless. Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. They occur most often, however, during a woman's childbearing years. Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

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Warfarin

Warfarin

Warfarin is an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body respectively. It was initially introduced in 1948 as a pesticide against rats and mice and is still used for this purpose, although more potent poisons such as brodifacoum have since been developed. In the early 1950s warfarin was found to be effective and relatively safe for preventing thrombosis and embolism in many disorders. It was approved for use as a medication in 1954 and has remained popular ever since; warfarin is the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant drug in North America. Despite its effectiveness, treatment with warfarin has several shortcomings. Many commonly used medications interact with warfarin, as do some foods and its activity has to be monitored by blood testing for the international normalized ratio to ensure an adequate yet safe dose is taken. A high INR predisposes to a high risk of bleeding, while an INR below the therapeutic target indicates that the dose of warfarin is insufficient to protect against thromboembolic events.

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Mallory–Weiss syndrome

Mallory–Weiss syndrome

Mallory–Weiss syndrome or gastro-esophageal laceration syndrome refers to bleeding from tears in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus, usually caused by severe Alcoholism, retching, coughing, or vomiting.

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Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids or haemorrhoids, are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control. They become pathological or piles when swollen or inflamed. In their physiological state, they act as a cushion composed of arterio-venous channels and connective tissue. The symptoms of pathological hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding while external hemorrhoids may produce few symptoms or if thrombosed significant pain and swelling in the area of the anus. Many people incorrectly refer to any symptom occurring around the anal-rectal area as "hemorrhoids" and serious causes of the symptoms should be ruled out. While the exact cause of hemorrhoids remains unknown, a number of factors which increase intra-abdominal pressure, in particular constipation, are believed to play a role in their development. Initial treatment for mild to moderate disease consists of increasing fiber intake, oral fluids to maintain hydration, NSAIDs to help with the pain, and rest. A number of minor procedures may be performed if symptoms are severe or do not improve with conservative management. Surgery is reserved for those who fail to improve following these measures. Up to half of people may experience problems with hemorrhoids at some point in their life. Outcomes are usually good.

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Jack Kerouac

Jack Kerouac

Jean-Louis "Jack" Kérouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. Kerouac became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements. In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac died from internal bleeding due to long term abuse of alcohol. Since his death Kerouac's literary prestige has grown and several previously unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, among them: On the Road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody, The Sea is My Brother, and Big Sur.

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Clerodendrum

Clerodendrum

Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. Its common names include glorybower, bagflower and bleeding-heart. It is currently classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. Estimates of the number of species in Clerodendrum vary widely, from about 150 to about 450. This is partly because about 30 species have been transferred to Rotheca, about 30 more to Volkameria, and 1 to Ovieda. The type species for the genus is Clerodendrum infortunatum. It is native to Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands. The genus is native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, with most of the species occurring in tropical Africa and southern Asia, but with a few in the tropical Americas and northern Australasia, and a few extending north into the temperate zone in eastern Asia. They are shrubs, lianas, and small trees, usually growing to 1–12 m tall, with opposite or whorled leaves. C. floribundum can grow to 30 m tall. Clerodendrum fistulosum and Clerodendrum myrmecophila have hollow stems that are inhabited by ants. Clerodendrum trichotomum is a common ornamental in warmer parts of the world. Eight other species are also grown in the tropics for their abundant and attractive flowers. One of these, Clerodendrum macrostegium, suckers abundantly from the roots, often producing a thicket within a few years. A few other species are also found, somewhat rarely, in cultivation.

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Kansas

Kansas

Kansas is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south wind," although this was probably not the term's original meaning. Residents of Kansas are called "Kansans." For thousands of years what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the Eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the Western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in the 1830s, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine if Kansas would become a free state or a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists eventually prevailed and on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly, when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. Today, Kansas is one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, sorghum and sunflowers. Kansas is the 15th most extensive and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient's airways for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs. The construction of bronchoscopes ranges from rigid metal tubes with attached lighting devices to flexible optical fiber instruments with realtime video equipment.

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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Viral hemorrhagic fever

The viral hemorrhagic fevers are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses that may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases. Some of the VHF agents cause relatively mild illnesses, such as the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica, while others, such as the African Ebola virus, can cause severe, life-threatening disease.

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Unsung

Unsung

Unsung is an EP released on December 6, 2005 by Christian Hardcore/Mathcore group The Chariot. It contains two new songs and four re-worked versions of songs from their debut album Everything Is Alive, Everything Is Breathing, Nothing Is Dead, and Nothing Is Bleeding.

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Quaich

Quaich

A quaich, archaically quaigh, is a special kind of shallow two-handled drinking cup or bowl in Scotland. It derives from the Scottish Gaelic cuach meaning a cup. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, the quaich was inspired by the low silver bowls with two flat handles frequently used as bleeding vessels in England and the Netherlands in the 17th century. Another popular theory suggests that the shape is derived from scallop shells. However, this seems to have had its origins in the now discredited "Poems of Ossian". In his 1955 monograph "Some Scottish Quaichs", Richard L. McCleneahan, an American collector, suggests alternatively that quaichs evolved directly from medieval Mazers. This seems unlikely as the form and material are quite different. There were small stave built drinking vessels common in the medieval period found around the Baltic and since some of the earliest quaichs are stave built this could be the source. Traditionally quaichs are made of wood, an artform known as "treen". Some early quaichs are stave-built like barrels and some have alternating light and dark staves. The staves are held together by bands of willow or silver. They generally have two, and more rarely three or four, short, projecting handles. Other wooden quaiches were lathe-turned out of a single piece of wood and there was another group which were turned then carved outside in basket-weave pattern. In addition to wood, they are made of stone, brass, pewter, horn, and silver. The latter were often engraved with lines and bands in imitation of the staves and hoops of the wooden quaichs.

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Abrasion

Abrasion

In dermatology, an abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis. It is less severe than a laceration, and bleeding, if present, is minimal. Mild abrasions, also known as grazes or scrapes, do not scar or bleed, but deep abrasions may lead to the formation of scar tissue. A more traumatic abrasion that removes all layers of skin is called an avulsion. Abrasion injuries most commonly occur when exposed skin comes into moving contact with a rough surface, causing a grinding or rubbing away of the upper layers of the epidermis.

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Lawrence

Lawrence

Lawrence is the sixth largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Douglas County. Located in northeastern Kansas, Lawrence is the anchor city of the Lawrence, Kansas, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Douglas County. Located 25 miles east of Topeka, Kansas, and 41 miles west of Kansas City, Missouri, it is situated along the banks of the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 87,643. Lawrence is a college town and is the home to the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and was named for Amos Adams Lawrence who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence was central to the Bleeding Kansas era and was the site of the Wakarusa War, the sacking of Lawrence and Quantrill’s Raid. Early in its existence, Lawrence transitioned from being a political city to a varied one focusing on many industries including agriculture, manufacturing and education when the University of Kansas was founded in 1866 and Haskell Indian Nations University opened in 1884. Lawrence has been named one of the best places to retire by U.S. News & World Report and one of America's 10 best college towns by Parents & Colleges.

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Hematoma

Hematoma

A hematoma or haematoma, is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue. An ecchymosis, commonly called a bruise, is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm. Internal bleeding is generally considered to be a spreading of blood within the abdomen or skull, not within muscle. It is not to be confused with hemangioma which is an abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. Vitamin C refers to a number of vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts, and some oxidized forms of the molecule like dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body when either of these is introduced into cells, since the forms interconvert according to pH. Vitamin C is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Ascorbate may also act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. However, the fact that the enantiomer D-ascorbate has identical antioxidant activity to L-ascorbate, yet far less vitamin activity, underscores the fact that most of the function of L-ascorbate as a vitamin relies not on its antioxidant properties, but upon enzymic reactions that are stereospecific. "Ascorbate" without the letter for the enantiomeric form is always presumed to be the chemical L-ascorbate.

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Diosmin

Diosmin

Diosmin is a semisynthetic drug, a member of the flavonoid family. It is an oral phlebotropic drug used in the treatment of venous disease, i.e., chronic venous insufficiency and hemorrhoidal disease, in acute or chronic hemorrhoids, in place of rubber-band ligation, in combination with fiber supplement, or as an adjuvant therapy to hemorrhoidectomy, in order to reduce secondary bleeding. To control internal symptoms of hemorrhoids, it is used with hesperidin. Clinical studies have been inconclusive and no review articles on its use in vascular disease have been published. Diosmin is currently a prescription medication in some European countries, and is sold as a nutritional supplement in the United States and the rest of Europe. Diosmin aglycone is diosmetin. Diosmin has been found to be effective in mitigating hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. It is also speculated that diosmin might have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as alzheimer's disease, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity has been demonstrated in neuronal cells, in vitro.

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Cathartic

Cathartic

In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation. This is in contrast to a laxative, which is a substance which eases defecation, usually by softening feces. It is possible for a substance to be both a laxative and a cathartic. However, agents such as psyllium seed husks increase the bulk of the feces. Cathartics such as sorbitol, magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate, or sodium sulfate were previously used as a form of gastrointestinal decontamination following poisoning via ingestion. They are no longer routinely recommended for poisonings. High-dose cathartics may be an effective means of ridding the lower gastrointestinal tract of toxins; however, they carry a risk of electrolyte imbalances and dehydration. During the 1918 flu pandemic, cathartics were used in the Fort Lewis, WA, area. An original report by Elizabeth J. Davies, a public health nurse, mentions cathartics, pneumonia jackets and copious amount of drinks as treatments for influenza patients. Blood is a cathartic. Gastrointestinal bleeding will cause diarrhea.

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Scurvy

Scurvy

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans. The chemical name for vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin name of scurvy, scorbutus, which also provides the adjective scorbutic. Scurvy often presents itself initially as symptoms of malaise and lethargy, followed by formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. Spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. As scurvy advances, there can be open, suppurating wounds, loss of teeth, jaundice, fever, neuropathy and death. Scurvy was at one time common among sailors, pirates and others aboard ships at sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored and by soldiers similarly deprived of these foods for extended periods. It was described by Hippocrates, and herbal cures for scurvy have been known in many native cultures since prehistory. Scurvy was one of the limiting factors of marine travel, often killing large numbers of the passengers and crew on long-distance voyages. This became a significant issue in Europe from the beginning of the modern era in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, continuing to play a significant role through World War I in the 20th century.

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Wound healing

Wound healing

Wound healing, or cicatrisation, is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. In normal skin, the epidermis and dermis exists in a steady-state equilibrium, forming a protective barrier against the external environment. Once the protective barrier is broken, the normal process of wound healing is immediately set in motion. The classic model of wound healing is divided into three or four sequential, yet overlapping, phases: hemostasis, inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling. Upon injury to the skin, a set of complex biochemical events takes place in a closely orchestrated cascade to repair the damage. Within minutes post-injury, platelets aggregate at the injury site to form a fibrin clot. This clot acts to control active bleeding. The speed of wound healing can be impacted by many factors, including the bloodstream levels of hormones such as oxytocin. In the inflammatory phase, bacteria and debris are phagocytosed and removed, and factors are released that cause the migration and division of cells involved in the proliferative phase.

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Haemophilia

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken. Haemophilia A is the most common form of the disorder, present in about 1 in 5,000–10,000 male births. Haemophilia B occurs in around 1 in about 20,000–34,000 male births. Like most recessive sex-linked, X chromosome disorders, haemophilia is more likely to occur in males than females. This is because females have two X chromosomes while males have only one, so the defective gene is guaranteed to manifest in any male who carries it. Because females have two X chromosomes and haemophilia is rare, the chance of a female having two defective copies of the gene is very remote, so females are almost exclusively asymptomatic carriers of the disorder. Female carriers can inherit the defective gene from either their mother or father, or it may be a new mutation. Although it is not impossible for a female to have haemophilia, it is unusual: a female with haemophilia A or B would have to be the daughter of both a male haemophiliac and a female carrier, while the non-sex-linked haemophilia C due to coagulant factor XI deficiency, which can affect either sex, is more common in Jews of Ashkenazi descent but rare in other population groups.

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Electrosurgery

Electrosurgery

Electrosurgery is the application of a high-frequency electric current to biological tissue as a means to cut, coagulate, desiccate, or fulgurate tissue. Its benefits include the ability to make precise cuts with limited blood loss. Electrosurgical devices are frequently used during surgical operations helping to prevent blood loss in hospital operating rooms or in outpatient procedures. In electrosurgical procedures, the tissue is heated by an electric current. Although electrical devices may be used for the cauterization of tissue in some applications, electrosurgery is usually used to refer to a quite different method than electrocautery. The latter uses heat conduction from a probe heated to a glowing temperature by a direct current. This may be accomplished by direct current from dry-cells in a penlight-type device. Electrosurgery, by contrast, uses alternating current to directly heat the tissue itself. When this results in destruction of small blood vessels and halting of bleeding, it is technically a process of electrocoagulation, although "electrocautery" is sometimes loosely and nontechnically used to describe it.

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Western Islands

Western Islands

Western Islands is the publishing arm of the John Birch Society; it is located in Appleton, Wisconsin, USA, where the society has its headquarters. A survey of book titles from its catalog includes: ⁕Claire Chambers, The SIECUS Circle: A Humanist Revolution. ⁕Herman H. Dinsmore, The Bleeding of America. ⁕Hilaire du Berrier, Background to Betrayal: The Tragedy of Vietnam. ⁕Dr. Francis X. Gannon, Biographical Dictionary of the Left. ⁕G. Edward Griffin, The Fearful Master: A Second Look at the United Nations. ⁕William P. Hoar, Architects of Conspiracy: An Intriguing History. ⁕Clarence Kelly, Conspiracy Against God and Man. ⁕Robert W. Lee, The United Nations Conspiracy. ⁕James Perloff, The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline. ⁕James Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy. ⁕Dan Smoot, The Invisible Government. ⁕Anastasio Somoza and Jack Cox, Nicaragua Betrayed. ⁕Alan Stang, The Actor: The True Story of John Foster Dulles Secretary of State, 1953-1959. ⁕Robert Welch, The Blue Book of The John Birch Society.

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Eczema

Eczema

Eczema, often referred to as atopic dermatitis is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the epidermis. The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions. These include dryness and recurring skin rashes that are characterized by one or more of these symptoms: redness, skin edema, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Areas of temporary skin discoloration may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge the rash. The word eczema comes from Greek, meaning "to boil over". Dermatitis comes from the Greek word for skin – and both terms refer to the same skin condition. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonymous, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and "eczema" a chronic one. The two conditions are often classified together.

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Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules, leading to loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and fatty liver disease, but has many other possible causes. Some cases are idiopathic. Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis, and is associated with a poor quality of life, increased risk of infection, and a poor long-term outcome. Other potentially life-threatening complications are hepatic encephalopathy and bleeding from esophageal varices. Cirrhosis is generally irreversible, and treatment usually focuses on preventing progression and complications. In advanced stages of cirrhosis the only option is a liver transplant. The word "cirrhosis" derives from Greek κιρρός [kirrhós] meaning yellowish, tawny + Eng. med. suff. -osis meaning an increase. While the clinical entity was known before, it was René Laennec who gave it the name "cirrhosis" in his 1819 work in which he also describes the stethoscope.

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Menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is the scientific term for the physiological changes that occur in fertile female humans and other female primates for the purposes of sexual reproduction. This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle, a "monthly" cycle that can vary around an average of 28 days per cycle. The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It is commonly divided into three phases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. It is also occasionally misclassified using the uterine cycle: menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding. Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant. Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining and egg in a process termed menstruation.

— Freebase

Metalcore

Metalcore

Metalcore is a broad fusion genre of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The name is an amalgam of the names of the two genres, distinguished by its emphasis on breakdowns, which are slow, intense passages that are conducive to moshing. Pioneering bands, such as— Hogan's Heroes, Earth Crisis, and Integrity, —are described to lean more toward hardcore punk, whereas latter bands—Killswitch Engage, Underoath, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine, and The Devil Wears Prada —are described to lean more towards metal. Sepultura, who has been credited to "laying the foundation" for the genre, and Pantera, who influenced Trivium, Atreyu, Bleeding Through and Unearth, have been influential in the development of metalcore.

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Splint

Splint

A splint is a device used for support or immobilization of limbs or of the spine. It can be used: ⁕By the emergency medical services or by volunteer first responders, to immobilize a fractured limb before the transportation; it is then a temporary immobilization; ⁕By allied health professionals such as occupational therapists, physiotherapists and orthotists, to immobilize an articulation that can be freed while not standing. ⁕By athletic trainers to immobilize an injured bone or joint to facilitate safer transportation of the injured person. ⁕By emergency room physicians to stabilize fractures or sprains until follow-up appointment with an Orthopedist. In most ERs, a fibreglass splinting material, called Orthoglass, is commonly used for several reasons. ⁕It is clean, unlike most plaster splinting materials ⁕It comes in rolls and can be easily measured and cut according to the patient's dimensions. ⁕It comes pre-padded, which saves time and energy trying to roll out padding. ⁕It dries in about 20 minutes, and there are no risks for burns involved. A nasal splint helps control bleeding and provide support in certain cases where the nose bone is broken.

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Blunt instrument

Blunt instrument

A blunt instrument is any solid object used as a weapon, which damages its target by applying direct mechanical force, and has no penetrating point or edge, or is wielded so that the point or edge is not the part of the weapon that inflicts the injury. Blunt instruments may be contrasted with edged weapons, which inflict injury by cutting or stabbing, or projectile weapons, where the projectiles, such as bullets or shot, are accelerated to a penetrating speed. Blunt instruments typically inflict blunt force trauma, causing bruising, fractures and other internal bleeding. Depending on the parts of the body attacked, organs may be ruptured or otherwise damaged. Attacks with a blunt instrument may be fatal. Some sorts of blunt instruments are very readily available, and often figure in crime cases. Examples of blunt instruments include: ⁕Personal implements such as walking sticks ⁕Tools such as hammers or wrecking bars ⁕Parts of tools, such as pickaxe handles ⁕Sports equipment such as cricket or baseball bats, hockey sticks, pool cues, golf clubs, etc. ⁕Weapons such as nightsticks, bâtons français, axes, spears, or guns

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Ramadan

Ramadan

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; Muslims worldwide observe this as a month of fasting. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in hadiths. The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramida or ar-ramad, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fardh for adult Muslims, except those who are ill, travelling, pregnant, diabetic or going through menstrual bleeding. While fasting from dawn until sunset Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking and sexual relations; and in some interpretations from swearing. According to Islam, the thawab of fasting are many, but in this month they are believed to be multiplied. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan typically includes the increased offering of salat and recitation of the Quran.

— Freebase

Jazzman

Jazzman

"Jazzman" is a 1974 song performed by Carole King, from her album Wrap Around Joy. King provided the sheet music for the song, while David Palmer wrote the lyrics. The song is best known for its lengthy saxophone solos, performed by Tom Scott, while King sings an ode to "the Jazzman" and the effect he has on her. Curtis Amy, saxophonist, composer, and former musical director for the Ray Charles band, was the "jazz man" of the song. The single quickly rose to No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in August 1974. The song also reached No. 4 on the Billboard easy listening chart. The B-side of the "Jazzman" single was "You Go Your Way, I'll Go Mine." The song was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1975 in the category Best Female Pop Vocal performance, losing out to Olivia Newton-John's song "I Honestly Love You". "Jazzman" was prominently featured in the Simpsons episode "'Round Springfield", in which Lisa Simpson sings the vocals while her friend Bleeding Gums Murphy plays the saxophone. Bonnie Koloc also recorded a song called "Jazzman" on her album After All This Time in 1971. Composed by Ed Holstein, a Chicago-based folk musician, this song was also recorded by Pure Prairie League, Steve Goodman, Tom Rush, Martin Simpson, and Bette Midler.

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Hymenorrhaphy

Hymenorrhaphy

Hymenorrhaphy or hymenoplasty or hymen reconstruction surgery is the surgical restoration of the hymen. The term comes from the Greek words hymen meaning membrane, and raphe meaning suture. It is also known as hymenoplasty, although strictly this term would also include hymenotomy. Such procedures are not generally regarded as part of mainstream gynecology, but are available from some plastic surgery centers, particularly in the USA, Japan and Western Europe, generally as day surgery. The normal aim is to cause bleeding during post-nuptial intercourse, which in some cultures is considered proof of virginity.

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Stabilization

Stabilization

Stabilization is a process to help prevent shock in sick or injured people. Stabilization is often performed by the first person to arrive on scene, EMTs or nurses before or just after arrival in hospital. It includes controlling bleeding, arranging for proper evacuation, keeping patients warm with blankets, and calming them by providing personal attention and concern for their well-being. It is particularly important in trauma cases where spinal injury is suspected to immobilize the cervical spine, or back. Failure to do so can cause permanent paralysis or death. In the field, spinal stabilization involves moving the person's back as a single unit with as many as 5 rescuers assisting, then applying a cervical collar, and securing victims to a solid-backed stretcher, long spine board, or a vacuum mattress. Search and Rescue Technician trained in wilderness first aid have a protocol for verifying that the spine has not been hurt when the victim is several hours or more from the hospital and evacuation may not be indicated. Without this technique it may be necessary to carry a suspected trauma victim out only to discover that he had no injury worthy of the effort and expense.

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Jayhawker

Jayhawker

Jayhawkers is a term that came to prominence just before the American Civil War in Bleeding Kansas, where it was adopted by militant bands affiliated with the free-state cause. These bands, known as "Jayhawkers", were guerrilla fighters who often clashed with pro-slavery groups from Missouri known at the time as "Border Ruffians". After the Civil War, the word "Jayhawker" became synonymous with the people of Kansas. Today the term is infrequently used as a nickname for a native-born Kansan.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a series of unintentional and purposeless motions that stem from mental tension and anxiety of an individual. This includes pacing around a room, wringing one's hands, pulling off clothing and putting it back on and other similar actions. In more severe cases, the motions may become harmful to the individual, such as ripping, tearing or chewing at the skin around one's fingernails or lips to the point of bleeding. Psychomotor agitation is a symptom typically found in major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sometimes the manic phase in bipolar disorder, although it can also be a result of an excess intake of stimulants. The middle aged and the elderly are more at risk to express this condition.

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Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is an acute type of pericardial effusion in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium. Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart muscle which occurs when the pericardial space fills up with fluid faster than the pericardial sac can stretch. If the amount of fluid increases slowly the pericardial sac can expand to contain a liter or more of fluid prior to tamponade occurring. If the fluid occurs rapidly as little as 100 ml can cause tamponade. Causes of increased pericardial effusion include hypothyroidism, physical trauma, pericarditis, iatrogenic trauma, and myocardial rupture. One of the most common cause is after heart surgery, when post operative bleeding fails to be cleared by clogged chest tubes. Cardiac tamponade is caused by a large or uncontrolled pericardial effusion, i.e. the buildup of fluid inside the pericardium. This commonly occurs as a result of chest trauma, but can also be caused by myocardial rupture, cancer, uraemia, pericarditis, or cardiac surgery, and rarely occurs during retrograde aortic dissection, or whilst the patient is taking anticoagulant therapy. The effusion can occur rapidly, or over a more gradual period of time. The fluid involved is often blood, but pus is also found in some circumstances.

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Unbroken

Unbroken

Unbroken was a Hardcore punk band from San Diego County, California. They were influential in the Southern California hardcore scene during the mid-to-late 1990s. The band chose the name Unbroken because they wanted to emphasize their dedication to the straight edge philosophy of drug abstinence. However, most of the members have since given up this belief. In 2008, Alternative Press named Unbroken a band of significant interest in its cover story "23 Bands Who Shaped Punk", citing them as an influence on later groups such as The Hope Conspiracy, Suicide File, Planes Mistaken for Stars, Modern Life Is War, and Bleeding Through.

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Latamoxef

Latamoxef

Latamoxef is an oxacephem antibiotic usually grouped with the cephalosporins. In oxacephems such as latamoxef, the sulfur atom of the cephalosporin core is replaced with an oxygen atom. Latamoxef has been associated with prolonged bleeding time, and several cases of coagulopathy, some fatal, were reported during the 1980s. Latamoxef is no longer available in the United States. As with other cephalosporins with a methylthiotetrazole side chain, latamoxef causes an antabuse reaction when mixed with alcohol. Additionally the methylthiotetrazole side chain inhibits γ-carboxylation of glutamic acid; this can interfere with the actions of vitamin K. It has been described as a third generation cephalosporin.

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Spodium

Spodium

Spodium, refers to burned bone, or the act of divination with ash. Spodium may also refer to other types of ash, such as the scrapings from the inside of a furnace. Spodium has a long history of medical usage, mentioned by Hippocrates and, for example, in the Medical Poem of Salerno "...Who knows the cause why Spodium stancheth bleeding?...".

— Freebase

Apologize

Apologize

"Apologize" is a song written by OneRepublic frontman Ryan Tedder for OneRepublic's debut album Dreaming Out Loud. A remix version was included on the Timbaland album, Shock Value and on the deluxe version of Dreaming Out Loud. A country version of the song was recorded by Luke Bryan for his album, "Doin' My Thing". The song was the biggest radio airplay hit in the history of the Pop Songs radio in North America, with 10,394 plays in one week, until its record was broken by Leona Lewis's "Bleeding Love", which was also co-written by Tedder. The song was a major hit internationally, reaching number one in 16 countries, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Turkey, and the Netherlands, as well as staying at number one for eight consecutive weeks on the Billboard Pop 100 chart. The song charted in the Top Three on the Billboard Hot 100 and spent 13 weeks at number one in Canada. "Apologize" was ranked number 50 on the list of the Billboard Hot 100's All-Time Top Songs list from the chart's first 50 years. It spent 25 consecutive weeks in the Top 10, the longest stay there for any song since "Smooth" by Santana, which spent 30 weeks in 1999. It was also ranked number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 Songs of the Decade. It remains OneRepublic's biggest hit single in the United States to date.

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Furosemide

Furosemide

Furosemide or frusemide is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. It is most commonly marketed by Sanofi under the brand name Lasix, and also under the brand name Frumex. It has also been used to prevent Thoroughbred and Standardbred race horses from bleeding through the nose during races. Along with some other diuretics, furosemide is also included on the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned drug list due to its alleged use as a masking agent for other drugs.

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Dydrogesterone

Dydrogesterone

Dydrogesterone, also known as 9β,10α-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, is a steroidal progestin. It is sold under the brand name Duphaston, which is manufactured by Abbott. Dydrogesterone was first introduced to the market in 1961, and is currently approved in over 100 countries worldwide. It has an estimated cumulative exposure of more than 10 million pregnancies. Dydrogesterone is a potent, orally active progestogen indicated in a wide variety of gynaecological conditions related to progesterone deficiency. Although similar in molecular structure and pharmacological effects to endogenous progesterone. It is orally active at far lower doses. Its freedom from estrogenic, androgenic, anabolic, corticoid and other undesirable hormonal effects gives it additional benefits over most other synthetic progestogens. The therapeutic use of dydrogesterone is closely related to its physiological action on the neuro-endocrine control of ovarian function, as well as on the endometrium. As such, it is indicated in all cases of relative or absolute endogeneous progesterone deficiency. Dydrogesterone is to be withdrawn from the UK market from March 2008 for commercial reasons. Dydrogesterone was licensed for use in several indications,including threatened or recurrent miscarriage, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and hormone replacement therapy.

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Rivaroxaban

Rivaroxaban

Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant invented and manufactured by Bayer; in a number of countries it is marketed as Xarelto. In the United States, it is marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica. It is the first available orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor. Rivaroxaban is well absorbed from the gut and maximum inhibition of factor Xa occurs four hours after a dose. The effects lasts 8–12 hours, but factor Xa activity does not return to normal within 24 hours so once-daily dosing is possible. There is no specific way to reverse the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban in the event of a major bleeding event, unlike warfarin.

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Hemarthrosis

Hemarthrosis

Hemarthrosis is a bleeding into joint spaces.

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Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta is a severe obstetric complication involving an abnormally deep attachment of the placenta to the myometrium, without penetrating it. Thus, the placenta grows completely through the endometrium. The placenta usually detaches from the uterine wall relatively easily, but women who encounter placenta accreta during childbirth are at great risk of hemorrhage during its removal. This commonly requires surgery to stem the bleeding and fully remove the placenta, and in severe forms can often lead to a hysterectomy or be fatal.

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Scottish Terrier

Scottish Terrier

The Scottish Terrier, popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog. Initially one of the highland breeds of Terrier that were grouped under the name of Skye Terrier, it is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland, the other four being the modern Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and West Highland White Terrier. They are an independent and rugged breed with a wiry outer coat and a soft dense undercoat. The First Earl of Dumbarton nicknamed the breed "the diehard." The modern breed is said to be able to trace its lineage back to a single female, named Splinter II. They are a small breed of Terrier with a distinctive shape and have had many roles in popular culture. They have been owned by a variety of celebrities, including the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose Scottie "Fala" is included with FDR in a statue in Washington, DC, as well as the 43rd President George W. Bush. They are also well known for being a playing piece in the board game Monopoly. Described as a territorial, feisty dog, they can make a good watchdog and tend to be very loyal to their family. Healthwise, Scottish Terriers can be more prone to bleeding disorders, joint disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer than some other breeds of dog and there is a condition named after the breed called Scotty cramp. They are also one of the more successful dog breeds at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show with a recent best in show in 2010.

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Thecoma

Thecoma

Thecomas or theca cell tumors are benign ovarian neoplasms composed only of theca cells. Histogenetically they are classified as sex cord-stromal tumours. They are typically estrogen-producing and they occur in older women. Sixty percent of patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding, and 20% have endometrial carcinoma.

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Hemostat

Hemostat

A hemostat is a vital surgical tool used in many surgical procedures to control bleeding. For that reason it's common to see the initial incision lined with hemostats closing blood vessels awaiting ligation during the initial phases of surgery. Hemostats belong to a group of instruments that pivot where the structure of the tip determines the function. The hemostat has handles that can be held in place by their locking mechanism. The locking mechanism is typically a series of interlocking teeth, a few on each handle, that allow the user to adjust the clamping force of the pliers. When locked on, the force between the tips is approximately 40 N. Hemostats are part of the first aid kit carried by combat medics and paramedics.

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Panax pseudoginseng

Panax pseudoginseng

Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax. The scientific names for the plant commonly used are either Panax notoginseng or Panax pseudoginseng, and is most commonly referred to as notoginseng. The herb is also referred to as pseudoginseng, and in Chinese it is called 田七, Tienchi ginseng, san qi or sanchi, three-seven root, and mountain paint. Notoginseng belongs to the same scientific genus as Asian ginseng. In Latin, the word panax means "cure-all", and the family of ginseng plants is one of the most well-known herbs. Panax pseudoginseng is not an adaptogen like the better known Panax species, but it is famous as a hemostatic herb that both invigorates and builds blood. Notoginseng grows naturally in China and Japan. The herb is a perennial with dark green leaves branching from a stem with a red cluster of berries in the middle. It is both cultivated and gathered from wild forests, with wild plants being the most valuable. The Chinese refer to it as "three-seven root" because the plant has three branches with seven leaves each. It is also said that the root should be harvested between three and seven years after planting it. It is classified in Chinese medicine as warm in nature, sweet and slightly bitter in taste, and nontoxic. The dose in decoction for clinical use is 5-10 g. It can be ground to powder for swallowing directly or taking mixed with water: the dose in that case is usually is 1-3 grams. In the Bencao Gangmu it is stated: "On account of the fact that sanqi is a herb belonging to the blood phase of the yang ming and jue yin meridians, it can treat all diseases of the blood." Notoginseng is a herb that has been used in China quite extensively since the end of the 19th century. It has acquired a very favorable reputation for treatment of blood disorders, including blood stasis, bleeding, and blood deficiency. It is the largest ingredient in 云南白药, a famous hemostatic proprietary herbal remedy that was notably carried by the Viet Cong to deal with wounds during the Vietnam war.

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Cauterization

Cauterization

The medical practice or technique of cauterization is the burning of part of a body to remove or close off a part of it in a process called cautery, which destroys some tissue, in an attempt to mitigate damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harmful possibilities such as infections, when antibiotics are not available. The practice was once widespread for treatment of wounds. Its utility before the advent of antibiotics was effective on several levels: ⁕useful in stopping severe blood-loss and preventing exsanguination ⁕to close amputations Cautery was historically believed to prevent infection, but current research shows that cautery actually increases the risk for infection by causing more tissue damage and providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial growth. Actual cautery is a term referring to the metal device, generally heated to a dull red glow, that is applied to produce blisters, to stop bleeding of a blood vessel, and other similar purposes. The main forms of cauterization used today in the first world are electrocautery and chemical cautery—where both are, for example, prevalent in the removal of unsightly warts. Cautery can also mean the branding of a human, either recreational or forced.

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Bandage

Bandage

A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to the body; they can also be used to restrict a part of the body. During heavy bleeding or following a poisonous bite it is important to slow the flow of blood, tight bandages accomplish this task very well. Bandages are available in a wide range of types, from generic cloth strips, to specialized shaped bandages designed for a specific limb or part of the body, although bandages can often be improvised as the situation demands, using clothing, blankets or other material. In colloquial American English, the word "bandage" is often used to mean a dressing, which is used directly on a wound, whereas a bandage is technically only used to support a dressing, and not directly on a wound.

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Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, also known as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy or less commonly as consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological activation of coagulation mechanisms that happens in response to a variety of diseases. DIC leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. As the small clots consume coagulation proteins and platelets, normal coagulation is disrupted and abnormal bleeding occurs from the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and surgical wounds. The small clots also disrupt normal blood flow to organs, which may malfunction as a result. DIC can occur acutely but also on a slower, chronic basis, depending on the underlying problem. It is common in the critically ill, and may participate in the development of multiple organ failure, which may lead to death.

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Diathermy

Diathermy

In the natural sciences, the term diathermy [di´ah-ther″me] means "electrically induced heat" the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical or occupational therapy and in surgical procedures. The term diathermy is derived from the Greek words dia and therma, and literally means “heating through.” adj., adj diather´mal, diather´mic. It is commonly used for muscle relaxation. It is also a method of heating tissue electromagnetically or ultrasonically for therapeutic purposes in medicine. Diathermy is used in physical therapy and occupational therapy to deliver moderate heat directly to pathologic lesions in the deeper tissues of the body. Diathermy, whether achieved using short-wave radio frequency or microwave energy, exerts physical effects and elicits a spectrum of physiological responses, the two methods differing mainly for their penetration capability. Surgically, the extreme heat that can be produced by diathermy may be used to destroy neoplasms, warts, and infected tissues, and to cauterize blood vessels to prevent excessive bleeding. The technique is particularly valuable in neurosurgery and surgery of the eye.

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Chitosan

Chitosan

Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β--linked D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is made by treating shrimp and other crustacean shells with the alkali sodium hydroxide. Chitosan has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses. It can be used in agriculture as a seed treatment and biopesticide, helping plants to fight off fungal infections. In winemaking it can be used as a fining agent, also helping to prevent spoilage. In industry, it can be used in a self-healing polyurethane paint coating. In medicine, it may be useful in bandages to reduce bleeding and as an antibacterial agent; it can also be used to help deliver drugs through the skin. More controversially, chitosan has been asserted to have use in limiting fat absorption, which would make it useful for dieting, but there is evidence against this. Other uses of chitosan that have been researched include use as a soluble dietary fiber.

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Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is a lung disease of unknown cause that is characterized by alveolar capillary bleeding and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. It is rare, with an incidence between 0.24 and 1.23 cases per million people.

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Hemostasis

Hemostasis

Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel. It is the first stage of wound healing. Most of the time this includes blood changing from a liquid to a solid state. All situations that may lead to hemostasis are portrayed by the Virchow's triad. Intact blood vessels are central to moderating blood's tendency to clot. The endothelial cells of intact vessels prevent blood clotting with a heparin-like molecule and thrombomodulin and prevent platelet aggregation with nitric oxide and prostacyclin. When endothelial injury occurs, the endothelial cells stop secretion of coagulation and aggregation inhibitors and instead secrete von Willebrand factor which initiate the maintenance of hemostasis after injury. Hemostasis has three major steps: 1 vasoconstriction, 2 temporary blockage of a break by a platelet plug, and 3 blood coagulation, or formation of a clot that seals the hole until tissues are repaired.

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Rattlesnake

Rattlesnake

Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae. There are 32 known species of rattlesnake, with between 65-70 subspecies, all native to the Americas, ranging from southern Alberta and southern British Columbia in Canada to Central Argentina. Rattlesnakes are predators who live in a wide array of habitats, hunting small animals such as birds and rodents. They kill their prey with a venomous bite, rather than by constricting. All rattlesnakes possess a set of fangs with which they inject large quantities of hemotoxic venom. The venom travels through the bloodstream, destroying tissue and causing swelling, internal bleeding, and intense pain. Some species, such as the Mojave Rattlesnake, additionally possess a neurotoxic component in their venom that causes paralysis and other nervous symptoms. The threat of envenomation, advertised by the loud shaking of the titular noisemaker at the end of their tail, deters many predators. However, rattlesnakes fall prey to hawks, weasels, king snakes, and a variety of other species. Rattlesnakes are heavily preyed upon as neonates, while they are still weak and mentally immature. Very large numbers of rattlesnakes are killed by humans. Rattlesnake populations in many areas are severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and extermination campaigns.

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Hemoperitoneum

Hemoperitoneum

Hemoperitoneum is the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity. The blood accumulates in the space between the inner lining of the abdominal wall and the internal abdominal organs. Hemoperitoneum is generally classified as a surgical emergency; in most cases, urgent laparotomy is needed to identify and control the source of the bleeding. In selected cases, careful observation may be permissible. The abdominal cavity is highly distensible and may easily hold greater than five liters of blood, or more than the entire circulating blood volume for an average-sized individual. Therefore, large-scale or rapid blood loss into the abdomen will reliably induce hemorrhagic shock and may, untreated, rapidly lead to death.

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Gastric lavage

Gastric lavage

Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. It has been used for over 200 years as a means of eliminating poisons from the stomach. Such devices are normally used on a person who has ingested a poison or overdosed on a drug such as alcohol. They may also be used before surgery, to clear the contents of the digestive tract before it is opened. Apart from toxicology, gastric lavage is sometimes used to confirm levels of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. It may play a role in the evaluation of hematemesis. It can also be used as a cooling technique for hyperthermic patients.

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Thyroidectomy

Thyroidectomy

A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Surgeons often perform a thyroidectomy when a patient has thyroid cancer or some other condition of the thyroid gland or goiter. Other indications for surgery include cosmetic, or symptomatic obstruction. Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure that has several potential complications or sequela including: temporary or permanent change in voice, temporary or permanently low calcium, need for lifelong thyroid hormone replacement, bleeding, infection, and the remote possibility of airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Complications are uncommon when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon. The thyroid produces several hormones, such as thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin. After the removal of a thyroid, patients usually take a prescribed oral synthetic thyroid hormone - levothyroxine - to prevent hypothyroidism. Less extreme variants of thyroidectomy include: ⁕"hemithyroidectomy" -- removing only half of the thyroid

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Angiodysplasia

Angiodysplasia

In medicine, angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut. It is a common cause of otherwise unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. Lesions are often multiple, and frequently involve the cecum or ascending colon, although they can occur at other places. Treatment may be with endoscopic interventions, medication, or occasionally surgery.

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Purpura

Purpura

Purpura is the appearance of red or purple discolorations on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure. They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin usually secondary to vasculitis or dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Purpura measure 0.3–1 cm, whereas petechiae measure less than 3 mm, and ecchymoses greater than 1 cm. This is common with typhus and can be present with meningitis caused by meningococcal meningitis or septicaemia. In particular, meningococcus, a Gram-negative diplococcus organism, releases endotoxin when it lyses. Endotoxin activates the Hageman factor, which causes disseminated intravascular coagulation. The DIC is what appears as a rash on the affected individual.

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Haemophilia A

Haemophilia A

Hemophilia A is an inherited deficiency in clotting factor VIII, which causes increased bleeding and usually affects males.

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Endometritis

Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. Pathologists have traditionally classified endometritis as either acute or chronic: acute endometritis is characterized by the presence of microabscesses or neutrophils within the endometrial glands, while chronic endometritis is distinguished by variable numbers of plasma cells within the endometrial stroma. The most common cause of endometritis is infection. Symptoms include lower abdominal pain, fever and abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge. Caesarean section, prolonged rupture of membranes and long labor with multiple vaginal examinations are important risk factors. Treatment is usually with broad-spectrum antibiotics. The term "endomyometritis" is sometimes used to specify inflammation of the endometrium and the myometrium.

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Terlipressin

Terlipressin

Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin used as a vasoactive drug in the management of hypotension. It has been found to be effective when norepinephrine does not help. Indications for use include norepinephrine-resistant septic shock and hepatorenal syndrome. In addition, it is used to treat bleeding esophageal varices.

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Decerebration

Decerebration

Decerebration is the elimination of cerebral brain function in an animal by removing the cerebrum, cutting across the brain stem, or severing certain arteries in the brain stem. Decerebration describes the ligation along the neural axis in distinct parts of the brain in experimental animals. Generally lower decerebration, middle decerebration and upper decerebration. As a result the animal abolishes certain reflexes which are integrated in different parts of the brain. Furthermore the reflexes which are functional will be hyperreactive due to the removal of inhibiting higher brain centers. Lower decerebration results in a "Bulbospinal" animal: Reflexes which are integrated within the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are functional, reflexes integrated in midbrain and cortex are absent. The most obvious accentuation is seen in the tonic labyrinthine reflexes, the otholitic organ mediates input about the gravitational force exerted on the body and the labyrinthine reflex acts on the extensor muscles in order to resist this gravitational force. In an animal where the cortical areas or the midbrain have been "cut off" from the neural axis, this reflex is hyperactive and the animal will maximally extend all four limbs. This phenomenon is known as decerebrate rigidity. In humans true decerebrate rigidty is rare since the damage to the brain centers it might be caused by usually are lethal. However decorticate rigidity can be caused by bleeding in the internal capsule which causes damage to upper motor neurons. The symptoms of decorticate rigidity are flexion in the upper limbs and extension in the lower limbs.

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Coumatetralyl

Coumatetralyl

Coumatetralyl is an anticoagulant of the 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist type. Symptoms of overexposure relate to failure of the blood clotting mechanism and include bleeding gums and failure of blood clotting after skin wounds. After one exposure the toxicity of coumatetralyl is relatively low, however if overexposure continues for several days the product becomes more toxic. The product must therefore be constantly present in the bloodstream for more than 1 to 2 days in order to be highly toxic. A single exposure, even though relatively large, may not produce toxic symptoms as the compound is quite rapidly metabolised. Chronic animal studies show no evidence of carcinogenic or teratogenic effects.

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Aminocaproic acid

Aminocaproic acid

Aminocaproic acid is a derivative and analogue of the amino acid lysine, which makes it an effective inhibitor for enzymes that bind that particular residue. Such enzymes include proteolytic enzymes like plasmin, the enzyme responsible for fibrinolysis. For this reason it is effective in treatment of certain bleeding disorders, and it is marketed as Amicar. Aminocaproic acid is also an intermediate in the polymerization of Nylon-6, where it is formed by ring-opening hydrolysis of caprolactam.

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Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic event during childbirth by which the integrity of the myometrial wall is breached. In an incomplete rupture the peritoneum is still intact. With a complete rupture the contents of the uterus may spill into the peritoneal cavity or the broad ligament. A uterine rupture is a life-threatening event for mother and baby. A uterine rupture typically occurs during active labor, but may already develop during late pregnancy. Uterine dehiscence is a similar condition, but involves fewer layers, less bleeding, and less risk.

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Plateletpheresis

Plateletpheresis

Plateletpheresis is the process of collecting thrombocytes, more commonly called platelets, a component of blood involved in blood clotting. The term specifically refers to the method of collecting the platelets, which is performed by a device used in blood donation that separates the platelets and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. Platelet transfusion can be a life-saving procedure in preventing or treating serious complications from bleeding and hemorrhage in patients who have disorders manifesting as thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction. This process may also be used therapeutically to treat disorders resulting in extraordinarily high platelet counts such as essential thrombocytosis.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia, also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. Although AML is a relatively rare disease, accounting for approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States, its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages. The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, which causes a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. These symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. Several risk factors and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified, but the specific cause is not clear. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated. AML has several subtypes; treatment and prognosis varies among subtypes. Five-year survival varies from 15–70%, and relapse rate varies from 33–78%, depending on subtype. AML is treated initially with chemotherapy aimed at inducing a remission; patients may go on to receive additional chemotherapy or a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recent research into the genetics of AML has resulted in the availability of tests that can predict which drug or drugs may work best for a particular patient, as well as how long that patient is likely to survive.

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Anterior temporal lobectomy

Anterior temporal lobectomy

Anterior temporal lobectomy is the complete removal of the anterior portion of the temporal lobe of the brain. It is a treatment option in temporal lobe epilepsy for those in whom anticonvulsant medications do not control epileptic seizures. The techniques for removing temporal lobe tissue vary from resection of large amounts of tissue, including lateral temporal cortex along with medial structures, to more restricted anterior temporal lobectomy to more restricted removal of only the medial structures. Nearly all reports of seizure outcome following these procedures indicate that the best outcome group includes patients with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis The range of seizure-free outcomes for these patients is reported to be between 80 and 90%, which is typically reported as a sub-set of data within a larger surgical series. Open surgical procedures such as ATL have inherent risks including damage to the brain, bleeding, blood loss, and infection. Furthermore, open procedures require several days of care in the hospital including at least one night in an intensive care unit. Although such treatment can be costly, multiple studies have demonstrated that ATL in patients who have failed at least two anticonvulsant drug trials has lower mortality, lower morbidity and lower long-term cost in comparison with continued medical therapy without surgical intervention.

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Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapse refers to a medical condition where a section of the wall of the rectum prolapses from the normal anatomical position with associated pelvic floor dysfunction. This may occur while straining to defecate, or during rest. Used unqualified, the term rectal prolapse often is used synonymously with complete rectal prolapse, where the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body. However, most researchers agree that there are 3 to 5 different types of rectal prolapse, depending on if the prolapsed section is visible externally, and if the full or only partial thickness of the rectal wall is involved. Rectal prolapse may occur without any symptoms, but depending upon the nature of the prolapse there may be mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, degrees of fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation symptoms. Rectal prolapse is generally more common in elderly women, although it may occur at any age and in both sexes. It is very rarely life threatening, but the symptoms can be debilitating if left untreated. Most external prolapse cases can be treated successfully, often with a surgical procedure. Internal prolapses are traditionally harder to treat and surgery may not be suitable for many patients.

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Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus ducreyi is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus causing the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, a major cause of genital ulceration in developing countries characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Another early symptom is dark or light green shears in excrement. Chancroid starts as an erythematous papular lesion that breaks down into a painful bleeding ulcer with a necrotic base and ragged edge. H. ducreyi can be cultured on chocolate agar. It is best treated with a macrolide like azithromycin and a third-generation cephalosporin like ceftriaxone. H. ducreyi gram stain appear as "school of fish."

— Freebase

Prunella vulgaris

Prunella vulgaris

Prunella vulgaris is an herbaceous plant in the genus Prunella. Self-heal is edible: the young leaves and stems can be eaten raw in salads; the whole plant can be boiled and eaten as a potherb; and the aerial parts of the plant can be powdered and brewed in a cold infusion to make a tasty beverage. Medicinally, the whole plant is poulticed onto wounds to promote healing. A mouthwash made from an infusion of the whole plant can be used to treat sore throats, thrush and gum infections. Internally, a tea can be used to treat diarrhea and internal bleeding.

— Freebase

Aprotinin

Aprotinin

The drug aprotinin, is the bovine version of the small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, or BPTI, which inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use was to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; this was confirmed by follow-up studies. Trasylol sales were suspended in May 2008, except for very restricted research use. In February 2012 the European Medicines Agency scientific committee reverted its previous standpoint regarding aprotinin, and has recommended that the suspension be lifted.

— Freebase

Macroglobulinemia

Macroglobulinemia

Macroglobulinemia is the presence of increased levels of macroglobulins in the circulating blood. It is a Plasma cell dyscrasia, resembling leukemia, with cells of lymphocytic, plasmacytic, or intermediate morphology, which secrete a monoclonal immunoglobulin M component. There is diffuse infiltration by the malignant cells of the bone marrow and also, in many cases, of the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes. The circulating macroglobulin can produce symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome: weakness, fatigue, bleeding disorders, and visual disturbances. Peak incidence of macroglobulinemia is in the sixth and seventh decades of life.

— Freebase

Exsanguination

Exsanguination

Exsanguination is the process of blood loss, to a degree sufficient to cause death. One does not have to lose literally all of one's blood to cause death. Depending upon the age, health, and fitness level of the individual, people can die from losing half or two-thirds of their blood; a loss of roughly one-third of the blood volume is considered very serious. Even a single deep cut can warrant suturing and hospitalization, especially if trauma, a vein or artery, or another comorbidity is involved. It is most commonly known as "bleeding to death". The word itself originated from Latin: ex and sanguis.

— Freebase

Lamprocapnos

Lamprocapnos

Lamprocapnos spectabilis, known commonly as old-fashioned bleeding-heart, Venus's car, lady in a bath, Dutchman's trousers, and lyre-flower is a rhizomatous perennial plant native to eastern Asia from Siberia south to Japan. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus Lamprocapnos. It is a popular ornamental plant for flower gardens in temperate climates, and is also used in floristry as a cut flower for Valentine's Day. It usually has red heart-shaped flowers with white tips which droop from arching flower stems in late spring and early summer. White-flowered forms are also cultivated.

— Freebase


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