Definitions containing æolian islands

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British Virgin Islands

British Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands, commonly known as the British Virgin Islands, is a British overseas territory located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. The islands make up part of the Virgin Islands archipelago, the remaining islands constitute the US Virgin Islands and the Spanish Virgin Islands. The official name of the Territory is still simply the "Virgin Islands", but the prefix "British" is often used to distinguish it from the neighbouring American territory which changed its name from the "Danish West Indies" to "Virgin Islands of the United States" in 1917. British Virgin Islands government publications continue to begin with the name "The Territory of the Virgin Islands", passports simply refer to the "Virgin Islands", and all laws begin with the words "Virgin Islands". Moreover, the Territory's Constitutional Commission has expressed the view that "every effort should be made", to encourage the use of the name "Virgin Islands". The British Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke, along with over fifty other smaller islands and cays. About 15 of the islands are inhabited. The capital, Road Town, is situated on Tortola, the largest island, which is approximately 20 km long and 5 km wide. The islands have a population of about 27,800, of whom approximately 23,000 live on Tortola.

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Ryukyu Islands

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands, known in Japanese as the Nansei Islands and also known as the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of volcanic Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the southernmost. The largest of the islands is Okinawa. The islands have a subtropical climate with mild winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very high, and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, and the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands. The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuans, named after the former Ryūkyū Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and each island has its own distinct language. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalent spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking a Hachijo dialect.

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Andreanof Islands

Andreanof Islands

The Andreanof Islands are a group of islands in the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. They are located between Amchitka Pass and the Rat Islands group to the west, and Amukta Pass and the Islands of Four Mountains group to the east, at about 57° North and 172°57' to 179°09' West. The islands extend about 275 miles. The total land area of all islands is 1,515.349 sq mi. The total population was 412 persons as of the 2000 census, the vast majority in the city of Adak on Adak Island. The Delarof Islands, a subgroup of the Andreanof Islands, constitute the westernmost islands of the latter group. The largest islands in the group are, from west to east, Gareloi, Tanaga, Kanaga, Adak, Kagalaska, Great Sitkin, Atka, Amlia, and Seguam. The islands are usually foggy and are treeless because of the almost constant wind. They were named for the Russian navigator, Andreyan Tolstykh, who was the first to explore the islands in 1761. There were several United States military bases on the islands during World War II. The bases on Adak were enlarged and made permanent after the war but were closed in 1995. The islands are particularly prone to earthquakes, often many with a magnitude of over 3 on the Richter scale occur each day.

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Line Islands

Line Islands

The Line Islands, Teraina Islands or Equatorial Islands, is a chain of eleven atolls and low coral islands in the central Pacific Ocean, south of the Hawaiian Islands, that stretches for 2,350 km in a northwest-southeast direction, making it one of the longest island chains of the world. Eight of the islands form part of Kiribati, while the remaining three are United States territories grouped with the United States Minor Outlying Islands. Those that are part of Kiribati are in the world's farthest forward time zone, UTC+14:00. The time of day is the same as in Hawaiʻi, but the date is one day ahead. The time is 26 hours ahead of some other islands in Oceania like Baker Island which uses UTC−12:00. The United States previously claimed all the Line Islands under the Guano Islands Act. This claim was relinquished under the Treaty of Tarawa, which recognised Kiribati's sovereignty over the majority of the chain. The group is geographically divided into three subgroups; The Northern, Central, and Southern Line Islands. The Central Line Islands are sometimes grouped with the Southern Line Islands. The table below lists the islands from North to South. * The lagoon areas marked with an asterisk are contained within the island areas of the previous column because they are, unlike in the case of a typical atoll, inland waters completely sealed off from the sea.

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Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country located in the northern Pacific Ocean. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia, with the population of 68,480 people spread out over 34 low-lying coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the south-east, and Nauru to the south. The most populous atoll is Majuro, which also acts as the capital. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, with Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed, with the islands' current name stemming from British explorer John Marshall. Recognised as part of the Spanish East Indies in 1874, the islands were sold to Germany in 1884, and became part of German New Guinea in 1885. The Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands in World War I, which were later joined with other former German territories in 1919 by the League of Nations to form the South Pacific Mandate. In World War II, the islands were conquered by the United States in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands were then consolidated into the United-States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Self-government was achieved in 1979, and full sovereignty in 1986, under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.

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Rat Islands

Rat Islands

The Rat Islands are a volcanic group of islands in the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska, between Buldir Island and the Near Islands group to its west, and Amchitka Pass and the Andreanof Islands group to its east, at about 51°47′17″N 178°18′10″E / 51.78806°N 178.30278°E. The largest islands in the group are, from west to east, Kiska, Little Kiska, Segula, Hawadax or Kryssei, Khvostof, Davidof, Little Sitkin, Amchitka, and Semisopochnoi. The total land area of the Rat Islands is 360.849 sq mi. None of the islands are inhabited. The name Rat Islands is the English translation of the name given to the islands by Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke in 1827 when he visited the Aleutian Islands on a voyage around the world. The islands are named so because of the rats that have ruled Rat Island since about 1780. As of 2009, the island is believed to be rat free. The Rat Islands are very earthquake-prone as they are located on the boundary of the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. In 1965, there was a major earthquake with a magnitude of 8.7 in the Rat Islands.

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Seven Seas Water

Seven Seas Water

Seven Seas Water provides complete water and wastewater treatment services for municipal, industrial, and private clients throughout the Greater Caribbean and the Americas with a compliment of technologies for desalination, water re-use, and high purity water treatment. The Strength of Experience The company is led and managed by a team of professionals with over 350 years of combined experience in the water treatment industry. Seven Seas Water offers customized water supply and management services; typically under the client focused build own operate (BOO) arrangement. Under the BOO model Seven Seas Water provides the for the equipment capital costs, takes on all the liabilities associated with the design, construction and operation of the water facilities. Our clients enjoy a guaranteed, dependable supply of water at a fixed rate water rate.Solid Financial Backing Seven Seas Water is solidly funded by clean-tech financial investors such as Advent Morrow, Element Partners, Texas Pacific Group and Virgin Green Fund. Because Seven Seas Water does not need to seek project financing, which can cause delays, we can expedite timelines quickly and offer our services at the lowest possible cost. Leveraging our centralized management and workforce, bulk purchasing power, unrivaled experience and the most efficient and reliable designs available, Seven Seas Water is able to realize considerable savings which are then passed on to our clients.Experts in Caribbean PPP The ability of Seven Seas™ experienced & diverse team to execute and deliver reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable solutions has resulted in the formation of several successful Private-Public-Partnerships (PPP) in the Caribbean, including the Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad & Tobago (WASA), the Water and Power Authority of the US Virgin Islands (WAPA) and Dutch St. Maarten™s Water and Electricity Department (GEBE). Seven Seas Water™s ability to provide cost effective solutions that meet clients needs have made Seven Seas one of the fastest growing privately owned water companies in our market.Quick Deployment Capabilities For emergency or temporary situations, Seven Seas maintains a fleet of high efficiency, containerized mobile reverse osmosis units that can be rapidly deployed for construction, maintenance, catastrophic weather events, and golf course irrigation.Seven Seas Water is headquartered in Tampa, Florida with offices and operations in Anguilla, The Bahamas, The British Virgin Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks and Caico™s Islands and the US Virgin Islands. For more information please visit our website at www.sevenseaswater.com or contact Lauren Thomas at T: + 1 813 855 8636 ext 1200, E: lthomas@7seaswater.com.

— CrunchBase

Turks and Caicos Islands

Turks and Caicos Islands

The Turks and Caicos Islands; are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago, part of the larger Antilles island grouping. They are known primarily for tourism and as an offshore financial centre. The total population is about 31,500, of whom approximately 27,000 live on Providenciales in the Caicos Islands. The Turks and Caicos Islands lie southeast of Mayaguana in the Bahamas island chain and north of the island of Hispaniola. Cockburn Town, the capital since 1766, is situated on Grand Turk Island about 1,042 kilometres east-southeast of Miami, United States. The islands have a total land area of 430 square kilometres. They are geographically contiguous with the Bahamas, but are politically separate. The first recorded sighting of the islands now known as the Turks and Caicos occurred in 1512. In the subsequent centuries, the islands were claimed by several European powers with the British Empire eventually gaining control. For many years the islands were governed indirectly through Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Jamaica. When the Bahamas gained independence in 1973, the islands received their own governor and have remained a separate autonomous British Overseas Territory since. In August 2009, the United Kingdom suspended the Turks and Caicos Islands' self-government after allegations of ministerial corruption. Home rule was restored in the islands after the November 2012 elections.

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British Isles

British Isles

A group of islands off the northwest coast of mainland Europe, comprising Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Wight, the Isles of Scilly, the Isle of Man, the Outer Hebrides, the Inner Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands and many other smaller islands. Use may include the Channel Islands, although these are physically closer to mainland Europe.

— Wiktionary

Haida Gwaii

Haida Gwaii

Haida Gwaii, informally but commonly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Charlottes, is an archipelago on the North Coast of British Columbia, Canada, populated mostly by Haida people. Haida Gwaii consists of two main islands: Graham Island in the north and Moresby Island in the south, along with approximately 150 smaller islands with a total landmass of 10,180 km². Other major islands include Anthony, Langara, Louise, Lyell, Burnaby, and Kunghit Islands. A parallel name to "Queen Charlotte Islands" used by American traders, who frequented the islands in the days of the marine fur trade and considered the islands part of the US-claimed Oregon Country, was Washington's Isles. The islands are separated from the British Columbia mainland to the east by Hecate Strait. Vancouver Island lies to the south, across Queen Charlotte Sound, while the U.S. state of Alaska is to the north, across the disputed Dixon Entrance. Some of the islands are protected under federal legislation as Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site, which is mostly Moresby Island and adjoining islands and islets. Also protected, but under provincial legislation, are several provincial parks, the largest of which is Naikoon Provincial Park on northeastern Graham Island. The islands are home to an abundance of wildlife, including the largest subspecies of black bear, and also the smallest subspecies and the subspecies of stoat Mustela erminea haidarum. Black-tailed deer and raccoon are introduced species that have become abundant.

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Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and north west of Vanuatu and cover a land area of 28,400 square kilometres. The country's capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal. Not to be confused with the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is the name for a collection of islands in the region that includes Solomon Islands and Bougainville Island. The islands have been inhabited for thousands of years. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the Islas Salomón. By 1893, the United Kingdom had established a protectorate over what was then known as "the Solomon Islands". During the Second World War, the Solomon Islands campaign saw fierce fighting between the United States and the Empire of Japan, such as in the Battle of Guadalcanal. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later with the formal name of Solomon Islands. Today, Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Solomon Islands, currently Elizabeth II, as its head of state. Gordon Lilo Darcy is the eleventh and current Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands.

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Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands are the western island group of the Leeward Islands, which are the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, and form the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Politically, the eastern islands form the British Virgin Islands and the western ones form the United States Virgin Islands. The British Virgin Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom comprising Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke and Anegada. The U.S. Virgin Islands is one of five inhabited insular areas of the United States, along with American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. The territory comprises St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas and Water Island. The Virgin Passage separates the U.S. Virgin Islands from the Spanish Virgin Islands of Vieques and Culebra, which are part of Puerto Rico. The United States dollar is the official currency on both the British and U.S. Virgin Islands as well as the Spanish/Puerto Rican Virgin Islands.

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Santa Cruz Islands

Santa Cruz Islands

The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands. They lie approximately 250 miles to the southeast of the Solomon Islands Chain. The Santa Cruz Islands lie just north of the archipelago of Vanuatu, and are considered part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion. The largest island is Nendo, which is also known as Santa Cruz Island proper. Lata, located on Nendo, is the largest town, and the capital of Temotu province. Other islands belonging to the Santa Cruz group are Vanikoro and Utupua. The Santa Cruz Islands are less than five million years old, and were pushed upward by the tectonic subduction of the northward-moving Indo-Australian Plate under the Pacific Plate. The islands are mostly composed of limestone and volcanic ash over limestone. The highest point in the Santa Cruz Islands is on Vanikoro, 924 m. The term Santa Cruz Islands is sometimes used to encompass all of the islands of the present-day Solomon Islands province of Temotu.

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Galápagos Islands

Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, 926 km west of continental Ecuador, of which they are a part. The Galápagos Islands and its surrounding waters form an Ecuadorian province, a national park, and a biological marine reserve. The principal language on the islands is Spanish. The islands have a population of slightly over 25,000. The islands are famed for their vast number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle. His observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The Galapagos Islands were discovered by chance on 10 March 1535, when the Dominican friar Fray Tomas de Berlanga, Bishop of Panama, went to Peru in pursuance of an order of the Spanish monarch, Charles V, to arbitrate in a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his subordinates after the conquest of the Inca empire . Because of a calm and strong currents, the ship of the Bishop was dragged to the Galapagos. In chronicling his adventure, directed from Portoviejo Emperor Charles V on the discovery of the Galapagos Islands, Berlanga described the bleak desert conditions in the islands and the giant tortoises that inhabited them. He also described the marine iguanas, sea lions and many types of birds, emphasizing the unusual mildness of animals and expressed in the following words: Traxo the ship very good time breezes seven days, that the pilot haziase near the ground and calm diones six days the currents were so large, we engolfaron so that Wednesday March 10, we saw an island and because the ship had no more water for two days, agreed to take the boat and going ashore for water and grass for the horses. E hatched ... but found no sea lions, turtles and tortoises and so great a man wearing one above, and many who are like serpents higuanas. The first navigation chart of the islands was made by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley in 1684. He named the individual islands after some of his fellow pirates or after the British noblemen who helped the privateer's cause. More recently, the Ecuadorian government gave most of the islands Spanish names. While the Spanish names are official, many users continue to use the older English names, principally because those were the names used when Charles Darwin visited.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is a British overseas territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands, known as the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 167.4 kilometres long and 1.4 to 37 km wide and is by far the largest island in the territory. The South Sandwich Islands lie about 520 kilometres southeast of South Georgia. The total land area of the territory is 3,903 square kilometres. There is no native population on the islands; the present inhabitants are the British Government Officer, Deputy Postmaster, scientists, and support staff from the British Antarctic Survey who maintain scientific bases at Bird Island and at the capital, King Edward Point, as well as museum staff at nearby Grytviken. The United Kingdom claimed sovereignty over South Georgia in 1775 and the South Sandwich Islands in 1908. In 1908 the United Kingdom annexed both South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The territory of "South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands" was formed in 1985; previously it had been governed as part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. Argentina claimed South Georgia in 1927 and claimed the South Sandwich Islands in 1938.

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Senkaku Islands

Senkaku Islands

The Senkaku Islands, also known as the Diaoyu Islands in Mainland China or Tiaoyutai Islands in Taiwan, or the Pinnacle Islands, are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. After it was discovered in 1968 that oil reserves might be found under the sea near the islands, Japan's sovereignty over them has been disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China following the transfer of administration from the United States to Japan in 1971. The Chinese claim the discovery and control of the islands from the 14th century. Japan controlled the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands reverted to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Treaty between the United States and Japan.

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Polynesia

Polynesia

The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

West Frisian Islands

West Frisian Islands

The West Frisian Islands are a chain of islands in the North Sea off the Dutch coast, along the edge of the Wadden Sea. They continue further east as the German East Frisian Islands and are part of the Frisian Islands. From west to east the islands are: Noorderhaaks, Texel, Vlieland, Richel, Griend, Terschelling, Ameland, Rif, Engelsmanplaat, Schiermonnikoog, Simonszand, Rottumerplaat, Rottumeroog, and Zuiderduintjes. The islands Noorderhaaks and Texel are part of the province of North Holland. The islands Vlieland, Richel, Griend, Terschelling, Ameland, Rif, Engelsmanplaat, and Schiermonnikoog are part of the province of Friesland. The small islands Simonszand, Rottumerplaat, Rottumeroog, and Zuiderduintjes belong to the province of Groningen. The Frisian Islands are nowadays mostly famous as a holiday destination. Island hopping is possible by regular ferries from the mainland and by specialised tour operators. Cycling is the most favourable means of transport on most of the islands. On Vlieland and Schiermonnikoog cars are only allowed for regular inhabitants.

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Cook Islands

Cook Islands

The Cook Islands is a parliamentary democracy in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 small islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres. The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone, however, covers 1,800,000 square kilometres of ocean. The Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs are the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an increasingly independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to other New Zealand citizens. The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga, where there is an international airport. There is a much larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand, particularly the North Island. In the 2006 census, 58,008 self-identified as being of ethnic Cook Islands Māori descent. With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, and the leading element of the economy, far ahead of offshore banking, pearls, and marine and fruit exports.

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Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands

The Aegean Islands are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast. The ancient Greek name of the Aegean Sea, Archipelago was later applied to the islands it contains and is now used more generally, to refer to any island group. The Aegean Islands belong to Greece, being split among nine administrative peripheries. The only sizable possessions of Turkey in the Aegean Sea are Imbros and Tenedos, in the northeastern end of the Sea. Turkish islands also include various smaller islets off Turkey's western coast. The Aegean Islands are traditionally subdivided into seven groups, from north to south: ⁕Northeastern Aegean Islands ⁕Sporades ⁕Euboea ⁕Argo-Saronic Islands ⁕Cyclades ⁕Dodecanese ⁕Crete The term Italian Aegean Islands is sometimes used to refer to the Aegean islands conquered by Italy during the Italo-Turkish War in 1912 and annexed from 1923 until 1947: the Dodecanese, including Rhodes and Kastellorizo.

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Frisian Islands

Frisian Islands

The Frisian Islands, also known as the Wadden Islands or Wadden Sea Islands, form an archipelago at the eastern edge of the North Sea in northwestern Europe, stretching from the north-west of the Netherlands through Germany to the west of Denmark. The islands shield the mudflat region of the Wadden Sea from the North Sea. The Frisian Islands, along with the mainland coast in the German Bight, form the region of Frisia, traditional homeland of the Frisian people. Generally, the term Frisian Islands is used for the islands where Frisian is spoken and the population is ethnically Frisian. In contrast, the term Wadden Islands is used for the entire archipelago, including the Danish-speaking Danish Wadden Sea Islands slightly further to the north on the western coast of Jutland. Most of the Frisian Islands are protected areas, and an international wildlife nature reserve is being coordinated between the countries of Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Natural gas and oil drilling continue, however, and the presence of the Ems, Weser and Elbe estuaries; while ship traffic causes tension between wildlife protection and economic influences.

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United States Virgin Islands

United States Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands of the United States are a group of islands in the Caribbean that are an insular area of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles. The U.S. Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas, along with the much smaller but historically distinct Water Island, and many other surrounding minor islands. The total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles. The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of Saint Thomas. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population was 106,405, mostly composed by those of Afro-Caribbean descent. Tourism is the primary economic activity, although there is a significant rum manufacturing sector. Formerly the Danish West Indies, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916. They are classified by the UN as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, and are currently an organized, unincorporated United States territory. The U.S. Virgin Islands are organized under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions. The last and only proposed Constitution, adopted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention in 2009, was rejected by the U.S. Congress in 2010, which urged the convention to reconvene to address the concerns Congress and the Obama administration had with the proposed document. The convention reconvened in October 2012 to address these concerns, but was unable to produce a revised Constitution before its October 31 deadline.

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Palau

Palau

Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is geographically part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of around 21,000 is spread across 250 islands forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands. The most populous island is Koror. The islands share maritime boundaries with Indonesia, Philippines and the Federated States of Micronesia. The capital Ngerulmud is located in Melekeok State on the nearby island of Babeldaob. The country was originally settled around 3,000 years ago by migrants from the Philippines and sustained a Negrito population until around 900 years ago. The islands were first visited by Europeans in the 18th century, and were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1885. Following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the islands were sold to Imperial Germany in 1899 under the terms of the German–Spanish Treaty, where they were administered as part of German New Guinea. The Imperial Japanese Navy conquered Palau during World War I, and the islands were later made a part of the Japanese-ruled South Pacific Mandate by the League of Nations. During World War II, skirmishes, including the major Battle of Peleliu, were fought between American and Japanese troops as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Having voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia in 1979, the islands gained full sovereignty in 1994 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.

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Pacific Islander

Pacific Islander

Pacific Islander, is a geographic phrase to describe the indigenous inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, these three regions, together with their islands, consist of: Polynesia: The islands scattered across a triangle covering the east-central region of the Pacific Ocean. The triangle is bound by the Hawaiian islands in the north, New Zealand in the west, and Easter Island in the east. The rest of Polynesia comprises Samoan islands, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Niue Island, Tokelau and Tuvalu, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, and Pitcairn Island. Melanesia: The island of New Guinea, the Bismarck and Louisiade archipelagos, the Admiralty Islands, and Bougainville Island, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Norfolk Island, and various smaller islands.

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Paracel Islands

Paracel Islands

The Paracel Islands, also called Xīshā Islands in Chinese and Hoàng Sa Islands in Vietnamese, is a group of islands where the sovereignty is disputed by the People's Republic of China, Republic of China and Vietnam. All of the islands are currently under the administration of Hainan Province of the PRC, which, in July 2012, established Sansha City covering the islands as one of the three townships of the city. Chinese and South Vietnamese forces both occupied parts of the Paracel Islands before 1974, when the Battle of the Paracel Islands occurred, after which the former took over and controlled all of the Paracels. The islands are located in the South China Sea consisting of over 30 islets, sandbanks and reefs with about 15,000 square kilometres of the ocean surface, and less than 8 square kilometres of land surface. The archipelago is approximately equidistant from the coastlines of Vietnam and China, 180 nautical miles southeast of Hainan Island, and about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines. Turtles live on the islands, and seabirds have left nests and guano deposits, but there are no permanent human residents except military personnel and fishermen.

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Samoan Islands

Samoan Islands

The Samoan Islands or Samoa Islands is an archipelago covering 3,030 km² in the central South Pacific, forming part of Polynesia and the wider region of Oceania. The population of the Samoan Islands is approximately 250,000, sharing a common language, Samoan, a culture, known as fa'a Samoa and an indigenous form of governance called fa'amatai. Today, the islands have two jurisdictions, the independent country of Samoa in the western half of the islands, and the territory of American Samoa comprising the islands to the east. The two regions are separated by 64 km of ocean. Most Samoans are full-blooded and are one of the largest Polynesian populations in the world. The oldest date so far from prehistoric remains in the Samoan Islands has been calculated from archaeology in Samoa to a likely true age of circa 1,050 BCE from a Lapita site at Mulifanua wharf on Upolu island. In 1768, the eastern islands were visited by French explorer Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands, a name used by missionaries until about 1845 and in official European dispatches until about 1870.

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Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands are an archipelago located in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 310 miles east of the Patagonian coast at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago which has an area of 4,700 square miles comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British Overseas Territory, the islands enjoy a large degree of internal self-governance with the United Kingdom guaranteeing good government and taking responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' original discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain re-established its rule in 1833, though the islands continue to be claimed by Argentina. In 1982, following Argentina's invasion of the islands, the two-month-long undeclared Falklands War between both countries resulted in the surrender of all Argentine forces and the return of the islands to British administration. The population, estimated at 2,932 in 2012, primarily consists of native Falkland Islanders, the vast majority being of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian, and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, Saint Helena, and Chile has reversed a former population decline. The predominant and official language is English. Under the British Nationality Act of 1983, Falkland Islanders are legally British citizens.

— Freebase

Maluku Islands

Maluku Islands

The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were also historically known as the "Spice Islands" by the Chinese and Europeans, but this term has also been applied to other islands outside Indonesia. Most of the islands are mountainous, some with active volcanoes, and enjoy a wet climate. The vegetation of the small and narrow islands, encompassed by the sea, is very luxuriant; including rainforests, sago, rice and the famous spices—nutmeg, mace and cloves, among others. Though originally Melanesian, many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were killed off in the 17th century during the Spice Wars. A second influx of Austronesian immigrants began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. The Maluku Islands formed a single province since Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim and its capital is Ternate. Maluku province has a larger Christian population and its capital is Ambon.

— Freebase

Virgin Islands of the United States

Virgin Islands of the United States

A group of islands in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, the three main islands being St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. The capital is Charlotte Amalie. The Virgin Islands were discovered by Columbus in 1493. Before 1917 the U.S. Virgin Islands were held by the Danish and called the Danish West Indies but the name was changed when the United States acquired them by purchase. Virgin refers to the fact that Columbus made his discovery on St. Ursula's day - virgins being her legendary companions - or to the resemblance of the chain of islands to a procession of nuns or virgins. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1305 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p577)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

West Indies

West Indies

Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands

A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Austral Islands

Austral Islands

The Austral Islands are the southernmost group of islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the South Pacific. Geographically, they consist of two separate archipelagos, namely in the northwest the Tubuai Islands consisting of the Îles Maria, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai Island proper and Raivavae or Raevavae, and in the southeast the Bass Islands composed of the main island of Rapa Iti and the small Marotiri. The islands of Maria and Marotiri are not suitable for sustained habitation. Several of the islands have uninhabited islets or rocks off their coastlines. Austral Islands' population is about 6,300 on almost 150 km². The capital of the Austral Islands administrative subdivision is Tubuai.

— Freebase

Tuvalu

Tuvalu

Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. It comprises three reef islands and six true atolls spread out from 6° to 10° south. Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa and Fiji. Its population of 10,544 makes it the third-least populous sovereign state in the world, with only Vatican City and Nauru having fewer inhabitants. In terms of physical land size, at just 26 square kilometres Tuvalu is the fourth smallest country in the world, larger only than the Vatican City at 0.44 km², Monaco at 1.98 km² and Nauru at 21 km². The first inhabitants of Tuvalu were Polynesian people. In 1568 Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña sailed through the islands and is understood to have sighted Nui during his expedition in search of Terra Australis. In 1819 the island of Funafuti was named Ellice's Island; the name Ellice was applied to all nine islands after the work of English hydrographer Alexander George Findlay. The islands came under Britain's sphere of influence in the late 19th century, when the Ellice Islands were declared a British protectorate by Captain Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacao, between 9 and 16 October 1892. The Ellice Islands were administered as British protectorate by a Resident Commissioner from 1892 to 1916 as part of the British Western Pacific Territories, and later as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony from 1916 to 1974.

— Freebase

Admiralty Islands

Admiralty Islands

The Admiralty Islands are a group of eighteen islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, to the north of New Guinea in the south Pacific Ocean. These are also sometimes called the Manus Islands, after the largest island. These rainforest-covered islands form part of Manus Province, the smallest and least-populous province of Papua New Guinea. The total area is 2,100 km². Many of the islands are atolls and uninhabited. The larger islands in the center of the group are Manus Island and Los Negros Island. The other larger islands are Tong Island, Pak Island, Rambutyo Island, Lou Island, and Baluan Island to the east, Mbuke Island to the south and Bipi Island to the west of Manus Island. Other islands that have been noted as significant places in the history of Manus include Ndrova Island, Pitylu Island and Ponam Island.

— Freebase

Antilles

Antilles

The Antilles is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east. The Antillean islands are divided into two smaller groupings: the Greater Antilles, which includes the larger islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and the Cayman Islands; and the Lesser Antilles, which contains the northerly Leeward Islands, the southeasterly Windward Islands, and the Leeward Antilles just north of Venezuela. The Lucayan Archipelago, though part of the West Indies, are generally not included among the Antillean islands. Geographically, the Antillean islands are generally considered a subregion of North America. Culturally speaking, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico – and sometimes the whole of the Antilles – are included in Latin America, although some sources avoid this socioeconomic emphasized oversimplification by using the phrase "Latin America and the Caribbean" instead. In terms of geology, the Greater Antilles are made up of continental rock, as distinct from the Lesser Antilles, which are mostly young volcanic or coral islands.

— Freebase

Alexander Archipelago

Alexander Archipelago

The Alexander Archipelago is a 300 miles long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska. It contains about 1,100 islands, which are the tops of the submerged coastal mountains that rise steeply from the Pacific Ocean. Deep channels and fjords separate the islands and cut them off from the mainland. The northern part of the Inside Passage is sheltered by the islands as it winds its way among them. The islands have irregular, steep coasts and dense evergreen and temperate rain forests, and most are accessible only by boat or airplane. The vast majority of the islands are part of the Tongass National Forest. In order of land area, the largest islands are Prince of Wales Island, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Revillagigedo Island, Kupreanof Island, Kuiu Island, Etolin Island, Dall Island, Wrangell Island, Mitkof Island, Zarembo Island, Kosciusko Island, Kruzof Island, Annette Island, Gravina Island, and Yakobi Island. All the islands are rugged, densely forested, and have an abundance of wildlife. The Tlingit and Kaigani Haida people are native to the area. The Tsimshian people found on Annette Island are not originally from the area, having immigrated to the region from British Columbia in the late 19th century.

— Freebase

Phoenix Islands

Phoenix Islands

The Phoenix Islands are a group of eight atolls and two submerged coral reefs, lying in the central Pacific Ocean east of the Gilbert Islands and west of the Line Islands. They are a part of the Republic of Kiribati. During the late 1930s they became the site of the last attempted colonial expansion of the British Empire through the Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme. The islands and surrounding areas are home to some 120 species of coral and more than 500 species of fish. On January 28, 2008, the government of Kiribati formally declared the entire Phoenix group and surrounding waters a protected area, making its 410,500 square kilometres the world's largest marine protected area. The group is uninhabited except for a few families on Kanton. The United States unincorporated territories of Baker Island and Howland Island are often considered northerly outliers of the group, in the geographical sense. Howland and Baker are statistically grouped with the United States Minor Outlying Islands, however. The United States previously claimed all the Phoenix Islands under the Guano Islands Act. The Treaty of Tarawa released all American claims to Kiribati, excluding Baker and Howland.

— Freebase

Hawaii

Hawaii

A chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean between North America and Oceania. Also called the and formerly the Sandwich Islands. The larger islands are:

— Wiktionary

United States minor outlying islands

United States minor outlying islands

Regions of the United States of America including: American Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

— Wiktionary

Macaronesia

Macaronesia

A group of islands in the North Atlantic: the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira and the Savage Islands

— Wiktionary

second island chain

second island chain

The next chain of archipelagos out from the East Asian continental mainland coast, beyond the first island chain. Principally composed of the Bonin Islands, Marianas Islands, Caroline Islands; from Honshu to New Guinea.

— Wiktionary

third island chain

third island chain

The Aleutian Islands, Emperor Seamounts, Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, New Zealand; from Alaska to New Zealand or Tasmania and Australia.

— Wiktionary

Falklands War

Falklands War

The Falklands War, also known as the Falklands Conflict or Falklands Crisis, was a 1982 war between Argentina and the United Kingdom. The conflict resulted from the long-standing dispute over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which lie in the South Atlantic, east of Argentina. The Falklands War began on Friday 2 April 1982, when Argentine forces invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands and South Georgia. The British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force, and retake the islands by amphibious assault. The resulting conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, which returned the islands to British control. During the conflict, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel and 3 Falkland Islanders died. The conflict was the result of a protracted historical confrontation regarding the sovereignty of the islands. Argentina has asserted that the Falkland Islands have been Argentinian territory since the 19th century and, as of 2013, has not relinquished the claim. The claim was added to the Argentine constitution after its reformation in 1994. As such, the Argentine government characterised their initial invasion as the re-occupation of their own territory, whilst the British government saw it as an invasion of a British dependent territory. However, neither state officially declared war and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the local area of the South Atlantic.

— Freebase

Island

Island

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot, ait, or holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, e.g. the Philippines. An island may be described as such despite the presence of an artificial land bridge, for example Singapore and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a wide land bridge, such as Coney Island. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal, it is generally not considered an island. There are two main types of islands: continental islands and oceanic islands. There are also artificial islands.

— Freebase

Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep, formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 kilometres off the South Western coast of India. The archipelago is a Union Territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. They were also known as Laccadive Islands, although geographically this is only the name of the central subgroup of the group. Lakshadweep comes from "Lakshadweepa", which means "one hundred thousand islands" in Sanskrit as well as many Indian languages like Hindi, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu and others. The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India: their total surface area is just 32 square kilometres.² The lagoon area covers about 4,200 square kilometres, the territorial waters area 20,000 square kilometres and the exclusive economic zone area 400,000 square kilometres. The region forms a single Indian district with ten sub divisions. Kavaratti serves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala High Court. The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands, which are the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge.

— Freebase

Chincha Islands

Chincha Islands

The Chincha Islands are a group of three small islands 21 kilometres off the southwest coast of Peru, to which they belong, near the town of Pisco. They were of interest for their extensive guano deposits, but the supplies were mostly exhausted by 1874. The largest of the islands, Isla Chincha Norte, is 0.8 miles long and up to 0.6 miles wide, and rises to a height of 34 m. Isla Chincha Centro is almost the same size as its neighbour to the north, while Isla Chincha Sur is half the size of its neighbours. The islands are mostly granite, and bordered with cliffs on all sides, upon which great numbers of seabirds nest. The islands were once the residence of the Chincha people, but only a few remains are to be found today. Peru began the export of guano in 1840. Spain, not having recognized Peru's independence and desiring the guano profits, occupied the islands in April 1864, setting off the Chincha Islands War.

— Freebase

Thousand Islands

Thousand Islands

The Thousand Islands constitute an archipelago of 1,864 islands that straddles the Canada-U.S. border in the Saint Lawrence River as it emerges from the northeast corner of Lake Ontario. They stretch for about 50 miles downstream from Kingston, Ontario. The Canadian islands are in the province of Ontario, the U.S. islands in the state of New York. The 1,864 islands range in size from over 40 square miles to smaller islands occupied by a single residence, or uninhabited outcroppings of rocks that are only home to migratory waterfowl. To count as one of the Thousand Islands these minimum criteria had to be met: 1 Above water level year round; 2 Have an area greater than 1 square foot; and 3 Support at least one living tree.

— Freebase

Shetland

Shetland

Shetland, also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies north-east of mainland Britain. The islands lie some 80 km to the northeast of Orkney and 280 km southeast of the Faroe Islands and form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,468 km² and the population totalled 22,210 in 2009. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland is also one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick. The largest island, known simply as "Mainland", has an area of 967 km², making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands. The archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived there since the Mesolithic period, and the earliest written references to the islands date back to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences, especially Norway, and the islands did not become part of Scotland until the 15th century. When Shetland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day. The discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s significantly boosted Shetland incomes, employment and public sector revenues.

— Freebase

Tenerife

Tenerife

Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the seven Canary Islands; it is also the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38 km² and 898,680 inhabitants, 43% of the total population of the Canary Islands. About five million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the most of any Canary Islands. Tenerife hosts one of the world's largest carnivals and the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is attempting to become a World Heritage Site. Tenerife is serviced by two airports, Tenerife North Airport and Tenerife South Airport, and is the tourism and economic centre of the archipelago. Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the capital of the island and the seat of the island council. The city is capital of the autonomous community of Canary Islands, sharing governmental institutions such as Presidency and ministries. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands, until in 1927 a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains as at present. The island is home to the University of La Laguna, which was founded in 1792 and is the oldest university in the Canaries. San Cristóbal de La Laguna is the second city of the island and the third one of the archipelago. The city of La Laguna was also capital of the Canary Islands until Santa Cruz replaced it in 1833.

— Freebase

Netherlands Antilles

Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles, also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Although the country has now been dissolved, all of its constituent islands remain part of the kingdom under a different legal status and the term is still used to refer to these Dutch Caribbean islands. There were two island groups in the Netherlands Antilles, both in the Lesser Antilles. The ABC islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are in the Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast, and the SSS islands of Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are in the Windward Islands southeast of the Virgin Islands. Aruba became a separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1986. The rest of the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, with Curaçao and Sint Maarten becoming two new constituent countries and with the other islands becoming special municipalities within the Netherlands.

— Freebase

Tupaia

Tupaia

Tupaia was a Polynesian navigator and arioi, originally from the island of Ra'iatea in the Pacific Islands group known to Europeans as the Society Islands. His remarkable navigational skills and Pacific geographical knowledge were to be utilised by Lt. James Cook, R.N. when he took him aboard HMS Endeavour as guide on its famous voyage of exploration. He joined the vessel near Tahiti, and was welcomed aboard on insistence of Sir Joseph Banks, a member of Cook's expedition. Tupaia drew a chart of all the islands within 2,000 miles radius of his home island of Ra'iatea. Tupaia had knowledge of 130 islands and named 74 on his chart. Tupaia had navigated from Ra'iatea in short voyages to 13 islands. He had not visited western Polynesia, as since his grandfather’s time the extent of voyaging by Raiateans has diminished to the islands of eastern Polynesia. His grandfather and father had passed to Tupaia the knowledge as to the location of the major islands of western Polynesia and the navigation information necessary to voyage to Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. As the Admiralty orders directed Cook to search for the “Great Southern Continent”, Cook ignored Tupaia’s chart and his skills as a navigator.

— Freebase

Highlands and Islands

Highlands and Islands

The Highlands and Islands of Scotland are broadly the Scottish Highlands, plus Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles. The Highlands and Islands are sometimes defined as the area to which the Crofters' Act of 1886 applied. This area consisted of eight counties of Scotland: ⁕Argyll ⁕Caithness ⁕Inverness-shire ⁕Nairnshire ⁕Orkney ⁕Ross and Cromarty ⁕Shetland ⁕Sutherland Highlands and Islands Enterprise uses a broader definition also used at Eurostat's NUTS level 2, and there has been a Highlands and Islands electoral region of the Scottish Parliament since 1999. In Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service the name refers to the local government areas of Highland, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles. Northern, as in Northern Constabulary, is also used to refer to this area. The Highlands and Islands Partnership for Transport, established in 2006, covers most of the council areas of Argyll and Bute, Highland, Moray, Orkney and the Western Isles. Shetland is covered by the separate Shetland Partnership for Transport. In the 2007 Scottish Parliament election held on 3 May 2007, the Highlands and Islands region was the last to declare its regional votes, which were the decisive results in determining that the Scottish National Party overtook the Scottish Labour Party to obtain the largest representation in the Scottish Parliament by one seat.

— Freebase

Atlantic Islands

Atlantic Islands

Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Hawaii

Hawaii

A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Mediterranean Islands

Mediterranean Islands

Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea

A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Space Exploration Technologies

Space Exploration Technologies

Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) is a space-transportation startup company founded by Elon Musk. It is developing the partially reusable launch vehicles Falcon 1 and Falcon 9. Originally based in El Segundo, SpaceX now operates out of Hawthorne, California, USA.SpaceX was founded in June 2002 by Musk who had invested $100 million of his own money in the company as of March 2006. In January 2005, SpaceX bought a 10% stake in Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.SpaceX had 160 employees in November 2005, and more than 500 by July 2008. The launch crew in the Marshall Islands has 25 people, 6 in mission control. This small number, compared to similar space launch companies, is part of cost reduction. Musk sees other space-launch services’ high prices as supporting unnecessary bureaucracy. He’s stated that one of his goals is to improve the cost and reliability of access to space by a factor of ten.Elon Musk stated after the failure of the third Falcon 1 flight attempt, “As a precautionary measure to guard against the possibility of flight 3 not reaching orbit, SpaceX recently accepted a significant investment. Combined with our existing cash reserves, that ensures we will have more than sufficient funding on hand to continue launching Falcon 1 and develop Falcon 9 and Dragon”; on August 4, SpaceX released further details; they had accepted a USD$20 million equity investment from the Founder’s Fund.Founded in 2002, the SpaceX team now numbers over 500, located primarily in Hawthorne, California, with four additional locations: SpaceX’s Texas Test Facility in McGregor near Waco; offices in Washington DC; and launch facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and the Marshall Islands in the Central Pacific.

— CrunchBase

fiji islands

Fiji Islands, Fijis

a group of more than 800 islands (100 inhabited) in the southwestern Pacific; larger islands (Viti Levu and Vanua Levu) are of volcanic origin surrounded by coral reefs; smaller islands are coral

— Princeton's WordNet

fijis

Fiji Islands, Fijis

a group of more than 800 islands (100 inhabited) in the southwestern Pacific; larger islands (Viti Levu and Vanua Levu) are of volcanic origin surrounded by coral reefs; smaller islands are coral

— Princeton's WordNet

United States Minor Outlying Islands

United States Minor Outlying Islands

The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code, consists of eight United States insular areas in the Pacific Ocean: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island; and one in the Caribbean Sea: Navassa Island. The Caribbean territories of Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank are also sometimes included by the U.S. government, but its claims are disputed by other countries. Among them, Palmyra Atoll is the only incorporated territory. As of 2008, none of the islands have any permanent residents. The only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on Johnston Atoll and 1 person on Wake Island. There has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936 a colonization scheme began to settle Americans on Baker, Howland, and Jarvis, but all three islands were evacuated in 1942 as a result of World War II. The islands are grouped together as a statistical convenience. They are not administered collectively, nor do they share a single cultural or political history beyond being uninhabited islands under the sovereignty of the United States.

— Freebase

Yap

Yap

Yap is the westernized name of Wa'ab, an island in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Colonia is the capital of Yap State of the Federated States of Micronesia. Yap island proper actually made up of three islands, the others being Map and Rumung. The three are close together though separated by water and are surrounded by a common coral reef and are formed from an uplift of the Philippine Sea Plate referred to as high islands as opposed to atolls. The land is mostly rolling hills densely vegetated. Mangrove swamps line much of the shore. Yap's indigenous cultures and traditions are strong compared to other states in Micronesia. Colonia is the capital of the State of Yap which includes Yap proper and the fourteen outer islands fourteen reaching to the east and south for some 800 km, namely Eauripik, Elato, Fais, Faraulep, Gaferut, Ifalik, Lamotrek, Ngulu, Olimarao, Piagailoe, Pikelot, Sorol, Ulithi, and Woleai atolls, as well as the island of Satawal. Historically a tributary system existed between the outer islands, mostly atolls, and Yap proper a high island. This probably related to the need for goods from the high islands including food and wood for construction of seagoing vessels.²

— Freebase

North Frisian Islands

North Frisian Islands

The North Frisian Islands are a group of islands in the Wadden Sea, a part of the North Sea, off the western coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The German islands are in the traditional region of North Frisia and are part of the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park and the Kreis of Nordfriesland. Occasionally Heligoland is also included in this group. Sometimes the North Frisian Islands include also the Danish Wadden Sea Islands on the western coast of Jutland, Denmark. They belong to Tønder municipality and Esbjerg municipality. The ethnic group of Frisians lives only on the German-ruled islands.

— Freebase

Cape Verde

Cape Verde

Cape Verde, officially the Republic of Cape Verde, is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa. The islands, covering a combined area of slightly over 4,000 square kilometres, are of volcanic origin and while three of them are fairly flat, sandy and dry, the remaining ones are generally rockier and have more vegetation. The previously uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century, and became important in the Atlantic slave trade for their location. The islands' prosperity often attracted privateers and pirates, including Sir Francis Drake, a corsair under the authority of the English crown, who twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande, in the 1580s. The islands were also visited by Charles Darwin's expedition in 1832. The decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis for the islands. With few natural resources, and without strong sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew increasingly discontented with the colonial masters, who nevertheless refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy. A budding independence movement culminated in 1975, when a movement originally led by Amílcar Cabral then passed onto his half-brother Luís Cabral, achieved independence for the archipelago.

— Freebase

San Juan Islands

San Juan Islands

The San Juan Islands are an archipelago in the northwest corner of the contiguous United States between the US mainland and Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The San Juan Islands are part of the U.S. state of Washington. In the archipelago, four islands are accessible by passenger ferry operated by the Washington State Ferries system. The United States Geological Survey defines the San Juan Islands as the archipelago north of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, west of Rosario Strait, east of Haro Strait, and south of Boundary Pass. To the north lie the open waters of the Strait of Georgia. All these waters are within the Salish Sea. The USGS definition of the San Juan archipelago coincides with San Juan County. Islands not in San Juan County are not part of the San Juan Islands, according to the USGS.

— Freebase

Mariana Islands

Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They are south of Japan and north of New Guinea, and form the eastern limit of the Philippine Sea. The islands were named after Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria in the 17th century, when Spain started the colonization of the archipelago. They form the northern part of the western Pacific subregion of Micronesia, and are composed of two U.S. jurisdictions: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain of islands, the territory of Guam. The islands are part of a geologic structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system, and range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region which is the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth. This subduction region, just east of the island chain, forms the noted Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth's oceans and lowest part of the surface of the Earth's crust. In this region, according to geologic theory, water trapped in the extensive faulting of the Pacific Plate as serpentinite, is heated by the higher temperatures of depth during its subduction, and the pressure from the expanding steam results in the hydrothermal activity in the area, and the volcanic activity which formed the Mariana Islands.

— Freebase

Kuril Islands

Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands, in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately 1,300 km northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. There are 56 islands and many more minor rocks. It consists of Greater Kuril Ridge and Lesser Kuril Ridge. The total land area is about 15,600 square kilometres and total population about 19,000. All of the islands are under the Russian jurisdiction, but Japan claims the two southernmost large islands as part of its territory, as well as Shikotan and the Habomai islets, which has led to the ongoing Kuril Islands dispute.

— Freebase

Mainland

Mainland

Mainland is a name given to a large landmass in a region, or to the largest of a group of islands in an archipelago. Sometimes its residents are called "Mainlanders". Because of its larger area, a mainland almost always has a much larger population than its associated islands, and mainlander culture and politics sometimes threaten to dominate those of the islands. Prominent uses of the term include: ⁕Mainland Argentina, as opposed to Tierra del Fuego. The term may be applied by Argentines to the British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, whose claim is disputed by Argentina. The use of 'mainland' in this context is discouraged by the people of the two territories, who class themselves as British citizens. ⁕Mainland Australia, as opposed to Tasmania. ⁕Mainland Britain:, as opposed to Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man. On the Isle of Wight in 1982, Paul Theroux overheard residents at Ventnor: "and now they were talking about 'the mainland', as if we were far at sea and not twenty minutes by ferry from Portsmouth". ⁕Mainland Canada, as opposed to Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island or Vancouver Island;

— Freebase

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in full Santa Cruz de Santiago de Tenerife, and commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz, is the capital of the Canary Islands, the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and capital of the island of Tenerife, with a population of 222,417 in 2009. Located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about 210 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands, until 1927 when a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. The port is of great importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands. The city is home to the Parliament of the Canary Islands, the Canarian Ministry of the Presidency, one half of the Ministries and Boards of the Canarian Government, the Tenerife Provincial Courts and two courts of the Superior Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. There are several faculties of the La Laguna University in Santa Cruz, including the Fine Arts School and the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spain's busiest; it comprises three sectors. It is important for commercial and passenger traffic, as well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the world's largest carnivals. The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site, and is the most important of Spain and the second largest in the world.

— Freebase

Outer Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

The Outer Hebrides also known as the Western Isles and the Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically conterminous with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch and the Sea of the Hebrides. Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority. Most of the islands have a bedrock formed from ancient metamorphic rocks and the climate is mild and oceanic. The 15 inhabited islands have a total population of about 26,500 and there are more than 50 substantial uninhabited islands. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres. There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, which lasted for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266. Control of the islands was then held by clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeods, MacDonalds, Mackenzies and MacNeils. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had a devastating effect on many communities and it is only in recent years that population levels have ceased to decline. Much of the land is now under local control and commercial activity is based on tourism, crofting, fishing, and weaving.

— Freebase

Hawaiian Islands

Hawaiian Islands

The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Once known as the "Sandwich Islands", the name chosen by James Cook in honour of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, the archipelago now takes its name from the largest island in the cluster. The U.S. state of Hawaii occupies the archipelago almost in its entirety, with the sole exception of Midway island, which is instead an unincorporated territory within the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent.

— Freebase

Federated States of Micronesia

Federated States of Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent sovereign island nation consisting of four states – from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km southwest of the main islands of Hawaii. While the FSM's total land area is quite small, it occupies more than 2,600,000 km² of the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Palikir, located on Pohnpei Island, while the largest city is Weno, located in the Chuuk Atoll. Each of its four states is centered around one or more main high islands, and all but Kosrae include numerous outlying atolls. The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across part of the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of thousands of small islands divided between several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.

— Freebase

Archipelago of the Azores

Archipelago of the Azores

The Archipelago of the Azores is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about 1,500 km west of Lisbon and about 1,900 km southeast of Newfoundland. The islands, and their Exclusive Economic Zone, form the Autonomous Region of the Azores, one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. Its main industries are agriculture, dairy farming, livestock ranching, fishing, and tourism, which is becoming the major service activity in the region. In addition to this, the government of the Azores employs a large percentage of the population directly or indirectly in many aspects of the service and tertiary sectors. There are nine major Azorean islands and an islet cluster, in three main groups. These are Flores and Corvo, to the west; Graciosa, Terceira, São Jorge, Pico, and Faial in the centre; and São Miguel, Santa Maria, and the Formigas Reef to the east. They extend for more than 600 km and lie in a northwest-southeast direction. The vast extent of the islands defines an immense exclusive economic zone of 1,100,000 km². The westernmost point of this area is 3,380 km from the North American continent. All the islands have volcanic origins, although some, such as Santa Maria, have had no recorded activity since the islands were settled. Mount Pico, on the island of Pico, is the highest point in Portugal, at 2,351 m. The Azores are actually some of the tallest mountains on the planet, measured from their base at the bottom of the ocean to their peaks, which thrust high above the surface of the Atlantic.

— Freebase

Pitcairn Islands

Pitcairn Islands

The Pitcairn Islands, officially named the Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form a British Overseas Territory. The four islands – Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno – are spread over several hundred miles of ocean and have a total land area of about 47 square kilometres. Only Pitcairn, the second largest and measuring about 3.6 kilometres from east to west, is inhabited. The islands are inhabited by the descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians who accompanied them, an event retold in numerous books and films. This history is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only about 48 inhabitants, Pitcairn is the least populous jurisdiction in the world. The United Nations Committee on Decolonisation includes the Pitcairn Islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

— Freebase

South Shetland Islands

South Shetland Islands

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the Islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes. The islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and have been part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962. They are also claimed by the governments of Chile and by Argentina. Several countries maintain research stations on the Islands. Most of them are situated on King George Island, benefitting from the airfield of the Chilean base Eduardo Frei. There are sixteen research stations to date in different parts of the islands, with Chilean stations being the greatest in number. Research is often a shared duty of nations, with Chilean-American Shirreff Base being an example of this.

— Freebase

Saronic Islands

Saronic Islands

The Saronic Islands or Argo-Saronic Islands is an archipelago in Greece, named after the Saronic Gulf in which they are located, just off the Greek mainland. The main inhabited islands of this group are Salamis, Aegina, Angistri, and Poros. The islands of Hydra and Dokos, which lie off the northeast tip of the Peloponnese, are sometimes included as part of the Saronic Islands. Many mainland Greeks have vacation homes in the Saronic Islands, which are regularly served by ferries from Piraeus and the Peloponnese.

— Freebase

Traffic island

Traffic island

A traffic island is a solid or painted object in a road that channelises traffic. It can also be a narrow strip of island between roads that intersect at an acute angle. If the island uses road markings only, without raised kerbs or other physical obstructions, it is called a painted island. Traffic islands can be used to reduce the speed of cars driving through. When traffic islands are longer, they are instead called traffic medians, a strip in the middle of a road. serving the divider function over a much longer distance. When making left turns, drivers will often drive over painted islands even though it is technically illegal. Some traffic islands may serve as refuge islands for pedestrians. Traffic islands are often used at partially blind intersections on back-streets to prevent cars from cutting a corner with potentially dangerous results, or to prevent some movements totally, for traffic safety or traffic calming reasons. In parts of the United Kingdom, the term island is used as a synonym for roundabout.

— Freebase

Tokelau

Tokelau

Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km² and a population of approximately 1,400. The atolls lie north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. The United Nations General Assembly designated Tokelau a Non-Self-Governing Territory. Until 1976, the official name was Tokelau Islands. The New Zealand territory is sometimes referred to by its older colonial name, the Union Islands.

— Freebase

Diomede Islands

Diomede Islands

The Diomede Islands, also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands, consist of two rocky, tuya-like islands: ⁕The U.S. island of Little Diomede or, in its native language, Ignaluk, and ⁕The Russian island of Big Diomede, also known as Imaqliq, Inaliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island. The Diomede Islands are located in the middle of the Bering Strait between mainland Alaska and Siberia, with the Chukchi Sea to the north and the Bering Sea to the south. 9.3 km to the southeast is Fairway Rock, which is generally not considered part of the Diomede Islands. The islands are sometimes called Tomorrow Island and Yesterday Isle because they are separated by the International Date Line, thus Big Diomede is 23 hours ahead of Little Diomede.

— Freebase

Johnston Atoll

Johnston Atoll

Johnston Atoll is an uninhabited 1.03 sq mi atoll in the North Pacific Ocean about 750 nmi southwest of the Hawaii Islands. The atoll, which is located on a coral reef platform, comprises four islands. Johnston and Sand islands are both enlarged natural features, while North and East are two artificial islands formed by coral dredging. Johnston Atoll is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. For nearly 70 years, the atoll was under the control of the American military. In that time it was used as an airbase, a naval refuelling depot and a weapons testing area. In the mid-1980s, the atoll became a facility for chemical weapons disposal. In 2004 the military base was closed; island control was handed over to civilian authorities. Johnston is an unincorporated territory of the United States administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior as part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

— Freebase

Aleutic

Aleutic

of or pertaining to a chain of islands between Alaska and Kamtchatka; also, designating these islands

— Webster Dictionary

Archipelago

Archipelago

hence: Any sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with many islands or with a group of islands

— Webster Dictionary

Breadfruit

Breadfruit

the fruit of a tree (Artocarpus incisa) found in the islands of the Pacific, esp. the South Sea islands. It is of a roundish form, from four to six or seven inches in diameter, and, when baked, somewhat resembles bread, and is eaten as food, whence the name

— Webster Dictionary

Carib

Carib

a native of the Caribbee islands or the coasts of the Caribbean sea; esp., one of a tribe of Indians inhabiting a region of South America, north of the Amazon, and formerly most of the West India islands

— Webster Dictionary

Caribbee

Caribbee

of or pertaining to the Caribs, to their islands (the eastern and southern West Indies), or to the sea (called the Caribbean sea) lying between those islands and Central America

— Webster Dictionary

Islandy

Islandy

of or pertaining to islands; full of islands

— Webster Dictionary

Kurilian

Kurilian

of or pertaining to the Kurile Islands, a chain of islands in the Pacific ocean, extending from the southern extremity of Kamschatka to Yesso

— Webster Dictionary

Samoan

Samoan

of or pertaining to the Samoan Islands (formerly called Navigators' Islands) in the South Pacific Ocean, or their inhabitants

— Webster Dictionary

Sea-island

Sea-island

of or pertaining to certain islands along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia; as, sea-island cotton, a superior cotton of long fiber produced on those islands

— Webster Dictionary

Turnix

Turnix

any one of numerous species of birds belonging to Turnix or Hemipodius and allied genera of the family Turnicidae. These birds resemble quails and partridges in general appearance and in some of their habits, but differ in important anatomical characteristics. The hind toe is usually lacking. They are found in Asia, Africa, Southern Europe, the East Indian Islands, and esp. in Australia and adjacent islands, where they are called quails (see Quail, n., 3.). See Turnicimorphae

— Webster Dictionary

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean

the largest sheet of water on the globe, occupies a third of its whole surface, as much as all the land put together. It is a wide oval in shape, lying between Australia and Asia on the W., and North and South America on the E. Except from Asia it receives no large rivers. On its American shores the Gulf of California is the only considerable indentation; the Okhotsk, Japanese, Yellow, and Chinese Seas, on the Asiatic coast, are rather wide bays shut in by islands than inland seas. Its innumerable islands are the chief feature of the Pacific Ocean. The continental islands include the Aleutian, Kurile, Japan, and Philippine Islands, and the archipelago between the Malay Peninsula and Australia; the Oceanic Islands include countless groups, volcanic and coral, chiefly in the southern hemisphere, between the Sandwich Islands and New Zealand. Commerce on the Pacific Ocean is only beginning, but will increase vastly with the extension of the United States westward, the colonisation of Australia, and the opening of Chinese and Japanese ports. San Francisco and Valparaiso on the E., Hong-Kong and Sydney on the W., are just now the chief centres of trade.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bermuda

Bermuda

A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Melanesia

Melanesia

The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Micronesia

Micronesia

The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. Micronesia is from the Greek micro, small + nesos, island, so named because the islands in this group are much smaller than those in MELANESIA. Micronesia is inhabited by a mixed race of Melanesians, Polynesians, and some Malaysians. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

American Samoa

American Samoa

A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Palau

Palau

A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Genomic Islands

Genomic Islands

Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

British West Indies

British West Indies

The British West Indies were the islands in and around the Caribbean that were part of the British Empire. In 1912, the British West Indies were divided into eight colonies: The Bahamas, Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, the Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands. Between 1958 and 1962, all of the island territories except the British Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, British Honduras and British Guiana were organised into the West Indies Federation. It was hoped that the Federation would become independent as a single nation, but it had limited powers, many practical problems, and a lack of popular support. Consequently, the West Indies Federation was dissolved. Most of the territories, including all the larger ones, are now independent as separate countries, with membership to many international forums such as the Organization of American States, the Association of Caribbean States, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Commonwealth of Nations and the Caribbean Development Bank among others. The remainder are British overseas territories. All the former nations of the British West Indies, except the Commonwealth of Dominica, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, are Commonwealth Realms. The term is still used for British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, such as the Cayman Islands.

— Freebase

Sea Islands

Sea Islands

The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. They number over 100, and are located between the mouths of the Santee and St. Johns Rivers along the coast of the U.S. states of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Settled by indigenous cultures for thousands of years, the islands were an early site of the Spanish founding of colonial missions. Historically the Spanish influenced the Guale and Mocama chiefdoms by establishing missions in their major settlements, from St. Catherine's Island south to Fort George Island. Both chiefdoms extended to the coastal areas on the mainland. The Mocama Province included territory to the St. Johns River in present-day Florida. The system ended under pressure of repeated raids by English South Carolina colonists and Indian allies. Spain ceded its territory of Florida to Great Britain in 1763. After 18th-century European-American settlement of Georgia and Florida, planters imported enslaved Africans as laborers. Many were used to work the cotton, rice and indigo plantations on the Sea Islands. The slaves developed the notable and distinct Gullah/Geechee Creole culture and language which has survived to contemporary times. The islands now are known for resort, recreational, and residential development.

— Freebase

Inner Hebrides

Inner Hebrides

The Inner Hebrides is an archipelago off the west coast of Mainland Scotland, to the southeast of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate. There are 36 inhabited islands and a further 43 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 30 hectares. The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing, and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about 412,850 hectares, and had a population of 18,257 people in 2001. The population density is therefore a little over 4 persons per km². There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. In the historic period the earliest known settlers were Picts to the north and Gaels in the southern kingdom of Dalriada prior to the islands becoming part of the Suðreyjar kingdom of the Norse, who ruled for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266. Control of the islands was then held by various clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeans, MacLeods and MacDonalds. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had a devastating effect on many communities and it is only in recent years that population levels have ceased to decline.

— Freebase

Pleasant Island

Pleasant Island

Pleasant Island is the largest island in the Icy Strait between northern Chichagof Island and the mainland of the Alaska Panhandle. It lies southeast of the mainland city of Gustavus and southwest of the mainland community of Excursion Inlet. Pleasant Island has a land area of 49.192 km², had no population at the 2000 census, and is reported to be uninhabited as of 2012. Location: The 23,151-acre Pleasant/Lemesurier/Inian Islands Wilderness is located in Icy Strait between Chichagof Island and the mainland on the north end of the Tongass National Forest. The Wilderness is made up of three large islands and a few small islands adjacent to them. Access: The wilderness is accessible by boat, kayak or float plane. Area Description: This grouping of relatively small islands is unique in that the three largest islands are very different in topography, use and character. Pleasant Island is fairly flat and has a mixture of old-growth forest and muskeg. The island has a couple of small lakes that can be hiked to from the shoreline. The island has many beaches friendly to small boats or kayaks and several areas that are used for camping. Pleasant Island is located just a couple of miles from Gustavus, Alaska, and Glacier Bay National Park. Many people kayaking to and from the park stop at Pleasant Island for lunch or a campover.

— Freebase

Greater Sunda Islands

Greater Sunda Islands

The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of large islands within the Malay Archipelago. Java, smallest but by far the most populous; Sumatra in the west, directly across the Strait of Malacca from Malaysia; large, compact Borneo, the Indonesian sector of which is called Kalimantan; and wishbone-shaped, distended Sulawesi to the east. Under some definitions, only Java, Sumatra and Borneo are included in the Greater Sunda Islands. Together with the Lesser Sunda Islands they make up the Sunda Islands.

— Freebase

South Orkney Islands

South Orkney Islands

The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. They have a total area of about 620 square kilometres. The islands have been part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962, and the British Antarctic Survey operates a base on Signy Island. The islands are also claimed by Argentina as part of the province of Tierra del Fuego, and the Argentine Navy has maintained a permanent base on Laurie Island since 1904. Apart from base personnel, there are no inhabitants. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, the Islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are open to any signatory for non-military use.

— Freebase

Marquesas Islands

Marquesas Islands

The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Marquesas are located at 9° 00S, 139° 30W. The highest point is the peak of Mount Oave on Ua Pu island at 1,230 m above sea level. The Marquesas Islands form one of the five administrative divisions of French Polynesia. The capital of the Marquesas Islands administrative subdivision is the settlement of Taiohae on the island of Nuku Hiva. The population of the Marquesas Islands was 8,632 at the August 2007 census.

— Freebase

Auckland Islands

Auckland Islands

The Auckland Islands are an archipelago of the New Zealand subantarctic islands and include Auckland Island, Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island and Green Island, with a combined area of 625 square kilometres. They lie 465 kilometres from the South Island port of Bluff, between the latitudes 50° 30' and 50° 55' S and longitudes 165° 50' and 166° 20' E. The islands have no permanent human inhabitants. Ecologically, the Auckland Islands form part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion.

— Freebase

British Isles

British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe that include the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles. Two sovereign states are located on the islands: Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The British Isles also include three dependencies of the British Crown: the Isle of Man and, by tradition, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey in the Channel Islands, although the latter are not physically a part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland, Ireland and North Wales are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, which had been part of a separate continental landmass. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres, Lough Neagh, which is notably larger than other lakes on the isles, covers 381 square kilometres. The climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC in Great Britain and 8000 BC in Ireland. At that time, Great Britain was a peninsula of the European continent from which Ireland had become separated to form an island.

— Freebase

Caribbean

Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands, and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago north of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize and Guyana – historically and culturally part of the British West Indies – may be included. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then UK dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

— Freebase

Aeolian Islands

Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands or Lipari Islands are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The locals residing on the islands are known as Eolians. The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer, and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo.

— Freebase

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands or the Leeward Islands are the small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain located northwest of the islands of Kauai and Niihau. They are part of the U.S. state of Hawaii except Midway Atoll, which is an unorganized, unincorporated United States territory with temporary residential facilities and is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In the state of Hawaii, they are part of the City & County of Honolulu. The United States Census Bureau defines this area as Census Tract 114.98 of Honolulu County. Its total land area is 3.1075 square miles. The Northwestern or Leeward Hawaiian Islands include: ⁕Nihoa at 23°03′38″N 161°55′19″W / 23.06056°N 161.92194°W ⁕Necker at 23°34′N 164°42′W / 23.567°N 164.700°W ⁕French Frigate Shoals at 23°52.134′N 166°17.16′W / 23.868900°N 166.28600°W ⁕Gardner Pinnacles at 25°01′N 167°59′W / 25.017°N 167.983°W ⁕Maro Reef at 25°24′54″N 170°35′24″W / 25.415°N 170.590°W ⁕Laysan at 25°46′03″N 171°44′00″W / 25.7675°N 171.7334°W ⁕Lisianski at 26°03′51″N 173°57′57″W / 26.064031°N 173.965802°W

— Freebase

Andaman Islands

Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands are a group of Indian Ocean archipelagic islands in the Bay of Bengal, between the Indian peninsula to the west and Burma to the north and east. Most of the islands are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a small number in the north of the archipelago belong to Burma such as the Coco Islands.

— Freebase

Aleutian Islands

Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 57 smaller ones, forming part of the Aleutian Arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi and extending about 1,200 mi westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula, marking a line between the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Crossing longitude 180°, they are the westernmost part of the United States. Nearly all the archipelago is part of Alaska and usually considered as being in the "Alaskan Bush", but at the extreme western end the small, geologically related, and remote Commander Islands are in Russia. The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, are in the northern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Alaska Marine Highway passes through the islands. Physiographically, they are a distinct section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.

— Freebase

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India. The territory is 150 km north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Burma by the Andaman Sea. It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10° N parallel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west. The territory's capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. The total land area of the territory is approximately 8,073 km². The capital of Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar also known as Malacca.

— Freebase

Canary Islands

Canary Islands

The Canary Islands, also known as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are one of Spain's 17 autonomous communities and an outermost region of the European Union. The islands include: Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste. The archipelago's beaches, climate and important natural attractions, especially Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year, especially Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote. The islands have a subtropical climate, with long warm summers and moderately warm winters. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands.

— Freebase

Lesser Sunda Islands

Lesser Sunda Islands

The Lesser Sunda Islands or Nusa Tenggara are a group of islands in the southern Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands. The islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Java Trench in the Java Sea.

— Freebase

Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands, is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Rotuma of Fiji to the west, the main part of Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, the New Zealand-associated state of Tokelau to the northeast and to a more distant north the Phoenix Islands. Wallis and Futuna are not part of, nor even contiguous with, French Polynesia. Wallis and Futuna are located at the very opposite western end of Polynesia. Its land area is 264 km² with a population of about 15,000. Mata-Utu is the capital and biggest city. The territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, and is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km apart, namely Wallis Islands in the northeast, and Hoorn Islands in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the mostly uninhabited Alofi Island. Since 2003 Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity. Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory, though its official name did not change when the status changed.

— Freebase

Maldives

Maldives

Maldives, officially the Republic of the Maldives and also referred to as the Maldive Islands, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean consisting of a double chain of twenty-six atolls, oriented north-south, that lie between Minicoy Island and the Chagos Archipelago. The chains stand in the Laccadive Sea, about 700 kilometres south-west of Sri Lanka and 400 kilometres south-west of India. For the majority of its history, the Maldives has been an independent polity, despite three instances during which it was ruled by outside forces. In the mid-15th century, for fifteen years, the Maldives was dominated by the Portuguese Empire. In the mid-17th century, the Dutch Empire dominated Maldives for four months. Finally, in the late 19th century, on the brink of war, the Maldives became a British protectorate from 1887 until 1965. The Dutch referred to the islands as the "Maldivische Eilanden", while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and later to the "Maldives". The islands gained independence from the British in 1965 and became a republic in 1968 ruled by a president and an authoritarian government.

— Freebase

Mississippi Sound

Mississippi Sound

The Mississippi Sound is a sound along the Gulf Coast of the United States. It runs east-west along the southern coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, from Waveland, Mississippi, to the Dauphin Island Bridge, a distance of about 145 kilometers. The sound is bordered on its southern edge by the barrier islands - Cat, Ship, Horn, Petit Bois and Dauphin Islands - which are part of the National Park Service's Gulf Islands National Seashore. Those islands separate the sound from the Gulf of Mexico. Large portions of the Mississippi Sound reach depths of about 6 meters. Part of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway traverses the sound with a project depth of 3.6 meters. The waterway, maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers, is designed for towboat and barge traffic. Most of its route through the sound is merely an imaginary line through water whose depth exceeds the project depth. A section west of Cat Island and the portion north of Dauphin Island rely on dredged channels marked by aids to navigation maintained by the US Coast Guard. Deepwater ports along the sound include Gulfport and Pascagoula. Dredged ship channels running basically north-south connect those ports to the Gulf of Mexico, running between pairs of the barrier islands.

— Freebase

Babuyan Islands

Babuyan Islands

The Babuyan Islands is roughly a circular archipelago located in the Luzon Strait, north of Luzon Island in the Philippines. It is separated from Luzon by the Babuyan Channel and from the Batanes Islands to its north by the Balintang Channel. The Babuyan Islands consist of five major islands - Babuyan Island, Calayan, Camiguin, Dalupiri, and Fuga Islands - and their adjoining islets. Note that another Camiguin Island is located in Southern Philippines, off the coast of Mindanao. Another Dalupiri Island is also located and part of Northern Samar in the Visayan Region of the Philippines.

— Freebase

Luzon Strait

Luzon Strait

The Luzon Strait is the strait between Taiwan and Luzon island of the Philippines. The strait thereby connects the Philippine Sea to the South China Sea in the western Pacific Ocean. The strait is approximately 250 kilometres wide containing a number of islands grouped into two groups: the Batanes Islands of Batanes province and the Babuyan Islands of Cagayan province, both of the Philippines. The strait is divided into a number of smaller channels. The Babuyan Channel separates Luzon from the Babuyan Islands, which is separated from the Batanes Islands by the Balintang Channel. Batanes is separated from Taiwan by the Bashi Channel. This is an important strait for shipping and communications. Many ships from the Americas use this route to go important East Asian ports. Many submarine communications cables pass through the Luzon Strait. These cables provide important data and telephony services to China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea.

— Freebase

Lata

Lata

Lata is the provincial capital of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands. As of 2007, it has 553 inhabitants. There are a few rest houses for overnight stays. There is a post office, telecom office and numerous stores. It contains a small air strip with flights to Makira and Honiara. Shipping service is irregular but occasionally transport can be found to Honiara or the outer islands. Outboard canoe travel around the island of Nendo or to the Reef Islands is possible. Temotu Province's main hospital. Lata Hospital is situated in Lata town. The only fixed wing service is by Solomon Islands Air. The RAMSI Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands provide their own helicopter flights fortnightly to Lata. During the ethnic tensions of 2003, there were no issues in Lata, mainly due to being so far away from the capital, Honiara. Arguably the most famous former resident of Lata is the Solomon Islander-born Australian model, Casey Pritchard, who grew up between Lata and Melbourne.

— Freebase

Ratak Chain

Ratak Chain

The Ratak Chain is a chain of islands within the island nation of the Marshall Islands. Ratak means "sunrise". It lies just to the east of the country's other main island chain, the Ralik Chain. As of 1999, the total population of the Ratak islands is 30,925. The atolls and isolated islands in the chain are: ⁕Bokak Atoll ⁕Bikar Atoll ⁕Utirik Atoll ⁕Taka Atoll ⁕Mejit Island ⁕Ailuk Atoll ⁕Jemo Island ⁕Likiep Atoll ⁕Wotje Atoll ⁕Erikub Atoll ⁕Maloelap Atoll ⁕Aur Atoll ⁕Majuro Atoll ⁕Arno Atoll ⁕Mili Atoll ⁕Knox Atoll The Ratak Chain forms a continuous chain of seamounts with the Gilbert Islands to the south, which are part of Kiribati.

— Freebase

Polynesian languages

Polynesian languages

The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia as well as on a patchwork of "Outliers" from south central Micronesia, to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the Southeast Solomon Islands and sprinked through Vanuatu. They are classified as part of the Austronesian family, belonging to the Oceanic branch of that family. Polynesians share many unique cultural traits which resulted from about 1000 years of common development, including common linguistic development, in the Tonga and Samoa area through most of the first millennium BC. Today there are many cognate words across the different islands e.g. tapu, ali'i, motu, kava, and tapa as well as Hawaiki, the mythical homeland for some of the cultures. There are approximately forty Polynesian languages. The most prominent of these are Tahitian, Samoan, Tongan, Māori and Hawaiian. Because the Polynesian islands were settled relatively recently and because internal linguistic diversification only began around 2,000 years ago, their languages retain strong commonalities.

— Freebase

Island Caribs

Island Caribs

The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They may have descended from the Mainland Caribs of South America, but they spoke an unrelated language known as Island Carib. At the time of Spanish contact, the Caribs were one of the dominant groups in the Caribbean, which owes its name to them. They lived throughout the Windward Islands, Dominica, and possibly the southern Leeward Islands. Historically it was thought their ancestors were mainland Caribs who conquered the islands from their previous inhabitants, known as the Igneri. However, linguistic and archaeological evidence disputes the notion of a mass emigration and conquest; the Island Carib language appears not to have been Cariban, but Arawakan like that of their neighbors, the Taíno. Irving Rouse and others suggest that a smaller group of mainland Caribs conquered the islands without displacing their inhabitants, eventually adopting the local language but retaining their traditions of a South American origin. In the early colonial period had a reputation as warriors who raided neighboring islands.

— Freebase

New Zealand

New Zealand

The islands of New Zealand, especially the North Island, South Island and nearby coastal islands.

— Wiktionary

Fiji

Fiji

A country in Oceania comprising over 300 islands. Official name: Republic of the Fiji Islands.

— Wiktionary

Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands

Overseas territory of the United Kingdom, located in the South Atlantic. Official name: Falkland Islands. Argentina contests the British sovereignty in the islands.

— Wiktionary

US Virgin Islands

US Virgin Islands

A group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. Official name: Virgin Islands of the United States.

— Wiktionary

Hawaii

Hawaii

A state of the United States of America. The capital is Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. It is the fiftieth state to join the United States. The nickname is the Aloha State. It is located from 19u00B0 to 23u00B0 N latitude, with the eight main islands from 155u00B0 to 162u00B0 W longitude and including many smaller islands extending westward.

— Wiktionary

Hawaii

Hawaii

The proper name of the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, also called the Big Island. The Big Island lies southeast of the other islands.

— Wiktionary

Falkland Islander

Falkland Islander

A person from the Falkland Islands or of descent of the Falkland Islands.

— Wiktionary

Cook Islander

Cook Islander

A person from the Cook Islands or of descent of the Cook Islands.

— Wiktionary

Cocos Islander

Cocos Islander

A person from the Cocos Islands or of descent of the Cocos Islands.

— Wiktionary

British Virgin Islander

British Virgin Islander

A person from the British Virgin Islands or of descent of the British Virgin Islands.

— Wiktionary

Shetland Islands

Shetland Islands

A group of islands of Scotland, roughly north-east of the Orkney Islands.

— Wiktionary

Ionian Islands

Ionian Islands

A group of islands in the Ionian Sea - one of the 13 peripheries of Greece The main islands are Corfu, Ithaca, Kefallonia, Kythira, Lefkada, Paxoi and Zante.

— Wiktionary

Chamorro

Chamorro

An indigenous native islander of the Mariana Islands consisting of Guam and Northern Mariana Islands of Saipan, Rota, and Tinian.

— Wiktionary

Hawaiu02BBi

Hawaiu02BBi

Proper official spelling of the name of the Hawaiian Islands, the largest of those islands, and the U.S. state they form.

— Wiktionary

Channel Island fox

Channel Island fox

A species of fox native to the Channel Islands off the coast of California. Each of the six largest islands in the chain has its own native subspecies of fox.

— Wiktionary

Aleutian

Aleutian

Of, from, or pertaining to the Aleutian Islands (a group of islands in the northern Pacific Ocean, west of Alaska), or to its inhabitants, their culture, or their language.

— Wiktionary

Falklands War

Falklands War

A conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over sovereignty of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, waged between March and June of 1982.

— Wiktionary

Wilsons storm petrel

Wilsons storm petrel

A small seabird of the storm petrel family Hydrobatidae, breeding on the Antarctic coastlines and nearby islands such as the South Shetland Islands.

— Wiktionary

Lavukaleve

Lavukaleve

A language spoken on the Russell Islands, Solomon Islands.

— Wiktionary

Norn

Norn

an extinct language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands.

— Wiktionary

West Frisian Islands

West Frisian Islands

A chain of islands in the North Sea, belonging to the Netherlands, part of the Frisian Islands.

— Wiktionary

Antilles

Antilles

The islands of the West Indies, bounded (and including) to the north by the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean Sea.

— Wiktionary

Sandwich Islands

Sandwich Islands

Hawaiian Islands (an early name for the archipelago of nineteen Hawaiian Islands)

— Wiktionary

Leeward Islands

Leeward Islands

The northern of the Lesser Antilles, consisting of the islands or nations of the Virgin Islands, Antigua, Saint Martin, Saint Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Sint Eustatius, Saba and Dominica

— Wiktionary

Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands

An archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, comprised of the British Virgin Islands and the United States Virgin Islands.

— Wiktionary

Rarotongan

Rarotongan

Cook Islands Maori, the official language of the Cook Islands.

— Wiktionary

Remote Oceania

Remote Oceania

The part of Oceania comprising Polynesia, Micronesia and island Melanesia southeast of the Solomon Islands, including islands such as Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa.

— Wiktionary

Maluku

Maluku

Province formerly known under VOC & Dutch colonialism as Moluccas, Molucca Islands or Moluccan Islands.

— Wiktionary

Grenadines

Grenadines

A group of small islands in the Caribbean, divided between the larger islands of Grenada and Saint Vincent.

— Wiktionary

Trobriander

Trobriander

A native of the Trobriand Islands (now called the Kiriwina Islands).

— Wiktionary

Sunda

Sunda

Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the western part of the Malay archipelago

— Wiktionary

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

the small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain located northwest (in some cases, far to the northwest) of the islands of Kauai and Niihau

— Wiktionary

first island chain

first island chain

The first chain of major archipelagos out from the East Asian continental mainland coast. Principally composed of the Kuril Islands, Japanese Archipelago, Ryu Kyu Islands, Taiwan, the northern Philippines, and Borneo; from the Kamchatka Peninsula to the Malay Peninsula.

— Wiktionary

third island chain

third island chain

The Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Sumatra; from Burma in the north to either the Indonesian Archipelago, or Australia in the south.

— Wiktionary

aegadean isles

Aegates Isles, Aegadean Isles

islands west of Sicily (now known as the Egadi Islands) where the Romans won a naval victory over the Carthaginians that ended the first Punic War in 241 BC

— Princeton's WordNet

aegates isles

Aegates Isles, Aegadean Isles

islands west of Sicily (now known as the Egadi Islands) where the Romans won a naval victory over the Carthaginians that ended the first Punic War in 241 BC

— Princeton's WordNet

faeroe islands

Faroe Islands, Faeroe Islands, Faroes, Faeroes

a group of 21 volcanic islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands

— Princeton's WordNet

faeroes

Faroe Islands, Faeroe Islands, Faroes, Faeroes

a group of 21 volcanic islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands

— Princeton's WordNet

faroe islands

Faroe Islands, Faeroe Islands, Faroes, Faeroes

a group of 21 volcanic islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands

— Princeton's WordNet

faroes

Faroe Islands, Faeroe Islands, Faroes, Faeroes

a group of 21 volcanic islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands

— Princeton's WordNet

gilbert islands

Gilbert Islands

a group of islands in Micronesia to the southwest of Hawaii; formerly part of the British colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands until it became part of the Republic of Kiribati in 1979

— Princeton's WordNet

saint vincent

Saint Vincent, St. Vincent

an island in the center of the Windward Islands; the largest of the islands comprising Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

— Princeton's WordNet

st. vincent

Saint Vincent, St. Vincent

an island in the center of the Windward Islands; the largest of the islands comprising Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

— Princeton's WordNet

tuvalu

Tuvalu

a small island republic on the Tuvalu islands; formerly part of the British colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands until it withdrew in 1975 and became independent of the United Kingdom in 1978

— Princeton's WordNet

Bermuda

Bermuda

Bermuda, in full The Islands of Bermuda, also referred to as the Bermudas or the Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of the United States. Its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about 1,030 kilometres to the west-northwest. It is about 1,239 kilometres south of Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and 1,770 kilometres northeast of Miami. Its capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda was discovered in 1505 by Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez, after whom the islands are named. He claimed the apparently uninhabited islands for the Spanish Empire. Although he paid two visits to the archipelago, Bermúdez never landed on the islands because he did not want to risk trying to sail past the dangerous reef surrounding them. Subsequent Spanish or other visitors are believed to have released the feral pigs that were abundant on the island when European settlement began. In 1609, the Virginia Company, which had established Virginia and Jamestown on the American continent two years earlier, established a settlement founded in the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew of the sinking Sea Venture steered it on the reef so they could get ashore.

— Freebase

Society Islands

Society Islands

The Society Islands are a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. They are politically part of French Polynesia. The archipelago is suspected to have been named by Captain James Cook supposedly in honour of the Royal Society, the sponsor of the first British scientific survey of the islands; however, Cook himself stated in his journal that he called the islands Society "as they lay contiguous to one another".

— Freebase

Hebrides

Hebrides

The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times. A variety of artists have been inspired by their Hebridean experiences. Today the economy of the islands is dependent on crofting, fishing, tourism, the oil industry and renewable energy. These islands have much to offer the naturalist. Seals, for example, are present around the coasts in internationally important numbers.

— Freebase

Mauritius

Mauritius

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues, 560 kilometres east of the principal island, the islands of Agaléga and Saint Brandon. The islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and the French department of Réunion 170 km form part of the Mascarene Islands. The area of the country is 2040 km², its capital is Port Louis. The first Portuguese explorers found no indigenous people living on the island in 1507. The island of Mauritius was the only home of the Dodo bird. The bird became extinct fewer than eighty years after its discovery. The Dutch settled on the island in 1598 and abandoned it in 1710, Mauritius became a French colony in 1715 and was renamed Isle de France. The British took control of Mauritius in 1810 during the Napoleonic Wars. The country became an independent state as a Commonwealth realm on 12 March 1968 and a republic within the Commonwealth on 12 March 1992. The country's populace is composed of several ethnicities, mostly people of Indian, African, Chinese and European descent. Most Mauritians are multilingual; English, French, Creole and Asian languages are used.

— Freebase

Zanzibar

Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, in East Africa. It is composed of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres off the coast of the mainland, and consists of numerous small islands and two large ones: Unguja, and Pemba. The capital of Zanzibar, located on the island of Unguja, is Zanzibar City. Its historic centre, known as Stone Town, is a World Heritage Site and is claimed to be the only functioning ancient town in East Africa. Zanzibar's main industries are spices, raffia, and tourism. In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper. For this reason, the islands, together with Tanzania's Mafia Island, are sometimes called the Spice Islands. Zanzibar is the home of the endemic Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkey, the Zanzibar Servaline Genet, and the Zanzibar Leopard.

— Freebase

Oahu

Oahu

Oʻahu or Oahu, known as "The Gathering Place", is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands, however, it is the most populous of the islands in the U.S. state of Hawaii while also having the primary and only intercontinental Honolulu International Airport. The state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahu's southeast coast. Including small close-in offshore islands such as Ford Island and the islands in Kaneohe Bay and off the eastern coast, it has a total land area of 596.7 square miles, making it the 20th largest island in the United States. In the greatest dimension, this volcanic island is 44 miles long and 30 miles across. The length of the shoreline is 227 miles. The island is the result of two separate shield volcanoes: Waiʻanae and Koʻolau, with a broad "valley" or saddle between them. The highest point is Mt. Ka'ala in the Waiʻanae Range, rising to 4,003 feet above sea level.

— Freebase

Fiji

Fiji

Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, France's New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas, France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast and Tuvalu to the north. The majority of Fiji's islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Today, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni. Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC. The country comprises an archipelago of more than 332 islands, of which 110 are permanently inhabited, and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of circa 18,300 square kilometres. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population of almost 850,000. The former contains Suva, the capital and largest city. Most Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres. Viti Levu's interior is sparsely inhabited due to its terrain. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch and the British explored Fiji. Fiji was a British colony until 1970; British administration lasted almost a century. During World War II, thousands of Fijians volunteered to aid in Allied efforts via their attachment to the New Zealand and Australian army units; the Republic of Fiji Military Forces consist of land and naval units.

— Freebase

Fungi

Fungi

Fungi is the name given to the local musical form of the British Virgin Islands. It is also the native music of the U.S. Virgin Islands, where it is known as quelbe. Fungi music is an expression of Virgin Islands culture as it shows the islands' African and European influences in a unique sound. The name fungi comes from a local dish of the same name. It is a cornmeal-based food which is made with different ingredients including okra, onions, and green peppers, and is sometimes served plain. This "cook-up" which is a savoury fusion of different flavors creates something new. Similarly, Fungi music is a blend of many different instruments and styles. A fungi band is based on the fusion of a wide range of instruments, many of which are homemade. The beat of the double bass is usually the base for a colourful mix of sounds and instruments.

— Freebase

Jersey

Jersey

Jersey, is a British Crown Dependency just off the coast of Normandy, France. The bailiwick includes two groups of small islands that are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous, and the Pierres de Lecq, as well as the island of Jersey itself. Jersey is part of the Duchy of Normandy, and is ruled by the Duke of Normandy—a title held by the reigning Monarch of the United Kingdom, though unrelated to those duties as king or queen of the UK. Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial, legal and judicial systems, and the power of self-determination. The island of Jersey is the largest of the Channel Islands. Although the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the British Crown from the other Crown Dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. It is not part of the United Kingdom, and has an international identity separate from that of the UK but the United Kingdom is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey. Jersey is not a part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, being treated as part of the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico (Spanish for "rich port") comprises an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest by land area of the Greater Antilles. It ranks third in population among that group of four islands, which include Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Jamaica. Due to its location, Puerto Rico enjoys a tropical climate and is subject to the Atlantic hurricane season. Official languages of the island are Spanish and English, with Spanish being the primary language. Originally populated for centuries by indigenous aboriginal peoples known as Taínos, the island was claimed by Christopher Columbus for Spain during his second voyage to the Americas on November 19, 1493. Under Spanish rule, the island was colonized and the indigenous population was forced into slavery and wiped out due to, among other things, European infectious diseases. Spain possessed Puerto Rico for over 400 years, despite attempts at capture of the island by the French, Dutch, and British. In 1898, Spain ceded the archipelago, as well as the Philippines, to the United States as a result of its defeat in the Spanish–American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. In 1917, Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship and since 1948 have elected their own governor. In 1952 the Constitution of Puerto Rico was adopted and ratified by the electorate.

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Samoa

Samoa

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in Polynesia, Savai'i. The capital city, Apia, and Faleolo International Airport are situated on the island of Upolu. Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. The entire island group, inclusive of American Samoa, was called "Navigators Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills.

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Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Heard Island and McDonald Islands

The Heard Island and McDonald Islands are an Australian external territory and volcanic group of barren Antarctic islands, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica. The group's overall size is 372 square kilometres in area and it has 101.9 km of coastline. Discovered in the mid-19th century, they have been territories of Australia since 1947 and contain the only two active volcanoes in Australian territory, the summit of one of which, Mawson Peak, is higher than any mountain on the Australian mainland. They lie on the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean. The islands are among the most remote places on Earth: They are located approximately 4,099 km southwest of Perth, Western Australia, 3,845 km southwest of Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,200 km southeast of South Africa, 3,830 km southeast of Madagascar, 1,630 km north of Antarctica, and 450 km southeast of Kerguelen. The islands are currently uninhabited.

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Abaco Islands

Abaco Islands

The Abaco Islands lie in the northern Bahamas and comprise the main islands of Great Abaco and Little Abaco, together with the smaller Wood Cay, Elbow Cay, Lubbers Quarters Cay, Green Turtle Cay, Great Guana Cay, Castaway Cay, Man-o-War Cay, Stranger's Cay, Umbrella Cay, Walker's Cay, Little Grand Cay, and Moore's Island. Administratively, the Abaco Islands constitute five of the 31 Districts of the Bahamas: North Abaco, Central Abaco, South Abaco, Moore's Island, and Hope Town. Towns in the islands include Marsh Harbour, Hope Town, Treasure Cay, Coopers Town, and Cornishtown.

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Northern Mariana Islands

Northern Mariana Islands

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is one of two insular areas that are Commonwealths of the United States; the other is Puerto Rico. It consists of fifteen islands in the western Pacific Ocean located about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines. The United States Census Bureau reports the total land area of all islands as 183.5 square miles. As of the 2010 census, the Commonwealth has a population of 53,883, of which over 90% live on the island of Saipan. Of the fourteen other islands, only two – Tinian and Rota – are permanently inhabited. The Commonwealth's center of government is in the village of Capital Hill on Saipan. As the island is governed as a single municipality, most publications name Saipan as the Commonwealth's capital. In April 2012, anticipating a loss of funding by 2014, the Commonwealth's public pension fund declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

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Chagos Archipelago

Chagos Archipelago

The Chagos Archipelago, is a group of seven atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean; situated some 500 kilometres due south of the Maldives archipelago. This chain of islands are the southernmost archipelago of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a long submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean. The Chagos also form a terrestrial ecoregion together with the Maldives and the Lakshadweep. The islands and their surrounding waters are also a vast oceanic Environment Preservation and Protection Zone, an area twice the size of the UK's land surface. Officially part of the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Chagos were home to the Chagossians for more than a century and a half until the United Kingdom evicted them in the early 1970s in order to allow the United States to build a military base on Diego Garcia, the largest of the Chagos Islands. Since 1971, only the atoll of Diego Garcia is inhabited, and only by military and civilian contracted personnel.²

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Balearic Islands

Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma as the capital city. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish. The current Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain.

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New Hebrides

New Hebrides

New Hebrides was the colonial name for an island group in the South Pacific that now forms the nation of Vanuatu. Native people had inhabited the islands for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived in 1606 from a Spanish expedition led by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós. The islands were colonized by both the British and French in the 18th century shortly after Captain James Cook visited the islands. The two countries eventually signed an agreement making the islands an Anglo-French condominium, which lasted from 1906 until 1980, when the New Hebrides gained their independence as Vanuatu. The Condominium divided the New Hebrides into two separate communities—one Anglophone and one Francophone. This divide continues even after independence, with schools either teaching in one language or the other, and between different political parties.

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Banggai

Banggai

The Banggai Archipelago is a group of islands, which are located at the far eastern end of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It makes up a newly established regency, created by splitting the existing Banggai Regency into a new Banggai Regency situated the mainland of Sulawesi and a Banggai Islands Regency comprising the offshore islands. The archipelago is surrounded by the Banda Sea's Gulf of Tolo, and the Molucca Sea. Peleng Straits separates it from mainland Sulawesi. The islands consist of Peleng, Banggai Island, Bowokan, Labobo, Kebongan, Kotudan, Tropettenando, Timpau, Salue Besar, Salue Kecil, Masepe, and Bangkulu.

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Volcano Islands

Volcano Islands

The Volcano Islands is a group of three Japanese islands south of the Bonin Islands that belong to the municipality of Ogasawara. The islands are all active volcanoes lying atop an island arc that stretches south to the Marianas.

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Majuro

Majuro

Majuro, is a large coral atoll of 64 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. The atoll itself has a land area of 9.7 square kilometres and encloses a lagoon of 295 square kilometres. As with other atolls in the Marshall Islands, Majuro consists of narrow land masses. The main population center, also named Majuro, population 25,400, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Majuro has a port, shopping district, hotels, and an international airport.

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Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island nation lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major inhabited islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The permanent population numbers approximately 81,800 and the capital and largest port and city is St. John's, on Antigua. Separated by a few nautical miles, Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17 degrees north of the Equator. The country is nicknamed "Land of 365 Beaches" due to the many beaches surrounding the islands. Its governance, language, and culture have all been strongly influenced by the British Empire, of which the country was formerly a part.

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Ternate

Ternate

Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia. It was the center of the powerful former Sultanate of Ternate. It is located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. Like its neighbouring island, Tidore, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shaped island. The islands are ancient Islamic sultanates with a long history of bitter rivalry. The islands were once the world's single major producer of cloves, a commodity that allowed their sultans to become amongst the wealthiest and most powerful of all sultans in the Indonesian region. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the "Spice Islands" of Maluku. Today, Ternate City is the largest town in the province of North Maluku, within which the island constitutes a municipality. It is, however, no longer the provincial capital, a title now held by the town of Sofifi on Halmahera. The "Ternate Essay" was a pioneering account of evolution by natural selection written on the island by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858, and famously sent to Charles Darwin. Darwin at once responded by publishing Wallace's essay alongside his own accounts of the theory.

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Faroe Islands

Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands are an island group and archipelago under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Denmark, situated between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately halfway between Norway and Iceland. The total area is approximately 1,400 km² with a 2010 population of almost 50,000 people. The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Danish Realm since 1948. Over the years, the Faroese have taken control of most domestic matters. Areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, police, justice, currency and foreign affairs. The Faroe Islands also have representatives in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The islands were associated with and taxed by Norway, then the Union of Kalmar, and then Denmark-Norway until 1814, when Norway was united with Sweden. Scandinavia was in political turmoil following the Sixth Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars, when the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland in 1814. The Danish trade monopoly ended in 1856.

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Rarotonga

Rarotonga

Rarotonga is the most populous island of the Cook Islands, with a population of 13,095, out of the country's total population of 17,794. The Cook Islands' Parliament buildings and international airport are on Rarotonga. Because it is the most populous island, Cook Islanders may often be referred to as Rarotongan, but they may come from one of the other 14 islands in the group, such as Aitutaki or Mangaia. Rarotonga is a very popular tourist destination with many resorts, hotels and motels. The chief town, Avarua, on the north coast, is the capital of the Cook Islands.

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Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis

The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, located in the Leeward Islands, is a federal two-island state in the West Indies. It is the smallest sovereign state in the Americas, in both area and population. The capital city and headquarters of government for the federated state is Basseterre on the larger island of Saint Kitts. The smaller island of Nevis lies about 2 miles southeast of Saint Kitts, across a shallow channel called "The Narrows". Historically, the British dependency of Anguilla was also a part of this union, which was then known collectively as Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla. Saint Kitts and Nevis are geographically part of the Leeward Islands. To the north-northwest lie the islands of Sint Eustatius, Saba, Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten and Anguilla. To the east and northeast are Antigua and Barbuda, and to the southeast is the small uninhabited island of Redonda, and the island of Montserrat, which currently has an active volcano. Saint Kitts and Nevis were among the first islands in the Caribbean to be settled by Europeans. Saint Kitts was home to the first English and French colonies in the Caribbean, and thus has also been titled "The Mother Colony of the West Indies".

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Santalum

Santalum

Santalum is a genus of woody flowering plants, the best known and commercially valuable of which is the Indian sandalwood tree, S. album. Members of the genus are trees or shrubs. Most are root parasites which photosynthesize their own food, but tap the roots of other species for water and inorganic nutrients. Several species, most notably S. album, produce highly aromatic wood, used for scents and perfumes and for herbal medicine. The approximately 25 species range across the Indomalaya, Australasia, and Oceania ecozones, from India through Malesia to the Pacific Islands, as far as Hawaiʻi and the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of South America. Indian sandalwood is found in the tropical dry deciduous forests of India, the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia, and Arnhem Land of northern Australia. It is the only species found on the Asian mainland, and may have been introduced to India from the Lesser Sundas centuries ago. Indian sandalwood has been stripped from most of India's forests, and is now rare in the wild. Five species, including S. album, are native to Australia. S. acuminatum, known as the sweet quandong or native peach, produces a shiny bright red fruit used increasingly in Australia for jams, jellies, chutneys and in pies. Four species, commonly called ʻiliahi, are endemic to Hawaiʻi. S. fernandezianum, endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile, was overexploited for its aromatic wood, and may now be extinct.

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Denmark

Denmark

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a state in the Scandinavian region of Northern Europe with two autonomous constituent countries in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, located southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and the Danish archipelago of 407 islands, which includes Zealand, Vendsyssel-Thy, Funen, Lolland, Falster, and Bornholm. Denmark has close cultural, historical and economic ties with its Scandinavian neighbours, and the national language, Danish, is closely related to Swedish and Norwegian. The Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary constitutional monarchy, organised in a parliamentary democracy. Ending absolute monarchy that was introduced in 1660, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, only to be rewritten four times; the latest revision in 1953. Women's right to vote was granted in 1915. The unicameral parliament, the Folketing, resides in Copenhagen, together with judicial, executive, and legislative powers. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving political powers to handle internal affairs to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973, maintaining four opt-outs from European Union policies, as outlined in the 1992 Edinburgh Agreement. Both the Faroe Islands and Greenland remain outside the Union.

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Channel Islands National Park

Channel Islands National Park

Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U.S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, their isolation has left them relatively undeveloped. The park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, the largest island in the park. Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U.S. National Monument on April 26, 1938, and a National Biosphere Reserve in 1976. It was promoted to a National Park on March 5, 1980.

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Leeward Islands

Leeward Islands

The Leeward Islands are a group of islands in the West Indies. They are the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles chain. As a group they start east of Puerto Rico and reach southward to Dominica. They are situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. The more southerly part of the Lesser Antilles chain is called the Windward Islands.

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Visayas

Visayas

The Visayas və-SY-əz or Visayan Islands, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Residents are known as the Visayans. The major islands of the Visayas are Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, and Samar. The region may also include the islands of Romblon and Masbate, whose population identify as Visayan. There are three administrative regions in the Visayas: Western Visayas, Central Visayas and Eastern Visayas.

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Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

The Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, also called Cocos Islands and Keeling Islands, is a territory of Australia, located in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Christmas Island and approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka. The territory consists of two atolls and 27 coral islands, of which two, West Island and Home Island, are inhabited with a total population of approximately 600.

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Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land, or Francis Joseph's Land is an archipelago located in the far north of Russia. It is found in the Arctic Ocean north of Novaya Zemlya and east of Svalbard, and is administered by Arkhangelsk Oblast. Franz Josef Land consists of 191 ice-covered islands with a total area of 16,134 km². It is currently uninhabited. At latitudes between 80.0° and 81.9° north, it is the most northerly group of islands associated with Eurasia. The extreme northernmost point is Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island. The archipelago is only 900 to 1,110 km from the North Pole, and the northernmost islands are closer to the Pole than any other land except for Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland. The archipelago was possibly first discovered by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and Johan Petter Aidijärvi aboard the schooner Spidsbergen in 1865 who, according to scarce reports, sailed eastward from Svalbard until they reached a new land, denoted Nordøst-Spitsbergen. It is not known if they went ashore, and the new islands were soon forgotten.

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Bidens

Bidens

Bidens is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. It contains about 200 species. The common names beggarticks, black jack, burr marigolds, cobbler's pegs, Spanish needles, stickseeds, tickseeds and tickseed sunflowers refer to the achene burrs on the seeds of this genus, most of which are barbed. The generic name refers to the same fact; it means "two-tooth", from Latin bis "two" + dens "tooth". The plants are zoochorous; their seeds will stick to clothing, fur or feathers, and be carried to new habitat. This has enabled them to colonize a wide range, including many oceanic islands. Some of these species occur only in a very restricted range and several are now threatened with extinction, notably in the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the absence of native mammals on these islands, some of the oceanic island taxa have reduced burrs, evolving features that seem to aid in dispersal by the wind instead. Smooth Beggarticks is a common fall flower in the southeastern United States. Pitchfork Weed is considered to be a weed in New Zealand, although it is not officially declared an invasive species. On the Hawaiian Islands, Bidens are called kokoʻolau or koʻokoʻolau. They were and still are used to brew a refreshing tea. In some regions, leaves of Hairy Beggarticks and Three-lobed Beggarticks are sometimes eaten as a vegetable.

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Kvarken

Kvarken

Kvarken is the narrow region in the Gulf of Bothnia separating the Bothnian Bay from the Bothnian Sea. The distance from Swedish mainland to Finnish mainland is around 80 km while the distance between the outmost islands is only 25 km. The water depth in the Kvarken region is only around 25 meters. The region also has an unusual rate of land rising at about 1 cm a year. On the Finnish side of Kvarken, there is a large archipelago, the Kvarken Archipelago. Most of the small islands are inhabited. The archipelago is smaller on the Swedish side of the region, and the islands have much steeper shores. The Kvarken region was historically important also, because mail was delivered across Kvarken when the sea was completely frozen from the Swedish to the Finnish coast. This mail route was used frequently during the period of Swedish rule. In the group of islands in the “middle” of the Kvarken region, in Swedish called Valsörarna – Finnish Valassaaret, is a 36 meter high lighthouse designed by Henry LePaute who worked for Gustave Eiffel's engineering bureau. The structural similarity between the lighthouse and the Eiffel tower is quite obvious. The lighthouse is now automated as are most lighthouses in Finland.

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American Samoa

American Samoa

American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of the Independent State of Samoa. The main island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, and Swains Island also included in the territory. American Samoa is part of the Samoan Islands chain, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group. The 2010 census showed a total population of 55,519 people. The total land area is 76.1 square miles, slightly more than Washington, D.C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States.

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Sulu Archipelago

Sulu Archipelago

The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines that forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea. It is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. The archipelago is not, as is often supposed, the remains of a land bridge between Borneo and the Philippines. Rather, it is the exposed edge of small submarine ridges produced by tectonic tilting of the sea bottom Basilan, Jolo, and other islands in the group are extinct volcanic cones rising from the southernmost ridge. Tawi-Tawi, the southernmost island of the group, has a serpentine basement-complex core with a limestone covering. This island chain is an important migration route for birds. The largest cities in the area are on Maimbung and Jolo islands. The larger island of Palawan to its north, the coastal regions of the westward-extending Zamboanga Peninsula of Mindanao, and the northern part of the island of Borneo were formerly parts of the thalassocratic Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. The archipelago is the home of the indigenous Tausug people; various group of Samal people including the semi-nomadic Badjaw; the land-based Sama; the related Yakan people; and the Jama Mapun people. The Tausug language is spoken widely in the Sulu Archipelago as both first and second languages throughout these islands. The Yakan language is spoken mainly in Basilan Island. Numerous dialects of Sinama are spoken throughout the archipelago, from the Tawi-Tawi Island group, to the Mapun island group, to the coast of Mindanao and beyond.

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Riau

Riau

Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the centre and eastern coast of Sumatra along the Strait of Malacca. Until 2004 the province included the offshore Riau Islands, a large group of small islands located east of Sumatra Island and south of Singapore, before these islands were split off as Riau Islands Province in July 2004. The provincial capital of Riau Province and its largest city is Pekanbaru. Other major cities include Dumai, Selat Panjang, Bagansiapiapi, Bengkalis, Bangkinang, Rengat and Siak Sri Indrapura. Riau is currently one of the richest provinces in Indonesia and is rich with natural resources, particularly petroleum, natural gas, rubber, palm oil and fiber plantations. However extensive logging has led to a massive decline in forest cover from 78% in 1982 to only 33% in 2005. This has been further reduced an average of 160,000 hectares per year on average, leaving 22%, or 2.45 million hectares left as of 2009. Deforestation for palm oil and paper has led to not only perennial serious haze over the province, but in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and intensifying flooding and landslides. Kuala Lumpur and surrounds has been sent into "unhealthy" air quality levels again in mid-2012 from Indonesian haze originating in Riau.

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Ionian Islands

Ionian Islands

The Ionian Islands are a group of islands in Greece. They are traditionally called the Heptanese, i.e. "the Seven Islands", but the group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones.

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Polynesians

Polynesians

The Polynesian people are a collection of various ethnic groups that speak Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic languages within the Austronesian languages, and inhabit Polynesia. They number over 1,500,000 people. Polynesians are speakers of a subgroup of Austronesian languages, and their origins are suggested to extend back into mainland Asia with some Melanesian genetic admixture. Pre-Polynesians are thought to have occupied the eastern islands of South-East Asia at ≈2,000 BC, their Lapita culture with its characteristic pottery expanding rapidly through Melanesia and out from the Solomon Islands into the western islands of Polynesia by ≈1,200–1,000 BC. Expansion to the eastern islands of the Pacific occurred largely between AD 1 and 1,000. Eastern Polynesia includes Tahiti, Easter Island, Hawaii, Marquesas, Northern and Southern Cooks, the Australs, Pitcairn, and New Zealand. A colonizer model of rapid exploration and settlement of the uninhabited eastern zone has been proposed based on searching by sailing upwind with a relatively safe downwind return The results are consistent with a founding population that includes ≈70 women

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Sunda Islands

Sunda Islands

The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay archipelago. They are further divided into the Greater Sunda Islands and the Lesser Sunda Islands.

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East Nusa Tenggara

East Nusa Tenggara

East Nusa Tenggara is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the eastern part of the Lesser Sunda Islands and includes West Timor. The provincial capital is Kupang in West Timor. The province consists of about 566 islands, the largest and most dominant are Flores, Sumba, and the western half of Timor. The eastern part of Timor is the independent country of East Timor. Other islands include Adonara, Alor, Komodo, Lembata, Menipo, Raijua, Rincah, Rote Island, Savu, Semau, and Solor. The highest point in the province is Mount Mutis in the Timor Tengah Selatan district, 2,427 meters above sea level. East Nusa Tenggara is the only province in Indonesia where Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Nusa Tenggara Timur, in Indonesian, means Eastern Southeastern Islands.

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Tokoyo

Tokoyo

Tokoyo is a figure in Japanese mythology. She was the daughter of a samurai named Oribe Shima. Shima had displeased the emperor, who was in an ill state of health, and subsequently banished him from the kingdom. As a result, he had to set up home on a group of islands called the Oki Islands, away from his daughter. Both he and Tokoyo were miserable at being separated, and she became determined to find him. She sold all her property, and set out for a place called Akasaki, which was just off the coast from the Oki Islands. Although she asked the fishermen to ferry her there, they all refused, since it was forbidden to visit anyone banished there. One night, she took a boat and sailed to the islands herself. She spent the night on the beach. The next morning while searching for her father she encountered a fisherman, whom she asked about her father. The fisherman replied he knew nothing, and warned her not to ask anyone else about his whereabouts. As a result, she was forced to eavesdrop on people's conversations, rather than simply asking them directly. Unfortunately, Tokoyo could not gather any useful information this way. On one evening, she came upon a shrine of Buddha, and after praying to him, collapsed and fell asleep. She was awoken by the sound of a girl crying, and looked up to see a young girl and a priest. The priest led the girl to the edge of a cliff and would have pushed her off the edge, if it wasn't for the intervening of Tokoyo. The priest said he was going to sacrifice the girl in order to appease the god Okuninushi, who demanded the annual sacrifice of a young girl. Tokoyo offered to take the girl's place, begrieved and hopeless from not finding her father. After praying to Buddha again, she dived down into the ocean; dagger in her teeth.

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Orkney Islands

Orkney Islands

Orkney also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in northern Scotland, 16 kilometres north of the coast of Caithness. Orkney comprises approximately 70 islands of which 20 are inhabited. The largest island, known as the "Mainland" has an area of 523.25 square kilometres making it the sixth largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. The name "Orkney" dates back to the 1st century BC or earlier, and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years. Originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and then by the Picts, Orkney was invaded and forcibly annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse. The Scottish Parliament then re-annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride, Margaret of Denmark. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, and the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. Orkney is a county of Scotland and a Lieutenancy areas of Scotland. Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. The local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents.

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Islands of Calleja

Islands of Calleja

The islands of Calleja are a group of neural granule cells located within the ventral striatum in the brains of most animals. This region of the brain is part of the limbic system, where it aids in the reinforcing effects of reward-like activities. Within most species, the islands are specifically located within the olfactory tubercle; however, in primates, these islands are located within the nucleus accumbens, the reward center of the brain, since the olfactory tubercle has practically disappeared in the brains of primates. Both of these structures have been implicated in the processing of incentives as well as addictions to drugs. Projections to and from the islands supplement this knowledge with their involvement in the reward pathways for both cocaine and amphetamines.

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Gambier Islands

Gambier Islands

The Gambier Islands or Mangareva Islands are a small group of islands in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. They are generally considered a separate island group from Tuamotu both because their culture and language are much more closely related to those of the Marquesas Islands, and because, while the Tuamotus comprise several chains of coral atolls, the Gambiers are of volcanic origin. Because of their proximity, the Acteon Group, and the nearby atoll of Temoe are sometimes included among the Gambiers.

— Freebase

Danish West Indies

Danish West Indies

The Danish West Indies or Danish Antilles was a Danish colony in the Caribbean, first under the united kingdoms of Denmark-Norway and later, after the 1814 Treaty of Kiel, Denmark alone. The islands were sold to the United States in 1916 under the terms of the Treaty of the Danish West Indies and were organized as the United States Virgin Islands in 1917. The Danish geographical name for the constituent islands is Jomfruøerne. The Danish West Indies covered a total area of 185 square miles and in the 1850s consisted of three islands: Sankt Thomas with 43 square miles; Sankt Jan with 42 square miles; and Sankt Croix of 100 square miles.

— Freebase

Gilbert and Ellice Islands

Gilbert and Ellice Islands

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands were a British protectorate from 1892 and colony from 1916 until 1 January 1976, when the islands were divided into two colonies which became independent nations shortly after. The Gilbert Islands have been the major part of the nation of Kiribati since 1979, and the Ellice Islands became Tuvalu in 1978.

— Freebase

Gulf of Ob

Gulf of Ob

The Gulf of Ob is a bay of the Arctic Ocean, located in Northern Russia at the mouth of the Ob River. This Gulf flows into the Kara Sea between the Gydan and Yamal peninsulas. It is about 1,000 km long and varies in width from about 50 km to 80 km, and generally runs north and south. It is relatively shallow, with an average depth from ten to twelve metres which restricts heavy sea transport. The Taz Estuary is an eastern side-branch formed by the Taz River. There are several islands near the mouth of the Ob, at the beginning of the estuary, like Khaley. All these islands are close to the shore and they are generally flat and low-lying. They are protected wetlands under Ramsar. Further north, except for a few islands located close to the shore, like Khalevigo and Nyavigo, the Gulf of Ob is free of islands until it meets the Kara Sea. Very large gas and oil deposits have been discovered in this region. Oil and gas from the wells are sent South via pipeline and rail transport. The Yamburg gas field is the world's third largest natural gas field, and is located between the southern portion of the gulf and the Taz Estuary to the east.

— Freebase

Port Blair

Port Blair

Port Blair is the largest town and a municipal council in Andaman district in the Andaman Islands and the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India. It lies on the east coast of South Andaman Island and is the main entry point to the islands. Port Blair is the headquarters for the Indian district of South Andaman, and the local administrative sub-division, which is also called Port Blair. It is home to several museums and a major base for the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Airforce. It is also the headquarters of the Tri Services Command. Port Blair is also famous for the historic Cellular Jail and other small islands which were once home to British colonists.

— Freebase

Tolai people

Tolai people

The Tolai are the indigenous people of the Gazelle Peninsula and the Duke of York Islands of East New Britain in the New Guinea Islands region of Papua New Guinea. They are ethnically close kin to the peoples of adjacent New Ireland and are thought to have migrated to the Gazelle Peninsula in relatively recent times, displacing the Baining people who were driven westwards. The majority of Tolais speak Kuanua as their first language. Two other languages are also spoken as first languages: Minigir and Bilur, each with approximately 2,000 speakers. The Tolais almost universally define themselves as Christian and are predominantly Roman Catholic and United Church. Christianity was introduced to the island when Methodist ministers and teachers from Fiji arrived in the New Guinea islands region in 1875. However, in 1878 when some of the tribespeople ate 4 of the missionaries, the Englishman who led the missionaries, George Brown, directed and took part in a punitive expedition that resulted in a number of Tolais being killed and several villages burnt down. In August 2007, the descendants of Tolai tribespeople who ate a Fijian minister and 3 Fijian teachers in 1878 publicly apologized for the incident to Fiji's High Commissioner, Ratu Isoa Tikoca. The apology was accepted. At the event, Papua New Guinea's Governor-General Paulias Matane told the crowd he appreciated the work of the early Fijian missionaries in spreading Christianity in the islands region.

— Freebase

Constitution Day

Constitution Day

Constitution Day is a holiday to honor the constitution of a country. Constitution Day is often celebrated on the anniversary of the signing, promulgation or adoption of the constitution, or in some cases, to commemorate the change to constitutional monarchy: ⁕Abkhazia, November 26. See Constitution of Abkhazia, Public holidays in Abkhazia. ⁕Andorra, March 14. See Constitution of Andorra. ⁕Armenia, July 5. See Public holidays in Armenia. ⁕Australia, 9 July. See Constitution of Australia. Not a public holiday. ⁕Azerbaijan, November 12. See Public holidays in Azerbaijan. ⁕Belarus, March 15. See Public holidays in Belarus. ⁕Belgium, November 15. Dag van de Dynastie – Jour de la Dynastie ⁕Brazil, November 15. Dia da Proclamação da República public holiday ⁕Cambodia, September 24. See Public holidays in Cambodia. ⁕Cook Islands, August 4. Te Maevea Nui Celebrations. See Cook Islands#Public holidays and Politics of the Cook Islands#Constitution. ⁕Denmark, June 5. See Constitution Day. ⁕Dominican Republic, November 6. See History of the Dominican Republic. ⁕Faroe Islands, June 5

— Freebase

Malay, Ambonese Language

Malay, Ambonese Language

Ambonese language is a Malay creole that has been apparent since the 17th century. It was first brought by traders from Western Indonesia, then developed when the Dutch Empire colonized the Maluku Islands. This was the first example of the transliteration of Malay into Roman script, and used as a tool of the missionaries in Eastern Indonesia. Malay has been taught in schools and churches in Ambon, and because of this, has become a lingua franca in Ambon and its surroundings. Christian speakers use Ambonese Malay as their mother tongue, while Muslims speak it as second language as they have their own language. Muslims in Ambon island particularly live in several areas in Municipality of Ambon, dominant in Salahutu and Leihitu Peninsula. While in the Lease islands, Christian Ambonese-speaking community is dominant in part of Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut islands. Ambonese Malay Creole has also become lingua franca in Buru, Seram, Geser-Gorom and south-western Maluku Islands, though with different accents. Ambonese Malay is based on Malay with a great influences from both European languages as well as the vocabularies or grammatical structures of indigenous languages. It is famous for its melodious accent. Muslims and Christian speakers tend to make different choices in vocabulary.

— Freebase

Shikotan

Shikotan

Shikotan, also known as Shpanberg, is one of the bigger islands of the Kuril Islands, which are part of the Russian Federation. It is one of the four southernmost islands over which Japan maintains a claim. It is one of the islands which the Soviet Union agreed in 1956 to transfer to Japan in the event of a peace treaty between the two countries. The name of Shikotan derives from the Ainu language and means "the village proper" or "real town." The total land area of Shikotan is 225 km². The island is hilly, averaging 300 metres in elevation. The shores of the island are very indented and covered with oceanic meadows. The highest altitude is 412 m. The island is formed by the volcanic rock and sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic periods. There are two extinct volcanoes on Shikotan: Mount Tomari and Mount Notoro. Shikotan's vegetation consists mostly of Sakhalin fir, larch, deciduous trees, bamboo underbrush and juniper brushwood. There are two settlements: Malokurilskoye and Krabozavodskoye. The primary economic activities are fisheries and fishing, with the principal marine products being cod, crab and kelp.

— Freebase

Karaka

Karaka

Karaka or New Zealand Laurel is an evergreen tree of the family Corynocarpaceae endemic to New Zealand. It is common throughout the North and South Islands to Banks Peninsula and Okarito, on the Three Kings Islands, on Raoul Island in the Kermadecs, and on the Chatham Islands. It is widespread in coastal habitats, often forming a major component of coastal forest, though it rarely dominates. Most botanists consider it to be native only to the northern half of the North Island, having been planted elsewhere by Māori near former village sites, and subsequently spread by birds. The common name karaka comes from the Māori language, and is also the Māori term for the colour orange, from the colour of the fruit. In the Chatham Islands, it is called Kopi, its name in the Moriori language. It is naturalised and considered invasive in Hawaii.

— Freebase

Buru

Buru

Buru is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon and Seram islands. The island belongs to Maluku province and includes the Buru and South Buru regencies. Their administrative centers, Namlea and Namrole, respectively, have ports and the largest towns of the island. There is a military airport at Namlea which supports civilian cargo transportation. About a third of the population is indigenous, mostly Buru, but also Lisela, Ambelau and Kayeli people. The rest of population are immigrants from Java and nearby Maluku Islands. The religious affiliation is evenly split between Christianity and Sunni Islam, with some remnants of traditional beliefs. While local languages and dialects are spoken within individual communities, the national Indonesian language is used among the communities and by the administration. Most of the island is covered with forests rich in tropical flora and fauna. From the present 179 bird and 25 mammal species, about 14 are found either on Buru only or also on a few nearby islands, the most notable being the wild pig Buru babirusa.

— Freebase

Hawaiian Islands

Hawaiian Islands

(named by Cook the Sandwich Islands) (90), a group of volcanic islands, 12 in number, situated in the North Pacific; total area somewhat larger than Yorkshire. Of the five inhabited islands Hawaii is the largest; it contains the famous volcano, Kilauea, whose crater is one of the world's wonders, being 9 m. in circumference, and filled with a glowing lake of molten lava which ebbs and flows like an ocean tide. The island of Maui has the largest crater on the earth. The climate of the group is excellent, and vegetation (including forests) is abundant; sugar and rice are the chief crops. Honolulu (on Oahu), with a splendid harbour, is the capital. The islands are now under the jurisdiction of the United States.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Polynesia

Polynesia

is the collective name of all the islands of the Pacific of coral or volcanic origin. These South Sea islands are scattered, isolated, or more usually in groups over a stretch of ocean 7000 m. from N. to S. and 6000 from E. to W.; with the exception of the two chief members of the New Zealand archipelago they are mostly small, and exhibit wonderful uniformity of climate; the temperature is moderate, and where there are any hills to intercept the moisture-laden trade-winds the rainfall is high; they are extremely rich in flora; characteristic of their vegetation are palms, bread fruit trees, and edible roots like yams and sweet potatoes, forests of tree-ferns, myrtles, and ebony, with endless varieties of beautiful flowering plants; their fauna is wonderfully poor, varieties of rats and bats, a few snakes, frogs, spiders, and centipedes, with the crocodile, being the chief indigenous animals; the three divisions of Polynesia are Micronesia, comprising five small archipelagoes in the NW., N. of the equator, of which the chief are the Mariana and Caroline groups; Melanesia, comprising eleven archipelagoes in the W., S. of the equator, of which the largest are the Solomon, Bismarck, Fiji, New Caledonia, and New Hebrides groups; and Eastern Polynesia, E. of these on both sides of the equator, including New Zealand, Hawaii, and Samoa, ten other archipelagoes, and numerous sporadic islands; the first of these divisions is occupied by a mixed population embracing many distinct elements, the second by the black, low-type Melanesians, the third by the light brown, tall Polynesians; traces of extinct civilisation are found in Easter Island and the Carolines; most of the islands are now in the possession of European powers, and are more or less Christianised; New Zealand is one of the most enterprising and flourishing colonies of Great Britain; everywhere the native races are dying out before the immigration of Europeans.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda

Islands in the Lesser Antilles, within the Leeward Islands. ANTIGUA, BARBUDA, and Redonda, an uninhabited island, constitute the independent state of ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA. The capital is St. Johns.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Azores

Azores

A group of nine islands and several islets belonging to Portugal in the north Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Portugal. The islands are named after the acores, the Portuguese for goshawks, living there in abundance. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p42)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Bahamas

Bahamas

A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Malta

Malta

An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Pacific Islands

Pacific Islands

The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Tonga

Tonga

An archipelago in Polynesia in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 150 islands. It is a kingdom whose capital is Nukualofa. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616, visited by Tasman in 1643, and by Captain Cook in 1773 and 1777. The modern kingdom was established during the reign of King George Tupou I, 1845-93. It became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970. The name Tonga may be of local origin, meaning either island or holy. Its other name, Friendly Islands, was given by Captain Cook from the welcome given him by the natives. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1219 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p549)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Independent State of Samoa

Independent State of Samoa

An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Comoros

Comoros

A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Samoa

Samoa

A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis

An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

East Timor

East Timor

A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Cape Verde

Cape Verde

The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Atlantic Tele-Network

Atlantic Tele-Network

Atlantic Tele-Network, Inc., through its subsidiaries, provides wireless and wireline telecommunications services in North America and the Caribbean. The company offers wireless voice and data services to retail customers in Guyana and Bermuda, as well as provides wholesale wireless voice and data roaming services to national, regional, and local wireless carriers in rural markets located principally in the southwest and lower midwest United States. It also offers domestic wireline local and long distance telephone services in Guyana; facilities-based integrated voice and data communications services to residential and business customers in New England primarily in Vermont; wholesale transport services in New York; and Internet access services in the U.S. Virgin Islands. In addition, Atlantic Tele-Network provides international voice and data communications into and out of Guyana through fiber optic cables. The company was founded in 1987 and is headquartered in Salem, Massachusetts.

— CrunchBase

Inspirato

Inspirato

Inspirato is a private, members-only luxury destination club founded in January 2011 by destination club pioneers Brent Handler, Brad Handler, Martin Pucher and Brian Corbett. Designed specifically for a new generation of luxury consumers, Inspirato offers the best of destination club consistency and service, together with extraordinary value, flexibility and low-cost membership. In exchange for an initial membership fee and annual dues, Inspirato club members gain access to an expansive portfolio of multimillion-dollar homes in the world’s most sought-after vacation destinations, including California, the Caribbean, Colorado, France, Hawaii, Italy, London, Mexico, New York City and more. Inspirato members also enjoy the service of a personal vacation advisor and onsite destination concierges. By leasing vacation properties (rather than owning), Inspirato is able to keep membership fees significantly lower than many other destination clubs, offer heavily reduced nightly rates, and easily add homes and destinations as demand increases. The club also provides a selection of Inspirato vacation adventure options, including an African safari, a Galapagos Islands voyage, and a backcountry tour of Patagonia, and various club benefits such as special members-only events and discounts on travel-related services.Less than a year and half after its launch, Inspirato announced it had surpassed the 10,000 vacation-night milestone in addition to welcoming nearly 2,000 club members, raising more than $1 million for charitable causes through their Inspired Giving program, and being named one of “America's Most Promising Companies” by Forbes and “Best of the Best 2012: Vacation Homes” by Robb Report. As of June 2012, the company had raised $65 million in funding from notable investors including Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Institutional Venture Partners, Millennium Technology Value Partners and DAG Ventures.In July 2012, Inspirato announced the launch of two new products: Jaunt by Inspirato encourages club members to vacation more and rewards them for vacationing on short notice. Each week, club members are notified of select homes in the club’s portfolio that are available for immediate booking at significantly reduced rates: $295 per night for the first seven days, and $495 or less per night for the subsequent seven days, representing what may be the most significant discounts ever offered in the luxury travel industry. Inspirato for Business is the club's corporate offering, which is designed for companies that want to provide their employees or customers the exclusive travel privileges and benefits of an Inspirato membership.

— CrunchBase

Localo

Localo

Localo is a social marketplace that allows you to travel like a local, by booking rooms, homes, sofabeds, boats, private islands, whatever!… from locals willing to share them. Travelers search for places to stay in their next travel destination using our platform and submit their requirements in an itinerary which is forwarded to hosts nearby the location searched. These hosts " the localos " compete to provide the adequate personalized offer for the traveler. If travelers find a place which they love at first sight, they can book immediately given the lodging is available in the desired dates. And, when the time to travel arrives, they are ready to have fun doing what locals do! Localos can list their properties with sufficient detail for free, helping travelers make informed selections when searching for accommodations. They can even set their rates and manage their availability in our flexible system. Locals charge travelers directly and only pay commissions when travelers have booked and paid!

— CrunchBase

exclusive economic zone

exclusive economic zone

A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the coastal state has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent waters and, with regard to other activities, for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone (e.g., the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds). Within the EEZ, the coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to establishing and using artificial islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes as well as for marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. Other states may, however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military exercises in the EEZ. Also called EEZ.

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

maritime domain

maritime domain

The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, and the airspace above these, including the littorals.

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

CPU Wars

CPU Wars

A 1979 large-format comic by Chas Andres chronicling the attempts of the brainwashed androids of IPM (Impossible to Program Machines) to conquer and destroy the peaceful denizens of HEC (Human Engineered Computers). This rather transparent allegory featured many references to ADVENT and the immortal line “Eat flaming death, minicomputer mongrels!” (uttered, of course, by an IPM stormtrooper). The whole shebang is now available on the Web.It is alleged that the author subsequently received a letter of appreciation on IBM company stationery from the head of IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Laboratories (at that time one of the few islands of true hackerdom in the IBM archipelago). The lower loop of the B in the IBM logo, it is said, had been carefully whited out. See eat flaming death.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Vágar

Vágar

Vágar is one of the 18 islands in the archipelago of the Faroe Islands and the most westerly of the large islands. With a size of 178 km², it ranks number three, behind Streymoy and Eysturoy. The Vagar island shape is very distinct, since it resembles a dog's head. Sørvágsfjørður is the mouth and Fjallavatn is the eye.

— Freebase

Pterocarpus indicus

Pterocarpus indicus

Pterocarpus indicus is a species of Pterocarpus native to southeastern Asia, northern Australasia, and the western Pacific Ocean islands, in Cambodia, southernmost China, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands, the Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Other names include Narra, Sonokembang, Angsana or Sena, Tnug. Pterocarpus indicus was one of the two species used as a source for the 16th to 18th-century traditional diuretic known as lignum nephriticum. Many populations of Pterocarpus indicus are seriously threatened. It is extinct in Vietnam and possibly in Sri Lanka and the Peninsular Malaysia.

— Freebase

Madeira

Madeira

Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago that lies between 32°22.3′N 16°16.5′W / 32.3717°N 16.2750°W and 33°7.8′N 17°16.65′W / 33.1300°N 17.27750°W, just under 400 kilometres north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, in the north Atlantic Ocean and an outermost region of the European Union. The archipelago comprises the major part of one of the two Autonomous regions of Portugal, that includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. Madeira was discovered by Portuguese sailors in the service of Infante D. Henrique in 1419, and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery. Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about one million tourists, noted for its Madeira wine, flowers, landscapes and embroidery artisans, as well as for its annual New Year celebrations that feature the largest fireworks show in the world, as officially recognised by the Guinness World Records, in 2006. The main harbour in Funchal is the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.

— Freebase

Peninsular Spanish

Peninsular Spanish

Peninsular Spanish, also known as European Spanish and Iberian Spanish, refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands. In phonology, the most prominent distinguishing element of Peninsular Spanish varieties, except for the southernmost ones, is the preservation of a distinction between the phonemes and, represented respectively with the letters ⟨s⟩ on one hand and ⟨z⟩, or ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e / i⟩, on the other. This is usually called distinción in Spanish, while the merger of both phonemes is called seseo. While in the Spanish of the Americas and in parts of southern Spain ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e / i⟩, and ⟨s⟩, are typically read roughly like the English /s/, in the Peninsular dialects with distinción, ⟨z⟩, and ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e / i⟩, are read aloud as, that is, the initial sound of the English word think. However, many Andalusian dialects and the Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands do not use distinción as a general rule, but rather use either seseo or ceceo. In morphology, the most notable distinguishing feature of Peninsular Spanish is the use of the pronoun vosotros and its corresponding verb forms for the second person plural familiar. In virtually all other varieties of Modern Spanish, for the second person plural, the familiar and the formal are merged in ustedes, with its verb forms. Again, the use of vosotros is uncommon in the Canary Islands and only partially introduced in Western Andalusia.

— Freebase

Archipelago

Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi- and πέλαγος – pélagos through the Italian arcipelago. In Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Arcipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any island group or, sometimes, to a sea containing a large number of scattered islands.

— Freebase

mp

mp

.mp is the Internet country code top-level domain for Northern Mariana Islands. There are a few sites related to the Northern Mariana Islands in this domain. The get.mp site allows users to register and manage .mp domains. The .mp name comes from the ISO 3166 specification for the Northern Mariana Islands.

— Freebase

mh

mh

.mh is the Internet country code top-level domain for Marshall Islands. Its registry Web site has not been updated since 1997, and the mechanism of registering domains listed on that site involves downloading an InterNIC template form that is presently a dead link. A Google search shows no active Web sites in a .mh domain other than the single-page registry site. Most of the people who govern a site from Marshall Islands usually register it as .com, .net. or .org. Almost all sites registered to the Marshall Islands are hosted out of other countries.

— Freebase


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