Definitions containing étienne, st
We've found 45 definitions:
|josef michel montgolfier|
Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier
French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)
— Princeton's WordNet
Montgolfier, Josef Michel Montgolfier
French inventor who (with his brother Jacques Etienne Montgolfier) pioneered hot-air ballooning (1740-1810)
— Princeton's WordNet
Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France.
Saint-Étienne is a city in eastern central France. It is located in the Massif Central, 50 km southwest of Lyon in the Rhône-Alpes region, along the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon. Saint-Étienne is the capital of the Loire département and has a population of approximately 178,500 in the city itself expanding to over 317,000 in the metropolitan area.
Tanguy is a French black comedy of 2001 by Étienne Chatiliez.
|Étienne de Silhouette|
Étienne de Silhouette
Étienne de Silhouette was a French Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.
Étienne is the stage name of Steven Langlois, who is a Warner Music Canada recording artist. He has sold tens of thousands of CDs worldwide. Following a successful 2007 World Tour 2007 that saw him perform sold-out concerts across Canada, the United States, and Australia, Étienne is a teacher with the Greater Essex County District School Board. Born and raised in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, he began performing at a young age. While attending the University of Windsor, where he graduated with a B.A. in French Language and Literature and a B.Ed., he began composing songs designed to help children learn English, French and Spanish using popular styles of music. Now residing in LaSalle, Ontario, with his wife and two children, he has taught English and French to students from grades one to twelve for the past sixteen years. Étienne writes for several widely-used international school programs produced by leading educational companies including Thomson Nelson, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Prentice Hall, Ginn, Gage Canada and Denmark's Forlag Malling Beck. He has had his songs translated into the Cree language in Saskatchewan.
Continental is an album by the British band Saint Etienne which had original release only in Japan. It is a compilation that includes previously released material such as the UK hit "He's on the Phone" as well as curios like their cover of the Paul Gardiner/Gary Numan song "Stormtrooper in Drag". Many of the tracks were recorded during the 'wilderness' years of 1996/97 when the band members worked on their separate projects. The remix versions on this album had all appeared on Casino Classics. As part of the 2009 Saint Etienne back catalogue reissue program, the album has had a UK release for the first time. It also has a Heavenly catalogue number - HVNLP70. The deluxe edition includes four previously unreleased tracks.
Finisterre is the sixth studio album by English alternative dance band Saint Etienne, released on 30 September 2002 by Mantra Records. A double-disc deluxe edition was released on 3 May 2010 by Heavenly Records.
Benighted is a death metal band formed in Saint-Étienne, France, in 1998. The band comprises vocalist Julien Truchan, guitarists Adrien Guérin and Olivier Gabriel, bassist Eric Lombard and drummer Kevin "Kikou" Foley. They released six albums since formation.
Rive-de-Gier is a commune in the Loire department in central France. The town is located on both sides of the river Gier. It's between Saint-Etienne and Lyon and had an important part during the French industrial revolution. Rive de Gier is a town in the French department of Loire, arrondissement Saint-Etienne. Rive de Gier has 14,831 inhabitants, so the population is roughly back to the level it was at the end of the 19th Century. Economically Rive-de-Gier was known for coal mining, iron works and glass works. The river Gier has been covered in the center of the city, so the watercourse is not visible in the downtown. As the river is not navigable, was built to transport the coal from the canal Givors, but which is now filled. The community is situated on the edge of the Regional Natural Park Pilat and is associated with this.
Stéphane Mallarmé, whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic. He was a major French symbolist poet, and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as Dadaism, Surrealism, and Futurism.
Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre, Viscount Cambronne, was a General of the French Empire. He fought during the wars of the Revolution and the Napoleonic Era. He was wounded at the Battle of Waterloo.
The Minié ball, or Minie ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War.
Lipslide is the debut solo album from Saint Etienne lead singer Sarah Cracknell. The album was co-produced by Cracknell and a variety of producers and released in the UK by Gut Records in 1997. Upon its release Lipslide earned favorable reviews from music critics, although it was not a commercial success. Musically the album does not stray too far from Cracknell's work with Saint Etienne, as it contains electronic and indie-styled pop music. Lipslide was not released in the United States until 2000. Licenced to Instinct Records, the album's cover art and tracklist were altered — four tracks were removed and replaced by four new songs. Additionally, the song "Home" was presented in a different mix. These four missing songs and the original version of "Home" were later included on the Kelly's Locker EP, released in 2000 by Instinct. "Anymore" was released as a single in the UK prior to the album, peaking at number thirty-nine in the UK Singles Chart in 1996. "Desert Baby" was also released but did not chart.
Ça Ira is an opera in three acts by Roger Waters based on the French libretto co-written by Étienne and Nadine Roda-Gil on the historical subject of the early French Revolution. Ça Ira was released 26 September 2005, as a double CD album featuring baritone Bryn Terfel, soprano Ying Huang, and tenor Paul Groves.
In French interior design, vernis Martin is a type of imitation lacquer named for the French brothers Guillaume and Etienne-Simon Martin. It imitated Chinese lacquer and European subjects and was applied to a wide variety of items, from furniture to coaches. It is said to have been made by heating oil and copal and then adding Venetian turpentine.
Assay offices are institutions set up to assay precious metals, in order to protect consumers. Upon successful completion of an assay, the assay offices typically stamp a hallmark, punze, or poinçon on the item to certify its metallurgical content. Hallmarking first appeared in France, with the Goldsmiths' Statute of 1260 promulgated under Etienne Boileau, Provost of Paris, for King Louis IX.
Kennedia is a genus of plants comprising 16 species, all native to Australia. They are evergreen climbing plants with woody stems. Thet usually have trifoliate leaves and pea-type flowers of various colours from pink to dark red and yellow to black. The genus was named by Étienne Pierre Ventenat after John Kennedy, a partner in the renowned firm of nurserymen, Lee and Kennedy of Hammersmith, London.
Cyclopia, better known by the common name Honeybush, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, of the subfamily Faboideae. The description was published by Étienne Pierre Ventenat in 1808. The name Ibbetsonia, published two years later, is regarded as a synonym of this genus; John Sims had commemorated the physiologist Agnes Ibbetson with this name. Another common name is 'Heuningbos' in Afrikaans.
Sensualism is a philosophical doctrine of the theory of knowledge, according to which sensations and perception are the basic and most important form of true cognition. It may oppose abstract ideas. The basic principle of sensualism is "there is not anything in mind, which hasn't been in the sensations." The great philosophers of sensualism are: ⁕Aristotle ⁕Thomas Aquinas ⁕John Locke ⁕George Berkeley ⁕David Hume ⁕Étienne Bonnot de Condillac ⁕William James ⁕Friedrich Nietzsche
|Tetralogy of Fallot|
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect which is classically understood to involve four anatomical abnormalities of the heart. It is the most common cyanotic heart defect, and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. It was described in 1672 by Niels Stensen, in 1773 by Edward Sandifort, and in 1888 by the French physician Étienne-Louis Arthur Fallot, after whom it is named.
Iniencephaly, a term derived from the Greek word “inion” for nape of the neck, is a rare type of cephalic disorder that was first described by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1836. Those afflicted with the disorder all share 3 common characteristics: a defect to the occipital bone, spina bifida of the cervical vertebrae and retroflexion of the head on the cervical spine. Stillbirth is the most common outcome, with a few rare examples of live birth, after which death almost invariably occurs within a short time.
Pers is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France. It is on the edge of the Chataignerie and near the Segala. It is also adjacent to the lake of St Etienne Cantales, a large body of water formed by the damming of the Cere river for hydro electric purposes. The village also has a very good go-cart track, and regularly hosts championship races. As well as the church and the town hall, there are two bars, and a camping site. Gites may also be rented from the farm. There are no shops.
Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital disorder involving malformation of the limbs. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire coined the term in 1836. Although various numbers of factors can cause phocomelia, the prominent roots come from the use of the drug thalidomide and from genetic inheritance. The occurrence of this malformation in an individual results in various abnormalities to the face, limbs, ears, nose, vessels and many other underdevelopments. Although operations can be done to fix the abnormality it is difficult due to the lack of nerves, bones, and other related structures.
Aim is a British musician, DJ and producer, who was born in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria. Aim's sound is a blend of funky electronic music and hip hop beats, a sound which typified the Grand Central Records label. Much of Aim's work is instrumental, though his records include collaborations with other artists who provide vocals, including Stephen Jones of Babybird, Diamond D, Souls of Mischief, QNC and Kate Rogers. Aim has also worked as remixer, mixing songs for a variety of artists including Ian Brown, Saint Etienne, The Charlatans, Lil' Kim, Thunderbugs, Archive, Down to the Bone, Texas and former label-mates Rae & Christian.
Tonality is a system/language of music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center"—the tonic triad; that is, on hierarchical relationships between the triads. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most often used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period, and of Western-influenced popular music throughout much of the world today.
The Minié rifle was an important infantry weapon in the mid-19th century. A version was adopted in 1849 following the invention of the Minié ball in 1847 by the French Army captains Claude-Étienne Minié of the Chasseurs d'Orléans and Henri-Gustave Delvigne. The bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, and was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The French adopted it following difficulties encountered by the French army in Northern Africa, where their muskets were outranged by long-barreled weapons which were handcrafted by their Algerian opponents. The Minié rifle belonged to the category of rifled muskets.
A diaporama is a photographic slideshow, sometimes with accompanying audio, ranging from using only one or two slide projectors to a multi-image slideshow using a wide screen and several slide projectors connected to a central controlling device changing the slides, turning lamps on and off etc. The word shares etymological roots with the English words diorama and panorama, both of which come from the Greek root horama, meaning "a view." Diaporama is the French word for slideshow. Robert Thuillier is considered the inventor of the technique in 1950. Salon columnist Camille Paglia used the term as early as March 2008 when she wrote "Speaking of Edie [Sedgwick], I found this 'diaporama' tribute to her...set to a song composed and sung by Étienne Daho."
A centriole is a cylinder shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi. An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material, or PCM, makes up a compound structure called a centrosome. Most centrioles are made up of nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylindrical pattern. Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets. Edouard van Beneden and Theodor Boveri made the first observation and identification of centrioles in 1883 and 1888 respectively, while the pattern of centriole replication was first worked out independently by Etienne de Harven and Joseph G. Gall circa 1950
Kennedia coccinea is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a low growing trailing shrub or climber which has twining rust-coloured branchlets with rounded leaflets that are about 1.5 cm long and occur in threes. Orange red or scarlet pea flowers are produced in clusters between August and November in its native range. The species was formally described in 1804 by French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat in Jardin de la Malmaison. Two varieties were described in Paxton's Magazine of Botany in 1835, namely var. elegans and var. coccinea. Three further varieties were transferred from the genus Zichya in 1923 by Czech botanist Karel Domin, namely var. molly, var. sericea and var. villosa. Currently, three subspecies are recognised: ⁕K. coccinea Vent. subsp. coccinea ⁕K. coccinea subsp. calcaria Lally ⁕K. coccinea subsp. esotera Lally
Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847. During the analysis of the mineral samarskite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples of the metals and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present, were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac Although it had been proven that ilmenium is only a mixture of niobium and tantalum, Hermann continued publishing articles on ilmenium for several years.
Paola is a town in the Grand Harbour area of Malta, with a population of 8,856 people. It is named after Grandmaster Antoine de Paule who laid the foundation stone in 1626, but is commonly known as Raħal Ġdid, which means "new town" in Maltese. Paola is renowned for the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, its large parish church, its beautiful square with shopping centres, the Good Friday procession, and its football club, Hibernians FC. A number of prominent Maltese personalities come from Paola, including Dr.Vincent Moran, Dr.Konrad Mizzi, Silvio Parnis, Jason Azzopardi,Gino Cauchi, Dr.Chris Fearne, Ino Bonello, Mons. Francesco Xuereb, Immanuel Mifsud, Massimo Ellul, Carmel Joseph Farrugia, TV personality Simone Cini, actor and TV personality Etienne St. John, radio & TV presenter Dorian Cassar, songwriter and television producer Joe Julian Farrugia, and singers Klinsmann Coleiro and Ruth Casingena. One of Malta's Prime Ministers, Sir Paul Boffa, resided in this locality.
Galliano was a London-based acid jazz group, which started in 1988. The group was the first signing to Eddie Piller and Gilles Peterson's Acid Jazz record label. The original members were Rob Gallagher, Constantine Weir, Michael Snaith and Crispin Robinson. Other important members included Valerie Etienne, who participated in the recording of all their CDs, along with other musicians such as Mick Talbot on keyboards, Crispin Taylor on drums Ernie McKone on bass guitar, Mark Vandergucht guitar and Steve Ameedee, otherwise known as Uncle Big Man. Galliano achieved the peak of its success in 1994 with The Plot Thickens which peaked at number seven in the UK album chart. Galliano provided the track used in the title sequence of Kevin Reynolds' 1997 film, One Eight Seven, starring Samuel L. Jackson. The track "Slack Hands" appears on their 1996 album 4. In 1997, Gallagher broke Galliano up, and pursued other musical projects, Two Banks of Four and Earl Zinger.
Down syndrome or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans. It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability and physical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics. The average IQ of young adults with Down syndrome is around 50, whereas young adults without the condition typically have an IQ of 100. A large proportion of individuals with Down syndrome have a severe degree of intellectual disability. Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866. The condition was clinically described earlier by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Edouard Seguin in 1844. Down syndrome was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Dr. Jérôme Lejeune in 1959. Down syndrome can be identified in a newborn by direct observation or in a fetus by prenatal screening. Pregnancies with this diagnosis are often terminated. The CDC estimates that about one of every 691 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome.
|A Good Thing|
A Good Thing
"A Good Thing" is a single by the British band Saint Etienne. Taken from the album Tales from Turnpike House, it was released in the UK by Sanctuary Records October 2005. The lead track is co-written by vocalist Sarah Cracknell. Originally, the 7" single was scheduled to be a limited run of 1000 copies, but due to an error at the record label, all formats were limited to 1000 copies, seriously hindering the single's chart chances. B-side-wise, the single is a rich mix. The 7" features a co-write between the band's Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs and David Essex, who featured on the album. The first CD features a cover of the Womack & Womack track "Missing Persons Bureau". The second CD single, meanwhile, features two tracks written for the band's film, What Have You Done Today Mervyn Day?. "Book Norton" is written and sung by sometimes bandmate Debsy Wykes while "Quiet Essex" is written by Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs. Only the second single, and third release overall for Sanctuary, this was to be the band's last release for the label.
The sphygmograph was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure. The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today. In 1863, Étienne-Jules Marey, improved the device by making it portable. Also he included a specialized instrument to be placed above the radial artery that was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen. In 1880 Samuel von Basch invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.
In classical ballet, aplomb refers to the basic law of ballet – stability. The French ballet master Jean-Étienne Despréaux defined it in 1806 as a specific kind of dynamic balance fundamental to all positions and movements of ballet. A 1905 book Grammar of the Art of Dancing, Theoretical and Practical referring to Bernhard Klemm, wrote: "Aplomb is the absolute safety in rising and falling back which results from the perpendicular attitude of the upper body and the artistic placing of the feet. By means of aplomb the dancer acquires a precision and an elegance which insure the successful execution of every foot-movement, however artistic and difficult, and thereby creates a pleasing and a satisfactory impression upon the observer. Aplomb may be compared with the sureness of touch of the pianist." Aplomb is achieved with straight body with its weight equally distributed over the supporting foot. Aplomb is controlled by feeling and controlling the muscular sensations in the spine, i.e., by "holding the back". The base of aplomb are the five positions of the feet codified by Pierre Beauchamp in 1680. The correct set of the body influences all ballet steps, and the perfection of the aplomb requires years of training. Exercises at the barre begin the training of the stability and balance.
Pelopium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist Heinrich Rose in 1845. The name derived from the Greek king and later god Pelops. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum complicated preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac This confusion arose from the minimal observed differences between tantalum and niobium. Both tantalum and niobium react with chlorine and traces of oxygen, including atmospheric concentrations, with niobium forming two compounds: the white volatile niobium pentachloride and the non-volatile niobium oxychloride. The claimed new elements pelopium, ilmenium and dianium were in fact identical to niobium or mixtures of niobium and tantalum.
|Valet de chambre|
Valet de chambre
Valet de chambre, or varlet de chambre, was a court appointment introduced in the late Middle Ages, common from the 14th century onwards. Royal Households had many persons appointed at any time. While some valets simply waited on the patron, or looked after his clothes and other personal needs, itself potentially a powerful and lucrative position, others had more specialized functions. At the most prestigious level it could be akin to a monarch or ruler's personal secretary, as was the case of Anne de Montmorency at the court of Francis I of France. For noblemen pursuing a career as courtiers, like Étienne de Vesc, it was a common early step on the ladder to higher offices. For some this brought entry into the lucrative court business of asking for favours on behalf of clients, and passing messages to the monarch or lord heading the court. Valets might supply specialized services of various kinds to the patron, as artists, musicians, poets, scholars, librarians, doctors or apothecaries and curators of collections. Valets comprised a mixture of nobles hoping to rise in their career, and those—often of humble origin—whose specialized abilities the monarch wanted to use or reward.
A mime artist is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would typically be referred to as a mummer. Miming is to be distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a seamless character in a film or sketch. The performance of pantomime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece; the name is taken from a single masked dancer called Pantomimus, although performances were not necessarily silent. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and later dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that we have come to know in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface. Jacques Copeau, strongly influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors. Étienne Decroux, a pupil of his, was highly influenced by this and started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime and developed corporeal mime into a highly sculptural form, taking it outside of the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed significantly to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods.
In 19th century psychiatry, monomania was a form of partial insanity conceived as single pathological preoccupation in an otherwise sound mind. Partial insanity, variations of which enjoyed a long pre-history in jurisprudence, was in contrast to the traditional notion of total insanity, exemplified in the diagnosis of mania, as a global condition effecting all aspects of understanding and which reflected the position that the mind or soul was an indivisible entity. Coined by the French psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol around 1810, monomania was a new disease-concept characterised by the presence of an expansive idée fixe in which the mind was diseased and deranged in some facets but otherwise normal in others. Esquirol and his circle delineated three broad categories of monomania coherent with the traditional tripartite classification of the mind into intellectual, emotional and volitional faculties. Emotional monomania is that in which the patient is obsessed with only one emotion or several related to it; intellectual monomania is that which is related to only one kind of delirious idea or ideas. Although, monomania was retained as one of seven recognized categories of mental illness in the 1880 US census, its importance as a psychiatric diagnostic category was in decline from the mid-19th century. It no longer appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Dianium was the proposed name for a new element found by the mineralogist and poet Wolfgang Franz von Kobell in 1860. The name derived from the Roman goddess Diana. During the analysis of the mineral tantalite and niobite he concluded that it does contain an element similar to niobium and tantalum. Following the rediscovery of niobium in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, Friedrich Wöhler, Heinrich Rose, R. Hermann and Kobell analysed the minerals tantalite and columbite to better understand the chemistry of niobium and tantalum. The similar reactivity of niobium and tantalum hindered preparation of pure samples and therefore several new elements were proposed, which were later found to be mixtures of niobium and tantalum. Rose discovered pelopium in 1846, while Hermann announced the discovery of ilmenium in 1847. In 1860 Kobell published the results on the tantalite from a quarry near Kimito a village in Finland and columbite from Bodenmais a village in Germany. He concluded that the element he found was different from tantalum, niobium, pelopium and ilmenium. The differences between tantalum and niobium and the fact that no other similar element was present were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and finally by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
|Internal combustion engine|
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. The ICE is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in some kind of boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats.
Robert Garnier was a French tragic poet. He published his first work while still a law-student at Toulouse, where he won a prize in the Académie des Jeux Floraux. It was a collection of lyrical pieces, now lost, entitled Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier. After some legal practice at the Parisian bar, he became conseiller du roi au siege présidial and sénéchaussé of Maine, his native district, and later lieutenant-général criminel. His friend Lacroix du Maine says that he enjoyed a great reputation as an orator. He was a distinguished magistrate, of considerable weight in his native province, who gave his leisure to literature, and whose merits as a poet were fully recognized by his own generation. In his early plays he was a close follower of the school of dramatists who were inspired by the study of Seneca. In these productions there is little that is strictly dramatic except the form. A tragedy was a series of rhetorical speeches relieved by a lyric chorus. His pieces in this manner are Porcie, Cornélie and Hippolyte. In Porcie the deaths of Cassius, Brutus and Portia are each the subject of an eloquent recital, but the action is confined to the death of the nurse, who alone is allowed to die on the stage. His next group of tragedies Marc-Antoine, La Troade, Antigone shows an advance on the theatre of Étienne Jodelle and Jacques Grévin, and on his own early plays, in so much that the rhetorical element is accompanied by abundance of action, though this is accomplished by the plan of joining together two virtually independent pieces in the same way. In 1592 The Countess of Pembroke wrote The Tragedy of Antonie, an English version of Garnier's play.