Definitions containing être suprême

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Chief Justice

Chief Justice

The Chief Justice is the name for the presiding member of a supreme court in many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Canada, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts. The situation is slightly different in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom. The courts of England and Wales are headed by the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales; in Northern Ireland's courts, the equivalent position is the Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland and in Scottish courts, the equivalent is the Lord President of the Court of Session. These three judges are not, though, part of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which operates across all three jurisdictions and is headed by the President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Chief Justice can be selected in many ways, but, in many nations, the position is given to the most senior justice of the court, while, in the United States, it is often the President's most important political nomination, subject to approval by the United States Senate. Although the title of this top American jurist is, by statute, Chief Justice of the United States, the term "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court" is often used unofficially.

— Freebase

Supreme court

Supreme court

A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, instance court, judgment court, apex court, and highest court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. In a few places, the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the Supreme Court of the State of New York and the former Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales. The highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court"; for example, the High Court of Australia. Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts. Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law. In particular, countries with a federal system of government typically have both a federal supreme court, and supreme courts for each member state, with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law; the US states of Texas and Oklahoma also split the functions of a supreme court between separate courts for criminal and civil cases. Jurisdictions with a civil law system often have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court. A number of jurisdictions also follow the "Austrian" model of a separate constitutional court.

— Freebase

Vishnu

Vishnu

Vishnu is the Vedic Supreme God in Hinduism, and is venerated as the Supreme Being in Vaishnavism. Vishnu is also known as Narayana and Hari and is venerated as Purushottama or Supreme Purusha in ancient sacred texts like the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas and the Puranas. He is the Supreme Purusha of Purusha Sukta. The Vishnu Sahasranama, of the Mahabharata declares Vishnu as Paramatman and Parameshwara. It describes Vishnu as the all-pervading essence of all beings, the master of—and beyond—the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports,preserves, sustains and governs the universe and originates and develops all elements within. Vaishnavism sees Vishnu as the Supreme God, and venerates him as the Supreme Being. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as just one of the five primary forms of God, namely Shiva, Vishnu, Devi, Surya and Ganesha; who are all seen as equal reflections of the one Brahman, rather than as distinct beings. His supreme status is declared in Hindu sacred texts; the Vedas, the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana and other Sattva Puranas which all declare Vishnu as Supreme God. Vishnu incarnates on Earth from time to time, as an avatar, to eradicate evil forces, to restore the dharma and to liberate the worthy ones or devotees from the cycle of births and deaths.

— Freebase

Supreme

Supreme

highest; greatest; most excellent or most extreme; utmost; greatist possible (sometimes in a bad sense); as, supreme love; supreme glory; supreme magnanimity; supreme folly

— Webster Dictionary

State supreme court

State supreme court

In the United States, a state supreme court is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state. Generally, the state supreme court, like most appellate tribunals, is exclusively for hearing appeals of legal issues. It does not make any finding of facts, and thus holds no trials. In the rare case where the trial court made an egregious error in its finding of facts, the state supreme court will remand to the trial court for a new trial. This responsibility of correcting the errors of inferior courts is the origin of a number of the different names for supreme courts in various state court systems. The court consists of a panel of judges selected by methods outlined in the state constitution. State supreme courts are completely distinct from any United States federal courts located within the geographical boundaries of a state's territory, or the federal United States Supreme Court.

— Freebase

Vaishnavism

Vaishnavism

Vaishnavism is one of the major branches of Hinduism along with Shaivism, Smartism, and Shaktism. It is focused on the veneration of Supreme Lord Vishnu. Vaishnavites, or the followers of the Supreme Lord Vishnu, lead a way of life promoting differentiated monotheism, which gives importance to Lord Vishnu and His ten incarnations. The oldest religious text in Vedic, Rigveda, describes Lord Vishnu as the Supreme Deity in Vishnu Sooktham: Rigveda mentions the Supreme Lord 93 times. Other shlokas are devoted to his faithful servants, mentioned in the scriptures as the limbs of Lord Vishnu. These minor deities include Indra, Surya, Rudra, Maruta, Vayu, Agni and Manyu. In general, the Vaishnava Agamas describe Lord Vishnu as the "supreme being and the foundation of all existence." This is explained in Katha Upanishad 2.2.13: nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam/ eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman, "the Supreme Being, the Personality of Godhead, is the chief living being amongst all living beings and grants the desires of all other eternal sentient beings" Its beliefs and practices, especially the concepts of Bhakti and Bhakti Yoga, are based largely on the Upanishads, and associated with the Vedas and Puranic texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, and the Padma, Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas.

— Freebase

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" majority opinion in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, and is one of the most influential American common law judges through his outspoken judicial restraint philosophy. Holmes retired from the Court at the age of 90 years, 309 days, making him the oldest Justice in the Supreme Court's history. He also served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and was Weld Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School, of which he was an alumnus. Profoundly influenced by his experience fighting in the American Civil War, Holmes helped move American legal thinking away from formalism and towards legal realism, as summed up in his maxim: "The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience." Holmes espoused a form of moral skepticism and opposed the doctrine of natural law, marking a significant shift in American jurisprudence. As he wrote in one of his most famous decisions, his dissent in Abrams v. United States, he regarded the United States Constitution as "an experiment, as all life is an experiment" and believed that as a consequence "we should be eternally vigilant against attempts to check the expression of opinions that we loathe and believe to be fraught with death." During his tenure on the Supreme Court, to which he was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt, he supported efforts for economic regulation and advocated broad freedom of speech under the First Amendment. These positions as well as his distinctive personality and writing style made him a popular figure, especially with American progressives, despite his deep cynicism and disagreement with their politics. His jurisprudence influenced much subsequent American legal thinking, including judicial consensus supporting New Deal regulatory law, pragmatism, critical legal studies, and law and economics. The Journal of Legal Studies has identified Holmes as one of the three most cited American legal scholars of the 20th century.

— Freebase

Narayana

Narayana

Maha-Narayana is a Vedic Supreme God in Hinduism, venerated as the Supreme Being in Vaishnavism. He is also known as Vishnu and Hari and is venerated as Purushottama or Supreme Purusha in Hindu sacred texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas and the Puranas. Narayana is the name of the Supreme God in his infinite all pervading form. He is the Supreme Purusha of Purusha Sukta. The Puranas present a seemingly divergent, but accurate description of Narayana. The fifth verse of the Narayana Sukta, a hymn in Yajurveda, states that Narayana pervades whatever is seen or heard in this universe from inside and outside alike. Another important translation of Narayana is The One who rests on Water. The waters are called narah, [for] the waters are, indeed, produced by Nara [the first Being]; as they were his first residence [ayana], he is called Narayana. In Sanskrit, "Nara" can also refer to all human beings or living entities. Therefore, another meaning of Narayana is Resting place for all living entities. The close association of Narayana with water explains the frequent depiction of Narayana in Hindu art as standing or sitting on an ocean.

— Freebase

Supreme Soviet

Supreme Soviet

The Supreme Soviet was the common name for the legislative bodies of the Soviet socialist republics in the Soviet Union. These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, established in 1938, and were nearly identical. Soviet-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected in unopposed elections. The first free or semi-free elections were held during the perestroika in late 1980s. The soviets were largely rubber stamp institutions, approving decisions handed to them by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or of each SSR. The soviets met infrequently and elected the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, a permanent body, to act on their behalf while the soviet was not in session. The chairman of the presidium was the de jure head of state. The Supreme Soviets also elected the Council of Ministers, an executive body. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late December, 1991, most of these soviets became the legislatures of independent countries.

— Freebase

Auxiliary

Auxiliary

a verb which helps to form the voices, modes, and tenses of other verbs; -- called, also, an auxiliary verb; as, have, be, may, can, do, must, shall, and will, in English; etre and avoir, in French; avere and essere, in Italian; estar and haber, in Spanish

— Webster Dictionary

William Rehnquist

William Rehnquist

William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the Supreme Court of the United States, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an Act of Congress as exceeding its power under the Commerce Clause. Rehnquist served as Chief Justice for nearly 19 years, making him the fourth-longest-serving Chief Justice after John Marshall, Roger Taney, and Melville Fuller, and the longest-serving Chief Justice who had previously served as an Associate Justice. The last 11 years of Rehnquist's term as Chief Justice marked the second-longest tenure of a single unchanging roster of the Supreme Court, exceeded only between February 1812 and September 1823. He is the eighth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history.

— Freebase

Supreme

Supreme

Supreme is a fictional superhero created by Rob Liefeld and first published by Image Comics, then Maximum Press, and later by Awesome Entertainment. He was originally a violent, egotistical Superman archetype, but was rebooted by Alan Moore to pay tribute to the classic Silver Age Superman mythos, as guided by Mort Weisinger. Supreme is also the name of a comic book series which lasted 56 issues. Moore started with issue #41 and his run would later be collected as two trade paperbacks by the Checker Book Publishing Group: Supreme: The Story of the Year and Supreme: The Return. Moore's work on the series won the 1997 Eisner Award for Best Writer.

— Freebase

Tsar

Tsar

Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term - a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official - but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank. Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other, secular, supreme rulers. In Russia and Bulgaria the imperial connotations of the term were blurred with time, due to the medieval translations of the Bible, and, by the 19th century, it had come to be viewed as an equivalent of King. "Tsar" was the official title of the supreme and great ruler in the following states: ⁕First Bulgarian Empire, in 913–1018 ⁕Second Bulgarian Empire, in 1185–1422 ⁕Serbian Empire, in 1346–1371

— Freebase

Remembrancer

Remembrancer

The Remembrancer was originally one of certain subordinate officers of the English Exchequer. The office itself is of great antiquity, the holder having been termed remembrancer, memorator, rememorator, registrar, keeper of the register, despatcher of business. The Remembrancer compiled memorandum rolls and thus “reminded” the barons of the Exchequer of business pending. There were at one time three clerks of the remembrance, styled King's Remembrancer, Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer and Remembrancer of First-Fruits and Tenths. In England, the latter two offices have become extinct, that of remembrancer of first-fruits by the diversion of the fund, and that of Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer on being merged in the office of King's Remembrancer in 1833. By the Queen's Remembrancer Act 1859 the office ceased to exist separately, and the queen's remembrancer was required to be a master of the court of exchequer. The Judicature Act 1873 attached the office to the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1879 transferred it to the central office of the Supreme Court. By section 8 of that Act, the king's remembrancer is a master of the Supreme Court, and the office is usually filled by the senior master. The king's remembrancer department of the central office is now amalgamated with the judgments and married women acknowledgments department. The king's remembrancer still assists at certain ceremonial functions relics of the former importance of the office such as the nomination of sheriffs, the swearing-in of the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Trial of the Pyx and the acknowledgments of homage for crown lands.

— Freebase

Rufus Wheeler Peckham

Rufus Wheeler Peckham

Rufus Wheeler Peckham was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1895 until 1909. He was known for his strong use of substantive due process to invalidate regulations of business and property. Peckham's namesake father was also a lawyer and judge, and a congressman. His older brother, Wheeler Hazard Peckham, was one of the lawyers who prosecuted Boss Tweed, and a failed nominee to the Supreme Court. His other brother, Joseph Henry, died at the age of 17. Peckham was born in Albany, New York, to Rufus Wheeler Peckham and Isabella Adeline; his mother died when he was only nine. Following his graduation from The Albany Academy, he followed in his father's footsteps as a lawyer, being admitted to the bar in Albany in 1859 after teaching himself law by studying in his father's office. After a decade of private practice, Peckham served as the Albany district attorney from 1869 from 1872. Peckham then returned to private legal practice and served as counsel to the City of Albany, until being elected as a trial judge on the New York Supreme Court in 1883. In 1886, Peckham was elected to the New York Court of Appeals, the highest court in the state. This was the third position that Peckham had held after his father, who had also served as the Albany D.A., on the New York Supreme Court, and finally on the Court of Appeals until his death in the 1873 Ville du Havre sinking.

— Freebase

Hindutva

Hindutva

Hindutva is the set of movements advocating Hindu nationalism. Members of the movement are called Hindutvavadis. According to a 1995 Supreme Court of India judgement the word Hindutva could be used to mean "the way of life of the Indian people and the Indian culture or ethos". In India, an umbrella organization called the Sangh Parivar champions the concept of Hindutva. The sangh comprises organizations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bajrang Dal, and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. This ideology has existed since the early 20th century, forged by Savarkar, but came to prominence in Indian politics in the late 1980s, when two deliberately managed events attracted a large number of Hindus to the sectarian movement. The first of these events was the Rajiv Gandhi government's use of its large Parliamentary Majority to overturn a Supreme Court verdict granting alimony to an old woman, a verdict that had angered many Muslims. The second was the dispute over the 16th century Mughal Babri Mosque in Ayodhya—claimed to had been built by Babur after destruction of a Hindu temple and claimed in nineteenth century to be birthplace of Shri Ram, one of main Indian Vaishanavait Gods. The Supreme Court of India refused to take up the case in the early 1990s, as Supreme Court did not considered itself competent and trained to weigh historical evidence. A judicial case is going on in this regard.

— Freebase

Hugo Black

Hugo Black

Hugo Lafayette Black was an American politician and jurist. A member of the Democratic Party, Black represented Alabama in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971. Black was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 63 to 16. He was first of nine Roosevelt nominees to the Court, and outlasted all except for William O. Douglas. Black is widely regarded as one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the 20th century. The fifth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history, Black is noted for his advocacy of a textualist reading of the United States Constitution and of the position that the liberties guaranteed in the Bill of Rights were imposed on the states by the Fourteenth Amendment. During his political career, Black was regarded as a staunch supporter of liberal policies and civil liberties. However, Black consistently opposed the doctrine of substantive due process and believed that there was no basis in the words of the Constitution for a right to privacy, voting against finding one in Griswold v. Connecticut. Black endorsed Roosevelt in both the 1932 and 1936 US Presidential elections and was a staunch supporter of the New Deal.

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Midnight Judges Act

Midnight Judges Act

The Midnight Judges Act represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the early 19th century. There was concern, beginning in 1789, about the system that required the Justices of the Supreme Court to “ride circuit” and reiterate decisions made in the appellate level courts. The Supreme Court Justices had often voiced concern and suggested that the judges of the Supreme and circuit courts be divided.

— Freebase

Imperial

Imperial

belonging to, or suitable to, supreme authority, or one who wields it; royal; sovereign; supreme

— Webster Dictionary

Jehovah

Jehovah

a Scripture name of the Supreme Being, by which he was revealed to the Jews as their covenant God or Sovereign of the theocracy; the "ineffable name" of the Supreme Being, which was not pronounced by the Jews

— Webster Dictionary

Supremacy

Supremacy

the state of being supreme, or in the highest station of power; highest or supreme authority or power; as, the supremacy of a king or a parliament

— Webster Dictionary

Supreme Court Decisions

Supreme Court Decisions

Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic

Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic

The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic was one of two supreme commanders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the other being the Supreme Allied Commander Europe. The SACLANT led Allied Command Atlantic, based at Norfolk, Virginia. The entire command was routinely referred to as 'SACLANT'. The command's missions were: ⁕Safeguard NATO’s sea lines of communications ⁕Support amphibious and land operations ⁕Protect the deployment of NATO’s sea-based nuclear deterrence The command's area of responsibility extended from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer as well as extending from the east coast of the North America to the west coast of Africa and Europe, including Portugal but not the English Channel, the British Isles, and the Canary Islands.

— Freebase

Brno

Brno

Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District. The city lies at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and has about 400,000 residents, its greater metropolitan area is regularly home to more than 800,000 people while its larger urban zone had population about 730,000 in 2004. Brno is the capital of judicial authority of the Czech Republic because it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, and the Supreme Prosecutor's Office. Beside that, the city is a significant administrative centre. It is the seat of a number of state authorities like Ombudsman, Office for the Protection of Competition and the Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority. Brno is also an important centre of higher education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning and about 89,000 students. There is also a studio of Czech Television and the Czech Radio, in both cases by law. The city is also home to Brno Television, a small local television station.

— Freebase

Quagmire

Quagmire

Quagmire is a fictional character, owned by Marvel Comics who is a native of the universe of the Squadron Supreme. He first appeared in Squadron Supreme #4 in flashback, and fully in Squadron Supreme #5, and was created by Mark Gruenwald.

— Freebase

Krishna

Krishna

Krishna, literally "attractive", akin to dated Russian красная -- "beautiful", also similar to chrysos meaning "gold" in Greek is the eighth incarnation of the supreme god Vishnu in Hinduism. The word Krishna means One With Dark Complexion and One Who Attracts All. The name Krishna appears as the 57th and 550th name of Lord Vishnu in Vishnu Sahasranama of the Mahabharata, and is also listed in the 24 Keshava Namas of Lord Vishnu which are recited and praised at the beginning of all Vedic pujas. A puja is the ritualistic worship offered in Hinduism. According to the Bhagavata Purana, which is a sattvic purana, Krishna is termed as Svayam Bhagavan since he was the purna-avatara or full incarnation of the supreme god Vishnu. Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita. The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions. They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the supreme being. The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana.

— Freebase

Unitary state

Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate. The great majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Unitary states are contrasted with federal states: ⁕In a unitary state, subnational units are created and abolished and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power in unitary states may be delegated through devolution to local government by statute, the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers. ⁕The United Kingdom is an example of a unitary state. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland which, along with England are the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, have a degree of autonomous devolved power – the Scottish Government and Scottish Parliament in Scotland, the Welsh Government and National Assembly for Wales in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Executive and Northern Ireland Assembly in Northern Ireland. But such devolved power is only delegated by Britain's central government, more specifically by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which is supreme under the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy. Further, the devolved governments cannot challenge the constitutionality of acts of Parliament, and the powers of the devolved governments can be revoked or reduced by the central government. For example, the Northern Ireland Assembly has been suspended four times, with its powers reverting to the central government's Northern Ireland Office.Ukraine is another example of a unitary state. The Republic of Crimea within the country has a degree of autonomy and is governed by its Cabinet of Ministers and legislative Council. In the early 1990s the republic also had a presidential post which was terminated due to separatist tendencies that intended to transfer Crimea to Russia.

— Freebase

Menominee

Menominee

The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. The Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin is federally recognized and has a 353.894 sq mi reservation in the state. Their historic territory originally included 10 million acres in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of present-day Michigan. The tribe has 8700 members. The tribe was terminated in the 1950s under federal policy of the time. During that period, they brought what has become a landmark case in Indian law to the United States Supreme Court, in Menominee Tribe v. United States, after the Wisconsin Supreme Court and the United States Court of Claims drew opposing conclusions about the effect of the termination on Menominee hunting and fishing rights on their former reservation land. The Supreme Court determined that the tribe had not lost traditional hunting and fishing rights as a result of termination, as Congress had not clearly ended these in its legislation. The tribe regained federal recognition in 1973 in an act of Congress, and re-established its reservation in 1975. They operate under a written constitution, and their first government under it took over from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1979.

— Freebase

Robert H. Jackson

Robert H. Jackson

Robert Houghwout Jackson was United States Attorney General and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He was also the chief United States prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. A "county-seat lawyer", he remains the last Supreme Court justice appointed who did not graduate from any law school, although he did attend Albany Law School in Albany, New York for one year. He is remembered for his famous advice, that "...any lawyer worth his salt will tell the suspect in no uncertain terms to make no statement to the police under any circumstances." and for his aphorism describing the Supreme Court, "We are not final because we are infallible, but we are infallible only because we are final." Many lawyers revere Justice Jackson as one of the best writers on the court, and one of the most committed to due process protections from overreaching federal agencies.

— Freebase

Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Frankfurter was born in Vienna and immigrated to New York at the age of 12. He graduated from Harvard Law School and was active politically, helping to found the American Civil Liberties Union. He was a friend and adviser of President Franklin Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939. Frankfurter served on the Supreme Court for 23 years, and was a noted advocate of judicial restraint in the judgements of the Court.

— Freebase

United States v. The Amistad

United States v. The Amistad

The Amistad, also known as United States v. Libellants and Claimants of the Schooner Amistad, 40 U.S. 518, was a United States Supreme Court case resulting from the rebellion of Africans on board the Spanish schooner La Amistad in 1839. It was an unusual freedom suit that involved international issues and parties, as well as United States law. The historian Samuel Eliot Morrison in 1965 described it as the most important court case involving slavery before being eclipsed by that of Dred Scott. The schooner was traveling along the coast of Cuba on its way to a port for re-sale of the slaves. The African captives, who had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone and illegally sold into slavery and shipped to Cuba, escaped their shackles and took over the ship. They killed many of the crew and directed the survivors to return them to Africa. The crew tricked them, sailing north at night. The Amistad was later apprehended near Long Island, New York, by the United States Revenue Cutter Service and taken into custody. The widely publicized court cases in the United States federal district and Supreme Court, which addressed international issues, helped the abolitionist movement. In 1840, a federal district court found that the transport of the kidnapped Africans across the Atlantic on the slave ship Tecora was in violation of laws and treaties against the international slave trade by Great Britain, Spain and the United States. The captives were ruled to have acted as free men when they fought to escape their illegal confinement. The Court ruled the Africans were entitled to take whatever legal measures necessary to secure their freedom, including the use of force. Under international and sectional pressure, the President Martin Van Buren ordered the case appealed to the US Supreme Court. It affirmed the lower court ruling on March 9, 1841, and authorized the return of the Africans to their homeland.

— Freebase

Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Before becoming a judge, Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education, a decision that desegregated public schools. He served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit after being appointed by President John F. Kennedy and then served as the Solicitor General after being appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. President Johnson nominated him to the United States Supreme Court in 1967.

— Freebase

Supremacy Clause

Supremacy Clause

Article VI, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution, known as the Supremacy Clause, establishes the U.S. Constitution, federal statutes, and U.S. Treaties as "the supreme law of the land." The text provides that these are the highest form of law in the U.S. legal system, and mandates that all state judges must follow federal law when a conflict arises between federal law and either the state constitution or state law of any state. The "supremacy clause" is the most important guarantor of national union. It assures that the Constitution and federal laws and treaties take precedence over state law and binds all judges to adhere to that principle in their courts. - United States Senate The Supremacy Clause only applies if Congress is acting in pursuit of its constitutionally authorized powers. Federal laws are valid and are supreme, so long as those laws were adopted in pursuance of—that is, consistent with—the Constitution. Nullification is the legal theory that states have the right to nullify, or invalidate, federal laws which they view as being unconstitutional; or federal laws that they view as having exceeded Congresses’ constitutionally authorized powers. The Supreme Court has rejected nullification, finding that under Article III of the Constitution, the power to declare federal laws unconstitutional has been delegated to the federal courts and that states do not have the authority to nullify federal law.

— Freebase

FedTax

FedTax

FedTax provides TaxCloud, a free sales tax collection, reporting, and remittance service for internet merchants selling tangible personal property (TPP) and digital goods. Our market opportunity is being expanded and accelerated by pending federal legislation that will mandate the collection of destination-based sales tax on all internet purchases.The Problem If your state is one of the 45 that have sales tax, your online purchases are, and always have been, subject to sales tax. Online retailers have not been required to collect sales tax because two out-of-date Supreme Court opinions said it would be too difficult, but they also said that once technology can make it easy, Congress should address the issue. TaxCloud shows that collecting sales tax online is now easy, and Congress is now preparing to enact federal legislation.

— CrunchBase

Damsel in distress

Damsel in distress

The subject of the damsel in distress, or persecuted maiden, is a classic theme in world literature, art, film and video games. She is usually a beautiful young woman placed in a dire predicament by a villain or monster and who requires a hero to achieve her rescue. She has become a stock character of fiction, particularly of melodrama. Though she is usually human, she can also be of any other species, including fictional or folkloric species; and even divine figures such as an angel or deity. The word "damsel" derives from the French demoiselle, meaning "young lady", and the term "damsel in distress" in turn is a translation of the French demoiselle en détresse. It is an archaic term not used in modern English except for effect or in expressions such as this, which can be traced back to the knight errant of Medieval songs and tales, who regarded the saving of such women as an essential part of his raison d'être. Translated from French this means, 'Reason of Being'. Essentially, the purpose of one being a Knight. The helplessness of the damsel in distress, who can be portrayed as foolish and ineffectual to the point of naïvete, along with her need of others to rescue her, has made the stereotype the target of feminist criticism.

— Freebase

Trattoria

Trattoria

A trattoria is an Italian-style eating establishment, less formal than a ristorante, but more formal than an osteria. There are generally no printed menus, the service is casual, wine is sold by the decanter rather than the bottle, prices are low, and the emphasis is on a steady clientele rather than on haute cuisine. The food is modest but plentiful and in some instances is even served family-style. Trattorie faithful to this stereotype have become fewer in the last 20 years and many have adopted some of the trappings of restaurants, with just one or two "concessions" to the old rustic and familiar style. Optionally, trattoria food may be bought in containers for taking home. The word is cognate with the French word traiteur—meaning a catering business whose sole raison d'être is take-out food.

— Freebase

Tour operator

Tour operator

A tour operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a holiday. They prepare itinerary. The most common example of a tour operator's product would be a flight on a charter airline plus a transfer from the airport to a hotel and the services of a local representative, all for one price. Niche tour operators may specialise in destinations, e.g. Italy, activities and experiences, e.g. skiing, or a combination thereof. The original raison d'etre of tour operating was the difficulty of making arrangements in far-flung places, with problems of language, currency and communication. The advent of the internet has led to a rapid increase in self-packaging of holidays. However, tour operators still have their competence in arranging tours for those who do not have time to do DIY holidays, and specialize in large group events and meetings such as conferences or seminars. Also, tour operators still exercise contracting power with suppliers and influence over other entities in order to create packages and special departures for destinations otherwise difficult and expensive to visit.

— Freebase

Tautosyllabic

Tautosyllabic

Two or more phonemes are tautosyllabic if they occur in the same syllable. Take for instance the English word "cat". Since this word is monosyllabic, the three phonemes /k/, /æ/ and /t/ are tautosyllabic. They can also be described as sharing a 'tautosyllabic distribution'. However, in the French word "être", only the three last phones /t/ and /r/ are tautosyllabic, all members of the second syllable. Phonemes which are not tautosyllabic are heterosyllabic. For example, in the English word "mustard", /m/ and /t/ are heterosyllabic, as they are members of different syllables.

— Freebase

Soraismus

Soraismus

In rhetoric, soraismus is the awkward use of different languages--often using a foreign term incorrectly or in an inappropriate situation. ⁕Example: His raison d'être allows little quid pro quo with the hoi polloi. Soraismus can also be used deliberately for humor. Common use of soraismus can be found in Ebonics and "spanlish".

— Freebase

Anti-consumerism

Anti-consumerism

Anti-consumerism is a socio-political ideology opposed to consumerism, which discourages an ever-growing purchasing and consumption of material possessions. Anti-consumerist activists express concern over modern corporations or organizations that pursue solely economic goals at the expense of environmental, social, or ethical concerns; these concerns overlap with those of environmental activism, anti-globalization, and animal-rights activism. One variation on this is the concept of postconsumers, who emphasize moving beyond addictive consumerism. The anti-consumerist activist movement has gained strength as a reaction to long-term problematic treatment of consumers and animals, as well as the incorporation of consumer education into school curricula. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of books, like Naomi Klein's No Logo in 2000, and films like The Corporation and Surplus, popularizing an anti-corporate ideology to the public. Criticism of economic materialism comes primarily from two sources, religion and social activism. Some religions assert materialism interferes with connection between the individual and God or that it is inherently an immoral lifestyle. Thomas Aquinas wrote "Greed is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things.". Some notable individuals, such as Francis of Assisi, Ammon Hennacy, and Mohandas Gandhi claimed spiritual inspiration led them to a simple lifestyle. Social activists state materialism is connected to crime, pollution, environmental degradation, war, economic inequality, poverty, along with general social malaise, discontent, and hedonism. Fundamentally, their concern is that materialism is unable to offer a raison d'être for human existence. Critics of consumerism include Pope Benedict XVI, German historian Oswald Spengler, and French writer Georges Duhamel, who held "American materialism up as a beacon of mediocrity that threatened to eclipse French civilization".

— Freebase

Ethnocracy

Ethnocracy

Ethnocracy is a form of government where representatives of a particular ethnic group hold a number of government posts disproportionately large to the percentage of the total population that the particular ethnic group represents and use them to advance the position of their particular ethnic group to the detriment of others. The minority ethnic groups are systematically discriminated against by the state and may face repressions or violations of human rights at the hands of state organs. Ethnocracy can also be a political regime which is instituted on the basis of qualified rights to citizenship, and with ethnic affiliation as the distinguishing principle. Generally, the raison d'être of an ethnographic government is to secure the most important instruments of state power in the hands of a specific ethnic collectivity. All other considerations concerning the distribution of power are ultimately subordinated to this basic intention. Ethnocracies are generally considered to be non-democratic in nature. Ethnocracies are characterised by their control system – the legal, institutional, and physical instruments of power deemed necessary to secure ethnic dominance. The degree of system discrimination will tend to vary greatly from case to case and from situation to situation. If the dominant group constitutes a small minority of the population within the state territory, extreme degrees of institutionalised suppression will probably be necessary to sustain the status quo.

— Freebase

Flying column

Flying column

A flying column is a small, independent, military land unit capable of rapid mobility and usually composed of all arms. It is often an ad hoc unit, formed during the course of operations. The term is usually, though not necessarily, applied to forces less than the strength of a brigade. As mobility is its raison d'être, a flying column is accompanied by the minimum of equipment. It generally uses suitable fast transport; historically, horses were used, with trucks and helicopters replacing them in modern times.

— Freebase

Lucile

Lucile

Lucile is an opéra comique, described as a comédie mêlée d'ariettes, in one act by the Belgian composer André Grétry, The French text was by Jean-François Marmontel, and the characters in the opera, though not the actual story, were derived from Marmontel's L'école des pères. The melody from "Où peut-on être mieux qu'au sein de sa famille?" was later reused in Vieuxtemp's Violin Concerto No. 5, Op.37.

— Freebase

general

general

Applied to a person (as a postmodifier or a normal preceding adjective) to indicate supreme rank, in civil or military titles, and later in other terms; pre-eminent.

— Wiktionary

king

king

A male monarch; a man who heads a monarchy. If it's an absolute monarchy, then he is the supreme ruler of his nation.

— Wiktionary

kingdom

kingdom

A nation having as supreme ruler a king and/or queen.

— Wiktionary

sovereign

sovereign

Having supreme, ultimate power.

— Wiktionary

sovereignty

sovereignty

Supreme authority over all things. (as in an emperor, king, dictator, or God, ref. u2018King of kings, and Lord of lordsu2019)

— Wiktionary

empire

empire

A political unit having an extensive territory or comprising a number of territories or nations and ruled by a single supreme authority.

— Wiktionary

shogun

shogun

The supreme generalissimo of feudal Japan.

— Wiktionary

generalissimo

generalissimo

A supreme commander of the armed forces of a country, especially one who is also a political leader.

— Wiktionary

commander in chief

commander in chief

Supreme commander of the armed forces of an entire country.

— Wiktionary

Jehovist

Jehovist

The writer of the passages of the Old Testament, especially those of the Pentateuch, in which the Supreme Being is styled Jehovah. See Elohist.

— Wiktionary

invisible

invisible

An invisible person or thing; specifically, God, the Supreme Being.

— Wiktionary

Zeus

Zeus

Supreme ruler of all Greek gods, husband to Hera.

— Wiktionary

best

best

The supreme effort one can make

— Wiktionary

pharaoh

pharaoh

The supreme ruler of ancient Egypt; a formal address for the sovereign seat of power as personified by the 'king' in an institutional role of Horus son of Osiris; often used by metonymy for Ancient Egyptian sovereignty

— Wiktionary

shah

shah

A supreme ruler in some Middle Eastern nations.

— Wiktionary

supremacy

supremacy

The quality of being supreme.

— Wiktionary

command

command

To have or exercise supreme power, control or authority over, especially military; to have under direction or control.

— Wiktionary

paramount

paramount

Supreme; highest.

— Wiktionary

imperium

imperium

Supreme power; dominion.

— Wiktionary

Baal

Baal

the supreme male deity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish pantheons; a Mediterranean fertility deity whose worship was characterised by the sexual acts of his followers during periodic rituals, along with occasional human sacrifice and frequent temple prostitution, worshipped as far back as 1400 BCE

— Wiktionary

Satan

Satan

The supreme evil spirit in Christianity, Islam and Judaism; the Devil, Lucifer or Beelzebub.

— Wiktionary

Odin

Odin

The supreme god of the Germanic and Norse pantheons, the leader of the u00C6sir, after whom Wednesday is named. The god of war, death, poetry, and wisdom, Odin is husband to Frigga and father of Balder, Hod, Hermod, Thor, and Tyr. Also known as Allfather, One-eyed, the Terrible One, and Father of Battle.

— Wiktionary

Most High

Most High

One of the titles of God. Supreme, most magnificent.

— Wiktionary

Hinduism

Hinduism

A religion, philosophy and culture native to India, characterized by the belief in reincarnation and a supreme oneness personified in many forms and natures.

— Wiktionary

chutzpah

chutzpah

Nearly arrogant courage; utter audacity, effrontery or impudence; supreme self-confidence; exaggerated self-opinion;

— Wiktionary

religious leader

religious leader

In Catholicism, any of a number of individuals, including priests, Cardinals, Bishops, and the Supreme Pontiff.

— Wiktionary

brahmin

brahmin

One who has realized or attempts to realize Brahman, i.e. God or supreme knowledge.

— Wiktionary

beatitude

beatitude

Supreme, utmost bliss and happiness.

— Wiktionary

parliamentary

parliamentary

Having the supreme executive and legislative power resting with a cabinet of ministers chosen from, and responsible to a parliament.

— Wiktionary

Almighty

Almighty

God, the supreme being.

— Wiktionary

Constitution

Constitution

The supreme law of some countries, such as Australia, Ireland, and the United States.

— Wiktionary

Vishnu

Vishnu

One of the Trimurti (trinity) in Hindu mythology, and the most popularly venerated god in Hinduism. Vishnu is commonly depicted as being blue in colour and having four arms: with each hand holding either a lotus, a mace, a conch shell or Chakra weapon. Vishnu is the Supreme being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions of Hinduism.

— Wiktionary

papal supremacy

papal supremacy

the supreme and universal power of the Pope, which he can always exercise unhindered, over the Roman Catholic Church

— Wiktionary

elegantly

elegantly

gracefully, smoothly, and swiftly; with supreme style.

— Wiktionary

court of last resort

court of last resort

The final court of appeal in a jurisdiction; a supreme court.

— Wiktionary

exhaustion

exhaustion

Supreme tiredness; having exhausted energy.

— Wiktionary

oversoul

oversoul

A supreme reality or mind; the spiritual unity of all being.

— Wiktionary

Shiva

Shiva

Together with Brahma and Vishnu, one of the principal deities in Hinduism. Within Shaivism he is viewed as the Supreme deity, whereas in other branches of Hinduism such as the Smarta tradition he is worshipped as one of the six manifestations of the Divine.

— Wiktionary

uraeus

uraeus

A representation of the sacred asp, symbolising supreme power in ancient Egypt.

— Wiktionary

presidium

presidium

Such an executive committee headed by the President of the Supreme Soviet.

— Wiktionary

ectopic pregnancy

ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube (so-called tubal pregnancies), but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen. An abdominal pregnancy or heterotopic pregnancy is rare, but a few, fabulously rare (about 1:60,000,000) cases are documented as coming to term; in the other instances, the mother dies first; an abdominal pregnancy is the supreme obstetrical emergency. All are treated by surgery where the life of the non-viable fetus is sacrificed for that of the mother.

— Wiktionary

Omkaar

Omkaar

A Hindu title for a supreme god, u201Cthe primordial sound from which the universe was manifest.u201D

— Wiktionary

kathenotheism

kathenotheism

Belief that multiple deities exist, and different deities are supreme among them at different times.

— Wiktionary

crowning

crowning

Supreme; of a surpassing quality or quantity.

— Wiktionary

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama

(Tibetan Buddhism) The supreme head of Tibetan Buddhism, believed to be an incarnation of Avalokitesvara, and considered the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people.

— Wiktionary

Negus

Negus

A ruler of Ethiopia or of a province of Ethiopia; specifically, the supreme ruler of Ethiopia before 1974.

— Wiktionary

superexcellent

superexcellent

Uncommonly excellent; of supreme excellence.

— Wiktionary

Anglican Church

Anglican Church

Any of the churches worldwide that are in communion with the Church of England, have the same doctrine, and have the Archbishop of Canterbury as supreme head.

— Wiktionary

Supreme Leader

Supreme Leader

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the entire armed forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, with the authority to dismiss the Iranian president. The Supreme Leader is also the highest-ranking spiritual leader in Iran.

— Wiktionary

Supremes

Supremes

The current members, as a group, of the Supreme Court of the United States.

— Wiktionary

traditionalism

traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude; the doctrine that human reason is of itself radically unable to know with certainty any truth or, at least, the fundamental truths of the metaphysical, moral, and religious order.

— Wiktionary

high court

high court

A supreme court; a court to which final appeals may be taken.

— Wiktionary

teleological argument

teleological argument

A type of argument for the existence of God, advanced by a number of philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas and George Berkeley, which maintains that the design of the world reveals that objects have purposes or ends and that such an organized design must be the creation of a supreme designer (God). Also called the argument from design.

— Wiktionary

advocation

advocation

The process of removing a cause from an inferior court to the supreme court.

— Wiktionary

astika

astika

Technical term in Hinduism used to classify philosophical schools and persons, according to whether they accept the authority of the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, or not.

— Wiktionary

nastika

nastika

Technical term in Hinduism used to classify philosophical schools and persons, according to whether they accept the authority of the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, or not.

— Wiktionary

Shakti

Shakti

Meaning sacred force, power or energy, it represents the Hindu concept or personification of the divine feminine aspect, sometimes referred to as 'The Divine Mother'. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. In Shaktism, Shakti is worshiped as the Supreme Being. However, in other Hindu traditions, Shakti embodies the active energy and power of male deities (Purushas), such as Vishnu in Vaishnavism or Shiva in Shaivism

— Wiktionary

Sutratman

Sutratman

"The String Soul", the "Thread-Self", The cosmic soul, one aspect of the cosmic supreme being;

— Wiktionary

supereminently

supereminently

In a supereminent manner; to a supreme degree.

— Wiktionary

archvillain

archvillain

A supreme villain; the most evil or powerful villain

— Wiktionary

Supreme

Supreme

The Supreme Being; the Almighty; God.

— Wiktionary

radun

radun

A male Maldive monarch; member of the Maldive royal family who is the supreme ruler of his nation.

— Wiktionary

Sublime Porte

Sublime Porte

The monumental portal at the Ottoman palace where the supreme tribunals were held; became the surname of the first palace in Burssa (now Brussa), transferred to the even grander Topkapi palace after the capital's transfer to Istanbul (the former Byzantine imperial capital Constantinople)

— Wiktionary

Shaktism

Shaktism

A branch of Hinduism that focuses on the worship of Shakti as a supreme goddess.

— Wiktionary

Areopagus

Areopagus

The supreme judicial and legislative council of ancient Athens

— Wiktionary

Weingarten right

Weingarten right

Any of various rights afforded employees by the United States Supreme Court decision in NLRB v. J. Weingarten, Inc. (1975).

— Wiktionary

superexcellence

superexcellence

Supreme excellence.

— Wiktionary

Karaism

Karaism

A Jewish movement that recognises only the Tanakh as a supreme legal authority, distinct from Rabbinic Judaism.

— Wiktionary

military governor

military governor

The military commander or other designated person who, in an occupied territory, exercises supreme authority over the civil population subject to the laws and usages of war and to any directive received from the commander

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Oyez

Oyez

Oyez is a traditional interjection said three times in succession to introduce the opening of a court of law in the United States. Until the 18th century, speaking English in an English court of law was not required and one could instead use Law French, a form of French that evolved after the Norman Conquest, when Anglo-Norman became the language of the upper classes in England. Oyez descends from the Anglo-Norman oyez, the plural imperative form of oyer, from French ouïr, "to hear"; thus oyez means "hear ye" and was used as a call for silence and attention. It would have been common in medieval England. The term is still in use by the Supreme Court of the United States. At the beginning of each session, the marshal of the Court announces: "Oyez! Oyez! Oyez! All persons having business before the Honorable, the Supreme Court of the United States, are admonished to draw near and give their attention, for the Court is now sitting. God save the United States and this Honorable Court." The phrase is also in use in other federal courts, such as the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, the United States District Court, Southern District of Texas, as well as the courts of Virginia, North Carolina, and Maryland.

— Freebase

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is the central command of NATO military forces. It is located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons. From 1951, SHAPE was the headquarters of operational forces in the European theatre, but since 2003 SHAPE has been the headquarters of Allied Command Operations controlling all allied operations worldwide. SHAPE retained its traditional name with reference to Europe for legal reasons although the geographical scope of its activities was extended in 2003. At that time, NATO's command in Lisbon, historically part of the Atlantic command, was reassigned to ACO. The commanding officer of Allied Command Operations has also retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe", and continues to be a US four-star general officer or flag officer who also serves as Commander, U.S. European Command.

— Freebase

High Court of Fiji

High Court of Fiji

The High Court of Fiji is one of three courts established by Chapter 9 of the Constitution of Fiji—the others being the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court. The Constitution empowers Parliament to create other courts; these are subordinate to the High Court, which is authorized to oversee all proceedings of such courts. The High Court has unlimited original jurisdiction to hear and determine any civil or criminal proceedings under any law and such other original jurisdiction as is conferred on it under the Constitution. The High Court consists of the Chief Justice and at least ten puisne judges. Parliament may also allow for junior judges, called Masters of the High Court, to sit on the High Court. Section 129 of the Constitution declares that "A judge who has sat in a trial of a matter that is the subject of appeal to a higher court must not sit in the appeal." As the membership of the High Court overlaps to a large extent with that of the Appeal Court and the Supreme Court, this clause is inserted to prevent a conflict of interest. Until July 2007, under the High Court Act, foreign judges appointed to the High Court had to be nationals of one of the following countries: Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Tonga, or the United Kingdom. In practice, appointees were almost exclusively nationals of Australia and New Zealand. In July 2007, President Ratu Josefa Iloilovatu issued the High Court Act Promulgation, which extended the list to "any country which is at the time of the appointment a member of the Commonwealth of nations". The Promulgation particularly highlighted Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and India as potential sources for the appointment of new judges. Hong Kong is specifically cited as an authorised source for judges despite not being a member of the Commonwealth. The Promulgation was approved by the Cabinet led by interim Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama.

— Freebase

Superior general

Superior general

A Superior General, or General Superior, is the leader or head of a religious institute in the Roman Catholic Church. The Superior General usually holds supreme executive authority in the religious order, while the general chapter has legislative authority. The figure of Superior General first emerged in the Thirteenth Century with the development of the centralized government of the Mendicant Orders. The Friars Minor organized their community under a Minister General, and the Order of Preachers appointed a Master General. Due to restrictions on women religious, especially the obligation of cloister for nuns, congregations of women were not initially able to organize with their own Superior General. In 1609, Mary Ward was the superior general of a religious institute that imitated the Jesuit model, but the institute was not accepted by the Roman Curia. It was in the Nineteenth Century that religious congregations of women were able to organize with a General Superior and the role is now very common. Mother Teresa, for example, was the Mother General of the Missionaries of Charity. In canon law, the generic term Supreme Moderator is used instead of Superior General. Many orders and congregations use their own title for the person who holds this position. Some examples are:

— Freebase

Goddess

Goddess

Goddess as a proper noun may refer to a feminine supreme deity in monotheism or bitheism. Otherwise a goddess may refer to any feminine or female deity with supernatural powers. In some cultures Goddesses are associated with Earth, motherhood, love, and the household. In other cultures, Goddesses also rule over war, death, and destruction as well as healing. They can be figureheads of religions and can be accessed in modern times by religious statues. In some religions, a sacred feminine archetype can occupy a very central place in prayer and worship. In Hinduism, Sacred Feminine or Shaktism is one of the three major Hindu denominations of worship along with Vishnu and Shiva. In Tibetan Buddhism, the highest achievement any person can achieve is to become like the "great" female Buddhas who are depicted as being supreme protectors, fearless and filled with compassion for all beings. The primacy of a monotheistic or near-monotheistic "Great Goddess" is advocated by some modern matriarchists as a female version of, preceding, or analogue to, the Abrahamic God associated with the historical rise of monotheism in the Mediterranean Axis Age. Some currents of Neopaganism, in particular Wicca, have a bitheistic concept of a single Goddess and a single God, who in hieros gamos represent a united whole. Polytheistic reconstructionists focus on reconstructing polytheistic religions, including the various goddesses and figures associated with indigenous cultures.

— Freebase

Jack-A-Dandy

Jack-A-Dandy

Jack-A-Dandy is a fictional comic book super villain created by writer Alan Moore and artist Rob Liefeld, as guided by Mort Weisinger. The character is modeled after the Joker and the Riddler to be the archenemy of comic book hero Professor Night, which is a character based on the Batman mythos. His gimmick consists of dressing like an early twentieth century high society gentleman and creating havoc out of boredom. In one of the Supreme earlier stories, he teams up with Darius Dax to switch Supreme and Professor Night's minds, but the duo manage to reverse the effect and switch the minds of the two villains.

— Freebase

Brahman

Brahman

In Hinduism, Brahman is "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world", which "cannot be exactly defined", but is Sat-cit-ānanda and the highest reality. Brahman is conceived as personal, impersonal and/or Para Brahman, supreme, depending on the philosophical school. The sages of the Upanishads teach that Brahman is the ultimate essence of material phenomena that cannot be seen or heard but whose nature can be known through the development of self-knowledge. According to Advaita, a liberated human being has realised Brahman as his or her own true self. Radhakrishnan, who is representative of the "Modern Hinduism", refers to Brahman as the Absolute or Godhead which is the Divine Ground of all being. The Isha Upanishad says: Auṃ - That supreme Brahman is infinite, and this conditioned Brahman is infinite. The infinite proceeds from infinite. If you subtract the infinite from the infinite, the infinite remains alone.

— Freebase

Caesaropapism

Caesaropapism

Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or making it superior to, the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government. The term caesaropapism was coined by Max Weber, who defined it as follows: “a secular, caesaropapist ruler... exercises supreme authority in ecclesiastic matters by virtue of his autonomous legitimacy”. According to Weber's political sociology, caesaropapism entails “the complete subordination of priests to secular power.” In its extreme form, caesaropapism is a political theory in which the head of state, notably the Emperor, is also the supreme head of the church. In this form, it inverts theocracy in which institutions of the Church control the state. However, both Caesaropapism and Theocracy are systems in which there is no Separation of Church and State and the two form parts of a single power structure.

— Freebase

Papal supremacy

Papal supremacy

Papal supremacy refers to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls."

— Freebase

Kami

Kami

Kami is the Japanese word for an effigy, a principle and any supernatural being. For example, "idol", "mind", "spirit", "God", and "supreme being". It is also for the spirits, natural forces, and essence in the Shinto faith. Although the word is sometimes translated as "god" or "deity," some Shinto scholars argue that such a translation can cause a misunderstanding of the term. The wide variety of usage of the word can be compared to the Sanskrit Deva and the Hebrew Elohim, which also refer to God, gods, angels or spirits. In some instances, such as Izanagi-no-Mikoto and Izanami-no-Mikoto, kami are personified deities, similar to the gods of ancient Greece or Rome. In other cases, such as those concerning the phenomenon of natural emanation, kami are the spirits dwelling in trees, or forces of nature. Kami may, at its root, simply mean "spirit", or an aspect of spirituality. It is written with the kanji "神", Sino-Japanese reading shin or jin; in Chinese, the character is used to refer to various nature spirits of traditional Chinese religion, but not to the Taoist deities or the Supreme Being. An apparently cognate form, perhaps a loanword, occurs in the Ainu language as kamuy and refers to an animistic concept very similar to Japanese kami. Following the discovery of the Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai it is now known that the medieval word kami meaning "above" is a false cognate with the modern kami, and the etymology of "heavenly beings" is therefore incorrect. Shinto kami are located within the world and not above it. In fact, traditionally human beings like the Emperor could be kami. No need was felt to locate them beyond this world. In his Kojiki-den, Motoori Norinaga gave a definition of kami:

— Freebase

Wrongful life

Wrongful life

Wrongful life is the name given to a legal action in which someone is sued by a severely disabled child for failing to prevent the child's birth. Typically a child and the parents will sue a doctor or a hospital for failing to provide information about the disability during the pregnancy, or a genetic disposition before the pregnancy. Had the mother been aware of this information, it is argued, she would have had an abortion, or chosen not to conceive at all. Historically, only parents could sue for their own damages incurred as a result of the birth of a disabled child. This cause of action is known as wrongful birth. But the child could not sue for his or her own damages, which were often much more substantial, in terms of the cost of round-the-clock personal care and special education. In four U.S. states, the child is allowed to bring a wrongful life cause of action for such damages. In a 1982 case involving hereditary deafness, the Supreme Court of California was the first state supreme court to endorse the child's right to sue for wrongful life, but in the same decision, limited the child's recovery to special damages. This rule implies that the child can recover objectively provable economic damages, but cannot recover general damages like subjective "pain and suffering"—that is, monetary compensation for the entire experience of having a disabled life versus having a healthy mind and/or body.

— Freebase

Shaktism

Shaktism

Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that focuses worship upon Shakti or Devi – the Hindu Divine Mother – as the absolute, ultimate Godhead. It is, along with Shaivism and Vaisnavism, one of the primary schools of devotional Hinduism. Shaktism regards Devi as the Supreme Brahman itself, the "one without a second", with all other forms of divinity, female or male, considered to be merely her diverse manifestations. In the details of its philosophy and practice, Shaktism resembles Shaivism. However, Shaktas, practitioners of Shaktism, focus most or all worship on Shakti, as the dynamic feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva, the masculine aspect of divinity, is considered solely transcendent, and his worship is usually relegated to an auxiliary role. The roots of Shaktism penetrate deep into India's prehistory. From the Goddess's earliest known appearance in Indian paleolithic settlements more than 22,000 years ago, through the refinement of her cult in the Indus Valley Civilization, her partial eclipse during the Vedic period, and her subsequent resurfacing and expansion in the classical Sanskrit tradition, it has been suggested that, in many ways, "the history of the Hindu tradition can be seen as a reemergence of the feminine."

— Freebase

Supreme Court of the United States

Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment.

— Freebase

Poll tax

Poll tax

In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto or implicit pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting eligible voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites. Initially, the United States Supreme Court, in the case of Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 277, found the poll tax to be constitutional. The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, reflecting a political compromise, abolished the use of the poll tax as a pre-condition for voting in federal elections, but made no mention of poll taxes in state elections. In the 1966 case of Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, the Supreme Court overruled its decision in Breedlove v. Suttles, and extended the prohibition of poll taxes to state elections. It declared that the imposition of a poll tax in state elections violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution.

— Freebase

Concurring opinion

Concurring opinion

In law, a concurring opinion is a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different reasons as the basis for his or her decision. When no absolute majority of the court can agree on the basis for deciding the case, the decision of the court may be contained in a number of concurring opinions, and the concurring opinion joined by the greatest number of judges is referred to as the plurality opinion. There are several kinds of concurring opinion. A simple concurring opinion arises when a judge joins the decision of the court but has something to add. Concurring in judgment means that the judge agrees with the majority decision but not with the reasoning of the majority opinion. In some courts, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the majority opinion may be broken down into numbered or lettered parts, and then concurring justices may state that they join some parts of the majority opinion, but not others, for the reasons given in their concurring opinion. In other courts, such as the Supreme Court of California, the same justice may write a majority opinion and a separate concurring opinion to express additional reasons in support of the judgment.

— Freebase

Bluebook

Bluebook

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a style guide, prescribes the most widely used legal citation system in the United States. The Bluebook is compiled by the Harvard Law Review Association, the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal. Currently, it is in its 19th edition. It is so named because its cover is blue. The Bluebook is taught and used at a majority of U.S. law schools, and is also used in a majority of U.S. federal courts. Alternative legal citation style guides exist, including the ALWD Citation Manual. There are also several "house" citation styles used by legal publishers in their works. The U.S. Supreme Court uses its own unique citation style in its opinions, even though most of the justices and their law clerks obtained their legal education at law schools that use The Bluebook. Furthermore, many state courts have their own citation rules that take precedence over The Bluebook for documents filed with those courts. Some of the local rules are simple modifications to The Bluebook system, such as Maryland's requirement that citations to Maryland cases include a reference to the official Maryland reporter. Delaware's Supreme Court has promulgated rules of citation for unreported cases markedly different from The Bluebook standards, and custom in that state as to the citation format of the Delaware Code also differs from The Bluebook. In other states, notably New York, California, Texas, and Michigan, the local rules are so different from The Bluebook that they are codified in their own style guides. Competent attorneys in those states must be able to switch seamlessly between citation styles depending upon whether their work product is intended for a federal or state court.

— Freebase

Devi

Devi

Devī is the Sanskrit root-word of Divine, its related masculine term is Deva. Devi is synonymous with Shakti, the female aspect of the divine, as conceptualized by the Shakta tradition of Hinduism. She is the female counterpart without whom the male aspect, which represents consciousness or discrimination, remains impotent and void. Goddess worship is an integral part of Hinduism. Devi is, quintessentially, the core form of every Hindu Goddess. As the female manifestation of the supreme lord, she is also called Prakriti, as she balances out the male aspect of the divine addressed Purusha. Devi is the supreme Being in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, while in the Smartha tradition, she is one of the five primary forms of God. In other Hindu traditions of Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Devi embodies the active energy and power of male deities, such as Vishnu in Vaishnavism or Shiva in Shaivism. Vishnu's shakti counterpart is called Lakshmi, with Parvati being the female shakti of Shiva.

— Freebase

Satnam

Satnam

Satnam is the main word that appears in the Sikh sacred scripture called the Guru Granth Sahib. It is part of the Gurbani shabad called Mool Mantra which is repeated daily by all Sikhs. This word succeeds the word "Ek-onkar" which means "There is only one constant" or commonly "There is one God". The words sat means "true" and nam means "name". In this instance, this would mean, "whose name is truth". The word nam in Sikhism has two meanings. "It meant both an application and a symbol of the All-pervading Supreme Reality that sustained the universe. Guru Nanak in his teachings emphasized the need of repeating Sat-Nam to realize the All-pervading Supreme Reality."

— Freebase

John Marshall

John Marshall

John Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Previously, Marshall had been a leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800. He was Secretary of State under President John Adams from 1800 to 1801. The longest-serving Chief Justice and the fourth longest-serving justice in US Supreme Court history, Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review, by disregarding purported laws if they violate the Constitution. Thus, Marshall cemented the position of the American judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, Marshall's court made several important decisions relating to federalism, affecting the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic. In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.

— Freebase

Executive privilege

Executive privilege

In the United States government, executive privilege is the power claimed by the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government. The concept of executive privilege is not mentioned explicitly in the United States Constitution, but the Supreme Court of the United States ruled it to be an element of the separation of powers doctrine, and/or derived from the supremacy of executive branch in its own area of Constitutional activity. The Supreme Court confirmed the legitimacy of this doctrine in United States v. Nixon, but only to the extent of confirming that there is a qualified privilege. Once invoked, a presumption of privilege is established, requiring the Prosecutor to make a "sufficient showing" that the "Presidential material" is "essential to the justice of the case.". Chief Justice Burger further stated that executive privilege would most effectively apply when the oversight of the executive would impair that branch's national security concerns. Historically, the uses of executive privilege underscore the untested nature of the doctrine, since Presidents have generally sidestepped open confrontations with the United States Congress and the courts over the issue by first asserting the privilege, then producing some of the documents requested on an assertedly voluntary basis.

— Freebase

Court of Appeal

Court of Appeal

The Court of Appeal of Fiji is one of three courts established by Chapter 9 of the Constitution, the others being the High Court and the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeal was a new institution established when the 1997 Constitution came into effect; the other two courts predated it. The Constitution authorizes the Court of Appeal "to hear and determine appeals" from all judgements of the High Court. From time to time, other powers may be assigned to this court by law. The Court of Appeal is chaired by the President of the Court of Appeal. The Chief Justice is not permitted to hold this position; the Court of Appeal is the only court from which the Chief Justice is constitutionally barred from membership. This is to give the Court of Appeal a measure of independence from the other courts. The current President of the Appeal Court is Gordon Ward. Also members of the Court of Appeal are the puisne judges, at least ten in number, and persons specifically appointed as Justice of Appeal. Section 129 of the Constitution declares that "A judge who has sat in a trial of a matter that is the subject of appeal to a higher court must not sit in the appeal." As the membership of the High Court overlaps to a large extent with that of the Appeal Court and the Supreme Court, this clause is inserted to prevent a conflict of interest.

— Freebase

Appellate court

Appellate court

An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court or court of appeals or appeal court or court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal. In most jurisdictions, the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which initially hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case; at least one intermediate appellate court; and a supreme court which primarily reviews the decisions of the intermediate courts. A jurisdiction's supreme court is that jurisdiction's highest appellate court. Appellate courts nationwide can operate by varying rules. The authority of appellate courts to review decisions of lower courts varies widely from one jurisdiction to another. In some places, the appellate court has limited powers of review. "Generally speaking, an appellate court's judgment provides 'the final directive of the appeals courts as to the matter appealed, setting out with specificity the court's determination that the action appealed from should be affirmed, reversed, remanded or modified'".

— Freebase

Del credere

Del credere

A del credere agent, in English law, is one who, selling goods for his principal on credit, undertakes for an additional commission to sell only to persons who are absolutely solvent. His position is thus that of a surety who is liable to his principal should the vendee make default. The agreement between him and his principal need not be reduced to or evidenced by writing, for his undertaking is not a guarantee within the Statute of Frauds. A Del Credere Agent is an agent who not only establishes a privity of contract between his principal and the third party, but who also guarantees to his principal the due performance of the contract by the third party. He is liable, however, only when the third party fails to carry out his contract, e.g., by insolvency. He is not liable to his principal if the third party refuses to carry out his contract for example, if the buyer refuses to take delivery. In the case of United States v. Masonite Corp., 316 U.S. 265, the U.S. Supreme Court evaluated the antitrust status of use of a del credere agency business structure. Such an arrangement often may, as it did in the Masonite case, involve the principal’s fixing the price at which the agent sells the goods that the principal supplies it. The Supreme Court held that, although the parties’ agency agreement could be assumed genuine rather than sham, id. at 277, use of del credere agency does not necessarily insulate the firms from antitrust liability.

— Freebase

Detainer

Detainer

Detainer; in law, the act of keeping a person against his will, or the wrongful keeping of a person's goods, or other real or personal property. A writ of detainer was a form for the beginning of a personal action against a person already lodged within the walls of a prison; it was superseded by the Judgment Act 1838. A detainer in the context of criminal law is a request filed by a criminal justice agency with the institution in which a prisoner is incarcerated, asking the institution either to hold the prisoner for the agency or to notify the agency when release of the prisoner is imminent. The Supreme Court of the United States has held that the Interstate Agreement on Detainers Act allows for a trial of any untried indictment, information, or complaint within 180 days. However, the prisoner needs to enter a request for final disposition to begin the clock. The U.S. Marshals are given the power to issue writs of detainers in 28 U.S.C. 566, which is how the federal government interacts with the states to retrieve someone in state prison. In Carchman v. Nash, the Supreme Court held that a probation revocation is not an "untried indictment, information or complaint" and therefore is not controlled by the Interstate Agreement on Detainer Act's 180 day provision. It also made it clear that a case that where a sentence has already been imposed against the prisoner is not under the 180 day restriction. Unfortunately, this often creates loopholes, where a proceeding still needs to go on in the case with the detainer, but the defendant has already pled guilty, and is not eligible to receive a final disposition in the case until his original period of incarceration is over. This creates a situation that is the opposite of what the Interstate Agreement was intended to do:

— Freebase

Whiteface

Whiteface

Whiteface is a fictional comic book supervillain in Marvel Comics. Created by Daniel Way and Steve Dillon, he was first introduced in Supreme Power: Nighthawk. He is the first supervillain to appear in the Supreme Power universe that does not have any superhuman abilities. Loosely based on DC Comics's the Joker, he is the first major antagonist to face Nighthawk.

— Freebase

United States Constitution

United States Constitution

The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution originally consisted of seven Articles. The first three Articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislature, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. The fourth and sixth Articles frame the doctrine of federalism, describing the relationship between State and State, and between the several States and the federal government. The fifth Article provides the procedure for amending the Constitution. The seventh Article provides the procedure for ratifying the Constitution. The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in eleven States. It went into effect on March 4, 1789. Since the Constitution was adopted, it has been amended twenty-seven times. The first ten of amendments were proposed by Congress on September 25, 1789, and were ratified by the necessary three-fourths of the States on December 15, 1791. These first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.

— Freebase

Cass Gilbert

Cass Gilbert

Cass Gilbert was a prominent American architect. An early proponent of skyscrapers in works like the Woolworth Building, Gilbert was also responsible for numerous museums and libraries, state capitol buildings as well as public architectural icons like the United States Supreme Court building. His public buildings in the Beaux Arts style reflect the optimistic American sense that the nation was heir to Greek democracy, Roman law and Renaissance humanism. Gilbert's achievements were recognized in his lifetime; he served as president of the American Institute of Architects in 1908-09. Gilbert was a conservative who believed architecture should reflect historic traditions and the established social order. His design of the new Supreme Court building, with its classical lines and small size contrasted sharply with the very large modernist Federal buildings going up along the National Mall in Washington, D.C., which he disliked. Heilbrun says "Gilbert's pioneering buildings injected vitality into skyscraper design, and his 'Gothic skyscraper,' epitomized by the Woolworth Building, profoundly influenced architects during the first decades of the twentieth century." Christen and Flanders note that his reputation among architectural critics went into eclipse during the age of modernism, but has since rebounded because of "respect for the integrity and classic beauty of his masterworks."

— Freebase

Benjamin N. Cardozo

Benjamin N. Cardozo

Benjamin Nathan Cardozo was an American jurist who served on the New York Court of Appeals and later as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Cardozo is remembered for his significant influence on the development of American common law in the 20th century, in addition to his modesty, philosophy, and vivid prose style. Cardozo served on the Supreme Court only six years, from 1932 until his death in 1938, and many of his landmark decisions were delivered during his eighteen-year tenure on the New York Court of Appeals, the highest court of that state.

— Freebase

Purusha

Purusha

In some lineages of Hinduism, Purusha is the "Self" which pervades the universe. The Vedic divinities are interpretations of the many facets of Purusha. According to the Rigvedic Purusha sukta, Purusha was dismembered by the devas—his mind is the Moon, his eyes are the Sun, and his breath is the wind. In the Rigveda, Purusha is described as a primeval giant that is sacrificed by the gods and from whose body the world and the varnas are built. He is described as having a thousand heads and a thousand feet. He emanated Viraj, the female creative principle, from which he is reborn in turn after the world was made out of his parts. Bhagavata Purana describes that Purusha is the first form of Supreme Lord Narayana and this Purusha is the source of everything in the universe. The Purusha in the title of Purusha Sukta refers to the Parama Purusha, Purushottama, Vedic Supreme God Narayana, in his form as the Viraat Purusha. It describes this form of his, as having countless heads, eyes, legs, manifested everywhere, and beyond the scope of any limited method of comprehension. All creation is but a fourth part of him. The rest is unmanifested. He is the source of all creation. Purusha along with Prakrti creates the necessary tattvas for the creation of universe.

— Freebase

In forma pauperis

In forma pauperis

In forma pauperis is a Latin legal term meaning "in the character or manner of a pauper". In the United States, the IFP designation is given by both state and federal courts to someone who is without the funds to pursue the normal costs of a lawsuit or a criminal defense. The status is usually granted by a judge without a hearing, and it entitles the person to a waiver of normal costs, and sometimes in criminal cases the appointment of counsel. While court-imposed costs such as filing fees are waived, the litigant is still responsible for other costs incurred in bringing the action such as deposition and witness fees. However, in federal court, a pauper can obtain free service of process through the United States Marshal's Service. Approximately two-thirds of writ of certiorari petitions to the Supreme Court are filed in forma pauperis. Most of those petitioners are prisoners. Petitions that appear on the Supreme Court's in forma pauperis docket are substantially less likely to be granted review than others on the docket. IFP status is usually granted in connection to pro se petitioners, but the two concepts are separate and distinct.

— Freebase

Erwin Griswold

Erwin Griswold

Erwin Nathaniel Griswold was an appellate attorney who argued many cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Griswold served as Solicitor General of the United States under Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard M. Nixon. He also served as Dean of Harvard Law School for 21 years. Several times he was considered for appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court. During a career that spanned more than six decades, he served as member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and as President of the American Bar Foundation.

— Freebase

Munn v. Illinois

Munn v. Illinois

Munn v. Illinois, 94 U.S. 113, was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation. Munn was one of six cases, the so-called Granger cases, all decided in the United States Supreme Court during the same term, all bearing on the same point, and all decided on the same principles.

— Freebase

Moonglow

Moonglow

Moonglow is a fictional character found in comic books from Marvel Comics. She was a member of a team of superheroes, Squadron Supreme. The Supreme Squadron members exist in numerous alternate universes, but their main and original timeline is Earth-712.

— Freebase

Massive resistance

Massive resistance

Massive resistance was a policy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia to unite other white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation, particularly after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954. Many schools, and even an entire school system, were shut down in 1958 and 1959, in attempts to block integration before both the Virginia Supreme Court and a special three-judge panel of federal district judges from the Eastern District of Virginia sitting at Norfolk, declared those policies unconstitutional. Although most of the laws created to implement Massive Resistance were overturned by state and federal courts within a year, some aspects of the campaign against integrated public schools continued in Virginia for many more years.

— Freebase

Squadron Supreme

Squadron Supreme

The Squadron Supreme is a fictional superhero team that appears in publications under the mature-audience MAX imprint by Marvel Comics. The team first appears in Supreme Power #1 and was created by writer J. Michael Straczynski and artist Gary Frank.

— Freebase

Plessy v. Ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan. Louisiana Justice Edward Douglass White was one of the majority: he was a member of the New Orleans Pickwick Club and the Crescent City White League, the latter a paramilitary organization that had supported white supremacy with violence through the 1870s to suppress black voting and regain political power by white Democrats. "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education.

— Freebase

Foraker Act

Foraker Act

The Foraker Act, Pub.L. 56–191, 31 Stat. 77, enacted April 12, 1900, officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. Section VII of the Foraker Act also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900 and it became known as the Foraker Act after its sponsor, Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker. Its main author has been identified as Secretary of War Elihu Root. The new government had a governor and an 11-member executive council appointed by the President of the United States, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court and a United States District Court, and a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress. The Executive council was all appointed: five individuals were selected from Puerto Rico residents while the rest were from those in top cabinet positions, including attorney general and chief of police. The Insular Supreme Court was also appointed.

— Freebase

Justice

Justice

1, High Court Of, one of the two great sections of the English Supreme Courts; 2, Lord Chief, the chief judge of the Queen's Bench division of it; 3, Lord Justice-General, supreme judge in Scotland, the Lord President of the Court of Session; 4, of the Peace, the title of a petty county or borough magistrate of multifarious duties and jurisdiction; 5, Lords Justices, judges of the English Court of Appeal.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

admiral

admiral, full admiral

the supreme commander of a fleet; ranks above a vice admiral and below a fleet admiral

— Princeton's WordNet

aeon

eon, aeon

(Gnosticism) a divine power or nature emanating from the Supreme Being and playing various roles in the operation of the universe

— Princeton's WordNet

amen-ra

Amen-Ra, Amon-Ra, Amun Ra

Egyptian sun god; supreme god of the universe in whom Amen and Ra were merged; principal deity during Theban supremacy

— Princeton's WordNet

amon-ra

Amen-Ra, Amon-Ra, Amun Ra

Egyptian sun god; supreme god of the universe in whom Amen and Ra were merged; principal deity during Theban supremacy

— Princeton's WordNet

anu

Anu

Babylonian god of the sky; one of the supreme triad including Bel and Ea

— Princeton's WordNet

ayatollah khomeini

Khomeini, Ruholla Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)

— Princeton's WordNet

ayatollah ruholla khomeini

Khomeini, Ruholla Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)

— Princeton's WordNet

bakke decision

Bakke decision

a ruling by the Supreme Court on affirmative action; the Court ruled in 1978 that medical schools are entitled to consider race as a factor in their admission policy

— Princeton's WordNet

be all and end all

be-all and end-all, be all and end all

the essential factor; the all-important element; the supreme aim

— Princeton's WordNet

be-all and end-all

be-all and end-all, be all and end all

the essential factor; the all-important element; the supreme aim

— Princeton's WordNet

beatification

blessedness, beatitude, beatification

a state of supreme happiness

— Princeton's WordNet

beatitude

blessedness, beatitude, beatification

a state of supreme happiness

— Princeton's WordNet

bel

Bel

Babylonian god of the earth; one of the supreme triad including Anu and Ea; earlier identified with En-lil

— Princeton's WordNet

benjamin henry latrobe

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Latrobe

United States architect (born in England) whose works include the chambers of the United States Congress and the Supreme Court; considered the first professional architect in the United States (1764-1820)

— Princeton's WordNet

best

best

the supreme effort one can make

— Princeton's WordNet

blessedness

blessedness, beatitude, beatification

a state of supreme happiness

— Princeton's WordNet

bloemfontein

Bloemfontein

the seat of the supreme court

— Princeton's WordNet

broad interpretation

broad interpretation, judicial activism

an interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)

— Princeton's WordNet

byzantinism

Erastianism, Byzantinism, Caesaropapism

the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

— Princeton's WordNet

caesaropapism

Erastianism, Byzantinism, Caesaropapism

the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

— Princeton's WordNet

charles evans hughes

Hughes, Charles Evans Hughes

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1862-1948)

— Princeton's WordNet

chase

Chase, Salmon P. Chase, Salmon Portland Chase

United States politician and jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1808-1873)

— Princeton's WordNet

chief justice

chief justice

the judge who presides over a supreme court

— Princeton's WordNet

clark

Clark, Kenneth Clark, Kenneth Bancroft Clark

United States psychologist (born in Panama) whose research persuaded the Supreme Court that segregated schools were discriminatory (1914-2005)

— Princeton's WordNet

commander in chief

commander in chief, generalissimo

the officer who holds the supreme command

— Princeton's WordNet

commonwealth

democracy, republic, commonwealth

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

— Princeton's WordNet

consummate

consummate, masterful, masterly, virtuoso(a)

having or revealing supreme mastery or skill

— Princeton's WordNet

cronus

Cronus

(Greek mythology) the supreme god until Zeus dethroned him; son of Uranus and Gaea in ancient Greek mythology; identified with Roman Saturn

— Princeton's WordNet

democracy

democracy, republic, commonwealth

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

— Princeton's WordNet

devi

Devi

Hindu mother goddess; supreme power in the universe; wife or embodiment of the female energy of Siva having both beneficent and malevolent forms or aspects

— Princeton's WordNet

dred scott

Scott, Dred Scott

United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state; caused the Supreme Court to declare the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (1795?-1858)

— Princeton's WordNet

ea

Ea

the Babylonian god of wisdom; son of Apsu and father of Marduk; counterpart of the Sumerian Enki; as one of the supreme triad including Anu and Bel he was assigned control of the watery element

— Princeton's WordNet

earl warren

Warren, Earl Warren

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)

— Princeton's WordNet

eon

eon, aeon

(Gnosticism) a divine power or nature emanating from the Supreme Being and playing various roles in the operation of the universe

— Princeton's WordNet

erastianism

Erastianism, Byzantinism, Caesaropapism

the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

— Princeton's WordNet

executive council

executive council

a council that shares the supreme executive power

— Princeton's WordNet

frederick moore vinson

Vinson, Frederick Moore Vinson

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the Supreme Court (1890-1953)

— Princeton's WordNet

full admiral

admiral, full admiral

the supreme commander of a fleet; ranks above a vice admiral and below a fleet admiral

— Princeton's WordNet

fuller

Fuller, Melville W. Fuller, Melville Weston Fuller

United States jurist and chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1833-1910)

— Princeton's WordNet

general assembly

General Assembly

the supreme deliberative assembly of the United Nations

— Princeton's WordNet

generalissimo

commander in chief, generalissimo

the officer who holds the supreme command

— Princeton's WordNet

harlan fiske stone

Stone, Harlan Fiske Stone

United States jurist who served on the United States Supreme Court as chief justice (1872-1946)

— Princeton's WordNet

hindooism

Hinduism, Hindooism

a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and based on a caste system; it is characterized by a belief in reincarnation, by a belief in a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils

— Princeton's WordNet

hinduism

Hinduism, Hindooism

a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and based on a caste system; it is characterized by a belief in reincarnation, by a belief in a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils

— Princeton's WordNet

hughes

Hughes, Charles Evans Hughes

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1862-1948)

— Princeton's WordNet

imperial

imperial, majestic, purple, regal, royal

belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

— Princeton's WordNet

jainism

Jainism

religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism; emphasizes asceticism and immortality and transmigration of the soul; denies existence of a perfect or supreme being

— Princeton's WordNet

jay

Jay, John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

— Princeton's WordNet

john jay

Jay, John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

— Princeton's WordNet

john marshall

Marshall, John Marshall

United States jurist; as chief justice of the Supreme Court he established the principles of United States constitutional law (1755-1835)

— Princeton's WordNet

jove

Jupiter, Jove

(Roman mythology) supreme god of Romans; counterpart of Greek Zeus

— Princeton's WordNet

judicial activism

broad interpretation, judicial activism

an interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)

— Princeton's WordNet

jupiter

Jupiter, Jove

(Roman mythology) supreme god of Romans; counterpart of Greek Zeus

— Princeton's WordNet

kenneth bancroft clark

Clark, Kenneth Clark, Kenneth Bancroft Clark

United States psychologist (born in Panama) whose research persuaded the Supreme Court that segregated schools were discriminatory (1914-2005)

— Princeton's WordNet

kenneth clark

Clark, Kenneth Clark, Kenneth Bancroft Clark

United States psychologist (born in Panama) whose research persuaded the Supreme Court that segregated schools were discriminatory (1914-2005)

— Princeton's WordNet

khomeini

Khomeini, Ruholla Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)

— Princeton's WordNet

latrobe

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Latrobe

United States architect (born in England) whose works include the chambers of the United States Congress and the Supreme Court; considered the first professional architect in the United States (1764-1820)

— Princeton's WordNet

majestic

imperial, majestic, purple, regal, royal

belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

— Princeton's WordNet

marshall

Marshall, John Marshall

United States jurist; as chief justice of the Supreme Court he established the principles of United States constitutional law (1755-1835)

— Princeton's WordNet

masterful

consummate, masterful, masterly, virtuoso(a)

having or revealing supreme mastery or skill

— Princeton's WordNet

masterly

consummate, masterful, masterly, virtuoso(a)

having or revealing supreme mastery or skill

— Princeton's WordNet

monarchal

monarchal, monarchical, monarchic

ruled by or having the supreme power resting with a monarch

— Princeton's WordNet

monarchical

monarchal, monarchical, monarchic

ruled by or having the supreme power resting with a monarch

— Princeton's WordNet

monarchic

monarchal, monarchical, monarchic

ruled by or having the supreme power resting with a monarch

— Princeton's WordNet

odin

Odin

(Norse mythology) ruler of the Aesir; supreme god of war and poetry and knowledge and wisdom (for which he gave an eye) and husband of Frigg; identified with the Teutonic Wotan

— Princeton's WordNet

parliamentary

parliamentary

having the supreme legislative power resting with a body of cabinet ministers chosen from and responsible to the legislature or parliament

— Princeton's WordNet

pendragon

pendragon

the supreme war chief of the ancient Britons

— Princeton's WordNet

president taft

Taft, William Howard Taft, President Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)

— Princeton's WordNet

purple

imperial, majestic, purple, regal, royal

belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

— Princeton's WordNet

regal

imperial, majestic, purple, regal, royal

belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

— Princeton's WordNet

rehnquist

Rehnquist, William Rehnquist, William Hubbs Rehnquist

United States jurist who served as an associate justice on the United States Supreme Court from 1972 until 1986, when he was appointed chief justice (born in 1924)

— Princeton's WordNet

republican

republican

having the supreme power lying in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them or characteristic of such government

— Princeton's WordNet

republic

democracy, republic, commonwealth

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

— Princeton's WordNet

roger brooke taney

Taney, Roger Taney, Roger Brooke Taney

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens (1777-1864)

— Princeton's WordNet

roger taney

Taney, Roger Taney, Roger Brooke Taney

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens (1777-1864)

— Princeton's WordNet

rota

Rota

(Roman Catholic Church) the supreme ecclesiastical tribunal for cases appealed to the Holy See from diocesan courts

— Princeton's WordNet

royal

imperial, majestic, purple, regal, royal

belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

— Princeton's WordNet

ruholla khomeini

Khomeini, Ruholla Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)

— Princeton's WordNet

scott

Scott, Dred Scott

United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state; caused the Supreme Court to declare the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (1795?-1858)

— Princeton's WordNet

shape

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE

the supreme headquarters that advises NATO on military matters and oversees all aspects of the Allied Command Europe

— Princeton's WordNet

stone

Stone, Harlan Stone, Harlan F. Stone, Harlan Fisk Stone

United States jurist who was named chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1941 by Franklin D. Roosevelt (1872-1946)

— Princeton's WordNet

stone

Stone, Harlan Fiske Stone

United States jurist who served on the United States Supreme Court as chief justice (1872-1946)

— Princeton's WordNet

summum bonum

summum bonum

the supreme good in which all moral values are included or from which they are derived

— Princeton's WordNet

supreme headquarters allied powers europe

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE

the supreme headquarters that advises NATO on military matters and oversees all aspects of the Allied Command Europe

— Princeton's WordNet

taft

Taft, William Howard Taft, President Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)

— Princeton's WordNet

taney

Taney, Roger Taney, Roger Brooke Taney

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens (1777-1864)

— Princeton's WordNet

ultramontane

ultramontane

a Roman Catholic who advocates ultramontanism (supreme papal authority in matters of faith and discipline)

— Princeton's WordNet

usurpation

usurpation

wrongfully seizing and holding (an office or powers) by force (especially the seizure of a throne or supreme authority)

— Princeton's WordNet

vinson

Vinson, Frederick Moore Vinson

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the Supreme Court (1890-1953)

— Princeton's WordNet

virtuoso

consummate, masterful, masterly, virtuoso(a)

having or revealing supreme mastery or skill

— Princeton's WordNet

warlord

warlord

supreme military leader exercising civil power in a region especially one accountable to nobody when the central government is weak

— Princeton's WordNet

warren

Warren, Earl Warren

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)

— Princeton's WordNet

white

White, Edward White, Edward D. White, Edward Douglas White Jr.

United States jurist appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1910 by President Taft; noted for his work on antitrust legislation (1845-1921)

— Princeton's WordNet

white supremacist

white supremacist

a person who believes that the white race is or should be supreme

— Princeton's WordNet

william howard taft

Taft, William Howard Taft, President Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)

— Princeton's WordNet

william hubbs rehnquist

Rehnquist, William Rehnquist, William Hubbs Rehnquist

United States jurist who served as an associate justice on the United States Supreme Court from 1972 until 1986, when he was appointed chief justice (born in 1924)

— Princeton's WordNet

william rehnquist

Rehnquist, William Rehnquist, William Hubbs Rehnquist

United States jurist who served as an associate justice on the United States Supreme Court from 1972 until 1986, when he was appointed chief justice (born in 1924)

— Princeton's WordNet

wotan

Wotan

supreme Teutonic god; counterpart of Norse Odin and Anglo-Saxon Woden

— Princeton's WordNet

zeus

Zeus

(Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology; son of Rhea and Cronus whom he dethroned; husband and brother of Hera; brother of Poseidon and Hades; father of many gods; counterpart of Roman Jupiter

— Princeton's WordNet

Advocation

Advocation

the process of removing a cause from an inferior court to the supreme court

— Webster Dictionary


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