Definitions containing ælia`nus, claudius

We've found 79 definitions:

Claudia

Claudia

, feminine form of Claudius.

— Wiktionary

Tacitus

Tacitus

Marcus Claudius Tacitus (c.200-275), a Roman emperor.

— Wiktionary

Ptolemaic

Ptolemaic

Of or pertaining to the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy.

— Wiktionary

Nus

Nus

Nus is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of northern Italy.

— Freebase

Julian

Julian

The Roman emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus or Julian the Apostate.

— Wiktionary

Aure`lius, Marcus

Aure`lius, Marcus

. See Antoni`nus.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gertrude

Gertrude

In William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlet's mother and Queen of Denmark. Her relationship with Hamlet is somewhat turbulent, since he resents her for marrying her husband's brother Claudius after he murdered the King. Gertrude reveals no guilt in her marriage with Claudius after the recent murder of her husband, and Hamlet begins to show signs of jealousy towards Claudius. According to Hamlet, she scarcely mourned her husband's death before marrying Claudius.

— Freebase

Minus

Minus

Minus or M-nus is a recording label based in Berlin, Germany and Windsor, Canada. It was created in 1998 by Richie Hawtin when Plus 8, a label previously created by Hawtin, was put on hold. By 2005, M-nus was releasing 2 to 3 CDs and 12 to 14 records per year. As Hawtin said of the scaling down to a smaller label, "You learn better who you are, what you are, and how to better present that and present it creatively. With Minus, we wanted to slow it down and try new things…" In 2011 Hawtin's music technology company Liine released Remiix Minus, a remix-app for iOS which enables fans to recombine loops and samples from Minus artists.

— Freebase

Claudius Gothicus

Claudius Gothicus

Claudius II, commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman Emperor from 268 to 270. During his reign he fought successfully against the Alamanni and scored a crushing victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. He died after succumbing to a plague that ravaged the provinces of the Empire.

— Freebase

agrippina

Agrippina, Agrippina the Younger

wife who poisoned Claudius after her son Nero was declared heir and who was then put to death by Nero

— Princeton's WordNet

agrippina the younger

Agrippina, Agrippina the Younger

wife who poisoned Claudius after her son Nero was declared heir and who was then put to death by Nero

— Princeton's WordNet

Britannicus

Britannicus

Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina. He became the heir-designate of the empire at his birth, less than a month into his father's reign. He was still a young boy at the time of his mother's downfall and Claudius' marriage to Agrippina the Younger. This allowed Agrippina's older son Nero to eclipse him in the public's mind. He lived only months into his step brother Nero's reign, and was probably murdered just before his 14th birthday.

— Freebase

Germanicus

Germanicus

Germanicus Julius Caesar, commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. His own campaigns in Germania made him famous after avenging the defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest and retrieving the legion's eagles lost during the battle. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero.

— Freebase

claudius

Claudius, Claudius I, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus

Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered; consolidated the Roman Empire and conquered southern Britain; was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina after her son Nero was named as Claudius' heir (10 BC to AD 54)

— Princeton's WordNet

claudius i

Claudius, Claudius I, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus

Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered; consolidated the Roman Empire and conquered southern Britain; was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina after her son Nero was named as Claudius' heir (10 BC to AD 54)

— Princeton's WordNet

tiberius claudius drusus nero germanicus

Claudius, Claudius I, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus

Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered; consolidated the Roman Empire and conquered southern Britain; was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina after her son Nero was named as Claudius' heir (10 BC to AD 54)

— Princeton's WordNet

Britannicus

Britannicus

the son of Claudius and Messalina, poisoned by Nero.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Livia

Livia

Livia Drusilla, after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14 also known as Julia Augusta, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser. She was the mother of the emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the emperor Claudius, paternal great-grandmother of the emperor Caligula, and maternal great-great-grandmother of the emperor Nero. She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta.

— Freebase

Labyrinth Supporting Cells

Labyrinth Supporting Cells

Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Robert Graves

Robert Graves

Robert von Ranke Graves was an English poet, scholar/translator/writer of antiquity specializing in Classical Greece and Rome, and novelist. During his long life he produced more than 140 works. Graves's poems—together with his translations and innovative analysis and interpretations of the Greek myths, his memoir of his early life, including his role in the First World War, Good-Bye to All That, and his speculative study of poetic inspiration, The White Goddess—have never been out of print. He earned his living from writing, particularly popular historical novels such as I, Claudius, King Jesus, The Golden Fleece, and Count Belisarius. He also was a prominent translator of Classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts; his versions of The Twelve Caesars and The Golden Ass remain popular today for their clarity and entertaining style. Graves was awarded the 1934 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for both I, Claudius and Claudius the God.

— Freebase

Ap`pian Way

Ap`pian Way

a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius, 312 B.C., and finished by Augustus, from Rome to Brundusium.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Polonius

Polonius

Polonius is a character in William Shakespeare's Hamlet. He is King Claudius's chief counsellor, and the father of Ophelia and Laertes. Polonius connives with Claudius to spy on Hamlet. Hamlet unknowingly kills Polonius, provoking Ophelia's fit of madness and death and the climax of the play: a duel between Laertes and Hamlet. Generally regarded as wrong in every judgement he makes over the course of the play, Polonius is described by William Hazlitt as a "sincere" father, but also "a busy-body, [who] is accordingly officious, garrulous, and impertinent." In Act II Hamlet refers to Polonius as a "tedious old fool" and taunts him as a latter day "Jeptha".

— Freebase

Claudius

Claudius

Claudius was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37. Claudius' infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Claudius was also mentioned by Luke the Evangelist in Acts 11:28 and Acts 18:2 of the New Testament. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire conquered Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia and Judaea, and began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day.

— Freebase

Gardenesque

Gardenesque

The term gardenesque was introduced by John Claudius Loudon in 1832 to describe a style of planting design in accordance with his 'Principle of Recognition'.

— Freebase

Tiberius

Tiberius

Tiberius was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, great-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-great uncle of Nero. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."

— Freebase

Thracia

Thracia

Thracia was the name of a province of the Roman Empire. It was established in AD 46, when the former Roman client state of Thrace was annexed by order of emperor Claudius.

— Freebase

Agrippina the Younger

Agrippina the Younger

Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of the Emperor Tiberius, sister of the Emperor Caligula, niece and fourth wife of the Emperor Claudius, and mother of the Emperor Nero. Agrippina the Younger has been described by both the ancient and modern sources as ‘ruthless, ambitious, violent and domineering’. She was a beautiful and reputable woman and according to Pliny the Elder, she had a double canine in her upper right jaw, a sign of good fortune. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Emperor Claudius, though accounts vary.

— Freebase

Herodes Atticus

Herodes Atticus

Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes, otherwise known as Herodes Atticus was a very distinguished, rich Greek aristocrat who served as a Roman Senator and a sophist. He is notable as a proponent in the Second Sophistic by Philostratus.

— Freebase

Caratacus

Caratacus

Caratacus was a first-century British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. Before the Roman invasion Caratacus is associated with the expansion of his tribe's territory. His apparent success led to Roman invasion, nominally in support of his defeated enemies. He resisted the Romans for almost a decade, mixing guerrilla warfare with set-piece battles, but was unsuccessful in the latter. After his final defeat he fled to the territory of Queen Cartimandua, who captured him and handed him over to the Romans. He was sentenced to death as a military prisoner, but made a speech before his execution that persuaded the Emperor Claudius to spare him. The legendary Welsh character Caradog ap Bran and the legendary British king Arvirargus may be based upon Caratacus. Caratacus's speech to Claudius has been a common subject in art.

— Freebase

50s

50s

This is a list of events occurring in the 50s, ordered by year. Cologne is raised to the status of a city. Romans learn the use of soap from the Gauls. Utrecht is founded, a Roman fortification is constructed at the Rhine border in the present-day Netherlands. Claudius adopts Nero. In Judea a Roman soldier seized and burned a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus had the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula begins his campaign against the recalcitrant Silures of south Wales, who are led by the former Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus. London, Exeter, Tripontium and the fort of Manduessedum are founded. Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. Romans built a wooden bridge across the Thames in the London area. The Iazyges settle in the Hungarian plain to the east of the Tisza River. The Tocharian or Yue-Chi tribes are united under the Kushan leader Kujula Kadphises, thus creating the Kushan Empire in Afghanistan and northern India. San Bartolo pyramid is completed around this time.

— Freebase

Crispus

Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina.

— Freebase

Flavius Julius Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus

Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina.

— Freebase

Clodius

Clodius

Clodius is an alternate form of the Roman nomen Claudius, a patrician gens that was traditionally regarded as Sabine in origin. The alternation of o and au is characteristic of the Sabine dialect. The feminine form is Clodia.

— Freebase

Phaedrus

Phaedrus

Phaedrus, Roman fabulist, was probably a Thracian slave, born in Pydna of Macedonia and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius. He is recognized as the first writer to Latinize entire books of fables, retelling in iambic metre the Greek prose Aesopic tales.

— Freebase

50-59

50-59

This is a list of events occurring in the 50s, ordered by year. ⁕Cologne is raised to the status of a city. ⁕Romans learn the use of soap from the Gauls. ⁕Utrecht is founded, a Roman fortification is constructed at the Rhine border in the present-day Netherlands. ⁕Claudius adopts Nero. ⁕In Judea a Roman soldier seized and burned a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus had the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt ⁕In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula begins his campaign against the recalcitrant Silures of south Wales, who are led by the former Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus. London, Exeter, Tripontium and the fort of Manduessedum are founded. ⁕Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. ⁕Romans built a wooden bridge across the Thames in the London area. ⁕The Iazyges settle in the Hungarian plain to the east of the Tisza River. ⁕The Tocharian or Yue-Chi tribes are united under the Kushan leader Kujula Kadphises, thus creating the Kushan Empire in Afghanistan and northern India.

— Freebase

Cor`bulo

Cor`bulo

a distinguished general under Claudius and Nero, who conquered the Parthians; Nero, being jealous of him, invited him to Corinth, where he found a death-warrant awaiting him, upon which he plunged his sword into his breast and exclaimed, "Well deserved!" in 72 A.D.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Claudian

Claudian

Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian, was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum, and particularly with the general Stilicho. His work, written almost entirely in hexameters or elegiac couplets, falls into three main categories, poems for Honorius, poems for Stilicho, and mythological epic.

— Freebase

Caractacus

Caractacus

a British chief, king of the Silures, maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years, but was overthrown by Ostorius, 50 A.D., taken captive, and led in triumphal procession through Rome, when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour, that he set him and all his companions at liberty.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Valeria Messalina

Valeria Messalina

Valeria Messalina, sometimes spelled Messallina, was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Claudius. She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered.

— Freebase

Ephebus

Ephebus

As well as being a general epithet, Ephebus often occurs as an individual name, as in the cases of: ⁕Ephebus, a martyr from Terni, a city in central Italy ⁕Claudius Ephebus, mentioned in the first letter of Clement to the Corinthians, chapter 59, as a messenger of the church of Rome, sent to the Church of Corinth along with Valerius Bito and Fortunatus ⁕St. Euphebius, a bishop of Naples.

— Freebase

Felix, Claudius

Felix, Claudius

a Roman procurator of Judæa in the time of Claudius and Nero; is referred to in Acts xxiii. and xxiv. as having examined the Apostle Paul and listened to his doctrines; was vicious in his habits, and formed an adulterous union with Drusilla, said by Tacitus to have been the granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra; was recalled in A.D. 62.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Julia Drusilla

Julia Drusilla

Julia Drusilla was a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child to survive infancy of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, and sister of the Emperor Caligula. Drusilla also had two sisters and two other brothers. She was also a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, grand-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, niece of the Emperor Claudius, and aunt of the Emperor Nero.

— Freebase

Appian Way

Appian Way

The Appian Way was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, Apulia, in southeast Italy. Its importance is indicated by its common name, recorded by Statius: The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus, the Roman censor who began and completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BCE during the Samnite Wars.

— Freebase

Nero

Nero

Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death. During his reign, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and enhancing the cultural life of the Empire. He ordered theaters built and promoted athletic games. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the Empire and began the First Roman–Jewish War. In 64, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68 His death ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance. He is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus.

— Freebase

Nero

Nero

Roman emperor from A.D. 54 to 68, born at Antium, son of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and of Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus; after the murder of Claudius, instigated by Agrippina, who 4 years previously had become the emperor's wife, Nero seized the throne, excluding Britannicus, the rightful heir; during the first 5 years of his reign his old tutors, Seneca and Burrus, were his advisers in a wise and temperate policy, but gradually his innate tendency to vice broke through all restraint, and hurried him into a course of profligacy and crime; Britannicus was put to death, his mother and wife, Octavia, were subsequent victims, and in 64 numbers of Christians suffered death, with every refinement of torture, on a trumped-up charge of having caused the great burning of Rome, suspicion of which rested on Nero himself; a year later Seneca and the poet Lucan were executed as conspirators, and, having kicked to death his wife Poppæa, then far advanced in pregnancy, he offered his hand to Octavia, daughter of Claudius, and because she declined his suit ordered her death; these and many other similar crimes brought on inevitable rebellion; Spain and Gaul declared in favour of Galba; the Prætorian Guards followed suit; Nero fled from Rome, and sought refuge in suicide (37-68).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Germanicus, Cæsar

Germanicus, Cæsar

Roman general, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony; he served with distinction under his uncle Tiberius in Dalmatia and Pannonia; was awarded a triumph, and in A.D. 12 was elected consul; his success and popularity as leader of the army on the Rhine provoked the jealousy of Tiberius, who transferred him to the East, where he subsequently died; his son Caligula succeeded Tiberius on the imperial throne (15 B.C.-A.D. 19).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ptolemaic System

Ptolemaic System

the highly complex system of astronomy ascribed to Claudius Ptolemy, which assumed that the earth was the centre of a sphere which carried the heavenly bodies along in its daily revolution, accounted for the revolutions of the sun and moon by supposing they moved in eccentric circles round the earth, and regarded the planets as moving in epicycles round a point which itself revolved in an eccentric circle round the earth like the sun and moon.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Hamlet

Hamlet

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the play dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet, Claudius's brother and Prince Hamlet's father, and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude, the old king's widow and Prince Hamlet's mother. The play vividly portrays both true and feigned madness – from overwhelming grief to seething rage – and explores themes of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in English literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others." The play was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most-performed, topping the Royal Shakespeare Company's performance list since 1879. It has inspired writers from Goethe and Dickens to Joyce and Murdoch, and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella". Shakespeare based Hamlet on the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum as subsequently retold by 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest. He may also have drawn on or perhaps written an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet. He almost certainly created the title role for Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since, the role has been performed by highly acclaimed actors and actresses from each successive age.

— Freebase

Galen

Galen

or Claudius Galenus, a famous Greek physician, born at Pergamus, in Illyria, where, after studying in various cities, he settled in 158; subsequently he went to Rome, and eventually became physician to the emperors M. Aurelius, L. Verus, and Severus; of his voluminous writings 83 treatises are still extant, and these treat on a varied array of subjects, philosophical as well as professional; for centuries after his death his works were accepted as authoritative in the matter of medicine (131-201).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Arboretum

Arboretum

An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum, and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include salicetums, populetums, and quercetums. The term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was already long-established by then.

— Freebase

Agrippina the Elder

Agrippina the Elder

Vipsania Agrippina or most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder was a distinguished and prominent Roman woman of the first century AD. Agrippina was the wife of the general and statesman Germanicus and a relative to the first Roman Emperors. She was the second granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law, stepdaughter and daughter-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, mother of the Emperor Caligula, maternal second cousin and sister-in-law of the Emperor Claudius and the maternal grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

— Freebase

Catoblepas

Catoblepas

The catoblepas is a legendary creature from Ethiopia, described first by Pliny the Elder and later by Claudius Aelianus. It is said to have the body of a buffalo and the head of a wild boar. Its back has scales that protect the beast, and its head is always pointing downwards due to its head being heavy. Its stare or breath could either turn people into stone, or kill them. The catoblepas is often thought to be based on real-life encounters with wildebeest, such that some dictionaries say that the word is synonymous with "gnu".

— Freebase

Livy

Livy

Titus Livius Patavinus —known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people. Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Books from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time. He was on familiar terms with the Julio-Claudian family, advising Augustus's grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, as a young man not long before 14 AD in a letter to take up the writing of history. Livy and Augustus's wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood.

— Freebase

Hibernia

Hibernia

Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland. The name Hibernia was taken from Greek geographical accounts. During his exploration of northwest Europe, Pytheas of Massilia called the island Iérnē. In his book Geographia, Claudius Ptolemaeus called the island Iouerníā. The Roman historian Tacitus, in his book Agricola, uses the name Hibernia. The Romans also sometimes used Scotia, "land of the Scoti", as a geographical term for Ireland in general, as well as just the part inhabited by those people. Iouerníā was a Greek alteration of the Q-Celtic name *Īweriū from which eventually arose the Irish names Ériu and Éire. The original meaning of the name is thought to be "abundant land".

— Freebase

Cineas

Cineas

In Roman history, Cineas was a minister of Thessaly and friend of King Pyrrhus of Epirus. In the war with Rome, after his victory in the Battle of Heraclea, Pyrrhus sent Cineas to Rome to sue for peace. The Roman Senate would not agree to cease hostilities, mainly because the words of Appius Claudius Caecus whom in 280 BC, after he had gone blind, gave a famous speech against Cineas, declaring that Rome would never surrender. This was the first recorded political speech in Latin, and is the source of the saying "every man is the architect of his own fortune". Cineas, however, told Pyrrhus that the Senate was an assemblage of venerable kings and that fighting with them was like fighting against the Hydra. Cineas was also a man of great memory. One day after arriving in Rome, he could greet each senator and guard by name.

— Freebase

Clime

Clime

Clime is a concept of Greek geography referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon, and the terrestrial latitude characterized by this angle. In most cases, it can safely be translated as “latitude”. Normally, klimata were defined by the length of the longest daylight and associated with specific geographical locations. Different lists of klimata were in use in Hellenistic and Roman time. Claudius Ptolemy was the first ancient scientist known to have devised the so-called system of seven klimata which, due to his authority, became one of the canonical elements of late antique, medieval European and Arab geography. Klimata should not be confused with climatic zones. Traditionally, starting with Aristotle, the Earth was divided into five zones, assuming two frigid climes around the poles, an uninhabitable torrid clime near the equator, and two temperate climes between the frigid and the torrid ones.

— Freebase

Tacitus

Tacitus

Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War in AD 70. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Other writings by him discuss oratory, Germania, and the life of his father-in-law, Agricola, the Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain, mainly focusing on his campaign in Britannia. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature. He is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics.

— Freebase

Amanita phalloides

Amanita phalloides

Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Widely distributed across Europe, A. phalloides forms ectomycorrhizas with various broadleaved trees. In some cases, the death cap has been introduced to new regions with the cultivation of non-native species of oak, chestnut, and pine. The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn; the caps are generally greenish in color, with a white stipe and gills. These toxic mushrooms resemble several edible species commonly consumed by humans, increasing the risk of accidental poisoning. A. phalloides is one of the most poisonous of all known toadstools. It has been involved in the majority of human deaths from mushroom poisoning, possibly including the deaths of Roman Emperor Claudius and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It has been the subject of much research, and many of its biologically active agents have been isolated. The principal toxic constituent is α-amanitin, which damages the liver and kidneys, often fatally.

— Freebase

Phantosmia

Phantosmia

Phantosmia is a form of olfactory hallucination. While most olfactory hallucinations are caused by a misinterpretation of a physical stimulus, such as in the case of parosmia, phantosmia is the perception of a smell in the absence of any physical odors. The odor can range from pleasant to a disgusting smell. Although the causes of phantosmia are debated, it is often comorbid with psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, neuroblastoma, and frequent migraines. Claudius Galenus also mentioned olfactory hallucinations in his work and stated that these hallucinations constitute the signs of an oncoming disease. Different types of phantosmia include unirhinal, episodic, recurrent phantosmia, where the activation of brain's GABAergic system seems to play a role in the inhibition of the unirhinal phantosmia. Treatments for phantosmia range from drug therapies and brain stimulation therapies to invasive surgical procedures involving removal of the olfactory bulbs or olfactory epithelium. The word phantosmia is a noun of Greek origin. It is composed of two words: phanto meaning phantom and osmia-Greek: osme meaning smell.

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Saeculum

Saeculum

A saeculum is a length of time roughly equal to the potential lifetime of a person or the equivalent of the complete renewal of a human population. The term was first used by the Etruscans. Originally it meant the period of time from the moment that something happened until the point in time that all people who had lived at the first moment had died. At that point a new saeculum would start. According to legend, the gods had allotted a certain number of saecula to every people or civilization; the Etruscans themselves, for example, had been given ten saecula. By the 2nd century BC, Roman historians were using the saeculum to periodize their chronicles and track wars. At the time of the reign of emperor Augustus, the Romans decided that a saeculum was 110 years. In 17 BC Caesar Augustus organised Ludi saeculares for the first time to celebrate the 'fifth saeculum of Rome'. Later emperors like Claudius and Septimius Severus have celebrated the passing of saecula with games at irregular intervals. In 248, Philip the Arab combined Ludi saeculares with the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome 'ab urbe condita'. The new millennium that Rome entered was called the Saeculum Novum, a term that got a metaphysical connotation in Christianity, referring to the worldly age.

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Locusta

Locusta

Locusta was notorious in Ancient Rome for her skill in concocting poisons. According to ancient historians, in CE 54 Locusta was hired by Agrippina the Younger to supply a poisoned dish of mushrooms for the murder of Emperor Claudius. In 55, she was convicted of poisoning another victim, but Nero rescued her from execution and in return called upon her to supply poison to murder Britannicus. Nero rewarded her with a vast estate and even sent pupils to her. When Nero fled Rome, he acquired poison from Locusta for his own use, but ultimately died by other means. After Nero's suicide, Locusta was condemned to die by the emperor Galba during his brief reign, which ended 15 January CE 69. Locusta's career is described by the ancient historians Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio. Juvenal also mentions Locusta in Book 1, line 71 of his Satires. In The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas the poisoner Madame de Villefort is frequently compared to Locusta and one of the chapters is entitled 'Locusta'.

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Virtus

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the deity of bravery and military strength, the personification of the Roman virtue of virtus. The Greek equivalent deity was Arete. He/she was identified with the Roman god Honos, and was often honoured together with him. As reported in Valerius Maximus, this joint cult led to plans in 210 BC by Marcus Claudius Marcellus to erect a joint temple for them both. This led to objections from the pontifical college that, if a miracle should occur in such a temple, the priests would not know to which of the two gods to offer the sacrifice in thanks for it. Marcellus therefore erected a temple for Virtus alone which was the only way in to a separate temple of Honos, financing them both with the loot from his sacking of Syracuse and defeats of the Gauls. This temple was at the Porta Capena, and later renovated by Vespasian. This deity was represented in a variety of ways - for example, on the coins of Tetricus, it can appear as a matron, an old man, or a young man, with a javelin or only clothed in a cape. Within the realm of funerary reliefs Virtus is never shown without a male companion. Often her presence within this realm of art is to compliment and provide assistance to the protagonist of the relief during a scene of intense masculinity or bravery.

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Congius

Congius

In Ancient Roman measurement, congius was a liquid measure that was about 3.48 litres. It was equal to the larger chous of the Ancient Greeks. The congius contained six sextarii. Cato tells us that he was wont to give each of his slaves a congius of wine at the Saturnalia and Compitalia. Pliny relates, among other examples of hard drinking, that a Novellius Torquatus of Mediolanum obtained a cognomen by drinking three congii of wine at once: The Roman system of weights and measures, including the congius, was introduced to Britain in the 1st century by Emperor Claudius. Following the Anglo-Saxon invasions of the 4th and 5th century, Roman units were, for the most part, replaced with North German units. Following the conversion of England to Christianity in the 7th century, Latin became the language of state. From this time on the word "congius" is simply the Latin word for gallon. Thus we find the word congius mentioned in a charter of Edmund I in 946. In Apothecary Measures, the Latin Congius is used for the Queen Anne gallon of 231 cubic inches, also known as the US gallon.

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Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was the son and only child of consul Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Aemilia Lepida. His mother was a paternal relative of the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. His paternal grandmother was Porcia Catonis. As a young man Lucius was a renowned and devoted charioteer, perhaps to the point of obsession. He was betrothed in 36 BC, at the meeting of Octavianus and Mark Antony at Tarentum, to Antonia Major, the daughter of the latter by Octavia. He was aedile in 22 BC, and consul in 16 BC. After his consulship, he served as governor of Africa from 13/12 BC. He was later probably the successor of Tiberius in Germania, where he commanded the Roman army and crossed the Elbe, during which he set up an altar to Augustus, and penetrated further into the country than any of his predecessors had done. He also built a walkway, called the pontes longi, over the marshes between the Rhine River and the Ems River. For these achievements he received the insignia of a triumph. He died in 25. He was the paternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero and the maternal grandfather of Valeria Messalina, third wife of the Emperor Claudius.

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Ptolemy

Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Greek, and held Roman citizenship. Beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in an uncorroborated statement by the 14th century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is very late, however, and there is no other reason to suppose that he ever lived anywhere else than Alexandria, where he died around AD 168. Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest. The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise known sometimes in Greek as the Apotelesmatika, more commonly in Greek as the Tetrabiblos, and in Latin as the Quadripartitum in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.

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Almagest

Almagest

The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths. Written in Greek by Claudius Ptolemy, a Roman era scholar of Egypt, it is one of the most influential scientific texts of all time, with its geocentric model accepted for more than twelve hundred years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus. The Almagest is the critical source of information on ancient Greek astronomy. It has also been valuable to students of mathematics because it documents the ancient Greek mathematician Hipparchus's work, which has been lost. Hipparchus wrote about trigonometry, but because his works no longer exist, mathematicians use Ptolemy's book as their source for Hipparchus's work and ancient Greek trigonometry in general. The treatise's conventional Greek title is Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, and the treatise is also known by the Latin form of this, Syntaxis mathematic. It was later titled Hē Megalē Syntaxis, and the superlative form of this lies behind the Arabic name al-majisṭī, from which the English name Almagest derives.

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Saint Peter

Saint Peter

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, was an early Christian leader, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ according to the New Testament and Christian tradition, and the very first Bishop. Peter is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and is venerated as a Saint and Pope by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy. The son of John or of Jonah or Jona, he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the Catholic Church's first pope. He is credited with establishing the church in Antioch and presiding for seven years as the leader of that city's Christian community. Either in person or via epistle, his words reached Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia where they were received by scattered communities of believers: Jews, Hebrew Christians and Gentiles. Peter then went to Rome where in the second year of Emperor Claudius Germanicus, it is claimed, he overthrew the sorcerer Simon Magus, was later freed by his Guardian Angel from prison, and held the Cathedral Chair for 25 years.

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Prosopopoeia

Prosopopoeia

A prosopopoeia is a rhetorical device in which a speaker or writer communicates to the audience by speaking as another person or object. The term literally derives from the Greek roots "prósopon face, person, and poiéin to make, to do". Prosopopoeiae are used mostly to give another perspective on the action being described. For example, in Cicero's Pro Caelio, Cicero speaks as Appius Claudius Caecus, a stern old man. This serves to give the "ancient" perspective on the actions of the plaintiff. Prosopopoeiae can also be used to take some of the load off of the communicator by placing an unfavorable point of view on the shoulders of an imaginary stereotype. The audience's reactions are predisposed to go towards this figment rather than the communicator himself. This term also refers to a figure of speech in which an animal or inanimate object is ascribed human characteristics or is spoken of in anthropomorphic language. Quintilian writes of the power of this figure of speech to "bring down the gods from heaven, evoke the dead, and give voices to cities and states". A classic example of this usage can be found in the book of Sirach in the Bible, where Wisdom is personified and made to speak to the people and to the reader:

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Equant

Equant

Equant is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of heavenly bodies. The equant point, indicated in the diagram by the large •, is placed so that it is directly opposite the Earth from the center of the deferent, indicated by the ×. A planet or the center of an epicycle was conceived to move with a uniform speed with respect to the equant. In other words, to a hypothetical observer placed at the equant point, the center of the epicycle would appear to move at a steady speed. However, the planet/center of epicycle will not move uniformly on its deferent. The angle α between the axis on which the equant and the Earth lie is a function of time t: where Ω is the constant angular speed seen from the equant which is situated at a distance E when the radius of the deferent is R. This concept solved the problem of accounting for the anomalistic motion of the planets but was believed by some to compromise the goals of the ancient astronomer, namely uniform circular motion. Noted critics of the equant include the Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din Tusi who developed the Tusi-couple as an alternative explanation, and Nicolaus Copernicus. Dislike of the equant was a major motivation for Copernicus to construct his heliocentric system.

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Orpharion

Orpharion

The orpharion or opherion is a plucked instrument from the Renaissance. It is part of the cittern family. Its construction is similar to the larger bandora. The metal strings are tuned like a lute and are plucked with the fingers. Therefore, the orpharion can be used instead of a lute. The nut and bridge of an orpharion are typically sloped, so that the string length increases from treble to bass. Due to the extremely low-tension metal strings, which would easily distort the notes when pushed down, the frets were almost flush with the fingerboard, which was gently scalloped. As with all metal-strung instruments of the era, a very light touch with the plucking hand was required, quite different from the sharper attack used on the lute. The orpharion was invented in England in the second half of the 16th century. In sources of English music it is often mentioned as an alternative to the lute. According to Stow's "Annals", John Rose of Bridewell invented the instrument in 1581. There is a Rose Orpharion in Helmingham Hall which was allegedly given as a gift to Queen Elizabeth, and may well be that first example. It has 6 courses and the bridge and nut are parallel. The only other surviving Orpharion, now in the Claudius Collection in Copenhagen, has 9 courses with sloping frets, and dates to 1617.

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Sponson

Sponson

Sponsons are projections from the sides of a watercraft, for protection, stability, or the mounting of equipment such as armaments or lifeboats, etc. They extend a hull dimension at or below the waterline and serve to increase flotation or add lift when underway. Sponsons are commonly used on jetskis and other personal watercraft such as canoes to provide either additional buoyancy and thus stability against capsize, or hydrodynamic forces to resist capsize. They can often be easily attached to an existing craft in order to improve its stability. They are far less common on ships than such stabilizing means as pontoons, outriggers, and dual hulls due to their comparatively poor performance in stabilizing large hulls. Sponsons are sometimes added to improve stability when ships are modified. Sponsons are used on the fuselages of flying boats, as pioneered by German aerospace engineer Claudius Dornier during World War I. They take the form of a short wing which when travelling through the water provides hydrodynamic stability during take off and landing. They are often used in larger helicopters where the internal space of the sponson can be used for fuel or to house landing gear without reducing cargo or passenger space in the fuselage as, for example, with the Sikorsky S-92 and the Bell 222.

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Cosa

Cosa

Cosa was a Latin colonia founded under Roman influence in southwestern Tuscany in 273 BC, perhaps on land confiscated from the Etruscans. The Etruscan site may have been where modern Orbetello stands; a fortification wall in polygonal masonry at Orbetello's lagoon may be in phase with the walls of Cosa. The position of Cosa is distinct, rising some 113 metres above sea level and is sited 140 km northwest of Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, on a hill near the small town of Ansedonia. The town experienced a hard life and was never truly a prosperous Roman city, although it has assumed a position of prominence in Roman archaeology owing to the circumstances of its excavation. After the foundation, wars of the 3rd century BC affected the town. New colonists arrived in 197 BC. Cosa seems to have prospered until it was sacked in the 60s BC, perhaps by pirates. This led to a re-foundation under Augustus and then life continued until the 3rd century. One of the last textual references to Cosa comes from the work of Rutilius Claudius Namatianus in his De reditu suo. In the passage 1.285-90, Rutilius remarks that by 416 the site of Cosa was deserted and could be seen to be in ruins. He further suggests that a plague of mice had driven the people of Cosa away.

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Hipparchus

Hipparchus

Hipparchus of Nicaea, or more correctly Hipparchos, was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician of the Hellenistic period. He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus was born in Nicaea, Bithynia, and probably died on the island of Rhodes. He is known to have been a working astronomer at least from 162 to 127 BC. Hipparchus is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity. He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive. For this he certainly made use of the observations and perhaps the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by the Chaldeans from Babylonia. He developed trigonometry and constructed trigonometric tables, and he solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses. His other reputed achievements include the discovery of Earth's precession, the compilation of the first comprehensive star catalog of the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, also of the armillary sphere, which he used during the creation of much of the star catalogue. It would be three centuries before Claudius Ptolemaeus' synthesis of astronomy would supersede the work of Hipparchus; it is heavily dependent on it in many areas.

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Agrippina

Agrippina

Agrippina is an opera seria in three acts by George Frideric Handel, from a libretto by Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani. Composed for the 1709–10 Venice Carnevale season, the opera tells the story of Agrippina, the mother of Nero, as she plots the downfall of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the installation of her son as emperor. Grimani's libretto, considered one of the best that Handel set, is an "anti-heroic satirical comedy", full of topical political allusions. Some analysts believe that it reflects the rivalry of Grimani with Pope Clement XI. Handel composed Agrippina at the end of a three-year visit to Italy. It premiered in Venice at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo on 26 December 1709, and was an immediate success. From its opening night it was given a then-unprecedented run of 27 consecutive performances, and received much critical acclaim. Observers were full of praise for the quality of the music—much of which, in keeping with the contemporary custom, had been borrowed and adapted from other works, including some from other composers. Despite the evident public enthusiasm for the work, Handel did not promote further stagings. There were occasional productions in the years following its premiere but, when Handel's operas fell out of fashion in the mid-18th century, it and his other dramatic works were generally forgotten.

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Druid

Druid

A druid was a member of the priestly class in Britain, Ireland, and Gaul, and possibly other parts of Celtic Europe and Galatia during the Iron Age and possibly earlier. Very little is known about the ancient druids. They left no written accounts of themselves and the only evidence is a few descriptions left by Greek, Roman and various scattered authors and artists, as well as stories created by later medieval Irish writers. While archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to the religious practices of the Iron Age people, "not one single artefact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids." Various recurring themes emerge in a number of the Greco-Roman accounts of the druids, including that they performed human sacrifice, believed in a form of reincarnation, and held a high position in Gaulish society. Next to nothing is known about their cultic practice, except for the ritual of oak and mistletoe as described by Pliny the Elder. The earliest known reference to the druids dates to 200 BCE, although the oldest actual description comes from the Roman military general Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Later Greco-Roman writers also described the druids, including Cicero, Tacitus and Pliny the Elder. Following the Roman invasion of Gaul, druidism was suppressed by the Roman government under the 1st century CE emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and it had disappeared from the written record by the 2nd century.

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Secular Games

Secular Games

The Secular Games was a pagan celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held in ancient Rome for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next. A saeculum, supposedly the longest possible length of human life, was considered as either 100 or 110 years in length. According to Roman mythology, the Secular Games began when a Sabine man called Valesius prayed for a cure for his children's illness and was supernaturally instructed to sacrifice on the Campus Martius to Dis Pater and Proserpina, deities of the underworld. Some ancient authors traced official celebrations of the Games as far back as 509 BC, but the only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 and in the 140s BC. They involved sacrifices to the underworld gods over three consecutive nights. The Games were revived in 17 BC by Rome's first emperor Augustus, with the nocturnal sacrifices on the Campus Martius now transferred to the Moerae, the Ilythiae, and Terra Mater. The Games of 17 BC also introduced day-time sacrifices to Roman deities on the Capitoline and Palatine hills. Each sacrifice was followed by theatrical performances. Later emperors held celebrations in AD 88 and 204, after intervals of roughly 110 years. However, they were also held by Claudius in AD 47 to celebrate the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, which led to a second cycle of Games in 148 and 248. The Games were abandoned under later Christian emperors.

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Zafar, Yemen

Zafar, Yemen

Ẓafār or Dhafar Ðafār is an ancient Himyarite site situated in Yemen, some 130 km south-south-east of today's capital, Sana'a. Given mention in different ancient texts, there is little doubt about the pronunciation of the name. Despite the opinion of local patriots in Oman, this site is far older than its namesake there. It lies in the Yemenite highlands at some 2800 m. The closest large town is Yarim, which is 10 km directly to the north-north-west. Zafar was the capital of the Himyarite tribal confederation, which at its peak ruled most of the Arabia. The Himyar are not a tribe, but rather a tribal confederacy. 250 years long the Himyarite confederacy including its allies extended north of Riyadh to the north and the Euphrates to the north-east. Zafar was the Himyarite capital in South Arabia prior to the Axumite conquest. The settlement beginnings are obscure. The main source is Old South Arabian musnad inscriptions dated as early as the 1st century BC. It is mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History, in the anonymous Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as in the Geographia of Claudius Ptolemaeus. Presumably in medieval times the coordinates of the Ptolemy map were incorrectly copied or emended so that subsequent maps place the site Sepphar metropolis in Oman, not in Yemen. Written sources regarding Zafar are numerous, but heterogeneous in informational value. The most important source is epigraphic Old South Arabian. Christian texts shed light on the war between the Himyar and the Axumites. The Vita of Gregentios is a pious forgery created by century Byzantine monks, which mentions a bishop who allegedly had his see in Zafar.

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Servius Tullius

Servius Tullius

Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of ancient Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 578-535 BC. Roman and Greek sources describe his servile origins and later marriage to a daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Rome's first Etruscan king, who was assassinated in 579 BC. Servius was variously said to have been the first Roman king to accede without election by the Senate, having gained the throne by popular support, at the contrivance of his mother-in-law; and the first to be elected by the Senate without reference to the people. Several traditions describe Servius' father as divine. Livy depicts Servius' mother as a captured Latin princess enslaved by the Romans; her child is chosen as Rome's future king after a ring of fire is seen around his head. The Emperor Claudius discounted such origins and described him as an originally Etruscan mercenary, named Mastarna, who fought for Caelius Vibenna Servius was a popular king, and one of Rome's most significant benefactors. He had military successes against Veii and the Etruscans, and expanded the city to include the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills. He is credited with the institution of the Compitalia festivals, the building of temples to Fortuna and Diana, and the invention of Rome's first true coinage. Despite the opposition of Rome's patricians, he expanded the Roman franchise and improved the lot and fortune of Rome's lowest classes of citizens and non-citizens. According to Livy, he reigned for 44 years, until murdered by his treacherous daughter Tullia and son-in-law Tarquinius Superbus. In consequence of this "tragic crime" and his hubristic arrogance as king, Tarquinius was eventually removed. This cleared the way for the abolition of Rome's monarchy and the founding of the Roman Republic, whose groundwork had already been laid by Servius' reforms.

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Galen

Galen

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen contributed greatly to the understanding of numerous scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. He traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years. His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary Macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system endured until 1628, when William Harvey published his treatise entitled De motu cordis, in which he established that blood circulates, with the heart acting as a pump. Medical students continued to study Galen's writings until well into the 19th century. Galen conducted many nerve ligation experiments that supported the theory, which is still accepted today, that the brain controls all the motions of the muscles by means of the cranial and peripheral nervous systems.

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