Definitions containing ...grasp

We've found 165 definitions:

Clinch

Clinch

to hold fast; to grasp something firmly; to seize or grasp one another

— Webster Dictionary

Seize

Seize

to fall or rush upon suddenly and lay hold of; to gripe or grasp suddenly; to reach and grasp

— Webster Dictionary

clasp

clasp

grasp firmly

— Princeton's WordNet

follow

follow

grasp the meaning

— Princeton's WordNet

grab

grab

take or grasp suddenly

— Princeton's WordNet

clench

clench, clinch

hold in a tight grasp

— Princeton's WordNet

clinch

clench, clinch

hold in a tight grasp

— Princeton's WordNet

snatch up

snatch, snatch up, snap

to grasp hastily or eagerly

— Princeton's WordNet

snatch

snatch, snatch up, snap

to grasp hastily or eagerly

— Princeton's WordNet

snap

snatch, snatch up, snap

to grasp hastily or eagerly

— Princeton's WordNet

fondle

fondle

To grasp.

— Wiktionary

fathom

fathom

Grasp, envelopment, control.

— Wiktionary

gripe

gripe

To seize, grasp.

— Wiktionary

ahold

ahold

a hold, grip, grasp

— Wiktionary

take hold

take hold

to grasp, seize

— Wiktionary

clutches

clutches

Grasp; possession; control.

— Wiktionary

snatch

snatch

To grasp quickly.

— Wiktionary

catch

catch, get

grasp with the mind or develop an understanding of

— Princeton's WordNet

get

catch, get

grasp with the mind or develop an understanding of

— Princeton's WordNet

undernim

undernim

To seize; catch; grasp.

— Wiktionary

elusiveness

elusiveness

the quality of being difficult to grasp or pin down

— Princeton's WordNet

snatch

snatch

To grasp and remove quickly.

— Wiktionary

squeeze

squeeze

A hug or other affectionate grasp

— Wiktionary

clutch

clutch

To grip or grasp tightly.

— Wiktionary

hold on

hold on

To grasp or grip firmly.

— Wiktionary

hang on

hang on

To hold, grasp, or grip.

— Wiktionary

clasp

clasp

An embrace, a grasp, or handshake.

— Wiktionary

take

take

To grasp with the hands.

— Wiktionary

hold someones hand

hold someones hand

To grasp or hold a person's hand.

— Wiktionary

chokehold

chokehold

A strong and powerful grasp on something

— Wiktionary

hooked

hooklike, hooked

having or resembling a hook (especially in the ability to grasp and hold)

— Princeton's WordNet

hooklike

hooklike, hooked

having or resembling a hook (especially in the ability to grasp and hold)

— Princeton's WordNet

tentacle

tentacle

something that acts like a tentacle in its ability to grasp and hold

— Princeton's WordNet

catch on

catch on

to begin to understand; = grasp

— Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary

shake hands

shake hands

To grasp another person's hands in a greeting.

— Wiktionary

comprehend

comprehend

to understand or grasp fully and thoroughly.

— Wiktionary

Griff

Griff

grasp; reach

— Webster Dictionary

Qraspine

Qraspine

of Grasp

— Webster Dictionary

Grasper

Grasper

of Grasp

— Webster Dictionary

Gripple

Gripple

a grasp; a gripe

— Webster Dictionary

befang

befang

To lay hold on; seize; grasp; catch; clutch.

— Wiktionary

Vice

Vice

a gripe or grasp

— Webster Dictionary

Graspless

Graspless

without a grasp; relaxed

— Webster Dictionary

unhold

unhold

To unhand, release from one's grasp, let go of.

— Wiktionary

pick

pick

To grasp and pull with the fingers or fingernails.

— Wiktionary

Grab

Grab

a sudden grasp or seizure

— Webster Dictionary

Catch

Catch

act of seizing; a grasp

— Webster Dictionary

semiliterate

semiliterate

Not entirely literate; having a limited grasp of the written language

— Wiktionary

take someones point

take someones point

To grasp the essential meaning of what a person is saying.

— Wiktionary

microgripper

microgripper

A microscopic device used to grasp and manipulate microscale objects safely

— Wiktionary

subtle

subtle

Hard to grasp; not obvious or easily understood; barely noticeable.

— Wiktionary

Gripe

Gripe

grasp; seizure; fast hold; clutch

— Webster Dictionary

elusive

elusive, subtle

difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze

— Princeton's WordNet

subtle

elusive, subtle

difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze

— Princeton's WordNet

intuit

intuit

know or grasp by intuition or feeling

— Princeton's WordNet

Prehensory

Prehensory

adapted to seize or grasp; prehensile

— Webster Dictionary

Impalm

Impalm

to grasp with or hold in the hand

— Webster Dictionary

Handfast

Handfast

hold; grasp; custody; power of confining or keeping

— Webster Dictionary

Seizure

Seizure

retention within one's grasp or power; hold; possession; ownership

— Webster Dictionary

Grip

Grip

an energetic or tenacious grasp; a holding fast; strength in grasping

— Webster Dictionary

miss the point

miss the point

To fail to grasp the meaning of an utterance.

— Wiktionary

have a handle on

have a handle on

To be in control; to understand or grasp.

— Wiktionary

handful

handful

As much as the hand will grasp or contain. - Joseph Addison

— Wiktionary

perspicacity

perspicacity

The human faculty or power to mentally grasp or understand clearly.

— Wiktionary

seize upon

seize upon

To grasp or take hold of (an object) suddenly, forcibly, or tightly.

— Wiktionary

Handygripe

Handygripe

seizure by, or grasp of, the hand; also, close quarters in fighting

— Webster Dictionary

hent

hent

To take hold of, to grasp.

— Wiktionary

pick up

pick up

To lift; to grasp and raise.

— Wiktionary

Prehensile

Prehensile

adapted to seize or grasp; seizing; grasping; as, the prehensile tail of a monkey

— Webster Dictionary

monodactylous

monodactylous

Having a single digit on each limb, especially a single claw that can be used to grasp

— Wiktionary

jack of all trades, master of none

jack of all trades, master of none

A person who has a competent grasp of many skills but who is not outstanding in any one.

— Wiktionary

trichocyst

trichocyst

A threadlike organ in certain protozoans that can be discharged suddenly in order to grasp or sting

— Wiktionary

oversit

oversit

to grasp, comprehend; to understand

— Wiktionary

clasp

clasp

To take hold of; to grasp; to grab tightly.

— Wiktionary

Handful

Handful

as much as the hand will grasp or contain

— Webster Dictionary

take to

take to

To adapt to; to learn, grasp or master.

— Wiktionary

Relax

Relax

to become lax, weak, or loose; as, to let one's grasp relax

— Webster Dictionary

understanding

understanding

Reason or intelligence, ability to grasp the full meaning of knowledge, ability to infer.

— Wiktionary

sprachgefu00FChl

sprachgefu00FChl

(rare) the instinctive or intuitive grasp of the natural idiom of a language

— Wiktionary

sprachgefuhl

sprachgefuhl

(rare) the instinctive or intuitive grasp of the natural idiom of a language

— Wiktionary

Short

Short

limited in intellectual power or grasp; not comprehensive; narrow; not tenacious, as memory

— Webster Dictionary

Sprachgefu00FChl

Sprachgefu00FChl

the instinctive or intuitive grasp of the natural idiom of a language

— Wiktionary

obfuscation

obfuscation

A single instance of intentionally obscuring the meaning of something to make it more difficult to grasp.

— Wiktionary

semiliteracy

semiliteracy

The state of not being fully literate, or having an imperfect grasp of the written language

— Wiktionary

Gripe

Gripe

that on which the grasp is put; a handle; a grip; as, the gripe of a sword

— Webster Dictionary

latch on

latch on

To grasp firmly; to become attached to.

— Wiktionary

snatch the pebble

snatch the pebble

To fully grasp the meaning of a concept or developed a skill to a high degree of proficiency, often that rivals some specific expert.

— Wiktionary

Engrasp

Engrasp

to grasp; to grip

— Webster Dictionary

hend

hend

To take hold of; to grasp, hold.

— Wiktionary

pick up

pick up

To learn, to grasp; to begin to understand.

— Wiktionary

Elusive

Elusive

tending to elude; using arts or deception to escape; adroitly escaping or evading; eluding the grasp; fallacious

— Webster Dictionary

Grasp

Grasp

reach of the arms; hence, the power of seizing and holding; as, it was beyond his grasp

— Webster Dictionary

Grasp

Grasp

to effect a grasp; to make the motion of grasping; to clutch; to struggle; to strive

— Webster Dictionary

seize upon

seize upon

To take up, embrace, enact, or turn eagerly to (a plan, idea, ideology, cause, practice, method, etc.); to grasp, understand, and accept quickly; to adopt wholeheartedly or vigorously.

— Wiktionary

Clasp

Clasp

to inclose and hold in the hand or with the arms; to grasp; to embrace

— Webster Dictionary

Clutch

Clutch

to reach (at something) as if to grasp; to catch or snatch; -- often followed by at

— Webster Dictionary

Clutch

Clutch

a gripe or clinching with, or as with, the fingers or claws; seizure; grasp

— Webster Dictionary

Knurl

Knurl

to provide with ridges, to assist the grasp, as in the edge of a flat knob, or coin; to mill

— Webster Dictionary

key into

key into

To grasp; to understand the overall concept of or be acutely aware of the underlying and essential meaning of something. To get it.

— Wiktionary

Beclap

Beclap

to catch; to grasp; to insnare

— Webster Dictionary

Grip

Grip

to give a grip to; to grasp; to gripe

— Webster Dictionary

Clamp

Clamp

one of a pair of movable pieces of lead, or other soft material, to cover the jaws of a vise and enable it to grasp without bruising

— Webster Dictionary

Comprehend

Comprehend

to take into the mind; to grasp with the understanding; to apprehend the meaning of; to understand

— Webster Dictionary

Catch

Catch

to lay hold on; to seize, especially with the hand; to grasp (anything) in motion, with the effect of holding; as, to catch a ball

— Webster Dictionary

GRASP

GRASP

GRASP is a well known SAT instance solver. It was developed by João Marques Silva, a Portuguese computer science researcher. It stands for Generic seaRch Algorithm for the Satisfiability Problem.

— Freebase

forceps delivery

forceps delivery

delivery in which forceps are inserted through the vagina and used to grasp the head of the fetus and pull it through the birth canal; since the forceps can injure the fetus this procedure has generally given way to cesarean deliveries

— Princeton's WordNet

Seizure

Seizure

the act of seizing, or the state of being seized; sudden and violent grasp or gripe; a taking into possession; as, the seizure of a thief, a property, a throne, etc.

— Webster Dictionary

Handshake

Handshake

A handshake is a short ritual in which two people grasp one of each other's like hands, in most cases accompanied by a brief up and down movement of the grasped hands.

— Freebase

Prehensility

Prehensility

Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. The word is derived from the Latin term prehendere, meaning "to grasp."

— Freebase

let go

let go

To release from one's grasp; to go from a state of holding on to a state of no longer holding on.

— Wiktionary

Take

Take

in an active sense; To lay hold of; to seize with the hands, or otherwise; to grasp; to get into one's hold or possession; to procure; to seize and carry away; to convey

— Webster Dictionary

Hold

Hold

to cause to remain in a given situation, position, or relation, within certain limits, or the like; to prevent from falling or escaping; to sustain; to restrain; to keep in the grasp; to retain

— Webster Dictionary

Autotomy

Autotomy

Autotomy or self amputation is the act whereby an animal severs one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism designed to elude a predator's grasp. The lost body part may be regenerated later.

— Freebase

Clinch

Clinch

the act or process of holding fast; that which serves to hold fast; a grip; a grasp; a clamp; a holdfast; as, to get a good clinch of an antagonist, or of a weapon; to secure anything by a clinch

— Webster Dictionary

Hold

Hold

the act of holding, as in or with the hands or arms; the manner of holding, whether firm or loose; seizure; grasp; clasp; gripe; possession; -- often used with the verbs take and lay

— Webster Dictionary

TerraPass

TerraPass

TerraPass is an online tool that empowers people with detailed and accurate information so they can more fully grasp the carbon impact of their travel choices. The company allows you to estimate your everyday (Home, Car, Flight) carbon output and purchase offsets (TerraPasses).

— CrunchBase

reach

reach

To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear.

— Wiktionary

Reach

Reach

to attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear

— Webster Dictionary

Arthur Holmes

Arthur Holmes

Arthur Holmes was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology. He pioneered the use of radioactive dating of minerals and was the first earth scientist to grasp the mechanical and thermal implications of mantle convection, which led eventually to the acceptance of plate tectonics.

— Freebase

Tantalus

Tantalus

a Phrygian king who was punished in the lower world by being placed in the midst of a lake whose waters reached to his chin but receded whenever he attempted to allay his thirst, while over his head hung branches laden with choice fruit which likewise receded whenever he stretched out his hand to grasp them

— Webster Dictionary

Boscawen, Edward

Boscawen, Edward

a British admiral, known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought"; distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello, Cathagena, Cape Finisterre, and the Bay of Lagos, where, after a "sea hunt" of 24 hours, he wrecked and ruined a fine French fleet, eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Forceps

Forceps

Forceps or forcipes are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. Forceps are used when fingers are too large to grasp small objects or when many objects need to be held at one time while the hands are used to perform a task. The term 'forceps' is used almost exclusively within the medical field. Outside medicine, people usually refer to forceps as tweezers, tongs, pliers, clips or clamps. 'Forceps' can be used as both the singular and plural form of the word. Also, it is not referred to as a "pair" as one refers to a "pair of scissors". Etymologically, the word derives from the Latin forca, meaning a snare or trap. Mechanically, forceps employ the principle of the lever to grasp and apply pressure. Surgical forceps are commonly made of high-grade carbon steel, which ensures they can withstand repeated sterilization in high-temperature autoclaves. Lower quality steel is used in forceps made for other uses. Some forceps, intended to be used once and then discarded, are made of plastic. The invention of surgical forceps is attributed to Stephen Hales There are two basic types of forceps: non-locking and locking, though these two types come in dozens of specialized forms for various uses. Non-locking forceps also come in two basic forms, hinged at one end, away from the grasping end and hinged in the middle, rather like scissors. Locking forceps are almost always hinged in the middle, though some forms place the hinge very close to the grasping end. Locking forceps use various means to lock the grasping surfaces in a closed position to facilitate manipulation or to independently clamp, grasp or hold an object.

— Freebase

Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy

Non-philosophy is a concept developed by French philosopher François Laruelle. Laruelle argues that all forms of philosophy are structured around a prior decision, and remain constitutively blind to this decision. The 'decision' that Laruelle is concerned with here is the dialectical splitting of the world in order to grasp the world philosophically. Examples from the history of philosophy include Immanuel Kant's distinction between the synthesis of manifold impressions and the faculties of the understanding; Martin Heidegger's split between the ontic and the ontological; and Jacques Derrida's notion of différance/presence. The reason Laruelle finds this decision interesting and problematic is because the decision itself cannot be grasped without introducing some further scission. Laruelle further argues that the decisional structure of philosophy can only be grasped non-philosophically. In this sense, non-philosophy is a science of philosophy. Non-philosophy is not metaphilosophy because, as Laruelle scholar Ray Brassier notes, "philosophy is already metaphilosophical through its constitutive reflexivity". Brassier also defines non-philosophy as the "theoretical practice of philosophy proceeding by way of transcendental axioms and producing theorems which are philosophically uninterpretable". The reason why the axioms and theorems of non-philosophy are philosophically uninterpretable is because, as explained, philosophy cannot grasp its decisional structure in the way that non-philosophy can.

— Freebase

Chelicerae

Chelicerae

The chelicerae are mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod subphylum that includes arachnids, Merostomata, and Pycnogonida. Chelicerae are pointed appendages which are used to grasp food, and are found in place of the chewing mandibles most other arthropods have. Additionally, some chelicerae, such as those found in spiders, are hollow and contain venom glands, and are used to inject venom into prey or a threat.

— Freebase

Honorius, Flavius

Honorius, Flavius

emperor of the West, born at Constantinople, son of Theodosius the Great, a weak ruler, and only able to resist the invasion of the Goths so long as Stilicho, his minister, lived, for after the murder of the latter by treachery matters with him went from bad to worse, and he saw some of his finest provinces snatched from his grasp (384-423).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ladyfinger

Ladyfinger

Ladyfingers are light and sweet sponge cakes roughly shaped like a large finger. They are a principal ingredient in many dessert recipes, such as trifles, charlottes, and tiramisu. They are typically soaked in a sugar syrup or liqueur, such as coffee for the tiramisu dessert. They are also commonly given to infants, being soft enough for teething mouths but easy to grasp and firm enough not to fall apart.

— Freebase

Manipulator

Manipulator

In robotics a manipulator is a device used to manipulate materials without direct contact. The applications were originally for dealing with radioactive or biohazardous materials, using robotic arms, or they were used in inaccessible places. In more recent developments they have been used in applications such as robotically-assisted surgery and in space. It is an arm-like mechanism that consists of a series of segments, usually sliding or jointed, which grasp and move objects with a number of degrees of freedom.

— Freebase

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia

the name given after Alexander the Great's time to the territory "between the rivers" Euphrates and Tigris, stretching from Babylonia NW. to the Armenian mountains; under irrigation it was very fertile, but is now little cultivated; once the scene of high civilisation when Nineveh ruled it; it passed from Assyrian hands successively to Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, and Arab; now, after many vicissitudes, it is in the deathly grasp of Turkish rule.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

PDCA

PDCA

PDCA is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan–do–study–act. Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added "O" stands for observation or as some versions say "Grasp the current condition." This emphasis on observation and current condition has currency with Lean Manufacturing/Toyota Production System literature.

— Freebase

Simultanagnosia

Simultanagnosia

Simultanagnosia is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the inability of an individual to perceive more than a single object at a time. It is one of three major components of Bálint’s syndrome, an uncommon and incompletely understood variety of severe neuropsychological impairments involving space representation. The term “simultanagnosia” was first coined in 1924 by Wolpert to describe a condition where the affected individual could see individual details of a complex scene but failed to grasp the overall meaning of the image. Simultanagnosia can be divided into two different categories: dorsal and ventral.

— Freebase

Tantalus

Tantalus

Tantalus was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus. He was made to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches, with the fruit ever eluding his grasp, and the water always receding before he could take a drink. He was the father of Pelops, Niobe and Broteas, and was a son of Zeus and the nymph Plouto. Thus, like other heroes in Greek mythology such as Theseus and the Dioskouroi, Tantalus had both a hidden, divine parent and a mortal one.

— Freebase

TwoFish

TwoFish

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— CrunchBase

Term logic

Term logic

In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for the way of doing logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. This entry is an introduction to the term logic needed to understand philosophy texts written before predicate logic came to be seen as the only formal logic of interest. Readers lacking a grasp of the basic terminology and ideas of term logic can have difficulty understanding such texts, because their authors typically assumed an acquaintance with term logic.

— Freebase

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music. Early influences of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and other Russian composers gave way to a thoroughly personal idiom that included a pronounced lyricism, expressive breadth, structural ingenuity, and a tonal palette of rich, distinctive orchestral colors. The piano is featured prominently in Rachmaninoff's compositional output. He made a point of using his own skills as a performer to explore fully the expressive possibilities of the instrument. Even in his earliest works he revealed a sure grasp of idiomatic piano writing and a striking gift for melody.

— Freebase

Richelieu, Armand-Jean Duplessis, Cardinal de

Richelieu, Armand-Jean Duplessis, Cardinal de

born in Paris, of a noble family; was minister of Louis XIII., and one of the greatest statesmen France ever had; from his installation as Prime Minister in 1624 he set himself to the achievement of a threefold purpose, and rested not till he accomplished it—the ruin of the Protestants as a political party, the curtailment of the power of the nobles, and the humiliation of the House of Austria in the councils of Europe; his administration was signalised by reforms in finance, in the army, and in legislation; as the historian Thierry has said of him, "He left nothing undone that could be done by statesmanship for the social amelioration of the country; he had a mind of the most comprehensive grasp, and a genius for the minutest details of administration"; he was a patron of letters, and the founder of the French Academy (1585-1642).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Oar

Oar

An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Oarsmen grasp the oar at the other end. The difference between oars and paddles are that paddles are held by the paddler, and are not connected with the vessel. Oars generally are connected to the vessel by means of rowlocks or tholes which transmit the applied force to the boat. In this system the water is the fulcrum. Oarsmen generally face the stern of the vessel, reach as far as they can towards the stern, and insert the blade of their oar in the water. As they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars sweeps the water towards the stern, providing forward thrust – see lever. For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or the mechanical work of oarsmen, or paddlers. Some ancient vessels were propelled by either oars or sail, depending on the speed and direction of the wind.

— Freebase

Pericardiectomy

Pericardiectomy

Pericardiectomy is the surgical removal of part or most of the pericardium. This operation is most commonly done to relieve constrictive pericarditis or to remove a pericardium that is calcified and fibrous. There are many etiologies for constrictive pericarditis and it is better to know the exact cause as the post operative morbidity, mortality, and life expectancy are strongly influenced by the cause. It takes place by removing the infected, fibrosed, or otherwise damaged pericardium. The procedure begins when the surgeon makes an incision in the skin over the breastbone and divides it to expose the pericardium. During the surgery, the surgeon will grasp the pericardium, cut the top of this fibrous covering of the heart, drop it into the specimen bag, and re-cover the heart. The breastbone is then wired back together and the incision is closed, completing the procedure. When the portion of pericardium lying between the two phrenic nerves is excised it is called total pericardiectomy. In cases where total pericardiectomy is not possible, subtotal pericardiectomy is performed or, in extreme cases, a cruciate incision on the pericardium is performed.

— Freebase

Universalization

Universalization

In social work practice universalization is a supportive intervention used by the therapist to reassure and encourage his/her client. Universalization places the client’s experience in the context of other individuals who are experiencing the same, or similar challenges, and seeks to help the client grasp that his/her feelings and experiences are not uncommon given the circumstances. The therapist or social worker using this supportive intervention intends to “normalize” the client’s experience of his/her emotions and reactions to the presenting challenge. By normalizing the client’s experience the therapist is attempting to help avert the client’s natural feelings of “being alone”, or that “no one understands me”. For example, a therapist working with a 21-year-old client who is experiencing rejection from her family and friends after admitting that she is a lesbian will use universalization. The therapist will explain that many other young adults who have revealed their sexual orientation undergo the same rejection and scrutiny from peers and parents. The therapist will follow this up by telling her that her emotional response to the rejection is likewise normal and not at all uncommon given the circumstances.

— Freebase

Figure and ground

Figure and ground

Figure and ground is a concept drawn from Gestalt psychology by media theorist Marshall McLuhan, which in his work underpins the meaning of his famous phrase, "The medium is the message". He used this concept to explain how a communications technology, the medium or figure, necessarily operates through its context, or ground. McLuhan believed that to fully grasp the impact of a new technology, one must examine figure and ground together, since neither is completely intelligible without the other. McLuhan argued that we must study media in their historical context, particularly in relation to those technologies which preceded them. The present environment, itself made up of the effects of previous technologies, gives rise to new technologies, which, in their turn, further affect society and individuals. Furthermore, all technologies have embedded within them their own assumptions about time and space. The message which the medium conveys can only be understood if the medium and the environment in which the medium is used — and which, simultaneously, it effectively creates — are analyzed together. He believed that an examination of the figure-ground relationship can offer a critical commentary on culture and society.

— Freebase

Ruge, Arnold

Ruge, Arnold

a German philosophical and political writer, born at Bergen (Rügen); showed a philosophic bent at Jena; was implicated in the political schemes of the Burschenschaft (q. v.), and was imprisoned for six years; taught for some years in Halle University, but got into trouble through the radical tone of his writings in the Halle Review (founded by himself and another), and went to Paris; was prominent during the political agitation of 1848, and subsequently sought refuge in London, where for a short time he acted in consort with Mazzini and others; retired to Brighton, and ultimately received a pension from the Prussian Government; his numerous plays, novels, translations, &c., including a lengthy autobiography, reveal a mind scarcely gifted enough to grasp firmly and deeply the complicated problems of sociology and politics; is characterised by Dr. Stirling as the "bold and brilliant Ruge"; began, he says, as an expounder of Hegel, and "finished off as translator into German of that 'hollow make-believe of windy conceit,' he calls it, Buckle's 'Civilisation in England'" (1802-1880).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Toboggan

Toboggan

A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from simple, traditional models to modern engineered composites. A toboggan differs from most sleds or sleighs in that it has no runners or skis on the underside. The bottom of a toboggan rides directly on the snow. Some parks include designated toboggan hills where ordinary sleds are not allowed and which may include toboggan runs similar to bobsleigh courses. The traditional toboggan is made of bound, parallel wood slats, all bent forward at the front to form a sideways 'J' shape. A thin rope is run through the top of the loop to provide rudimentary steering. The frontmost rider places their feet in the loop and sits on the flat bed; any others sit behind them and grasp the waist of the person before them. Modern recreational toboggans are typically manufactured from wood, aluminium or plastic. Larger, more rugged models are made for commercial or rescue use. ⁕ A toboggan field, Perisher, Australia ⁕ A hill for tobogganing in the winter in Ahuntsic Park in Montreal

— Freebase

Shoe tree

Shoe tree

A shoe tree is a device approximating the shape of a foot that is placed inside a shoe to preserve its shape, stop it from developing creases and thereby extend the life of the shoe. It is a reusable alternative to wadded rags or newspapers. Higher quality shoe trees are made from solid wood, usually cedar, which helps control odor and absorb moisture. Wooden shoe trees are often made with two or three pieces of solid wood with a solid metal stem inserted between the heel piece and the single or double toe piece/s which have a spring action so the trees fit more snugly into the shoes. They often have handles or brass knobs at the heel piece for the fingers to grasp and pull out the trees from the shoes when removing them. Shoe trees may also be made of plastic or stamped sheet metal, with or without a coiled steel spring stem; these are typically cheaper, lighter, and are better suited for travelling. Types lacking a flexing steel spring may use extension springs or adjustable two-piece stems having an over-center mechanical action to wedge them in place. Advanced shoe trees have a "toe flair" which keeps the toe of the shoe in shape without stretching the shoe along its entire length.

— Freebase

Confirmation

Confirmation

Confirmation is a rite of initiation in Christian churches, normally carried out through anointing, the laying on of hands, and prayer, for the purpose of bestowing the Gift of the Holy Spirit. There is an analogous ceremony also called Confirmation in the Jewish religion, which is not to be confused with Bar Mitzvah. The early Jewish Reformers instituted a ceremony where young Jews who are older than Bar Mitzvah age study both traditional and contemporary sources of Jewish philosophy in order to learn what it means to be Jewish. The age instituted was older than that of Bar Mitzvah because some of these topics were considered too complicated for thirteen-year-old minds to grasp. Nowadays, Confirmation has gained widespread adherence among congregations affiliated with the Reform movement, but has not gained as much traction in Conservative and Orthodox Jewish groups. The way Confirmation differs from Bar Mitzvah is that Confirmation is considered a more communal confirmation of one's being Jewish, and Bar Mitzvah is more of a personal confirmation of joining that covenant. In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant made in Holy Baptism. In some denominations, confirmation also bestows full membership in a local congregation upon the recipient. In others, such as the Roman Catholic Church, confirmation "renders the bond with the Church more perfect", because a baptized person is already a full member.

— Freebase

Etendue

Etendue

Etendue or étendue is a property of light in an optical system, which characterizes how "spread out" the light is in area and angle. From the source point of view, it is the area of the source times the solid angle the system's entrance pupil subtends as seen from the source. From the system point of view, the etendue is the area of the entrance pupil times the solid angle the source subtends as seen from the pupil. These definitions must be applied for infinitesimally small "elements" of area and solid angle, which must then be summed over both the source and the diaphragm as shown below. Etendue may be considered to be a volume in phase space. Etendue is important because it never decreases in any optical system. A perfect optical system produces an image with the same etendue as the source. The etendue is related to the Lagrange invariant and the optical invariant, which share the property of being constant in an ideal optical system. The radiance of an optical system is equal to the derivative of the radiant flux with respect to the etendue. The term étendue comes from the French étendue géométrique, meaning "geometrical extent". Other names for this property are acceptance, throughput, light-grasp, collecting power, optical extent, and the AΩ product. Throughput and AΩ product are especially used in radiometry and radiative transfer where it is related to the view factor. It is a central concept in nonimaging optics.

— Freebase

Dobsonfly

Dobsonfly

A Dobsonfly is any insect of the subfamily Corydalinae, part of the megalopteran family Corydalidae. There are over 220 species of dobsonflies. Dobsonflies are found throughout the Americas and Asia, as well as South Africa. Their closest relatives are the fishflies. Both male and female dobsonflies can reach lengths up to five inches, measured from the tips of their pincers to the tips of their four wings. Their wingspans can be twice as long as their body length. The wings are densely lined with intersecting veins. When not in use, the wings are folded along the length of their bodies. Dobsonflies have long, multi-segmented antennae. Though both male and female dobsonflies have sharp mandibles, those of an adult male dobsonfly are actually so big – up to 1 inch – that they are unable to harm humans, as they have such poor leverage that they are incapable of breaking the skin. Their mandibles are used exclusively during mating, where males show them off and grasp the females during copulation. Female dobsonflies, however, retain the short, powerful pincers they had as larvae, so they can inflict painful bites, which can draw blood. Notwithstanding the males' inability to inflict harm, when threatened both sexes will raise their heads and spread their jaws menacingly. They are not venomous, but possess an irritating, foul-smelling anal spray as a last-ditch defense.

— Freebase

flame

flame

[at MIT, orig. from the phrase flaming asshole] 1. vi. To post an email message intended to insult and provoke. 2. vi. To speak incessantly and/or rabidly on some relatively uninteresting subject or with a patently ridiculous attitude. 3. vt. Either of senses 1 or 2, directed with hostility at a particular person or people. 4. n. An instance of flaming. When a discussion degenerates into useless controversy, one might tell the participants “Now you're just flaming” or “Stop all that flamage!” to try to get them to cool down (so to speak).The term may have been independently invented at several different places. It has been reported from MIT, Carleton College and RPI (among many other places) from as far back as 1969, and from the University of Virginia in the early 1960s.It is possible that the hackish sense of ‘flame’ is much older than that. The poet Chaucer was also what passed for a wizard hacker in his time; he wrote a treatise on the astrolabe, the most advanced computing device of the day. In Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida, Cressida laments her inability to grasp the proof of a particular mathematical theorem; her uncle Pandarus then observes that it's called “the fleminge of wrecches.” This phrase seems to have been intended in context as “that which puts the wretches to flight” but was probably just as ambiguous in Middle English as “the flaming of wretches” would be today. One suspects that Chaucer would feel right at home on Usenet.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Garfield

Garfield

Garfield is a comic strip created by Jim Davis. Published since June 19, 1978, it chronicles the life of the title character, the cat Garfield; his owner, Jon Arbuckle; and Jon's dog, Odie. As of 2013, it was syndicated in roughly 2,580 newspapers and journals, and held the Guinness World Record for being the world's most widely syndicated comic strip. Though this is rarely mentioned in print, Garfield is set in Muncie, Indiana, the home of Jim Davis, according to the television special Happy Birthday, Garfield. Common themes in the strip include Garfield's laziness, obsessive eating, and hatred of Mondays and diets. The strip's focus is mostly on the interactions among Garfield, Jon, and Odie, but recurring minor characters appear as well. Originally created with the intentions to "come up with a good, marketable character", Garfield has spawned merchandise earning $750 million to $1 billion annually. In addition to the various merchandise and commercial tie-ins, the strip has spawned several animated television specials, two animated television series, two theatrical feature-length live-action films and three CGI animated direct-to-video movies. Part of the strip's broad appeal is due to its lack of social or political commentary; though this was Davis's original intention, he also admitted that his "grasp of politics isn't strong", remarking that, for many years, he thought "OPEC was a denture adhesive".

— Freebase

Moderation

Moderation

Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. It is used to ensure normality throughout the medium on which it is being conducted. Common uses of moderation include: ⁕Ensuring consistency and accuracy in the marking of student assessments. ⁕A moderator may remove unsuitable contributions from the website, forum or IRC channel they represent in accordance with their moderation system. ⁕A more proactive nuance is found in the Methodist church's use of the term for the heads of its conferences. ⁕A neutron moderator is used to slow down neutrons in a nuclear reactor. ⁕A way of life emphasizing perfect amounts of everything, not indulging in too much of one thing, hence moderation. ⁕A lifestyle choice by which many college students abide so as not to become alcoholics. Moderation is also a principle of life. In ancient Greece, the temple of Apollo at Delphi bore the inscription Meden Agan - 'Nothing in excess'. Doing something "in moderation" means not doing it excessively. For instance, someone who moderates their food consumption tries to eat all food groups, but limits their intake of those that may cause deleterious effects to harmless levels. Similarly in Christianity, moderationism is the position that drinking alcoholic beverages temperately is permissible, though drunkenness is forbidden. Moderation is a characteristic of the Swedish national psyche, more specifically described by the Swedish synonym Lagom. Moderate Muslims adhere to the concept of contextual relativism as a way to grasp meaning from the Quran.

— Freebase

Cofactor

Cofactor

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. Cofactors can be classified depending on how tightly they bind to an enzyme, with loosely bound cofactors termed coenzymes and tightly bound cofactors termed prosthetic groups. Some sources also limit the use of the term "cofactor" to inorganic substances. An inactive enzyme, without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme, while the complete enzyme with cofactor is the holoenzyme. Some enzymes or enzyme complexes require several cofactors. For example, the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase at the junction of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle requires five organic cofactors and one metal ion: loosely bound thiamine pyrophosphate, covalently bound lipoamide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and the cosubstrates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and coenzyme A, and a metal ion. Organic cofactors are often vitamins or are made from vitamins. Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+. This common structure may reflect a common evolutionary origin as part of ribozymes in an ancient RNA world. It has been suggested that the AMP part of the molecule can be considered a kind of "handle" by which the enzyme can "grasp" the coenzyme to switch it between different catalytic centers.

— Freebase

Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding criminal law in the relevant jurisdictions in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys and other legal professionals. An important aspect of forensic psychology is the ability to testify in court, reformulating psychological findings into the legal language of the courtroom, providing information to legal personnel in a way that can be understood. Further, in order to be a credible witness, for example in the United States, the forensic psychologist must understand the philosophy, rules, and standards of the American judicial system. Primary is an understanding of the adversarial system. There are also rules about hearsay evidence and most importantly, the exclusionary rule. Lack of a firm grasp of these procedures will result in the forensic psychologist losing credibility in the courtroom. A forensic psychologist can be trained in clinical, social, organizational or any other branch of psychology. In the United States, the salient issue is the designation by the court as an expert witness by training, experience or both by the judge. Generally, a forensic psychologist is designated as an expert in a particular jurisdiction. The number of jurisdictions in which a forensic psychologist qualifies as an expert increases with experience and reputation. Forensic neuropsychologists are generally asked to appear as expert witnesses in court to discuss cases that involve issues with the brain or brain damage. They also deal with issues of whether a person is legally competent to stand trial.

— Freebase

Rationalism

Rationalism

In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification." More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive." Rationalists believe reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, rationalists argue that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists assert that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction. Rationalists have such a high confidence in reason that proof and physical evidence are unnecessary to ascertain truth – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience." Because of this belief, empiricism is one of rationalism's greatest rivals. Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge." Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic clear interpretation of authority. In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. Rationalism should not be confused with rationality, nor with rationalization.

— Freebase

Bos`suet, Jacques Bénigne

Bos`suet, Jacques Bénigne

bishop of Meaux, born at Dijon, surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux," of the see of which he became bishop; one of the greatest of French pulpit orators, and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church; the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith; took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy, or rather of the Crown, as against the claims of the Pope; proved himself more a time-server than a bold, outspoken champion of the truth; conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon, and to Fénélon for his defence of her and her Quietists; and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; wrote largely; his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines, and the first attempt at a philosophy of history; his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence; while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings. "Bossuet," says Professor Saintsbury, "was more of a speaker than a writer. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject, in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point, and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons.... Though he is always aiming at the sublime, he scarcely ever oversteps it, or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous.... The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fénélon" (1627-1704).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hoop snake

Hoop snake

The hoop snake is a legendary creature of the United States, Canada and Australia. The hoop snake appears in the Pecos Bill stories; although it is his description of hoop snakes with which most people are most familiar, stories of the creature predate those fictional tales considerably. Several sightings of the hoop snake have been alleged along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border in the St. Croix River valley and in Wake County in North Carolina and in Kamloops, British Columbia. According to folklore, the distinguishing feature of a hoop snake is that it can grasp its tail in its jaws and roll after its prey like a wheel, thus looking somewhat like the ouroboros of Greek mythology, or Tsuchinoko in Japan. In one version of the myth, the snake straightens out at the last second, skewering its victim with its venomous tail. The only escape is to hide behind a tree, which receives the deadly blow instead and promptly dies from the poison. The hoop snake is mentioned in a letter from 1784: Sightings are still occasionally reported, even though the existence of the hoop snake has never been accepted by the scientific community. Naturalist Raymond Ditmars placed $10,000 in trust at a New York bank for the first person to provide evidence of a hoop snake. Some have suggested that is a distorted description of the sidewinder of the American southwest, or of mud snakes, which will occasionally lie in a loose hoop shape. It is also possible that the hoop snake is an embellishment of actual instances of snakes swallowing their own tails. Photographic examples of this are readily found on the Internet today.

— Freebase

Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare

Psychological Warfare, or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations, have been known by many other names or terms, including Psy Ops, Political Warfare, “Hearts and Minds”, and Propaganda. Various techniques are used, by any set of groups, and aimed to influence a target audience's value systems, belief systems, emotions, motives, reasoning, or behavior. It is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, and are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. Target audiences can be governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Jacques Ellul discusses psychological warfare as a common peace policy practice between nations as a form of indirect aggression in place of military aggression. This type of propaganda drains the public opinion of an opposing regime by stripping away its power on public opinion. This form of aggression is hard to defend against because no international court of justice is capable of protecting against psychological aggression since it cannot be legally adjudicated. The only defense is using the same means of psychological warfare. It is the burden of every government to defend its state against propaganda aggression. "Here the propagandists is [sic] dealing with a foreign adversary whose morale he seeks to destroy by psychological means so that the opponent begins to doubt the validity of his beliefs and actions." The tactic has long been used by hate groups such as the KKK in order to perpetuate their grasp on power and view of the world.

— Freebase

Ayah

Ayah

Ayah or Aayah" is the Arabic word for 'evidence' or 'sign'. The term also refers to verses of the Qur'an which are marked with a verse number written at the end of each verse. Although the term is usually used to refer to the smallest unit of the Qur'an, or a verse, it is doubtful whether it ever means anything other than sign or a remarkable event in the Qur'an. The ‘sign’ refers to various phenomena, sometimes it refers to nature, creation of the universe, the alternation of day and night, rainfall, or the life and growth plants. Other references are to the fate of unbelievers, the reward of believers, or miracles. For example: Chapters in the Qur'an, called suras in Arabic, are made up of several verses. Chapters vary in length, ranging from 3 to 286 verses. Within a long chapter, the verses may be further grouped into thematic sequences or passages. For the purpose of interpretation, the verses are separated into two groups: those that are clear and unambiguous and those that are allegorical. This distinction is based on the Qur'an itself: "It is God Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are 'clear', they are the foundation of the Book. Others are 'allegorical' but those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except God. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: We believe in the Book, the whole of it is from our Lord. And none will grasp the Message except men of understanding."

— Freebase

Brain fag

Brain fag

Brain Fag Syndrome is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a culture bound syndrome. Brain Fag Syndrome is a tetrad of somatic complaints that consist of pains and burning sensations around the head and neck; cognitive impairments that consist of inability to grasp the meaning of written and spoken words, and the inability to concentrate and poor retention; sleep related complaints of fatigue and sleepiness in spite of adequate rest; and other somatic impairments such as blurring, pain and excessive tearing of the eye. By definition, Brain Fag is one's reaction to the demanding tasks or situations of school. It is seen predominantly in male students with symptoms such as depression, difficulty concentrating, remembering, and thinking. Other symptoms include pain and pressure around the head and neck, and blurring of vision.It is now a common term for mental exhaustion. It was intitally used in West Africa to refer to a condition that High School and University students experienced. It has similar symptoms to the Trinidadian illness studiation madness. Medical electricity machines were sold to treat "brain fag" and other "nervous" ailments in England in the late 19th Century. "The term "brain fag" was used in the US as far back as 1852 to describe an overworked brain. In 1877 it was used to describe mental exhaustion in professionals similar to neurasthenia, and later in 1919 to describe mental fatigue in the elderly. The term 'fag' is believed to have been derived from 'fatigue'. This American usage declined by the 1950s. The modern African usage was first described in 1960. Brain fag occurs most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa.

— Freebase

Retiarius

Retiarius

A retiarius was a Roman gladiator who fought with equipment styled on that of a fisherman: a weighted net, a three-pointed trident, and a dagger. The retiarius was lightly armoured, wearing an arm guard and a shoulder guard. Typically, his clothing consisted only of a loincloth held in place by a wide belt, or of a short tunic with light padding. He wore no head protection or footwear. The retiarius was routinely pitted against a heavily armed secutor. The net-fighter made up for his lack of protective gear by using his speed and agility to avoid his opponent's attacks and waiting for the opportunity to strike. He first tried to throw his net over his rival. If this succeeded, he attacked with his trident while his adversary was entangled. Another tactic was to ensnare his enemy's weapon in the net and pull it out of his grasp, leaving the opponent defenseless. Should the net miss or the secutor grab hold of it, the retiarius likely discarded the weapon, although he might try to collect it back for a second cast. Usually, the retiarius had to rely on his trident and dagger to finish the fight. The trident, as tall as a human being, permitted the gladiator to jab quickly and keep his distance. It was a strong weapon, capable of inflicting piercing wounds on an unprotected skull or limb. The dagger was the retiarius's final backup should the trident be lost. It was reserved for when close combat or a straight wrestling match had to settle the bout. In some battles, a single retiarius faced two secutores simultaneously. For these situations, the lightly armoured gladiator was placed on a raised platform and given a supply of stones with which to repel his pursuers.

— Freebase

Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist and semiotician whose ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments both in linguistics and semiotics in the 20th century. He is widely considered one of the fathers of 20th-century linguistics and one of two major fathers of semiotics. One of his translators, Emeritus Professor of Linguistics, Roy Harris, summarized Saussure's contribution to linguistics and the study of language in the following way: "Language is no longer regarded as peripheral to our grasp of the world we live in, but as central to it. Words are not mere vocal labels or communicational adjuncts superimposed upon an already given order of things. They are collective products of social interaction, essential instruments through which human beings constitute and articulate their world. This typically twentieth-century view of language has profoundly influenced developments throughout the whole range of human sciences. It is particularly marked in linguistics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and anthropology." Although they have undergone extension and critique over time, the dimensions of organization introduced by Saussure continue to inform contemporary approaches to the phenomenon of language. Prague school linguist Jan Mukařovský writes that Saussure's "discovery of the internal structure of the linguistic sign differentiated the sign both from mere acoustic 'things' ... and from mental processes", and that in this development "new roads were thereby opened not only for linguistics, but also, in the future, for the theory of literature." Ruqaiya Hasan argues that "the impact of Saussure’s theory of the linguistic sign has been such that modern linguists and their theories have since been positioned by reference to him: they are known as pre-Saussurean, Saussurean, anti-Saussurean, post-Saussurean, or non-Saussure."

— Freebase

Dead metaphor

Dead metaphor

A dead metaphor is a metaphor which has lost the original imagery of its meaning owing to extensive, repetitive popular usage. Because dead metaphors have a conventional meaning that differs from the original, they can be understood without knowing their earlier connotation. Dead metaphors are generally the result of a semantic shift in the evolution of a language. A distinction is often made between those dead metaphors whose origins are entirely unknown to the majority of people using them and those whose source is widely known or symbolism easily understood but not often thought about. There is debate among literary scholars whether so-called "dead metaphors" are dead or are metaphors. Literary scholar R.W. Gibbs noted that for a metaphor to be dead, it would necessarily lose the metaphorical qualities that it comprises. These qualities, however, still remain. A person can understand the expression "falling head-over-heels in love" even if they have never encountered that variant of the phrase "falling in love." Analytic philosopher Max Black argued that the dead metaphor should not be considered a metaphor at all, but rather classified as a separate vocabulary item. If the verb "to plough" retained the simple meaning of "to turn up the earth with a plough," then the idea of a car "ploughing through traffic" would clearly be a metaphor. The expression would be a comparison between the motion of the plough cutting through the soil and a car speeding through traffic. In order to understand it, one would need to grasp the comparison. However, "to plough" has taken on an additional meaning of "to move in a fast and uncontrolled manner," and so to say that a car "ploughed through the traffic" is a literal statement. No knowledge of the original metaphorical symbolism is necessary to understanding the statement.

— Freebase

Whitetip reef shark

Whitetip reef shark

The whitetip reef shark is a species of requiem shark, family Carcharhinidae, and the only member of its genus. A small shark usually not exceeding 1.6 m in length, this species is easily recognizable by its slender body and short but broad head, as well as tubular skin flaps beside the nostrils, oval eyes with vertical pupils, and white-tipped dorsal and caudal fins. One of the most common sharks found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs, the whitetip reef shark occurs as far west as South Africa and as far east as Central America. It is typically found on or near the bottom in clear water, at a depth of 8–40 m. During the day, whitetip reef sharks spend much of their time resting inside caves. Unlike other requiem sharks, which rely on ram ventilation and must constantly swim to breathe, this shark can pump water over its gills and lie still on the bottom. At night, whitetip reef sharks emerge to hunt bony fishes, crustaceans, and octopus in groups, their elongate bodies allowing them to force their way into crevices and holes to extract hidden prey. Individuals may stay within a particular area of the reef for months to years, time and again returning to the same shelter. This species is viviparous, in which the developing embryos are sustained by a placental connection to their mother. One of the few sharks in which mating has been observed in the wild, receptive female whitetip reef sharks are followed by prospective males, which attempt to grasp her pectoral fin and maneuver the two of them into positions suitable for copulation. Females give birth to one to six pups every other year, after a gestation period of 10–13 months.

— Freebase

Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen consort of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II of France. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France. The problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. She failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later, she resorted in frustration and anger to hard-line policies against them. In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France.

— Freebase

Sonatina

Sonatina

A sonatina is literally a small sonata. As a musical term, sonatina has no single strict definition; it is rather a title applied by the composer to a piece that is in basic sonata form, but is shorter, lighter in character, or more elementary technically than a typical sonata. The term has been in use at least since the late baroque; there is a one-page, one-movement harpsichord piece by Handel called "Sonatina". It is most often applied to solo keyboard works, but a number of composers have written sonatinas for violin and piano, e.g. Sonatina in G major for Violin and Piano by Antonín Dvořák, and occasionally for other instruments, e.g. the Clarinet Sonatina by Malcolm Arnold. The title "Sonatina" was used occasionally by J.S. Bach for short orchestral introductions to large vocal works, as in his cantata BWV 106, a practice with precedent in the work of the earlier German composer Nicolaus Bruhns. This is the only sense in which Bach used the term sonatina, although he composed many chamber and solo sonatas for various instruments. Like many musical terms, sonatina is used inconsistently. The most common meaning is a short, easy sonata suitable for students, such as the piano sonatinas of Clementi. However, by no means are all sonatinas technically undemanding, for example the virtuoso sonatinas of Busoni and Alkan, and the Sonatine of Ravel, whose title reflects its neo-classical quality. On the other hand, some sonatas could equally as well have been called sonatinas: for example Beethoven's Op. 49, titled by the composer "Zwei Leichte Sonaten für das Pianoforte" comprise only two short movements each, a sonata-allegro and a short rondo or minuet, all well within the grasp of the intermediate student. Other works indeed titled "Sonatina" are attributed to Beethoven, like the Sonatina in F major, however.

— Freebase

Bueno Inc

Bueno Inc

Bueno.com may be the newest entry into the social network scene but it™s got something everyone is talking about " a free USA number with voicemail call waiting and a virtual phone empowering site users to make and receive free calls as long as they have a microphone and speakers wherever they are. While the launch of its beta version of what™s soon to come, even though many of the gadgets work, there are several significant features placing what Bueno will be, in a league of its own. First, of course you get your own email address and voicemail in box "you can send and receive emails videomail ect… You get a very well organized wall with a nice feature " your wall is always present so you can keep up with the activity without having to open and close screens. You can post and receive not only text messages, but voice and video messages as well. Very slick. Want to let your friends know what you™re doing right now " record and send a video post in seconds (but make sure you have a web cam). Bueno users also get their own photo album page enabling users to import and collect your favorite pix and video galleries where you can store the video messages you want to hold on to. With all of these robust features, the sense is that you cancommunicate with any of your member friends using text, email, video and now, your own virtual phone, for free, as well as keeping your life in a fairly sane state " let™s not forget the calendar, blog, and chat. At sign up, you™ll choose a phone number " you™ll now have the ability to call a friend, from your computer, and give them your real BUENO phone number, named ME. If your friend happens to be in Mexico or Italy, and you™re in the USA, the call is free. When your friends sign up " you™re all in, chatting, emailing, sending video messages and calling all simultaneously and for free.Let™s not forget the music search option you can load up with your new found favorite artists thanks to BUENO™s legally free search technology. Bueno.com is a Miami based technology and communications enterprise. Ownership and management have spent thousands of hours collaborating with their team of techies and it is apparent this network really has a grasp on not only what everyone seems to want in a feature rich community, but something very innovative, new, and free.

— CrunchBase

Stirling, James Hutchison

Stirling, James Hutchison

master in philosophy, born in Glasgow; bred to medicine and practised for a time in South Wales; went to Germany to study the recent developments in philosophy there, on his return to Scotland published, in 1863, his "Secret of Hegel: being the Hegelian System in Origin, Principle, Form, and Matter," which has proved epoch-making, and has for motto the words of Hegel, "The Hidden Secret of the Universe is powerless to resist the might of thought! It must unclose before it, revealing to sight and bringing to enjoyment its riches and its depths." It is the work of a master-mind, as every one must feel who tackles to the study of it, and of one who has mastered the subject of it as not another in England, or perhaps even in Germany, has done. The grip he takes of it is marvellous and his exposition trenchant and clear. It was followed in 1881 by his "Text-book to Kant," an exposition which his "Secret" presupposes, and which he advised the students of it to expect, that they might be able to construe the entire Hegelian system from its root in Kant. It is not to the credit of his country that Dr. Stirling has never been elected to a chair in any of her universities, though it is understood that is due to the unenlightened state of mind of electoral bodies in regard to the Hegelian system and the prejudice against it, particularly among the clergy of the Church. He was, however, elected to be the first Gifford Lecturer in Edinburgh University, and his admirers have had to content themselves with that modicum of acknowledgment at last. He is the author of a critique on Sir William Hamilton's theory of perception, on Huxley's doctrine of protoplasm, and on Darwinianism, besides a translation of Schwegler's "History of Philosophy," with notes, a highly serviceable work. His answer to Huxley is crushing. He is the avowed enemy of the Aufklärung and of all knowledge that consists of mere Vorstellungen and does not grasp the ideas which they present; b. 1820.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Slow loris

Slow loris

Slow lorises are a group of several species of strepsirrhine primates which make up the genus Nycticebus. Found in South and Southeast Asia, they range from Bangladesh and Northeast India in the west to the Philippines in the east, and from the Yunnan province in China in the north to the island of Java in the south. Although many previous classifications recognized as few as a single all-inclusive species, there are now at least eight that are considered valid: the Sunda slow loris, Bengal slow loris, pygmy slow loris, Javan slow loris, Bornean slow loris, N. bancanus, N. borneanus, and N. kayan. The group's closest relatives are other lorisids, such as slender lorises, pottos, false pottos, and angwantibos. They are also closely related to the remaining lorisoids, as well as the lemurs of Madagascar. Their evolutionary history is uncertain since their fossil record is patchy and molecular clock studies have given inconsistent results. Slow lorises have a round head, narrow snout, large eyes, and a variety of distinctive coloration patterns that are species-dependent. Their arms and legs are nearly equal in length, and their trunk is long, allowing them to twist and extend to nearby branches. The hands and feet of slow lorises have several adaptations that give them a pincer-like grip and enable them to grasp branches for long periods of time. Slow lorises have a toxic bite, a trait rare among mammals and unique to lorisid primates. The toxin is produced by licking a gland on their arm, and the secretion mixes with its saliva to activate it. Their toxic bite is a deterrent to predators, and the toxin is also applied to the fur during grooming as a form of protection for their infants. They move slowly and deliberately, making little or no noise, and when threatened, they freeze and become docile. Their only documented predators—apart from humans—include snakes, hawk-eagles and orangutans, although cats, civets and sun bears are suspected. Little is known about their social structure, but they are known to communicate by scent marking. Males are highly territorial. Slow lorises reproduce slowly, and the infants are initially parked on branches or carried by either parent. They are omnivores, eating small animals, fruit, tree gum, and other vegetation.

— Freebase


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