Definitions containing æolian action

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Action research

Action research

Action research is a research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. There are two types of action research: participatory action research, and practical action research. Action research involves the process of actively participating in an organization change situation whilst conducting research. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices. Kurt Lewin, then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in 1944. In his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems” he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action”.

— Freebase

Chose

Chose

Chose, is a term used in common law tradition in different senses. Chose local is a thing annexed to a place, such as a mill. A chose transitory is something movable, that can be carried from place to place. However, "chose" in these senses is practically obsolete, and it is now used only in the phrases chose in action and chose in possession. A chose in action is essentially a right to sue. It is an intangible personal property right recognised and protected by the law, that has no existence apart from the recognition given by the law, and that confers no present possession of a tangible object. Another term is a thing in action. A chose in action, sometimes called a chose in suspense, in its more limited meaning, denotes the right to enforce payment of a debt by legal proceedings, obtain money by way of damages for contract, or receive recompense for a wrong. Less accurately, money that could be recovered is frequently called a chose in action, as is also sometimes the document that represents a title to a chose in action, such as a bond or a policy of insurance—though strictly it is only the right to recover the money. Choses in action were, before the Judicature Acts, either legal or equitable. Where the chose could be recovered only by an action at law, as a debt, it was termed a legal chose in action; where the chose was recoverable only by a suit in equity, as a legacy or money held upon a trust, it was termed an equitable chose in action. Before the Judicature Acts, a legal chose in action was not assignable, i.e., the assignee could not sue at law in his own name. To this rule there were two exceptions:

— Freebase

G.I. Joe

G.I. Joe

G.I. Joe is a line of action figures produced by the toy company Hasbro. The initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U.S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and later on, the Action Nurse. The term G.I. stands, in popular usage, for Government Issued and after the First World War became a generic term for U.S. soldiers. The origin of the term dates to World War I, when much of the equipment issued to U.S. soldiers was stamped "G.I.", meaning that it was made from galvanized iron. The development of G.I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G.I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys. The G.I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro to title two different toy lines. The original 12-inch line that began in 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was licensed to Palitoy and known as Action Man. In 1982, the line was relaunched in a 3¾-inch scale complete with vehicles, playsets, and a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G.I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism. As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man also changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G.I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts, weapons and explosives.

— Freebase

Action Stations

Action Stations

Action Stations is the general signal to the personnel of a warship that combat with a hostile attacker is imminent or deemed probable. The alarm is also used as a preventative measure: for example, just before dawn when cruising in hostile waters and the possibility of air or submarine attack is deemed particularly high, although no active contacts exist. The term is also used in Royal Navy installations and bases, as well as Royal Air Force airbases and installations. Action Stations is equivalent to the United States Navy's 'General Quarters', and replaces the 'beat to quarters' instruction common during the age of sail. Action Stations! Action Stations! All hands to action stations. Action surface starboard. Assume condition Yankee. Close all red openings. Action Stations! Action Stations! Aboard ship, Action Stations is indicated by an alarm signal issued over the ship's bells or horns. This is usually followed by an announcement giving specific information, then a repeat of the alarm signal, after which the alarm is silenced. The alarm is distinguished from a ship’s readiness state and Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear condition, which refers to the manning of equipment and the closing of openings respectively. When sounded, all personnel immediately stow any non-essential gear, take their life belts and action kit, and immediately report to their pre-assigned post or station. As personnel report to their stations, all weapons systems are readied to fire on command, the damage control centre is manned, and watertight doors are shut or sentries placed on those that must remain open. On aircraft carriers, the flight deck is made ready, any alert craft are prepared for launch, fuel lines are purged, and hangars secured. On ships with CBRN citadels, these are secured against the outside atmosphere and a positive pressure established.

— Freebase

Bolt action

Bolt action

Bolt action is a type of firearm action in which the weapon's bolt is operated manually by the opening and closing of the breech with a small handle, most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon. As the handle is operated, the bolt is unlocked, the breech is opened, the spent cartridge case is withdrawn and ejected, the firing pin is cocked, and finally a new round/cartridge is placed into the breech and the bolt closed. Bolt action firearms are most often rifles, but there are some bolt-action shotguns and a few handguns as well. Examples of this system date as far back as the early 19th century, notably in the Dreyse needle gun. From the late 19th century, all the way through both World Wars, the bolt-action rifle was the standard infantry firearm for most of the world's militaries. In military and law enforcement use, the bolt action has been mostly replaced by semi-automatic and selective fire weapons, though the bolt action remains the dominant design in dedicated sniper rifles. Bolt action firearms are still very popular for hunting and target shooting. Compared to most other manually operated firearm actions, it offers an excellent balance of strength, ruggedness, reliability, and potential accuracy, all with light weight and much lower cost than self-loading firearms, and can also be disassembled and re-assembled much faster due to fewer moving parts. The major disadvantage is a marginally lower practical rate of fire than other manual repeating firearms, such as lever-action and pump-action, and a far lower practical rate of fire than semi-automatic weapons, but this is not an important factor in many types of hunting and target shooting.

— Freebase

Action potential

Action potential

In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory. Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as in some plant cells. In neurons, they play a central role in cell-to-cell communication. In other types of cells, their main function is to activate intracellular processes. In muscle cells, for example, an action potential is the first step in the chain of events leading to contraction. In beta cells of the pancreas, they provoke release of insulin. Action potentials in neurons are also known as "nerve impulses" or "spikes", and the temporal sequence of action potentials generated by a neuron is called its "spike train". A neuron that emits an action potential is often said to "fire". Action potentials are generated by special types of voltage-gated ion channels embedded in a cell's plasma membrane. These channels are shut when the membrane potential is near the resting potential of the cell, but they rapidly begin to open if the membrane potential increases to a precisely defined threshold value. When the channels open, they allow an inward flow of sodium ions, which changes the electrochemical gradient, which in turn produces a further rise in the membrane potential. This then causes more channels to open, producing a greater electric current, and so on. The process proceeds explosively until all of the available ion channels are open, resulting in a large upswing in the membrane potential. The rapid influx of sodium ions causes the polarity of the plasma membrane to reverse, and the ion channels then rapidly inactivate. As the sodium channels close, sodium ions can no longer enter the neuron, and they are actively transported out of the plasma membrane. Potassium channels are then activated, and there is an outward current of potassium ions, returning the electrochemical gradient to the resting state. After an action potential has occurred, there is a transient negative shift, called the afterhyperpolarization or refractory period, due to additional potassium currents. This is the mechanism that prevents an action potential from traveling back the way it just came.

— Freebase

Assumpsit

Assumpsit

Assumpsit is a form of action at common law for the recovery of damages caused by the breach or non-performance of a simple contract, either express or implied, and whether made orally or in writing. The origin of assumsit comes from trespass on the case, a form of action in tort. The basis of the action was deceit in breaking a promise. The Slade's Case in 1602 determined that assumpsit may be used to recover damages for breach of a simple contract even if an action of debt was also proper. Assumpsit was the word always used in pleadings by the plaintiff to set forth the defendant's undertaking or promise, hence the name of the action. Claims in actions of assumpsit were ordinarily divided into common or indebitatus assumpsit, brought usually on an implied promise, and special assumpsit, founded on an expre coss promise. The actual "causes of action" that could be pleaded through assumpsit were known as the "common counts," and could be pleaded in a very terse, compact style. The Common Law Procedure Act 1852 abolished the common law forms of action in England and Wales. Furthermore, assumpsit as a form of action became obsolete in the United Kingdom after the passing of the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 1875.

— Freebase

Missing in Action

Missing in Action

Missing in Action is a 1984 action B-movie directed by Joseph Zito and starring Chuck Norris. It is set in the context of the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. Colonel Braddock, who escaped a Vietnamese prisoner of war camp 10 years earlier, returns to Vietnam to find American soldiers listed as missing in action during the Vietnam War. The film was followed by a prequel, Missing in Action 2: The Beginning and a sequel, Braddock: Missing in Action III. The concept for the film originated from a story treatment, written by James Cameron in 1983, for the film Rambo: First Blood Part II that was floating around Hollywood at the time. This explains the similar plotlines between Rambo and MIA. Representatives from Cannon Group were "inspired" by Cameron's script and subsequently produced and released the first two Missing in Action films two months before the release of Rambo, in order to avoid copyright violation lawsuits. Missing in Action 2 was filmed back to back with Missing in Action, and was actually set to be released first before the producers changed their minds. This explains crediting writers who created an original character for a film in the supposed first entry.

— Freebase

Action Man

Action Man

Action Man is an action figure boys' toy launched in Britain in 1966 by Palitoy as a licensed copy of Hasbro's American "moveable fighting man": G.I. Joe. Action Man was originally produced and sold in the United Kingdom and Australia by Palitoy Ltd of Coalville, Leicestershire from 1966 until 1984. The figure and accessories were originally based on the Hasbro 1964 G.I. Joe figure. Hasbro's G.I. Joe figure was patented in 1966 Even the specific method of attaching the appendages was patented as a "Connection For Use In Toy Figures" The first Action Man figures were Action Soldier, Action Sailor and Action Pilot. All were available in the four original hair colours: Blonde, Auburn, Brown and Black. They were accompanied by outfits depicting United States Forces of WWII and the Korean War. In later years, the figures and accompanying uniforms and accessories would more accurately reflect the forces of the United Kingdom. Action Man was subsequently reintroduced in 1993, based on the G.I. Joe Hall of Fame figure of that time.

— Freebase

Lever-action

Lever-action

Lever-action is a type of firearm action which uses a lever located around the trigger guard area to load fresh cartridges into the chamber of the barrel when the lever is worked. This contrasts to bolt action, semi-automatic, or selective fire weapons. Most lever-action firearms are rifles, but lever-action shotguns and a few pistols have also been made. One of the most famous lever-action firearm is undoubtedly the Winchester rifle, but many manufacturers–notably Marlin and Savage–also produce lever-action rifles. Mossberg produces the 464 in center fire .30-30 and rim fire .22. While the term lever-action generally implies a repeating firearm, it is also sometimes applied to a variety of single-shot, or falling-block actions that use a lever for cycling, such as the Martini-Henry or the Ruger No. 1.

— Freebase

Instrumental action

Instrumental action

Instrumental action is a social action pursued after evaluating its consequences and consideration of the various means to achieve it. They are usually planned and taken after considering costs and consequences. An example would be most economic transactions of Homo economicus. When employing this type of action, a person views his/her opponent as if he/she were a mere object or organizational resource and attempts to manipulate the opponent to act according to his/her wishes. Depending on the authority and status of the relationships between these two persons within the organizational context, one could issue an order to the opponent or use other means to obtain compliance. In trying to enact coherent meaning of the action and the action situation, the person who is subjected to instrumental action will normally reflect upon the appropriateness of the action. Is the action efficient for achieving the required ends.

— Freebase

Direct action

Direct action

Direct action occurs when a group of people take an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue. This can include nonviolent and less often violent activities which target persons, groups, or property deemed offensive to the direct action participants. Examples of non-violent direct action can include sit-ins, strikes, workplace occupations, hacktivism, etc., while violent direct action may include political violence, sabotage, property destruction, blockades, assaults, etc. By contrast, electoral politics, diplomacy, negotiation, and arbitration are not usually described as direct action, as they are politically mediated. Non-violent actions are sometimes a form of civil disobedience, and may involve a degree of intentional law-breaking where persons place themselves in arrestable situations in order to make a political statement but other actions may not violate criminal law. The aim of is to either obstruct another political agent or political organization from performing some practice to which the activists object; or to solve perceived problems which traditional societal institutions are not addressing to the satisfaction of the direct action participants.

— Freebase

Mode of action

Mode of action

A mode of action describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance. In comparison, a mechanism of action describes such changes at the molecular level. A mode of action is important in classifying chemicals as it represents an intermediate level of complexity in between molecular mechanisms and physiological outcomes, especially when the exact molecular target has not yet been elucidated or is subject to debate. A mechanism of action of a chemical could be "binding to DNA" while its broader mode of action would be "transcriptional regulation". However, there is no clear consensus and the term mode of action is often used, especially in the study of pesticides, to also describe molecular mechanisms such as action on specific nuclear receptors or enzymes.

— Freebase

Preventive action

Preventive action

A preventive action is a change implemented to address a weakness in a management system that is not yet responsible for causing nonconforming product or service. Candidates for preventive action generally result from suggestions from customers or participants in the process but preventive action is a proactive process to identify opportunities for improvement rather than a simple reaction to identified problems or complaints. Apart from the review of the operational procedures, the preventive action might involve analysis of data, including trend and risk analyses and proficiency-testing results. The focus for preventive actions is to avoid creating nonconformances, but also commonly includes improvements in efficiency. Preventive actions can address technical requirements related to the product or service supplied or to the internal management system. Many organizations require that when opportunities to improve are identified or if preventive action is required, action plans are developed, implemented and monitored to reduce the likelihood of nonconformities and to take advantage of the opportunities for improvement. Additionally, a thorough preventive action process will include the application of controls to ensure that they the preventive actions are effective.

— Freebase

Pump-action

Pump-action

A pump-action rifle or shotgun is one in which the handgrip can be pumped back and forth in order to eject a spent round of ammunition and to chamber a fresh one. It is much faster than a bolt-action and somewhat faster than a lever-action, as it does not require the trigger hand to be removed from the trigger whilst reloading. When used in rifles, this action is also commonly called a slide action. The term pump-action can also be applied to various airsoft guns and air guns, which use a similar mechanism to both load a pellet and compress a spring piston for power, or pneumatic guns where a pump is used to compress the air used for power. See the airgun article for information on how spring piston and pneumatic airguns work.

— Freebase

Action-adventure game

Action-adventure game

An action-adventure game can be defined as a game with a mix of elements from an action game and an adventure game, especially crucial elements like puzzles.  Action-adventures require many of the same physical skills as action games, but also offer a storyline, numerous characters, an inventory system, dialog, and other features of adventure games.  They are faster-paced than pure adventure games, because they include both physical and conceptual challenges.  Action-adventure games normally include a combination of a series complex story elements made into an audio-visual display for players that is heavily reliant upon the player character's movement which affects the flow of the game.  Some examples of action-adventure games include the The Legend of Zelda, and Tomb Raider series.

— Freebase

public policy

public policy

The set of policies (laws, plans, actions, behaviors) of a government; plans and methods of action that govern that society; a system of laws, courses of action, and priorities directing a government action.

— Wiktionary

by-play

by-play

Action carried on aside, commonly in dumb show, while the main action proceeds; action not intended to be observed by some of the persons present.

— Wiktionary

Hotshot

Hotshot

The hotshot or badass is a stock character in works of fiction, known for taking more risks, action and pain than the other characters in the story. This type of character is usually present in action-driven tales. What differentiates the hotshot from an action hero is that a hotshot works within the context of a group or team. The Hotshot is not always the main hero or protagonist of the story. He/she is also not always the leader of the team. In some sense, the term can be applied to an "action-byronic hero". Frequent characteristics of the hotshot character includes some level of arrogance, abrasive manners, aggressiveness, a tendency to prefer to be alone even to the point of working alone, and sometimes an inability to work with his/her teammates. Younger hotshot characters may exhibit attitudes that construe them as jerks, although they are cheerful and easy going with their team mates. What they all have in common is a tendency to have much of the action focused on them and a drive to fight longer and harder after his/her comrades have been put away. This may be because of a preference of the writer or editorial pressure or fan favoritism.

— Freebase

Tianeptine

Tianeptine

Tianeptine was discovered by The French Society of Medical Research in the 1960s. Under the trade-names it is a drug used for treating major depressive episodes. It has structural similarities to the tricyclic antidepressants, but it has different pharmacological properties. Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, opposite to the action of SSRIs. One review points to the cancellative effects of tianeptine and fluoxetine coadministration on serotonin reuptake. Another suggests that long-term administration of tianeptine has no effect on serotonin pathways. Tianeptine enhances the extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and modulates the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. There is also action on the NMDA and AMPA receptors. Recent reviews point to this pathway as a hypothesized mechanism of action, based on tianeptine's effect of reversing impaired neuroplasticity associated with stress. Tianeptine reduces the effects of serotonin in the limbic system and the pre-frontal cortex, giving rise to a mood elevation, unlike the mood blunting associated with SSRIs. Like SSRIs, however, tianeptine's onset-of-action delay is approximately 2–6 weeks with improvements sometimes noticeable in as soon as one week. Its short-lived, but pleasant, stimulant effect experienced by some patients is shared with its predecessor, amineptine, whose side effects related to dopamine uptake inhibitor activity resulted in Servier's research into tianeptine. Suggested dosage is three times daily, due to its short duration of action.

— Freebase

Vexatious litigation

Vexatious litigation

Vexatious litigation is legal action which is brought, regardless of its merits, solely to harass or subdue an adversary. It may take the form of a primary frivolous lawsuit or may be the repetitive, burdensome, and unwarranted filing of meritless motions in a matter which is otherwise a meritorious cause of action. Filing vexatious litigation is considered an abuse of the judicial process and may result in sanctions against the offender. A single action, even a frivolous one, is usually not enough to raise a litigant to the level of being declared vexatious. Repeated and severe instances by a single lawyer or firm can result in eventual disbarment. Some jurisdictions have a list of vexatious litigants: people who have repeatedly abused the legal system. Because lawyers could be disbarred for participating in the abuse, vexatious litigants are often unable to retain legal counsel, and such litigants therefore represent themselves in court. Those on the list are usually either forbidden from any further legal action or are required to obtain prior permission from a senior judge before taking any legal action. The process by which a person is added to the list varies among jurisdictions. In liberal democratic jurisdictions, declaring someone a vexatious litigant is considered to be a serious measure and rarely occurs, as judges and officials are reluctant to curtail a person's access to the courts.

— Freebase

Hyperpolarization

Hyperpolarization

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization. It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold. Hyperpolarization is often caused by efflux of K+ through K+ channels, or influx of Cl– through Cl– channels. On the other hand, influx of cations, e.g. Na+ through Na+ channels or Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels, inhibits hyperpolarization. If a cell has Na+ or Ca2+ currents at rest, then inhibition of those currents will also result in a hyperpolarization. Because hyperpolarization is a change in membrane voltage, electrophysiologists measure it using current clamp techniques. In voltage clamp, the membrane currents giving rise to hyperpolarization are either an increase in outward current, or a decrease in inward current. In neurons, the cell enters a state of hyperpolarization immediately following the generation of an action potential. While hyperpolarized, the neuron is in a refractory period that lasts roughly 2 milliseconds, during which the neuron is unable to generate subsequent action potentials. Sodium-potassium ATPases redistribute K+ and Na+ ions until the membrane potential is back to its resting potential of around –70 millivolts, at which point the neuron is once again ready to transmit another action potential.

— Freebase

Vi et armis

Vi et armis

Trespass vi et armis was a kind of lawsuit at common law called a tort. The cause of action alleged a trespass upon person or property vi et armis, Latin for "by force and arms." The plaintiff would allege in a pleading that the act committing the offense was "immediately injurious to another's property, and therefore necessarily accompanied by some degree of force; and by special action on the case, where the act is in itself indifferent and the injury only consequential, and therefore arising without any breach of the peace." Thus it was "immaterial whether the injury was committed willfully or not." In Taylor v. Rainbow, the defendant negligently discharged a firearm in a public place and caused the loss of the plaintiff's leg. The defendant was held to be liable for medical bills as well as lost earnings as a result of the disability. Thus, proof that the act or omission was unintended was no defense to an action of trespass vi et armis and the liable party would pay for all consequent damages. Recovery for damages for a trespass vi et armis were limited only to the direct consequences of the act or omission causing the injury. For instance, the state of West Virginia reported that monetary loss for detention from business as an indirect result of the injury were not recoverable under an action for trespass vi et armis, but were available under the related action of trespass on the case,

— Freebase

Where the Action Is

Where the Action Is

Where the Action Is or is a music-based television variety show in the United States from 1965–67. It was carried by the ABC network and aired each weekday afternoon. Created by Dick Clark as a spin-off of American Bandstand, Where the Action Is premiered on June 27, 1965. Originally intended as a summer replacement and broadcast at 2 P.M. EDT, the show was successful enough for it to continue throughout the 1965-66 TV season, with a change in time period to 4:30 P.M. Eastern time, so its young audience could continue to watch it once schools opened in September. The show's theme song, "Action", became a hit single for Freddy "Boom Boom" Cannon, peaking on the charts in September 1965. Most of the telecasts, all of which were produced in black-and-white, were taped at various locales in Southern California although a handful of segemnts were taped elsewhere in the country. The theme song was written by Steve Venet and Tommy Boyce, the latter would later co-write songs for The Monkees. The program had its own stable of performers, most notably Paul Revere & the Raiders, who served as the de facto house band. When the group departed the show in 1966, they were replaced by The Robbs. Other regular performers on Action included the dance troupe Pete Manifee and the Action Kids. Individual episodes featured a wide range of guest performers, as detailed below.

— Freebase

Hydraulic action

Hydraulic action

Hydraulic action occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water to dislodge and transport rock particles. Within this rubric are a number of specific erosional processes, including abrasion, attrition, corrasion, saltation, scouring, and traction. Hydraulic action is distinguished from other types of water facilitated erosion, such as static erosion where water leaches salts and floats off organic material from unconsolidated sediments, and from chemical erosion more often called chemical weathering. A primary example of hydraulic action is a wave striking a cliff face which compresses the air in cracks of the rocks. This exerts pressure on the surrounding rock which can progressively crack, break, splinter and detach rock particles. This is followed by the decompression of the air as the wave retreats which can often occur suddenly with explosive force which additionally weakens the rock. Cracks are gradually widened so the amount of compressed air increases, and hence the explosive force of its release increases. Thus, the effect intensifies in a 'positive feedback' system. Over time, as the cracks may grow they sometimes form a sea cave. The broken pieces that fall off produce two additional types of erosion, corrasion and attrition. Corrasion is where the newly formed chunks are thrown against the rock face, while attrition is a similar effect caused by the eroded particles after falling to the sea bed where they are subjected to further wave action. In coastal areas wave hydraulic action is often the most important form of erosion.

— Freebase

Dynamic verb

Dynamic verb

A dynamic or fientive verb is a verb that shows continued or progressive action on the part of the subject. This is the opposite of a stative verb. Dynamic verbs have duration. They occur over time. This time may or may not have a defined endpoint, and may or may not yet have occurred. These distinctions lead to various forms related to tense and aspect. For example, a dynamic verb may be said to have a durative aspect if there is not a defined endpoint, or a punctual aspect if there is a defined endpoint. Examples of dynamic verbs are 'to run', 'to hit', 'to intervene', 'to savour' and 'to go'. An outstanding feature of modern English is its limited use of the simple present tense of dynamic verbs. Generally, the progressive tense is required to express an action taking place in the present. The simple present usually refers to a habitual action, a general rule, a future action in some subordinate clauses or the historical present. A dynamic verb expresses a wide range of actions that may be physical, mental, or perceptual, as opposed to a stative verb, which purely expresses a state in which there is no obvious action.

— Freebase

Action point

Action point

An action point, commonly abbreviated AP, is a point in games to determine how much action a player, unit, or video game character can do in a single turn. Within computer and video games they are predominantly used in the turn-based tactics genre. A major difference from hit points and magic points is that action points recover automatically over time in combat rather than with items as hit points and magic points are usually recovered. Any action consumes a certain amount of AP. A unit cannot execute an action if there's not enough AP. If the unit has zero AP, that unit's turn is over. The player however, may end the unit's turn early. When it is that player's turn again, AP is replenished. AP may be partially restored or fully restored, and in some games, restoration may bring the unit's AP over the maximum limit that unit normally has. Using the turn-based tactics genre as an example: Units, both the player's and the enemy's, are placed upon a map of an area. Both sides take turns moving every character they have at their disposal. When an AP system is in effect, both sides use AP. Say it is the player's turn.

— Freebase

From

From

out of the neighborhood of; lessening or losing proximity to; leaving behind; by reason of; out of; by aid of; -- used whenever departure, setting out, commencement of action, being, state, occurrence, etc., or procedure, emanation, absence, separation, etc., are to be expressed. It is construed with, and indicates, the point of space or time at which the action, state, etc., are regarded as setting out or beginning; also, less frequently, the source, the cause, the occasion, out of which anything proceeds; -- the aritithesis and correlative of to; as, it, is one hundred miles from Boston to Springfield; he took his sword from his side; light proceeds from the sun; separate the coarse wool from the fine; men have all sprung from Adam, and often go from good to bad, and from bad to worse; the merit of an action depends on the principle from which it proceeds; men judge of facts from personal knowledge, or from testimony

— Webster Dictionary

Medium

Medium

a substance through which an effect is transmitted from one thing to another; as, air is the common medium of sound. Hence: The condition upon which any event or action occurs; necessary means of motion or action; that through or by which anything is accomplished, conveyed, or carried on; specifically, in animal magnetism, spiritualism, etc., a person through whom the action of another being is said to be manifested and transmitted

— Webster Dictionary

Provoke

Provoke

to call forth; to call into being or action; esp., to incense to action, a faculty or passion, as love, hate, or ambition; hence, commonly, to incite, as a person, to action by a challenge, by taunts, or by defiance; to exasperate; to irritate; to offend intolerably; to cause to retaliate

— Webster Dictionary

Reaction

Reaction

any action in resisting other action or force; counter tendency; movement in a contrary direction; reverse action

— Webster Dictionary

Double Effect Principle

Double Effect Principle

Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

follow-up

follow-up

an action to check or complete a previous action

— Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary

give

give

used before some nouns of action to say that the action is done

— Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary

play

play

a particular action in a sport, or the action of playing a particular game

— Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary

Dragon Slayer

Dragon Slayer

Dragon Slayer is a series of video games developed and published by Nihon Falcom. The first Dragon Slayer title was an early action role-playing game, released in 1984 for the NEC PC-88 computer system and ported by Square for the MSX. Designed by Yoshio Kiya, the game gave rise to a series of sequels, nearly all of them created by Falcom, with the exception of Faxanadu by Hudson Soft. The Dragon Slayer series was historically significant, both as a founder of the Japanese role-playing game industry, and as the progenitor of the action role-playing game genre. The series encompasses several different genres, which include action role-playing, action-adventure, platform-adventure, open world, turn-based role-playing, and real-time strategy. Many of the early titles in this series were PC games released for the PC-88, PC-98, MSX, MSX2, and other early Japanese PC platforms, while some were later ported to video game consoles. The series also features video game music soundtracks composed by chiptune musician Yuzo Koshiro and the Falcom Sound Team JDK.

— Freebase

Motor neuron

Motor neuron

In neurology, the term motor neuron classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system that project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. The motor neuron is often associated with efferent neuron, primary neuron, or alpha motor neurons. Motor neurones are neurones that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement. A single motor neuron may innervate many muscle fibres, and a muscle fibre can undergo many action potentials in the time taken for a single muscle twitch. As a result, if an action potential arrives before a twitch has completed, the twitches can superimpose on one another, either through summation or tetanus. In summation, the muscle is stimulated repetitively such that additional action potentials coming from the somatic nervous system arrive before the end of the twitch. The twitches thus superimpose on one another, leading to a force greater than that of a single twitch. On the other hand, tetanus is caused by constant, very high frequency stimulation - the action potentials come at such a rapid rate that individual twitches are indistinguishable, and tension rises smoothly eventually reaching a plateau.

— Freebase

Group action

Group action

In algebra and geometry, a group action is a description of symmetries of objects using groups. The essential elements of the object are described by a set, and the symmetries of the object are described by the symmetry group of this set, which consists of bijective transformations of the set. In this case, the group is also called a permutation group or transformation group. A group action is an extension to the definition of a symmetry group in which every element of the group "acts" like a bijective transformation of some set, without being identified with that transformation. This allows for a more comprehensive description of the symmetries of an object, such as a polyhedron, by allowing the same group to act on several different sets of features, such as the set of vertices, the set of edges and the set of faces of the polyhedron. If G is a group and X is a set then a group action may be defined as a group homomorphism h from G to the symmetric group of X. The action assigns a permutation of X to each element of the group in such a way that the permutation of X assigned to:

— Freebase

Killed in action

Killed in action

Killed in action is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces at the hands of hostile forces. The United States Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization also uses DWRIA, rather than DOW, for "died of wounds received in action." However, historically, militaries and historians have used the former acronym. KIFA means "killed in flight accident". This term is used when personnel are killed in an aerial mishap that did not result from hostile action.

— Freebase

Wear

Wear

In materials science, wear is erosion or sideways displacement of material from its "derivative" and original position on a solid surface performed by the action of another surface. Wear is related to interactions between surfaces and more specifically the removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface. The need for relative motion between two surfaces and initial mechanical contact between asperities is an important distinction between mechanical wear compared to other processes with similar outcomes. The definition of wear may include loss of dimension from plastic deformation if it is originated at the interface between two sliding surfaces. However, plastic deformation such as yield stress is excluded from the wear definition if it doesn't incorporates a relative sliding motion and contact against another surface despite the possibility for material removal, because it then lacks the relative sliding action of another surface. Impact wear is in reality a short sliding motion where two solid bodies interact at an exceptional short time interval. Previously due to the fast execution, the contact found in impact wear was referred to as an impulse contact by the nomenclature. Impulse can be described as a mathematical model of a synthesised average on the energy transport between two travelling solids in opposite converging contact. Cavitation wear is a form of wear where the erosive medium or counter-body is a fluid. Corrosion may be included in wear phenomenons, but the damage is amplified and performed by chemical reactions rather than mechanical action.

— Freebase

Verb

Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word that in syntax conveys an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done; and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done.

— Freebase

Work-to-rule

Work-to-rule

Work-to-rule is an industrial action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of their contract, and follow safety or other regulations precisely in order to cause a slowdown, rather than to serve their purposes. Such an action is considered less disruptive than a strike or lockout; and just obeying the rules is less susceptible to disciplinary action. Notable examples have included nurses refusing to answer telephones and police officers refusing to issue citations. Refusal to work overtime, travel on duty or sign up to other tasks requiring employee assent are other manifestations of using work-to-rule as industrial action. Work to rule has been given the following judicial definition: " 'Work to rule' has a perfectly well-known meaning, namely, 'Give the rules a meaning which no reasonable man could give them and work to that.' " Sometimes the term "rule-book slowdown" is used in a slightly different sense than "work-to-rule": the former involves applying to the letter rules that are normally set aside or interpreted less literally to increase efficiency; the latter, refraining from activities which are customary but not required by rule or job description but the terms may be used synonymously.

— Freebase

Action figure

Action figure

An action figure is a poseable character figurine, made of plastic or other materials, and often based upon characters from a film, comic book, video game, or television program. These action figures are usually marketed towards boys and adult collectors. It is argued that action figures are particularly popular with boys because they represent traditional masculine traits and are closely associated with the public sphere. While most commonly marketed as a children's toy, the action figure has gained wide acceptance as an adult collector item. In such a case, the item may be produced and designed on the assumption it will be bought solely for display.

— Freebase

Sear

Sear

In a firearm, the sear is the part of the trigger mechanism that holds the hammer or striker back until the correct amount of pressure has been applied to the trigger; at which point the hammer or striker is released to discharge the weapon. The sear may be a separate part or can be a surface incorporated into the trigger. The term 'sear' is sometimes incorrectly used to describe a complete trigger group. Within a trigger group, any number of sears may exist. For example, a Ruger Blackhawk single action revolver contains one for releasing the hammer. A Ruger Redhawk double/single action revolver contains two, one for single action release and the other for double action release. A Browning BLR contains three sears, all used simultaneously for hammer release. On many select-fire rifles two sears exist, one for semi-automatic fire and the second for fully automatic fire. In such case, the fire select lever disengages one over the other. Trigger sears are a key component for the trigger pull characteristics. Larger sears create creep while shorter ones produce a crisp pull. Aftermarket trigger companies, such as Bold, Timney, and Jewell, produce products in which sear contact is adjustable for personal preference. When a gunsmith does a 'trigger job' to improve the quality and release of a trigger pull, most often the work includes modifying the sear, such as polishing it, lapping etc.

— Freebase

Police action

Police action

Police action in military/security studies and international relations is a euphemism for a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war. Since World War II, formal declarations of war have been rare. Rather, nations involved in military conflict sometimes describe the conflict by fighting the war under the auspices of a "police action". The earliest appearance of the phrase was in July 1947, referring to attempts by Netherlands forces to recolonize Indonesia. The Dutch term politionele acties was used for this. In the early days of the Korean War, President Harry S. Truman referred to the United States response to the North Korean invasion as a "police action" under the aegis of the United Nations. Also it was used to imply a formal claim of sovereignty by colonial powers, such as in the military actions of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and other allies during the Indonesian National Revolution and the Malayan Emergency.

— Freebase

Action Replay

Action Replay

Action Replay is the brand name of a series of video game cheating devices created by Datel. As of 2010, Action Replays are currently available for some of the current major gaming platforms which include the Nintendo DS, Nintendo DSi, and the PlayStation Portable, and many older gaming platforms including the PlayStation 2, Nintendo GameCube, Game Boy Advance, and the Xbox. PowerSaves by Action Replay is a related series of video game cheat devices that store game saves created by Datel in order to allow users to cheat without modifying the game code being executed unlike the main Action Replay series, which cheats by modifying game code itself. These are available for gaming platforms such as the Wii on an SD card.

— Freebase

Instinct

Instinct

Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism toward a particular complex behavior. The simplest example of an instinctive behavior is a fixed action pattern, in which a very short to medium length sequence of actions, without variation, are carried out in response to a clearly defined stimulus. Any behavior is instinctive if it is performed without being based upon prior experience, and is therefore an expression of innate biological factors. Sea turtles, newly hatched on a beach, will automatically move toward the ocean. A joey climbs into its mother's pouch upon being born. Honeybees communicate by dancing in the direction of a food source without formal instruction. Other examples include animal fighting, animal courtship behavior, internal escape functions, and the building of nests. All of these are examples of complex behaviors and are thus substantially different from simple reflex behaviors. An instinct should be distinguished from a reflex, which is a simple response of an organism to a specific stimulus, such as the contraction of the pupil in response to bright light or the spasmodic movement of the lower leg when the knee is tapped. Instincts, in contrast, are inborn complex patterns of behavior that must exist in every member of the species and that cannot be overcome by force of will. However, the absence of volitional capacity must not be confused with an inability to modify fixed action patterns. For example, people may be able to modify a stimulated fixed action pattern by consciously recognizing the point of its activation and simply stop doing it, whereas animals without a sufficiently strong volitional capacity may not be able to disengage from their fixed action patterns, once activated.

— Freebase

Spiramycin

Spiramycin

Spiramycin is a macrolide antibiotic. It is used to treat toxoplasmosis and various other infections of soft tissues. Although used in Europe, Canada and Mexico, spiramycin is still considered an experimental drug in the United States, but can sometimes be obtained by special permission from the FDA for toxoplasmosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. Spiramycin has been used in Europe since the year 2000 under the trade name "Rovamycine", produced by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer and Famar Lyon, France and Eczacibasi Ilae, Turkey. It also goes under the name Rovamycine in Canada, where it is mostly marketed to dentists for mouth infections. Spiramycin is a 16-membered ring macrolide. It was discovered in 1952 as a product of Streptomyces ambofaciens. As a preparation for oral administration it has been used since 1955, in 1987 also the parenteral form was introduced into practice. The antibacterial action involves inhibition of protein synthesis in the bacterial cell during translocation. Resistance to spiramycin can develop by several mechanisms and its prevalence is to a considerable extent proportional to the frequency of prescription in a given area. The antibacterial spectrum comprises Gram-positive cocci and rods, Gram-negative cocci and also Legionellae, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae, some types of spirochetes, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium sp., Enterobacteria, pseudomonads and pathogenic moulds are resistant. Its action is mainly bacteriostatic, on highly sensitive strains it exerts a bactericide action. As compared with erythromycin, it is in vitro weight for weight 5 to 20 less effective, an equipotential therapeutic dose is, however, only double. This difference between the effectiveness in vitro and in vivo is explained above all by the great affinity of spiramycin to tissues where it achieves concentrations many times higher than serum levels. An important part is played also by the slow release of the antibiotic from the tissue compartment, the marked action on microbes in sub-inhibition concentrations and the relatively long persisting post-antibiotic effect. Its great advantage is the exceptionally favourable tolerance-gastrointestinal and general. It is available for parenteral and oral administration

— Freebase

SARSA

SARSA

SARSA is an algorithm for learning a Markov decision process policy, used in the reinforcement learning area of machine learning. It was introduced in the technical note "Online Q-Learning using Connectionist Systems" by Rummery & Niranjan where the alternative name SARSA was only mentioned as a footnote. This name simply reflects the fact that the main function for updating the Q-value depends on the current state of the agent "S1", the action the agent chooses "A1", the reward "R" the agent gets for choosing this action, the state "S2" that the agent will now be in after taking that action, and finally the next action "A2" the agent will choose in its new state. Taking every letter in the quintuple yields the word SARSA.

— Freebase

Covert operation

Covert operation

According to the USA Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, a Covert operation is "an operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor." It is intended to create a political effect which can have implications in the military, intelligence or law enforcement arenas. Covert operations aim to fulfill their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation. Under United States law, the Central Intelligence Agency must lead covert operations unless the president finds that another agency should do so and properly informs the Congress. Normally, the CIA is the US Government agency legally allowed to carry out covert action. The CIA's authority to conduct covert action comes from the National Security Act of 1947. President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order 12333 titled in 1984. This order defined covert action as "special activities", both political and military, that the US Government could legally deny. The CIA was also designated as the sole authority under the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act and in Title 50 of the United States Code Section 413. The CIA must have a "Presidential Finding" issued by the President of the United States in order to conduct these activities under the Hughes-Ryan amendment to the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act. These findings are then monitored by the oversight committees in both the US Senate and the House of Representatives. As a result of this framework, the CIA “receives more oversight from the Congress than any other agency in the federal government”. The Special Activities Division is a division of the CIA's National Clandestine Service, responsible for Covert Action and "Special Activities". These special activities include covert political influence and paramilitary operations. The division is overseen by the United States Secretary of State

— Freebase

Agonist

Agonist

An agonist is a chemical that binds to some receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell. Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist.

— Freebase

Teleology

Teleology

A teleology is any philosophical account that holds that final causes exist in nature, meaning that design and purpose analogous to that found in human actions are inherent also in the rest of nature. The adjective "teleological" has a broader usage, for example in discussions where particular ethical theories or types of computer programs are sometimes described as teleological because they involve aiming at goals. Teleology was explored by Plato and Aristotle, by Saint Anselm during the 11th century AD, and later by Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Judgment. It was fundamental to the speculative philosophy of Hegel. A thing, process, or action is teleological when it is for the sake of an end, i.e., a telos or final cause. In general, it may be said that there are two types of final causes, which may be called intrinsic finality and extrinsic finality. ⁕A thing or action has an extrinsic finality when it is for the sake of something external to itself. In a way, people exhibit extrinsic finality when they seek the happiness of a child. If the external thing had not existed that action would not display finality. ⁕A thing or action has an intrinsic finality when it is for none other than its own sake. For example, one might try to be happy simply for the sake of being happy, and not for the sake of anything outside of that.

— Freebase

Industrial action

Industrial action

Industrial action or job action refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour meant to reduce productivity in a workplace. Quite often it is used and interpreted as a euphemism for strike, but the scope is much wider. Industrial action may take place in the context of a labour dispute or may be meant to effect political or social change. Specifically industrial action may include one or more of the following: ⁕Strike ⁕Occupation of factories ⁕Work-to-rule ⁕General strike ⁕Slowdown ⁕Overtime ban

— Freebase

Rent strike

Rent strike

A rent strike is a method of protest commonly employed against large landlords. In a rent strike, a group of tenants come together and agree to refuse to pay their rent en masse until a specific list of demands is met by the landlord. This can be a useful tactic of final resort for use against intransigent landlords, but carries the obvious risk of eviction in some cases. Historically, rent strikes have often been used in response to problems such as high rents, poor conditions in the property, or unreasonable tenancy demands; however, there have been situations where wider issues have led to such action. Another type of collective action concerning rental property is a landlords' strike, which is undertaken by a group of landlords. Such an action would be most likely to be undertaken when government tenancy policies are perceived to be patently unfair to the landlords. The most common means of action in this case would entail the landlords collectively refusing to rent out any vacant and soon-to-be-vacated properties, in hopes of provoking a massive housing shortage that would quickly compel the government to change the relevant policies.

— Freebase

Malicious prosecution

Malicious prosecution

Malicious prosecution is a common law intentional tort, while like the tort of abuse of process, its elements include intentionally instituting and pursuing a legal action that is brought without probable cause and dismissed in favor of the victim of the malicious prosecution. In some jurisdictions, the term "malicious prosecution" denotes the wrongful initiation of criminal proceedings, while the term "malicious use of process" denotes the wrongful initiation of civil proceedings. Criminal prosecuting attorneys and judges are protected from tort liability for malicious prosecution by doctrines of prosecutorial immunity and judicial immunity. Moreover, the mere filing of a complaint cannot constitute an abuse of process. The parties who have abused or misused the process, have gone beyond merely filing a lawsuit. The taking of an appeal, even a frivolous one, is not enough to constitute an abuse of process. The mere filing or maintenance of a lawsuit, even for an improper purpose, is not a proper basis for an abuse of process action. Declining to expand the tort of malicious prosecution, a unanimous California Supreme Court in the case of Sheldon Appel Co. v. Albert & Oliker, 47 Cal. 3d 863, 873 observed: "While the filing of frivolous lawsuits is certainly improper and cannot in any way be condoned, in our view the better means of addressing the problem of unjustified litigation is through the adoption of measures facilitating the speedy resolution of the initial lawsuit and authorizing the imposition of sanctions for frivolous or delaying conduct within that first action itself, rather than through an expansion of the opportunities for initiating one or more additional rounds of malicious prosecution litigation after the first action has been concluded."

— Freebase

Alcuronium chloride

Alcuronium chloride

Alcuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent, alternatively referred to as a skeletal muscle relaxant. It is a semi-synthetic substance prepared from C-toxiferine I, a bis-quaternary alkaloid obtained from Strychnos toxifera. C-toxiferine I itself has been tested for its pharmacological action and noted to be a very long acting neuromuscular blocking agent For a formal definition of the durations of actions associated with NMB agents, see page for gantacurium. The replacement of both the N-methyl groups with N-allyl moieties yielded N,N-diallyl-bis-nortoxiferine, now recognized as alcuornium. Inclusion of the allylic functions presented an enhanced potential area of biotransformation, and thus alcuronium is observed to have a much shorter duration of neuromuscular blocking action than its parent C-toxiferine I. It also has a more rapid onset of action, and is ~1.5 times as potent as tubocurarine. The pharmacological action of alcuronium is readily reversed by neostigmine, and it produced little histamine release. The major disadvantage of alcuronium is that it elicits a vagolytic effect produced by a selective atropoine-like blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors.

— Freebase

Secondary action

Secondary action

Secondary action is industrial action by a trade union in support of a strike initiated by workers in another, separate enterprise. The term "secondary action" is intended to be distinct from a trade dispute with a worker's direct employer, and so may be used to refer to a dispute with the employer's parent company, its suppliers, financiers, contracting parties, or any other employer in another industry. In most countries there are limits on the purpose for which people can go on strike, and in many English speaking nations restrictions have been placed on which organisations trade unions may strike against. In the US and UK workers can typically strike against their direct employer only. In continental Europe, secondary action is generally lawful and the right to strike is seen as a part of broader political freedom.

— Freebase

Time constraint

Time constraint

In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. The penalty for violating a legislative or court-imposed time constraint may be anything from a small fine to judicial determination of an entire case against one's interests. For example, if a complaining party files an action and then fails to cause the papers pertaining thereto to be served on the opposing party within the time established by local rules, and is unable to convince the court that there was good and sufficient reason for the delay, he risks having his action dismissed with prejudice. If the opposing party is served with the papers and fails to respond within the time limit provided for his answer, he risks having the case decided against him by default. If one is aggrieved by the judicial outcome of an action and wishes to appeal, he may be forever barred from doing so if he fails to meet the deadline by which his appeal may be filed. By court order, or by local rule, there may be other time constraints. One may be required to answer interrogatories or a request to produce or other discovery pleadings within a given time. He may be required to give a certain number of days' advance notice before he intends to depose a party or witness. A court may order that there will be only a certain number of weeks or months allowed during which the parties to an action may conduct discovery. There may be a limitation placed upon a deposition, requiring that the party taking it conclude his questioning within a certain number of hours or days.

— Freebase

Shiri

Shiri

Shiri is a 1999 South Korean action film, written and directed by Kang Je-gyu. Swiri was the first Hollywood-style big-budget blockbuster to be produced in the "new" Korean film industry. Created as a deliberate homage to the "high-octane" action film made popular by Hollywood through 1980s, it also contained a story that draws on strong Korean national sentiment to fuel its drama. Much of the film's visual style shares that of the Asian action cinema, and particularly Hong Kong action cinema, of John Woo, Tsui Hark, Ringo Lam, and the relentless pace of the second unit directors, like Vic Armstrong and Guy Hamilton, in the James Bond films. The movie was released under the name Shiri outside of South Korea; inside Korea, the title was spelled Swiri. The name refers to Coreoleuciscus splendidus, a fish found in Korean fresh-water streams. At one point Park has a monologue wherein he describes how the waters from both North and South Korea flow freely together, and how the fish can be found in either water without knowing which it belongs to. This ties into the film's ambitions to be the first major-release film to directly address the still-thorny issue of Korean reunification.

— Freebase

Good cause

Good cause

Good cause is a legal term denoting adequate or substantial grounds or reason to take a certain action, or to fail to take an action prescribed by law. What constitutes a good cause is usually determined on a case by case basis and is thus relative. Often the court or other legal body determines whether a particular fact or facts amount to a good cause. For example, if a party to a case has failed to take legal action before a particular statute of limitations has expired, the court might decide that the said party preserves its rights nonetheless, since that party's serious illness is a good cause, or justification for having additional time to take the legal action.

— Freebase

Cross-cutting

Cross-cutting

Cross-cutting is an editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time in two different locations. In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simultaneity of these two actions but this is not always the case. Suspense may be added by cross-cutting. It is built through the expectations that it creates and in the hopes that it will be explained with time. Cross-cutting also forms parallels; it illustrates a narrative action that happens in several places at approximately the same time. For instance, in D.W. Griffith's A Corner in Wheat, the film cross-cuts between the activities of rich businessmen and poor people waiting in line for bread. This creates a sharp dichotomy between the two actions, and encourages the viewer to compare the two shots. Often, this contrast is used for strong emotional effect, and frequently at the climax of a film. The rhythm of, or length of time between, cross-cuts can also set the rhythm of a scene. Increasing the rapidity between two different actions may add tension to a scene, much in the same manner of using short, declarative sentences in a work of literature.

— Freebase

Solidarity action

Solidarity action

Solidarity action is industrial action by a trade union in support of a strike initiated by workers in another, separate enterprise. The term "secondary action" is often used with the intention of distinguishing different types of trade dispute with a worker's direct employer, and so may be used to refer to a dispute with the employer's parent company, its suppliers, financiers, contracting parties, or any other employer in another industry. In most countries there are limits on the purpose for which people can go on strike, and in many English speaking nations restrictions have been placed on which organisations trade unions may strike against. In the US and UK workers can typically strike against their direct employer only. In continental Europe, solidarity action is generally lawful and the right to strike is seen as a part of broader political freedom.

— Freebase

Behance

Behance

Behance is on a mission to organize and empower the creative world. Behance is the leading online platform to showcase and discover creative work. Creative professionals broadcast their work widely and efficiently, and companies access talent on a global scale. Millions use Behance to display and find talent every month. Behance’s platform also serves as the backbone for AdWeek, LinkedIn, and thousands of other portfolio sites and online galleries of creative talent.Behance’s platform attracts millions of visitors who come to discover top talent, along with powering creative networks for top schools and organizations, distributing work to other online galleries, and enabling portfolio display throughout the social web. And with Behance ProSite, members can create fully customizable personal portfolio sites that sync with their work on Behance, for maximum efficiency and reach. By the Winter of 2011, Behance (Behance.net (be.net) and its associated category-specific “Served sites”) was receiving over 50 million pageviews from over 9 million visitors per month. Behance’s other projects that empower creative professionals:THE 99% (the99percent.com) The 99% is Behance’s think tank and conference, devoted to researching best practices of the world's most productive creative people. Its daily web magazine shares tips and insights on idea execution. Its annual conference takes place in New York City every spring and has included such luminaries as Fred Wilson, Jack Dorsey, and Seth Godin. The conference sells out a year in advance and serves as a powerful brand building initiative for Behance.ACTION METHOD (actionmethod.com) The Action Method is an intuitive approach to task management, designed to help creative thinkers push their ideas into action.

— CrunchBase

Categories

Categories

are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards quantity, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards quality, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards relation, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards modality, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

abomination

abomination

an action that is vicious or vile; an action that arouses disgust or abhorrence

— Princeton's WordNet

act

act, move

perform an action, or work out or perform (an action)

— Princeton's WordNet

action replay

replay, instant replay, action replay

the immediate rebroadcast of some action (especially sports action) that has been recorded on videotape

— Princeton's WordNet

alienation

alienation

the action of alienating; the action of causing to become unfriendly

— Princeton's WordNet

allow

let, allow, permit

make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen

— Princeton's WordNet

aorist

aorist

a verb tense in some languages (classical Greek and Sanskrit) expressing action (especially past action) without indicating its completion or continuation

— Princeton's WordNet

bear on

push, bear on

press, drive, or impel (someone) to action or completion of an action

— Princeton's WordNet

clock

clock, time

measure the time or duration of an event or action or the person who performs an action in a certain period of time

— Princeton's WordNet

counteraction

neutralization, neutralisation, counteraction

action intended to nullify the effects of some previous action

— Princeton's WordNet

countermeasure

countermeasure

an action taken to offset another action

— Princeton's WordNet

dilatory plea

dilatory plea

a plea that delays the action without settling the cause of action; it can challenge the jurisdiction or claim disability of the defendant etc. (such defenses are usually raised in the defendant's answer)

— Princeton's WordNet

interjection

interjection, interposition, interpolation, interpellation

the action of interjecting or interposing an action or remark that interrupts

— Princeton's WordNet

interpellation

interjection, interposition, interpolation, interpellation

the action of interjecting or interposing an action or remark that interrupts

— Princeton's WordNet

interpolation

interjection, interposition, interpolation, interpellation

the action of interjecting or interposing an action or remark that interrupts

— Princeton's WordNet

interposition

interjection, interposition, interpolation, interpellation

the action of interjecting or interposing an action or remark that interrupts

— Princeton's WordNet

let

let, allow, permit

make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen

— Princeton's WordNet

maintenance

maintenance, criminal maintenance

the unauthorized interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it (as by helping one party with money or otherwise to continue the action) so as to obstruct justice or promote unnecessary litigation or unsettle the peace of the community

— Princeton's WordNet

motivation

motivation, motive, need

the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior

— Princeton's WordNet

motive

motivation, motive, need

the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior

— Princeton's WordNet

move

act, move

perform an action, or work out or perform (an action)

— Princeton's WordNet

need

motivation, motive, need

the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior

— Princeton's WordNet

neutralisation

neutralization, neutralisation, counteraction

action intended to nullify the effects of some previous action

— Princeton's WordNet

neutralization

neutralization, neutralisation, counteraction

action intended to nullify the effects of some previous action

— Princeton's WordNet

penicillin v

penicillin V, phenoxymethyl penicillin

a crystalline penicillin similar in action to penicillin G but more resistant to the action of gastric acids

— Princeton's WordNet

permit

let, allow, permit

make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen

— Princeton's WordNet

phenoxymethyl penicillin

penicillin V, phenoxymethyl penicillin

a crystalline penicillin similar in action to penicillin G but more resistant to the action of gastric acids

— Princeton's WordNet

preparation

readiness, preparedness, preparation

the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)

— Princeton's WordNet

preparedness

readiness, preparedness, preparation

the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)

— Princeton's WordNet

push

push, bear on

press, drive, or impel (someone) to action or completion of an action

— Princeton's WordNet

readiness

readiness, preparedness, preparation

the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)

— Princeton's WordNet

replay

replay, instant replay, action replay

the immediate rebroadcast of some action (especially sports action) that has been recorded on videotape

— Princeton's WordNet

time

clock, time

measure the time or duration of an event or action or the person who performs an action in a certain period of time

— Princeton's WordNet

word

word

The fact or action of speaking, as opposed to writing or to action.

— Wiktionary

transitive verb

transitive verb

: A verb that is accompanied (either clearly or implicitly) by a direct object in the active voice. It links the action taken by the subject with the object upon which that action is taken. Consequently, transitive verbs can also be used in the passive voice when the direct object of the equivalent active-voice sentence becomes the subject.

— Wiktionary

fact

fact

Action; the realm of action.

— Wiktionary

demurrer

demurrer

A motion by a party to an action, for the immediate or summary judgment of the court on the question, whether, assuming the truth of the matter alleged by the opposite party, it is sufficient in law to sustain the action or defense, and hence whether the party resting is bound to answer or proceed further.

— Wiktionary

synergy

synergy

Combined action; the combined healthy action of every organ of a particular system; as, the digestive synergy.

— Wiktionary

massage

massage

The action of rubbing, kneading or hitting someone's body, to help the person relax, prepare for muscular action (as in contact sports) or to relieve aches.

— Wiktionary

declaration

declaration

In common law, the formal document specifying plaintiffu2019s cause of action, including the facts necessary to sustain a proper cause of action, and to advise the defendant of the grounds upon which he is being sued.

— Wiktionary

replevin

replevin

an action to recover personal property unlawfully taken; the writ or procedure of such action

— Wiktionary

actionable

actionable

Capable of being articulated as an action item or a set of action items.

— Wiktionary

active

active

Given to action; constantly engaged in action; energetic; diligent; busy; opposed to dull, sluggish, indolent, or inert; as, an active man of business; active mind; active zeal.

— Wiktionary

agency

agency

The faculty of acting or of exerting power; the state of being in action; action; instrumentality.

— Wiktionary

object

object

The noun phrase which is an internal complement of a verb phrase or a prepositional phrase. In a verb phrase with a transitive action verb, it is typically the receiver of the action.

— Wiktionary

sue

sue

To file a legal action against someone, generally a non-criminal action.

— Wiktionary

performance

performance

The act of performing; carrying into execution or action; execution; achievement; accomplishment; representation by action; as, the performance of an undertaking of a duty.

— Wiktionary

-ade

-ade

Used to form nouns denoting action, or a person performing said action

— Wiktionary

gist

gist

The essential ground for action in a suit, without which there is no cause of action.

— Wiktionary

terrorist

terrorist

A person, group, or organization that uses violent action, or the threat of violent action, to further political goals; frequently in an attempt to coerce either a more powerful opponent, (such as a citizen or group targeting a government), or conversely, a weaker opponent, (such as a government, or even an internal citizen or group, being targeted by a larger government).

— Wiktionary

monkey humping a football

monkey humping a football

Energetic but useless action, or a person engaged in such action.

— Wiktionary

scene

scene

The decorations and fittings of a stage, representing the place in which the action is supposed to go on; one of the slides, or other devices, used to give an appearance of reality to the action of a play; as, to paint scenes; to shift the scenes; to go behind the scenes.

— Wiktionary

scene

scene

The place, time, circumstance, etc., in which anything occurs, or in which the action of a story, play, or the like, is laid; surroundings amid which anything is set before the imagination; place of occurrence, exhibition, or action.

— Wiktionary

scene

scene

An exhibition of passionate or strong feeling before others; often, an artificial or affected action, or course of action, done for effect; a theatrical display.

— Wiktionary

hostility

hostility

A hostile action, especially a military action. See hostilities for specific plural definition.

— Wiktionary

iterate

iterate

to perform or repeat an action on each item in a set or on the results of each such prior action

— Wiktionary

physiological

physiological

Relating to the action of a drug when given to a healthy person, as distinguished from its therapeutic action.

— Wiktionary

standing

standing

The right of a party to bring a legal action, based on the relationship between that party and the matter to which the action relates.

— Wiktionary

quiescence

quiescence

The action of bringing something to rest or making it quiescent; the action of coming to rest or to a quiescent state.

— Wiktionary

imperfect tense

imperfect tense

A tense used to describe a past action that is ongoing, incomplete or continuous, or coincident with another action.

— Wiktionary

theater

theater

A region where a particular action takes place; a specific field of action, usually with reference to war.

— Wiktionary

deterrence

deterrence

Action taken by states or alliances of nations against equally powerful alliances to prevent hostile action

— Wiktionary

-ion

-ion

an action or process, or the result of an action or process

— Wiktionary

get into trouble

get into trouble

To perform an action which is illegal, prohibited, forbidden or proscribed and to become subject to punishment for such action.

— Wiktionary

AAR

AAR

After-action report; after-action review.

— Wiktionary

side effect

side effect

An unintended consequence of any action in addition to the intended consequence of that action.

— Wiktionary

put up ones dukes

put up ones dukes

To take firm action or to show oneself to be committed to such action, as when competing in a sporting event or other contest.

— Wiktionary

dramatic structure

dramatic structure

The sequence a 5-act play follows including exposition, rising action, climax or turning point, falling action, and denouement or catastrophe. credit Gustav Freytag 1863

— Wiktionary

nuisance fee

nuisance fee

A nominal fee, fine or penalty charged to deter an action (rather than to compensate for the costs of that action).

— Wiktionary

concretion

concretion

The action of making something concrete or the result of such an action.

— Wiktionary

back projection

back projection

A cinematic technique in which live action is filmed in front of a screen on which the background action is projected.

— Wiktionary

byplay

byplay

Any action, carried out onstage during a performance, apart from the main action.

— Wiktionary

conciliation

conciliation

The action of bringing peace and harmony; the action of ending strife.

— Wiktionary

abstract verb

abstract verb

Abstract verb refers to a verbal aspect in verbs of motion that is multidirectional (as opposed to unidirectional), an indirect motion, or a repeated action or series of actions (instead of a single, completed action). Abstract verbs are always imperfective in aspect, even if they have prefixes normally associated with the perfective aspect.

— Wiktionary

concrete verb

concrete verb

Concrete verb refers to a verbal aspect in verbs of motion that is unidirectional (as opposed to multidirectional), a definitely directed motion, or a single, completed action (instead of a repeated action or series of actions). Concrete verbs may be either imperfective or perfective.

— Wiktionary

preliminary injunction

preliminary injunction

: a court order prohibiting a party to litigation from carrying on a course of action until a trial has determined whether the course of action is proper.

— Wiktionary

cartooney

cartooney

An empty and comically overstated threat of legal action, or a mock legal action.

— Wiktionary

counteraction

counteraction

Any action in opposition to a previous action.

— Wiktionary

idempotence

idempotence

A quality of an action such that repetitions of the action have no further effect on outcome u2013 being idempotent.

— Wiktionary

actional

actional

Of, pertaining to, or depicting action, especially physical action

— Wiktionary

two wrongs dont make a right

two wrongs dont make a right

A wrongful action is not a morally appropriate way to correct or cancel a previous wrongful action.

— Wiktionary

mind-body

mind-body

Describing the physical action of the mind on the body, especially the mode in which a thought can cause an action

— Wiktionary

hold with the hare and run with the hounds

hold with the hare and run with the hounds

To oppose an action or behavior and yet engage in the same action or behavior; to be a hypocrite.

— Wiktionary

abuse of process

abuse of process

A cause of action in tort arising from one party making a malicious and deliberate misuse or perversion of regularly issued court process (civil or criminal) not justified by the underlying legal action.

— Wiktionary

but for

but for

Pertaining to a test of causation whereby an agent or action is considered to have caused an event (and therefore to be responsible and/or liable for said event) if, had said agent or action not existed, the event would not have taken place.

— Wiktionary

consequentialism

consequentialism

The belief that consequences form the basis for any valid moral judgment about an action. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome, or consequence.

— Wiktionary

potentiation

potentiation

The action of a substance, at a dose that does not itself have an adverse action, in enhancing the effect of another substance

— Wiktionary

make a virtue of necessity

make a virtue of necessity

To make the best of a difficult situation; to recast or portray an action or situation in which one has no alternatives as an action or situation which was deliberately chosen on its merits.

— Wiktionary

past iterative

past iterative

A tense in the Lithuanian language that indicates complete iterative action in the past, similar to the English used to but with the possibility of the action still continuing in the present.

— Wiktionary

past imperfect tense

past imperfect tense

A grammatical tense which expresses the past as an action which was still going on at the point in time described, say someone "was ...ing" something, as opposed to the already accomplished counterpart past perfect tense (where the action took place even further in the past)

— Wiktionary

stigmergy

stigmergy

A mechanism of spontaneous, indirect coordination between agents or actions, where the trace left in the environment by an action stimulates the performance of a subsequent action.

— Wiktionary

cui bono

cui bono

The principle that the ultimate initiator of an action is likely he who stands to gain from the action.

— Wiktionary

action stations

action stations

The positions or activity assumed by the crew of a warship immediately in advance of combat or other hostile action; also, the signal given to indicate such imminent action.

— Wiktionary

waiting game

waiting game

A strategy or course of action in which one or more parties refrain from direct action until circumstances change in their favor.

— Wiktionary

alert order

alert order

1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action. An alert order does not authorize execution of the approved course of action. Also called ALERTORD. See also course of action; execution planning.

— Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Aliens

Aliens

Aliens is a 1986 science fiction action film directed by James Cameron and starring Sigourney Weaver, Carrie Henn, Michael Biehn, Lance Henriksen, William Hope, and Bill Paxton. A sequel to the 1979 film Alien, Aliens follows Weaver's character Ellen Ripley as she returns to the planet where her crew encountered the hostile Alien creature, this time accompanied by a unit of Colonial Marines. Aliens' action-adventure tone was in contrast to the horror motifs of the original Alien. Following the success of The Terminator, which helped establish Cameron as a major action director, 20th Century Fox greenlit Aliens with a budget of approximately $18 million. It was filmed in England at Pinewood Studios and at a decommissioned power plant. Aliens grossed $86 million at the US box office during its 1986 theatrical release and $131 million worldwide. The movie was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver. It won in the categories of Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects. It won eight Saturn Awards, including Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actress for Weaver and Best Direction and Best Writing for Cameron.

— Freebase

Action item

Action item

In management, an action item is a documented event, task, activity, or action that needs to take place. Action items are discrete units that can be handled by a single person.

— Freebase

ACTION

ACTION

ACTION is a public bus service operating in Canberra, ACT, Australia. It is a division of the Territory and Municipal Services Directorate of the ACT Government. The Minister responsible for TAMS is Shane Rattenbury MLA and the Director of ACTION is James Roncon. Its name was derived as an acronym of Australian Capital Territory Internal Omnibus Network, but it is now officially known as ACTION. Other bus services in Canberra are operated by Deane's Transit Group and Royale Limousines. There are no other modes of public transport operating within the ACT.

— Freebase

Shotgun

Shotgun

A shotgun is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, and in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, and lever-action, semi-automatic, and even fully automatic variants. A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century. The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was also used in a similar variety of roles from self defence to riot control. It was often used by cavalry troops due to its generally shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. However, in the 19th century, these weapons were largely replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges. The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since then, it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, and military applications.

— Freebase

Political freedom

Political freedom

Political freedom is a central concept in Western history and political thought, and one of the most important features of democratic societies. It has been described as a relationship free of oppression or coercion; the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions; or the absence of lived conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society. Although political freedom is often interpreted negatively as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action, it can also refer to the positive exercise of rights, capacities and possibilities for action, and the exercise of social or group rights. The concept can also include freedom from "internal" constraints on political action or speech The concept of political freedom is closely connected with the concepts of civil liberties and human rights, which in democratic societies are usually afforded legal protection from the state.

— Freebase

Preventive diplomacy

Preventive diplomacy

Preventive diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Michael S. Lund, the author of "Preventing Violent Conflict: A Strategy for Preventive Diplomacy", identifies it as "action taken in vulnerable places and times to avoid the threat or use of armed force and related forms of coercion by states or groups to settle the political disputes that can arise from the destabilizing effects of economic, social, political, and international change." Since the end of the Cold War the international community through international institutions has been focusing on preventive diplomacy. As the United Nations and regional organizations as well as global and regional powers discovered the high costs of managing conflict, there is a strong common perception of benevolence of preventive diplomacy. Preventive diplomacy actions can be implemented by the UN, regional organizations, NGO networks and individual states. One of the examples of preventive diplomacy is the UN peacekeeping mission in Macedonia in 1995-1999. It was the first UN preventive action.

— Freebase

Cutaway

Cutaway

In film and video, a cutaway shot is the interruption of a continuously filmed action by inserting a view of something else. It is usually, although not always, followed by a cut back to the first shot, when the cutaway avoids a jump cut. The cutaway shot does not necessarily contribute any dramatic content of its own, but is used to help the editor assemble a longer sequence. For this reason, editors choose cutaway shots related to the main action, such as another action or object in the same location. For example, if the main shot is of a man walking down an alley, possible cutaways may include a shot of a cat on a nearby dumpster or a shot of a person watching from a window overhead. Similarly, a cutaway scene is the interruption of a scene with the insertion of another scene, generally unrelated or only peripherally related to the original scene. The interruption is usually quick, and is usually, although not always, ended by a return to the original scene. The effect is of commentary to the original scene, frequently comic in nature.

— Freebase

Action group

Action group

In sociology and anthropology, an action group or task group is a group of people joined temporarily to accomplish some task or take part in some organized collective action. As the members of the action group are brought together on a single occasion and then disband, they cannot be regarded as constituting a full-fledged social group, for which they would need to interact recurrently in accordance with their social identities.

— Freebase

Bolt

Bolt

A bolt is a mechanical part of a firearm that blocks the rear of the chamber while the propellant burns, but moves out of the way to allow another cartridge or shell to be inserted in the chamber. In manually operated firearms, such as bolt-action, lever-action, and pump-action rifles and shotguns, the bolt is held fixed by its locking lugs during firing, forcing all the expanding gas forward, and is manually withdrawn to chamber another round. In an automatic or semi-automatic firearm, the bolt cycles back and forward between each shot, propelled by recoil or expanding gas or the recoil spring. When it moves back, the extractor pulls the spent casing from the chamber. When it moves forward, it strips a cartridge from the magazine and pushes it into the chamber. Once the case is clear of the chamber, the ejector kicks the case out of the weapon. The extractor and firing pin are often integral parts of the bolt. The slide of a semi-automatic pistol is a form of bolt.

— Freebase

Blame

Blame

Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise. When someone is morally responsible for doing something wrong their action is blameworthy. By contrast, when someone is morally responsible for doing something right, we may say that his or her action is praiseworthy. There are other senses of praise and blame that are not ethically relevant. One may praise someone's good dress sense, and blame the weather for a crop failure.

— Freebase

Diazepam

Diazepam

Diazepam, first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a benzodiazepine drug. It is commonly used to treat anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, seizures, muscle spasms, restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepine withdrawal, opiate withdrawal syndrome and Ménière's disease. It may also be used before certain medical procedures to reduce tension and anxiety, and in some surgical procedures to induce amnesia. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and amnestic properties. The pharmacological action of diazepam enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA by binding to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor leading to central nervous system depression. Adverse effects of diazepam include anterograde amnesia and sedation, as well as paradoxical effects such as excitement, rage or worsening of seizures in epileptics. Benzodiazepines also can cause or worsen depression. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam include tolerance, benzodiazepine dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome upon dose reduction. After cessation of benzodiazepines, cognitive deficits may persist for at least six months and it was suggested that longer than six months may be needed for recovery from some deficits. Diazepam also has physical dependence potential and can cause serious problems of physical dependence with long term use. Compared to other benzodiazepines, though, physical withdrawal from diazepam following long term use is usually far more mild due to its long elimination half-life. Nevertheless, urgent action by national governments to improve prescribing practices has been recommended. Diazepam is the drug of choice for treating benzodiazepine dependence, with its low potency, long duration of action and the availability of low-dose tablets making it ideal for gradual dose reduction and the circumvention of withdrawal symptoms.

— Freebase

Point of no return

Point of no return

The point of no return is the point beyond which one must continue on his or her current course of action because turning back is physically impossible, prohibitively expensive or dangerous. A particular irreversible action can be a point of no return, but the point of no return can also be a calculated point during a continuous action.

— Freebase

Advocacy group

Advocacy group

Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. Groups vary considerably in size, influence, and motive; some have wide ranging long term social purposes, others are focused and are a response to an immediate issue or concern. Motives for action may be based on a shared political, faith, moral, or commercial position. Groups use varied methods to try to achieve their aims including lobbying, media campaigns, publicity stunts, polls, research, and policy briefings. Some groups are supported by powerful business or political interests and exert considerable influence on the political process, others have few such resources. Some have developed into important social, political institutions or social movements. Some powerful Lobby groups have been accused of manipulating the democratic system for narrow commercial gain and in some instances have been found guilty of corruption, fraud, bribery, and other serious crimes; lobbying has become increasingly regulated as a result. Some groups, generally ones with less financial resources, may use direct action and civil disobedience and in some cases are accused of being a threat to the social order or 'domestic extremists'. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.

— Freebase

Jack of All Trades

Jack of All Trades

Jack of All Trades is a half-hour long syndicated action-comedy television series which ran for two seasons in 2000. With Cleopatra 2525, it formed the Back2Back Action Hour and both shows were notable for being the first American non-animated action series to be produced in the half-hour format since the 1970s. The show was canceled in the middle of its second season. The program is set at the turn of the 19th century on the fictional French-controlled island of Pulau-Pulau in the East Indies. Jack Stiles is an American secret agent sent there by President Jefferson. While there, he meets his British contact and love interest, English spy Emilia Rothschild. Together, the two work to stop Napoleon and various other threats to the United States. To the public, Jack is seen as Emilia's attaché, but when the need arises, he transforms into a masked hero: The Daring Dragoon. The show contained many on-going gags, such as deliberate historical inaccuracies, Jack being responsible for many important historical events but not receiving credit, Emilia inventing a miraculous invention in an obvious deus ex machina, sexual puns and innuendos, and Jack and Emilia's ongoing romantic tension.

— Freebase

Stomachic

Stomachic

A stomachic medicine is one that serves to tone the stomach, improving its function and increasing appetite. While many herbal remedies claim stomachic effects, modern pharmacology does not have an equivalent term for this type of action. Herbs with stomachic effects include: ⁕Agrimony ⁕Anise ⁕Barberry ⁕Cannabis ⁕Cleome ⁕Centaurium ⁕Cayenne ⁕Dandelion ⁕Elecampane ⁕Ginseng ⁕Goldenseal ⁕Grewia asiatica ⁕Hops ⁕Holy thistle ⁕Juniper berry ⁕Mugwort ⁕Oregano ⁕Peach Bark ⁕Rhubarb ⁕White mustard seeds ⁕Rose hips ⁕Rue ⁕Wormwood The purported stomachic mechanism of action of these substances is to stimulate the appetite by increasing the gastric secretions of the stomach, although the actual therapeutic value of some of these compounds is dubious. Some other important agents used are: ⁕Bitters: used to stimulate the taste buds, thus producing reflex secretion of gastric juices. Quassia, aristolochia, gentian, and chirata are commonly used. ⁕Alcohol: increases gastric secretion by direct action and also by the reflex stimulation of taste buds. ⁕Miscellaneous compounds: including insulin which increases the gastric secretion by producing hypoglycemia, and histamine, which produces direct stimulation of gastric glands.

— Freebase

Throwing

Throwing

In the sport of cricket, throwing, commonly referred to as chucking, is an illegal bowling action which occurs when a bowler straightens their arm when delivering the ball. The Laws of Cricket specify that a bowler's arm must not extend during the bowling action. Only the rotation of the shoulder can be used to impart velocity to the ball. Throws are not allowed. If the umpire deems that the ball has been thrown, he will call a no ball which means the batsman cannot be given out from that delivery. Current regulations of the International Cricket Council set the legal limit of 15 degrees of permissible straightening of the elbow joint for all bowlers in international cricket. This law applies between the point at which the bowling arm passes above shoulder height and the point at which the ball is released. The limit is to allow some natural flexing of the elbow joint which happens during the course of legal delivery. The charge of 'throwing' against a bowler is one of the most serious and controversial that can be made in cricket, as a bowler with an illegal action cannot dismiss a batsman. This means the player cannot effectively participate in the game, and may not be selected again without significant change to the way they bowl.

— Freebase

Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination is discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group or in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group. Groups may be defined in terms of race, gender, ethnicity, or other factors. This discrimination may seek to redress social inequalities where minority groups have been denied access to the same privileges of the majority group. In such cases it is intended to remove discrimination that minority groups may already face. The label reverse discrimination may also be used to highlight the discrimination inherent in affirmative action programs. Reverse Discrimination can be defined as the unequal treatment of members of the majority groups resulting from preferential policies, as in college admissions or employment, intended to remedy earlier discrimination against minorities. Conceptualizing efforts as reverse discrimination began to become popular in the early-mid-1970s, the time period that focused on underrepresentation and affirmative action intended to remedy the effects of past discrimination. The concept of reverse discrimination has two different views: a broad sense and a narrow sense. In a broad sense, it refers to discrimination against Whites or males in employment, education, and any other areas of life. In a narrow sense, reverse discrimination refers to the negative impact Whites or males may experience because of affirmative action policies. The two views are often conflated, which leads to confusion and misinformation.

— Freebase

Wrongful life

Wrongful life

Wrongful life is the name given to a legal action in which someone is sued by a severely disabled child for failing to prevent the child's birth. Typically a child and the parents will sue a doctor or a hospital for failing to provide information about the disability during the pregnancy, or a genetic disposition before the pregnancy. Had the mother been aware of this information, it is argued, she would have had an abortion, or chosen not to conceive at all. Historically, only parents could sue for their own damages incurred as a result of the birth of a disabled child. This cause of action is known as wrongful birth. But the child could not sue for his or her own damages, which were often much more substantial, in terms of the cost of round-the-clock personal care and special education. In four U.S. states, the child is allowed to bring a wrongful life cause of action for such damages. In a 1982 case involving hereditary deafness, the Supreme Court of California was the first state supreme court to endorse the child's right to sue for wrongful life, but in the same decision, limited the child's recovery to special damages. This rule implies that the child can recover objectively provable economic damages, but cannot recover general damages like subjective "pain and suffering"—that is, monetary compensation for the entire experience of having a disabled life versus having a healthy mind and/or body.

— Freebase

Mission Command

Mission Command

Mission Command is a style of military command, derived from the Prussian-pioneered mission-type tactics doctrine, promoting relatively decentralised subsidiarity of command, freedom and speed of action, and initiative, within certain constraints. Subordinates, understanding the commander's intentions, their own missions and the context of those missions, are told what effect they are to achieve and the reason why it needs to be achieved. They then decide within their delegated freedom of action how best to achieve their missions. Orders provide only enough detail to establish intent and objectives, allowing freedom of action. Mission Command is closely related to civilian management concept of workplace empowerment. It is advocated, but not always used, by the Chain of command in the United States, Canadian, Dutch and the British Army. Mission Command is compatible with modern military net-centric concepts, and less centralized approaches to command and control in general.

— Freebase

Chlorpromazine

Chlorpromazine

Chlorpromazine is a dopamine antagonist of the typical antipsychotic class of medications possessing additional antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, anticholinergic and antihistaminergic properties used to treat schizophrenia. First synthesized on December 11, 1950, chlorpromazine was the first drug developed with specific antipsychotic action, and would serve as the prototype for the phenothiazine class of drugs, which later grew to comprise several other agents. The introduction of chlorpromazine into clinical use has been described as the single greatest advance in psychiatric care, dramatically improving the prognosis of patients in psychiatric hospitals worldwide. The availability of antipsychotic drugs curtailed indiscriminate use of electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery, and was one of the driving forces behind the deinstitutionalization movement. Chlorpromazine works on a variety of receptors in the central nervous system, producing anticholinergic, antidopaminergic, antihistaminic, and weak antiadrenergic effects. Both the clinical indications and side effect profile of CPZ are determined by this broad action: its anticholinergic properties cause constipation, sedation, and hypotension, and help relieve nausea. It also has anxiolytic properties. Its antidopaminergic properties can cause extrapyramidal symptoms such as akathisia and dystonia. It is known to cause tardive dyskinesia, which can be irreversible. In recent years, chlorpromazine has been largely superseded by the newer atypical antipsychotics, which are usually better tolerated, and its use is now restricted to fewer indications. In acute settings, it is often administered as a syrup, which has a faster onset of action than tablets, and can also be given by intramuscular injection. IV administration is very irritating and is not advised; its use is limited to severe hiccups, surgery, and tetanus.

— Freebase

Crass

Crass

Crass were an English punk rock band that was formed in 1977, which promoted anarchism as a political ideology, a way of living, and a resistance movement. Crass popularised the seminal anarcho-punk movement of the punk subculture, and advocated direct action, animal rights, and environmentalism. The band both utilised and advocated a DIY punk ethic approach, producing sound collages, leaflets, albums, and films. Crass practiced "direct action" by spray-painting stencilled graffiti messages around the London Underground system and on advertising billboards, coordinating squats, and organising political action. The band also expressed its ideals by dressing in black, military surplus-style clothing, and using a stage backdrop which amalgamated several "icons of authority" including the Christian Cross, the swastika, the Union Flag, and an Ouroboros. The band were critical of punk subculture itself, as well as wider youth culture in general. Crass promoted the type of anarchism that eventually became more common in the punk music scene. They are also considered involved with the art punk genre, due to their use of tape collages, graphics, spoken word releases, poetry and improvisation.

— Freebase

Tennessee Walking Horse

Tennessee Walking Horse

The Tennessee Walking Horse or Tennessee Walker is a breed of gaited horse known for its unique four-beat "running walk" and flashy movement. It was originally developed in the southern United States for use on farms and plantations. It is a popular riding horse due to its calm disposition, smooth gaits and sure-footedness. The Tennessee Walking Horse is often seen in the show ring, but also popular as a pleasure and trail riding horse using both English and Western equipment. Tennessee Walkers are also seen in movies, television shows and other performances. The breed first developed in the late 18th when Narragansett Pacers and Canadian Pacers from the eastern United States with gaited Spanish Mustangs from Texas. Other breeds were later added, and in 1886 a foal named Black Allen, now considered the foundation sire of the breed, was born. In 1935 the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' Association was formed, and the studbook closed in 1947. In 1939, the first Tennessee Walking Horse National Celebration was held, an annual event that in recent years has attracted considerable attention and controversy. The two basic categories of Tennessee Walking Horse show competition are called "flat shod" and "performance", differentiated by desired leg action. Flat shod horses, wearing regular horseshoes, exhibit less exaggerated movement, while performance horses wear built-up pads or "stacks" along with other weighted action devices, creating the so-called "Big Lick" style. stacks and action devices are prohibited at shows sanctioned by the United States Equestrian Federation and some breed organizations. The Tennessee Walking Horse is the breed most affected by the Horse Protection Act of 1970, which prohibits the practice of soring, abusive practices used to enhance the Big Lick movement prized in the show ring, which still occur today despite the law. The controversy over continuing soring practices has led to a split within the breed community, criminal charges against a number of individuals, and the creation of several separate breed organizations.

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Demurrer

Demurrer

A demurrer is a pleading in a lawsuit that objects to or challenges a pleading filed by an opposing party. The word demur means "to object"; a demurrer is the document that makes the objection. Lawyers informally define a demurrer as a defendant saying, "So what?" to the pleading. Typically, the defendant in a case will demur to the complaint, but it is also possible for plaintiff to demur to an answer. The demurrer challenges the legal sufficiency of a claim, cause of action, or to the defenses set forth in an answer. If a cause of action in a complaint does not state a cognizable claim or if it does not state all the required elements, then the challenged cause of action or possibly the entire complaint can be "thrown out" with a demurrer as not legally sufficient. A demurrer is typically filed near the beginning of a case, in response to the plaintiff filing a complaint or the defendant answering the complaint. At common law, a demurrer was the pleading through which a defendant would challenge legal sufficiency of a complaint in criminal or civil cases, but today the pleading has been discontinued in many jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom and the U.S. federal court system. In criminal cases, a demurrer was considered a common law due process right, to be heard and decided before the defendant was required to plead "not guilty", or make any other pleading in response, without having to admit or deny any of the facts alleged.

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Categorical imperative

Categorical imperative

The categorical imperative is the central philosophical concept in the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Introduced in Kant's 1785 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, it may be defined as a way of evaluating motivations for action. According to Kant, human beings occupy a special place in creation, and morality can be summed up in one ultimate commandment of reason, or imperative, from which all duties and obligations derive. He defined an imperative as any proposition declaring a certain action to be necessary. Hypothetical imperatives apply to someone dependent on them having certain ends to the meaning: ⁕if I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something; ⁕if I wish to acquire knowledge, I must learn. A categorical imperative, on the other hand, denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that asserts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself. It is best known in its first formulation: Kant expressed extreme dissatisfaction with the popular moral philosophy of his day, believing that it could never surpass the level of hypothetical imperatives: a utilitarian says that murder is wrong because it does not maximize good for those involved, but this is irrelevant to people who are concerned only with maximizing the positive outcome for themselves. Consequently, Kant argued, hypothetical moral systems cannot persuade moral action or be regarded as bases for moral judgments against others, because the imperatives on which they are based rely too heavily on subjective considerations. He presented a deontological moral system, based on the demands of the categorical imperative, as an alternative.

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Rotoscoping

Rotoscoping

Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over footage, frame by frame, for use in live-action and animated films. Originally, recorded live-action film images were projected onto a frosted glass panel and re-drawn by an animator. This projection equipment is called a rotoscope, although this device was eventually replaced by computers. In the visual effects industry, the term rotoscoping refers to the technique of manually creating a matte for an element on a live-action plate so it may be composited over another background.

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Remand

Remand

A remand is an action taken by an appellate court in which it sends back a case to the trial court or lower appellate court for further action. For example, if the trial judge committed a procedural error, failed to admit evidence or witnesses that the appellate court ruled should have been admitted, or ruled improperly on a litigant's motion, the appellate court may send the case back to the lower court for retrial or other action. A case is said to be "remanded" when the superior court returns or sends back the case to the lower court. Also, a court may be said to retry the case "on remand."

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Class action

Class action

In law, a class action, a class suit, or a representative action is a form of lawsuit in which a large group of people collectively bring a claim to court and/or in which a class of defendants is being sued. Class actions are commonly referred to as class action suits; however, this phrase is redundant as the historical distinction between "actions" at law and "suits" in equity is no longer recognized. This form of collective lawsuit originated in the United States and is still predominantly a U.S. phenomenon. However, in several European countries with civil law, as opposed to the Anglo-American common law system, changes have been made in recent years that allow consumer organizations to bring claims on behalf of large groups of consumers.

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Not / But

Not / But

'Not / But, or the 'not...but' element, is an acting technique that forms part of the Brechtian approach to performance. In its simplest form, fixing the not/but element involves the actor preceding each thought that is expressed by their character in the dialogue or each action performed by their character in the scene with its dialectical opposite. Rather than portraying a thought or action as 'naturally' arising from the given circumstances of the scene or 'inevitably' following from them, this technique underlines the aspect of decision in the thought or action. "He didn't say 'come in' but 'keep moving'", Brecht offers by way of example; "He was not pleased but amazed": This technique is a rehearsal exercise; the verbalizing of the alternative is not necessarily preserved in performance. Its main function is to inscribe traces of the alternatives that were available to the character at each 'nodal point' in their journey within the finished portrait in performance. The effect gives the impression of a 'sketching' in the actor's performance, in the sense that with an artist's sketch traces of alternative lines and movements are preserved, overlapping the main defining line rather than being erased. It is this quality that leads Fredric Jameson to contrast Brechtian theatre favourably with what he calls the 'well-made production', insofar as its preservation of the actor's process in the final product acts as a form of demystification and de-fetishization, and exploits a potential strength of the medium of theatre:

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Allegro Non Troppo

Allegro Non Troppo

Allegro Non Troppo is a 1976 Italian animated film directed by Bruno Bozzetto. Featuring six pieces of classical music, the film is a parody of Disney's Fantasia, two of its episodes being arguably derived from the earlier film. The classical pieces are set to color animation, ranging from comedy to deep tragedy. At the beginning, in between the animation, and at the end are black and white live-action sequences, displaying the fictional animator, orchestra, conductor and filmmaker, with many humorous scenes about the fictional production of the film. Some of these sections mix animation and live action. The film has been released in two versions, the first includes live action sequences in between the classical pieces. The second version of the film omits these, replacing them with animated plasticine letters spelling out the title of the next piece of music.

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Noether's theorem

Noether's theorem

Noether's theorem states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. The theorem was proved by German mathematician Emmy Noether in 1915 and published in 1918. The action of a physical system is the integral over time of a Lagrangian function, from which the system's behavior can be determined by the principle of least action. Noether's theorem has become a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics and the calculus of variations. A generalization of the seminal formulations on constants of motion in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, it does not apply to systems that cannot be modeled with a Lagrangian alone. In particular, dissipative systems with continuous symmetries need not have a corresponding conservation law.

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Direct marketing

Direct marketing

Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits organizations to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques that can include Cell Phone Text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. Direct marketing messages emphasize a focus on the customer, data, and accountability. Characteristics that distinguish direct marketing are: ⁕Marketing messages are addressed directly to the customer and/or customers. Direct marketing relies on being able to address the members of a target market. Addressability comes in a variety of forms including email addresses, mobile phone numbers, Web browser cookies, fax numbers and postal addresses. ⁕Direct marketing seeks to drive a specific "call to action." For example, an advertisement may ask the prospect to call a free phone number or click on a link to a website. ⁕Direct marketing emphasizes trackable, measurable responses from customers — regardless of medium. Direct marketing is practiced by businesses of all sizes — from the smallest start-up to the leaders on the Fortune 500. A well-executed direct advertising campaign can prove a positive return on investment by showing how many potential customers responded to a clear call-to-action. General advertising eschews calls-for-action in favor of messages that try to build prospects’ emotional awareness or engagement with a brand. Even well-designed general advertisements rarely can prove their impact on the organization’s bottom line.

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Breach of promise

Breach of promise

Breach of promise or heart balm is a former common law tort. It was also called breach of contract to marry. From at least medieval times until the early 20th century, a man's promise of engagement to marry a woman was considered, in many jurisdictions, a legally binding contract. If the man were to subsequently change his mind, he would be said to be in "breach" of this promise and subject to litigation for damages. The converse of this was seldom true; the concept that "it's a woman's prerogative to change her mind" had at least some basis in law —and unless an actual dowry of money or property had changed hands, a man was only rarely able to recover in a "breach of promise" suit against a woman, were he even allowed to file one. Changing social morals have led to the decline of this sort of action. Most jurisdictions, at least in the English-speaking, common law world, have become increasingly reluctant to intervene in cases of personal relationships not involving the welfare of children or actual violence. Many have repealed all laws regarding such eventualities; whereas in others the statute allowing such an action may technically remain on the books but the action has become very rare and unlikely to be pursued with any probability of success.

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Supererogation

Supererogation

Supererogation is the performance of more than is asked for, the action of doing more than duty requires. Supererogatory, in ethics, indicates an act that is good but not morally required to be done. It refers to an act that is more than necessary, when another course of action, involving less, would still be an acceptable action. It differs from a duty, which is an act that would be wrong not to do, and from acts that are morally neutral. Supererogation may be considered as performing above and beyond a normative course of duty to further benefits and functionality.

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Neurotransmission

Neurotransmission

Neurotransmission, also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a neuron, and bind to and activate the receptors of another neuron. Neurotransmission usually takes place at a synapse, and occurs when an action potential is initiated in the presynaptic neuron. The binding of neurotransmitters to receptors in the postsynaptic neuron can trigger either short term changes, like changes in the membrane potential called postsynaptic potentials, or longer term changes by the activation of signaling cascades. Nerve impulses are essential for the propagation of signals. These signals are sent to and from the central nervous system via efferent and afferent neurons in order to coordinate smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscles, bodily secretions and organ functions critical for the long-term survival of multicellular vertebrate organisms such as mammals. Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel. Each neuron receives as many as 15,000 connections from other neurons. Except in the case of an electrical synapse through a gap junction, neurons do not touch each other, they have contact points called synapses. A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse. When a nerve impulse arrives at the synapse, it releases neurotransmitters, which influence another cell, either in an inhibitory way or in an excitatory way. The next neuron may be connected to many more neurons, and if the total of excitatory influences is more than the inhibitory influences, it will also "fire", that is, it will create a new action potential at its axon hillock, in this way passing on the information to yet another next neuron, or resulting in an experience or an action.

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Abuse of process

Abuse of process

Abuse of process is a cause of action in tort arising from one party making a malicious and deliberate misuse or perversion of regularly issued court process not justified by the underlying legal action. It is a common law intentional tort. It is to be distinguished from malicious prosecution, another type of tort that involves misuse of the public right of access to the courts. The elements of a valid cause of action for abuse of process in most common law jurisdictions are as follows: the existence of an ulterior purpose or motive underlying the use of process, and some act in the use of the legal process not proper in the regular prosecution of the proceedings. Abuse of process can be distinguished from malicious prosecution, in that abuse of process typically does not require proof of malice, lack of probable cause in procuring issuance of the process, or a termination favorable to the plaintiff, all of which are essential to a claim of malicious prosecution. "Process," as used in this context, includes not only the "service of process," i.e. an official summons or other notice issued from a court, but means any method used to acquire jurisdiction over a person or specific property that is issued under the official seal of a court. Typically, the person who abuses process is interested only in accomplishing some improper purpose that is collateral to the proper object of the process and that offends justice, such as an unjustified arrest or an unfounded criminal prosecution. Subpoenas to testify, attachments of property, executions on property, garnishments, and other provisional remedies are among the types of "process" considered to be capable of abuse.

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Libel tourism

Libel tourism

Libel tourism is a term, first coined by Geoffrey Robertson, to describe forum shopping for libel suits. It particularly refers to the practice of pursuing a case in England and Wales, in preference to other jurisdictions, such as the United States, which provide more extensive defences for those accused of making derogatory statements. A critic of English defamation law, journalist Geoffrey Wheatcroft, attributes the practice to the introduction of no win no fee agreements, the presumption that derogatory statements are false, the difficulty of establishing fair comment and "the caprice of juries and the malice of judges." Wheatcroft contrasts this with United States law since the New York Times Co. v. Sullivan case. "Any American public figure bringing an action now has to prove that what was written was not only untrue but published maliciously and recklessly." Two other critics of English defamation law, the US lawyers Samuel A. Abady and Harvey Silverglate, have cited the example of Irish–Saudi businessman Khalid bin Mahfouz, who by the time of his death in 2009, had threatened suit more than 40 times in England against those who accused him of funding terrorism. Mahfouz also took legal action in Belgium, France and Switzerland against those repeating the accusations. George W. Bush advisor Richard Perle threatened to sue investigative reporter Seymour Hersh in London, because of a series of critical articles Hersh had written about him. In 2006 American actress Kate Hudson won a libel action in England against the British edition of the National Enquirer magazine after it published an article suggesting she had an eating disorder.

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Bicuculline

Bicuculline

Bicuculline is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors. It was originally identified in 1932 in plant alkaloid extracts and has been isolated from Dicentra cucullaria, Adlumia fungosa, Fumariaceae, and several Corydalis species. Since it blocks the inhibitory action of GABA receptors, the action of bicuculline mimics epilepsy. This property is utilized in laboratories across the world in the in vitro study of epilepsy, generally in hippocampal or cortical neurons in prepared brain slices from rodents. This compound is also routinely used to isolate glutamatergic receptor function. The action of bicuculline is primarily on the ionotropic GABAA receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels concerned chiefly with the passing of chloride ions across the cell membrane, thus promoting an inhibitory influence on the target neuron. These receptors are the major targets for benzodiazepines and related anxiolytic drugs. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of bicuculline on GABAA receptors is 3 μM. In addition to being a potent GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculine can be used to block Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Sensitivity to bicuculline is defined by IUPHAR as a major criterion in the definition of GABAA receptors

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Tapentadol

Tapentadol

Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is also an agonist of the σ2 receptor, though the function of this orphan receptor remains controversial. Similar to levorphanol—another opioid with serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effects—in its dual mechanism of action, tapentadol provides analgesia comparable to other opioid analgesics such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, and pethidine but with a more tolerable side effect profile. While its analgesic actions have been compared to tramadol and oxycodone, its general potency is somewhere between tramadol and morphine in effectiveness. Tapentadol is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Due to the dual mechanism of action as an opioid agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, there is also potential for off-label use in chronic pain. Physicians use SNRIs in chronic pain management to increase the effectiveness of opioids and other analgesics such as NSAIDs against neuropathic pain and from certain specific contributing causes such as fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy. One SNRI often used as an adjunct, atypical & potentiator is duloxetine.

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Moral courage

Moral courage

Moral courage is the courage to take action for moral reasons despite the risk of adverse consequences. Courage is required to take action when one has doubts or fears about the consequences. Moral courage therefore involves deliberation or careful thought. Reflex action or dogmatic fanaticism do not involve moral courage because such impulsive actions are not based upon moral reasoning. Moral courage may also require physical courage when the consequences are punishment or other bodily peril.

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Fandub

Fandub

A fandub is a fan-made dub or redub of a live-action or animated production. Dubbing is the act of re-recording of a live-action or animated production, typically in a language other than the original. Most productions are translated from different languages, but fandubs do exist for productions that were produced in the fandubber's native language. The dialogue can range from being a close translation to a completely altered version of the original script's story and plots, as well as the personalities of protagonists. The reasons behind fandubbing can range from the production not receiving an official dub to the official dub being poorly received. Fandubs are most commonly done with Japanese animation, but can include live action and animated series and movies in any language. Versions where the story line, character personalities, and content are dramatically altered, typically in a humorous manner, are called "Abridged Series" and "fundubs". Because fandubs typically use copyrighted material, fandubs face the same copyright implications as fansubs but on a different scale. There have been cases when popular fandubs, such as Yu-Gi-Oh! the Abridged series, Dragon Ball Z Abridged, and Sailor Moon Abridged are tagged by the Japanese production company for copyright use of their material. These productions are usually later re-uploaded to a new channel, and are sometimes tagged again. Despite this, gag dubs are often popular among the fan community of a particular series.

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Felicific calculus

Felicific calculus

The felicific calculus is an algorithm formulated by utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham for calculating the degree or amount of pleasure that a specific action is likely to cause. Bentham, an ethical hedonist, believed the moral rightness or wrongness of an action to be a function of the amount of pleasure or pain that it produced. The felicific calculus could, in principle at least, determine the moral status of any considered act. The algorithm is also known as the utility calculus, the hedonistic calculus and the hedonic calculus. Variables, or vectors, of the pleasures and pains included in this calculation, which Bentham called "elements" or "dimensions", were: ⁕Intensity: How strong is the pleasure? ⁕Duration: How long will the pleasure last? ⁕Certainty or uncertainty: How likely or unlikely is it that the pleasure will occur? ⁕Propinquity or remoteness: How soon will the pleasure occur? ⁕Fecundity: The probability that the action will be followed by sensations of the same kind. ⁕Purity: The probability that it will not be followed by sensations of the opposite kind. ⁕Extent: How many people will be affected?

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Play-action pass

Play-action pass

A play-action pass is a type of American football play. The play action appears to be a running play, but is actually a pass play; in this way, it can be considered the opposite of a draw play. Play-action passes are often used against defenses that are focused on stopping the run. By initially simulating a running play, the offense attempts to deceive the defense into acting on the fake run and being out of position in their pass coverage, giving receivers more time and room to be free to receive passes behind the linebackers.

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Mechanism of action

Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect. A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor. For example, the mechanism of action of aspirin involves irreversible inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, therefore suppressing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, thereby reducing pain and inflammation.

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential. The opposite of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential is an excitatory postsynaptic potential, which is a synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential. They can take place at all chemical synapses which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. Inhibitory presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters which then bind to the postsynaptic receptors; this induces a postsynaptic conductance change as ion channels open or close. An electrical current is generated which changes the postsynaptic membrane potential to create a more negative postsynaptic potential. Depolarization can also occur due to an IPSP if the reverse potential is between the resting threshold and the action potential threshold. Another way to look at inhibitory postsynaptic potentials is that they are also a chloride conductance change in the neuronal cell because it decreases the driving force.Microelectrodes can be used to measure postsynaptic potentials at either excitatory or inhibitory synapses.

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Power Rangers

Power Rangers

Power Rangers is a long-running American entertainment and merchandising franchise built around a live action children's television series featuring teams of costumed heroes. Produced first by Saban Entertainment, later by BVS Entertainment, and currently by SCG Power Rangers LLC, the television series takes much of its footage from the Japanese tokusatsu Super Sentai, produced by Toei Company. Its first entry, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, debuted on August 28, 1993, and helped launch the Fox Kids programming block of the 1990s, during which it catapulted into popular culture along with a line of action figures and other toys by Bandai. Despite initial criticism for its action violence targeted to child audiences, the franchise has continued, and as of 2013 the show consists of 20 television seasons of 17 different themed series and two theatrical films. Creator Haim Saban regained ownership of the franchise in 2010 after seven years under The Walt Disney Company. The current season Power Rangers Megaforce debuted in the United States on February 2, 2013.

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Transformers

Transformers

Transformers is a 2007 American science fiction action film based on the Transformers toy line. The film, which combines computer animation with live-action, is directed by Michael Bay, with Steven Spielberg serving as executive producer. It is the first installment of the live-action Transformers film series. It stars Shia LaBeouf as Sam Witwicky, a teenager involved in a war between the heroic Autobots and the evil Decepticons, two factions of alien robots who can disguise themselves by transforming into everyday machinery. The Decepticons desire control of the AllSpark, the object that created their robotic race, with the intention of using it to build an army by giving life to the machines of Earth. Tyrese Gibson, Josh Duhamel, Anthony Anderson, Megan Fox, Rachael Taylor, John Turturro and Jon Voight also star, while voice actors Peter Cullen and Hugo Weaving voice Optimus Prime and Megatron respectively. The film was produced by Don Murphy and Tom DeSanto. They developed the project in 2003, and DeSanto wrote a treatment. Steven Spielberg came on board the following year, hiring Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman to write the screenplay. The U.S. military and General Motors loaned vehicles and aircraft during filming, which saved money for the production and added realism to the battle scenes.

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Action Force

Action Force

Action Force was a 1980's range of European action figures initially based on Action Man and later used to introduce G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toys to European markets. Several publishing companies have produced comic books based on the figures.

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B. F. Skinner

B. F. Skinner

Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box. He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action. If the consequences were bad, there was a high chance that the action would not be repeated; however if the consequences were good, the actions that lead to it would be reinforced. He called this the principle of reinforcement. He innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior. His analysis of human behavior culminated in his work Verbal Behavior, as well as his philosophical manifesto Walden Two, both of which have recently seen enormous increase in interest experimentally and in applied settings. Contemporary academia considers Skinner a pioneer of modern behaviorism along with John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov.

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Coastal erosion

Coastal erosion

Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents or drainage. Waves, generated by storms, wind, or fast moving motor craft, cause coastal erosion, which may take the form of long-term losses of sediment and rocks, or merely the temporary redistribution of coastal sediments; erosion in one location may result in accretion nearby. The study of erosion and sediment redistribution is called 'coastal morphodynamics'. It may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion, impact and corrosion. On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in dramatic rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which typically result in landforms such as tunnels, bridges, columns, and pillars. Also abrasion commonly happens in areas where there are strong winds,loose sand,and soft rocks.The blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates a sandblasting effects. This effect helps to erode,smooth and polish rocks.The definition of abrasion is grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles.

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Health belief model

Health belief model

The health belief model is a psychological health behavior change model developed to explain and predict heath-related behaviors, particularly in regard to the uptake of health services. The health belief model was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists at the U.S. Public Health Service and remains one of the most well-known and widely used theories in health behavior resesarch. The health belief model suggests that people's beliefs about health problems, perceived benefits of action and barriers to action, and self-efficacy explain engagement in health-promoting behavior. A stimulus, or cue to action, must also be present in order to trigger the health-promoting behavior.

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Action hero

Action hero

The archetypal action hero is the protagonist of an action movie or other entertainment which portrays action and adventure. Other media in which such heroes appear include swashbuckler films, Westerns on television, old-time radio, adventure novels, dime novels, pulp magazines, and folklore.

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Ground reaction force

Ground reaction force

In physics, and in particular in biomechanics, the ground reaction force is the force exerted by the ground on a body in contact with it. For example, a person standing motionless on the ground exerts a contact force on it and at the same time an equal and opposite ground reaction force is exerted by the ground on the person. In the above example, the ground reaction force coincides with the notion of a normal force. However, in a more general case, the GRF will also have a component parallel to the ground, for example when the person is walking – a motion that requires the exchange of horizontal forces with the ground. The use of the word reaction derives from Newton's third law, which essentially states that if a force, called action, acts upon a body, then an equal and opposite force, called reaction, must act upon another body. The force exerted by the ground is conventionally referred to as the reaction, although, since the distinction between action and reaction is completely arbitrary, the expression ground action would be, in principle, equally acceptable. The component of the GRF parallel to the surface is the frictional force.

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Action

Action

a process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something; exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one body by another; agency; activity; operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action

— Webster Dictionary

Action

Action

a right of action; as, the law gives an action for every claim

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Action

Action

an engagement between troops in war, whether on land or water; a battle; a fight; as, a general action, a partial action

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Active

Active

given to action; constantly engaged in action; energetic; diligent; busy; -- opposed to dull, sluggish, indolent, or inert; as, an active man of business; active mind; active zeal

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Actuate

Actuate

to put into action or motion; to move or incite to action; to influence actively; to move as motives do; -- more commonly used of persons

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Agency

Agency

the faculty of acting or of exerting power; the state of being in action; action; instrumentality

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Associate

Associate

to unite in action, or to be affected by the action of a different part of the body

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-ation

-ation

a suffix forming nouns of action, and often equivalent to the verbal substantive in -ing. It sometimes has the further meanings of state, and that which results from the action. Many of these nouns have verbs in -ate; as, alliterate -ation, narrate -ation; many are derived through the French; as, alteration, visitation; and many are formed on verbs ending in the Greek formative -ize (Fr. -ise); as, civilization, demoralization

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Begin

Begin

to do the first act or the first part of an action; to enter upon or commence something new, as a new form or state of being, or course of action; to take the first step; to start

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Byplay

Byplay

action carried on aside, and commonly in dumb show, while the main action proceeds

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Cause

Cause

a suit or action in court; any legal process by which a party endeavors to obtain his claim, or what he regards as his right; case; ground of action

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Coordinate

Coordinate

to give a common action, movement, or condition to; to regulate and combine so as to produce harmonious action; to adjust; to harmonize; as, to coordinate muscular movements

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Demurrer

Demurrer

a stop or pause by a party to an action, for the judgment of the court on the question, whether, assuming the truth of the matter alleged by the opposite party, it is sufficient in law to sustain the action or defense, and hence whether the party resting is bound to answer or proceed further

— Webster Dictionary

Dextrose

Dextrose

a sirupy, or white crystalline, variety of sugar, C6H12O6 (so called from turning the plane of polarization to the right), occurring in many ripe fruits. Dextrose and levulose are obtained by the inversion of cane sugar or sucrose, and hence called invert sugar. Dextrose is chiefly obtained by the action of heat and acids on starch, and hence called also starch sugar. It is also formed from starchy food by the action of the amylolytic ferments of saliva and pancreatic juice

— Webster Dictionary

Discontinuance

Discontinuance

the termination of an action in practice by the voluntary act of the plaintiff; an entry on the record that the plaintiff discontinues his action

— Webster Dictionary

Do

Do

to perform, as an action; to execute; to transact to carry out in action; as, to do a good or a bad act; do our duty; to do what I can

— Webster Dictionary

Embarrass

Embarrass

to hinder from freedom of thought, speech, or action by something which impedes or confuses mental action; to perplex; to discompose; to disconcert; as, laughter may embarrass an orator

— Webster Dictionary

-ence

-ence

a noun suffix signifying action, state, or quality; also, that which relates to the action or state; as in emergence, diffidence, diligence, influence, difference, excellence. See -ance

— Webster Dictionary

Enigma

Enigma

an action, mode of action, or thing, which cannot be satisfactorily explained; a puzzle; as, his conduct is an enigma

— Webster Dictionary

Excitement

Excitement

the act of exciting, or the state of being roused into action, or of having increased action; impulsion; agitation; as, an excitement of the people

— Webster Dictionary

Excito-secretory

Excito-secretory

exciting secretion; -- said of the influence exerted by reflex action on the function of secretion, by which the various glands are excited to action

— Webster Dictionary

Exercise

Exercise

to set in action; to cause to act, move, or make exertion; to give employment to; to put in action habitually or constantly; to school or train; to exert repeatedly; to busy

— Webster Dictionary

Fermentation

Fermentation

the process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.), the transformation of an organic substance into new compounds by the action of a ferment, either formed or unorganized. It differs in kind according to the nature of the ferment which causes it

— Webster Dictionary

Figure

Figure

a person, thing, or action, conceived of as analogous to another person, thing, or action, of which it thus becomes a type or representative

— Webster Dictionary

Force

Force

strength or power for war; hence, a body of land or naval combatants, with their appurtenances, ready for action; -- an armament; troops; warlike array; -- often in the plural; hence, a body of men prepared for action in other ways; as, the laboring force of a plantation

— Webster Dictionary

Impulse

Impulse

the action of a force during a very small interval of time; the effect of such action; as, the impulse of a sudden blow upon a hard elastic body

— Webster Dictionary

Incentive

Incentive

that which moves or influences the mind, or operates on the passions; that which incites, or has a tendency to incite, to determination or action; that which prompts to good or ill; motive; spur; as, the love of money, and the desire of promotion, are two powerful incentives to action

— Webster Dictionary

Intransitive

Intransitive

not transitive; not passing over to an object; expressing an action or state that is limited to the agent or subject, or, in other words, an action which does not require an object to complete the sense; as, an intransitive verb, e. g., the bird flies; the dog runs

— Webster Dictionary

Matter

Matter

that with regard to, or about which, anything takes place or is done; the thing aimed at, treated of, or treated; subject of action, discussion, consideration, feeling, complaint, legal action, or the like; theme

— Webster Dictionary

Mediation

Mediation

the act of mediating; action or relation of anything interposed; action as a necessary condition, means, or instrument; interposition; intervention

— Webster Dictionary

Multiplier

Multiplier

an instrument for multiplying or increasing by repetition or accumulation the intensity of a force or action, as heat or electricity. It is particularly used to render such a force or action appreciable or measurable when feeble. See Thermomultiplier

— Webster Dictionary

Passage

Passage

in parliamentary proceedings: (a) The course of a proposition (bill, resolution, etc.) through the several stages of consideration and action; as, during its passage through Congress the bill was amended in both Houses. (b) The advancement of a bill or other proposition from one stage to another by an affirmative vote; esp., the final affirmative action of the body upon a proposition; hence, adoption; enactment; as, the passage of the bill to its third reading was delayed

— Webster Dictionary

Peptone

Peptone

the soluble and diffusible substance or substances into which albuminous portions of the food are transformed by the action of the gastric and pancreatic juices. Peptones are also formed from albuminous matter by the action of boiling water and boiling dilute acids

— Webster Dictionary

Performance

Performance

the act of performing; the carrying into execution or action; execution; achievement; accomplishment; representation by action; as, the performance of an undertaking of a duty

— Webster Dictionary

Plaint

Plaint

a private memorial tendered to a court, in which a person sets forth his cause of action; the exhibiting of an action in writing

— Webster Dictionary

Play

Play

to bring into sportive or wanton action; to exhibit in action; to execute; as, to play tricks

— Webster Dictionary

Pluperfect

Pluperfect

more than perfect; past perfect; -- said of the tense which denotes that an action or event was completed at or before the time of another past action or event

— Webster Dictionary

Preclude

Preclude

to shut out by anticipative action; to prevent or hinder by necessary consequence or implication; to deter action of, access to, employment of, etc.; to render ineffectual; to obviate by anticipation

— Webster Dictionary

Prompt

Prompt

to assist or induce the action of; to move to action; to instigate; to incite

— Webster Dictionary

Reaction

Reaction

the mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other, or the action upon such chemical agents of some form of energy, as heat, light, or electricity, resulting in a chemical change in one or more of these agents, with the production of new compounds or the manifestation of distinctive characters. See Blowpipe reaction, Flame reaction, under Blowpipe, and Flame

— Webster Dictionary


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