Definitions containing à la française
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Fédération française de funk is a musical group.
The Nied is a river in Lorraine, France, and Saarland, Germany,that is the left tributary of the Saar River. It is formed where two streams converge, the Nied allemande and the Nied française, which join in Condé-Northen. The "Nied française" is the bigger of the two, with a length of 59 km, and its source is near Morhange. Another town on the "Nied française" is Pange. The other stream, the "Nied allemande" is 57 km long, with its source in Seingbouse, east of Saint-Avold. Another town on the Nied allemande is Faulquemont. The Nied itself is 55 km long, of which 16 km are in Germany. It flows through Bouzonville, and joins the Saar in Rehlingen-Siersburg.
Vierge is an album of the musical group Fédération française de funk.
Charles Émile Picard ForMemRS was a French mathematician. He was elected the fifteenth member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française in 1924.
|José-Maria de Heredia|
José-Maria de Heredia
José-Maria de Heredia was a Cuban-born French poet. He was the fifteenth member elected for seat 4 of the Académie française in 1894.
François Charles Mauriac was a French author, member of the Académie française, and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM, is an analog color television system first used in France. A team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision invented SECAM. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.
Montyon Prizes are a series of prizes awarded annually by the Académie Française. They were endowed by the French benefactor Baron de Montyon. Prior to start of the French Revolution, the Baron de Montyon established a series of prizes to be given away by the Académie Française, the Académie des Sciences, and the Académie Nationale de Médecine. These were abolished by the National Convention, but were taken up again when Baron de Montyon returned to France in 1815. When he died, he bequeathed a large sum of money for the perpetual endowment of four annual prizes. The endowed prizes were as follows: ⁕Making an industrial process less unhealthy ⁕Perfecting of any technical improvement in a mechanical process ⁕Book which during the year rendered the greatest service to humanity ⁕The "prix de vertu" for the most courageous act on the part of a poor Frenchman These prizes were considered by some to be a forerunner of the Nobel Prize.
Lekain was the stage name of Henri Louis Cain, a French actor. He was born in Paris, the son of a silversmith. He was educated at the Collège Mazarin, and joined an amateur company of players against which the Comédie-Française obtained an injunction. Voltaire supported him for a time and enabled him to act in his private theatre and also before the duchess of Maine. Owing to the hostility of the actors it was only after a struggle of seventeen months that, by the command of King Louis XV he was accepted at the Comédie-Française. His success was immediate. Among his best parts were Herod the Great in Mariamne, Nero in Britannicus and similar tragic roles, in spite of the fact that he was short, stout, and lacking in good looks. His name is connected with several important scenic reforms. It was he who had the benches removed on which privileged spectators sat obstructing the stage; Count Lauragais paid the excessive indemnity demanded. Lekain also protested against the method of sing-song declamation which was prevalent, and endeavoured to correct the costuming of the plays, although unable to obtain the historic accuracy at which François Joseph Talma aimed.
Alain Robbe-Grillet was a French writer and filmmaker. He was, along with Nathalie Sarraute, Michel Butor and Claude Simon, one of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman trend. Alain Robbe-Grillet was elected a member of the Académie française on March 25, 2004, succeeding Maurice Rheims at seat No. 32. He was married to Catherine Robbe-Grillet.
|Diplôme approfondi de langue française|
Diplôme approfondi de langue française
The Diplôme approfondi de langue française, or DALF for short is a certification of French-language abilities for non-native speakers administered by France's Centre international d'études pédagogiques, or CIEP, for the country's Ministry of Education. It is composed of two independent diplomas corresponding to the top two levels, C1 & C2, of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The "basic" and "independent" divisions are certified by the DELF.
Noblesse oblige is a French phrase literally meaning "nobility obliges". The Dictionnaire de l’Académie française defines it thus: ⁕Whoever claims to be noble must conduct himself nobly. ⁕ One must act in a fashion that conforms to one's position, and with the reputation that one has earned. The Oxford English Dictionary says that the term "suggests noble ancestry constrains to honorable behavior; privilege entails to responsibility." Being a noble meant that one had responsibilities to lead, manage and so on. One was not to simply spend one's time in idle pursuits.
|Pierre de Marivaux|
Pierre de Marivaux
Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux, commonly referred to as Marivaux, was a French novelist and dramatist. He is considered one of the most important French playwrights of the 18th century, writing numerous comedies for the Comédie-Française and the Comédie-Italienne of Paris. His most important works are Le Triomphe de l'amour, Le Jeu de l'amour et du hasard and Les Fausses Confidences. He also published a number of essays and two important but unfinished novels, La Vie de Marianne and Le Paysan parvenu.
A parterre is a formal garden constructed on a level surface, consisting of planting beds arranged to form a pleasing, usually symmetrical pattern, with gravel paths laid between. The beds are edged in stone or tightly clipped hedging and need not contain any flowers. French parterres originated in 15th-century gardens of the French Renaissance, such as the Chateau of Versailles, and were elaborated out of 16th-century Baroque garden à la française knot gardens, and reached a climax at Versailles and its many European imitators, such as Kensington Palace in London.
Anatole France was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was born in Paris, and died in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was a member of the Académie française, and won the Nobel Prize for Literature in recognition of his literary achievements. France is also widely believed to be the model for narrator Marcel's literary idol Bergotte in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time.
Nouvelle Vague is a French cover band led by musicians Marc Collin and Olivier Libaux. Their name means "new wave" in French. This refers simultaneously to their "Frenchness" and "artiness", the source of their songs, and their use of '60s bossa nova-style arrangements. Members, former members and contributors include many French artists who are now very well known on their own and considered as part of what is now called the "Renouveau de la chanson Française": Camille, Phoebe Killdeer, Mélanie Pain, Marina Céleste and Gerald Toto. Mareva Galanter joined the roster of vocalists in 2010.
Savate, also known as boxe française, French boxing, French kickboxing or French footfighting, is a traditional French martial art which uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. Only foot kicks are allowed unlike some systems such as Muay Thai, and Silat which allow the use of the knees or shins. "Savate" is a French word for "old shoe". Savate is perhaps the only style of kickboxing in which the fighters habitually wear shoes. A male practitioner of savate is called a savateur while a female is called a savateuse.
The Prix Goncourt is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year". Four other prizes are also awarded: prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, prix Goncourt de la Nouvelle, prix Goncourt de la Poésie and prix Goncourt de la Biographie. Of the "big six" French literary awards, the Prix Concourt is the best known and most prestigious. The other major literary prizes are the Grand Prix du Roman de l'Academie Francaise, the Prix Femina, the Prix Renaudot, the Prix Interallie and the Prix Medicis.
Folio is a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Konrad Bauer and Walter Baum in 1957 for the Bauersche Gießerei. Bauer licensed the design to Fonderie Typographique Française for sale in France under the name Caravelle. Like Helvetica and Univers, which were also released at the same time, it is part of the International Typographic Style and modeled after Akzidenz-Grotesk. However, Folio is more closely modeled on Akzidenz-Grotesk than the other two, which have larger x-heights. Due to good marketing, the typeface experienced moderate success in the United States. The typeface family was extended in 1963, adding an Extra Bold weight and a Bold Condensed width. The cold type version was issued by Hell AG.
|André Le Nôtre|
André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was responsible for the design and construction of the park of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française. Prior to working on Versailles, Le Nôtre collaborated with Louis Le Vau and Charles Le Brun on the park at Vaux-le-Vicomte. His other works include the design of gardens and parks at Chantilly, Fontainebleau, Saint-Cloud, and Saint-Germain. His contribution to planning was also significant: at the Tuileries he extended the westward vista, which later became the avenue of the Champs-Élysées and comprise the Axe historique.
Claude Lévi-Strauss was a French anthropologist and ethnologist, and has been called, along with James George Frazer and Franz Boas, the "father of modern anthropology". He argued that the "savage" mind had the same structures as the "civilized" mind and that human characteristics are the same everywhere. These observations culminated in his famous book Tristes Tropiques, which positioned him as one of the central figures in the structuralist school of thought, where his ideas reached into fields including the humanities, sociology and philosophy. Structuralism has been defined as "the search for the underlying patterns of thought in all forms of human activity." He was honored by universities throughout the world and held the chair of Social Anthropology at the Collège de France; he was elected a member of the Académie française in 1973.
Lobster Thermidor is a French dish consisting of a creamy mixture of cooked lobster meat, egg yolks, and cognac or brandy, stuffed into a lobster shell. It can also be served with an oven-browned cheese crust, typically Gruyère. The sauce must contain mustard. Lobster Thermidor was created in 1894 by Marie's, a Parisian restaurant near the theatre Comédie Française, to honour the opening of the play Thermidor by Victorien Sardou. The play took its name from a summer month in the French Republican Calendar, during which the Thermidorian Reaction occurred, overthrowing Robespierre and ending the Reign of Terror. Due to expensive and extensive preparation involved, Lobster Thermidor is usually considered a recipe primarily for special occasions. Lobster Thermidor is related to Lobster Newberg, created some 20 years earlier in the United States. Lobster Thermidor is referenced in the famous Monty Python Spam Sketch.
|Diplôme d'études en langue française|
Diplôme d'études en langue française
The Diplôme d'études en langue française is a certification of French-language abilities for non-native speakers of French administered by the International Centre for French Studies for France's Ministry of Education. It is composed of four independent diplomas corresponding to the first four levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: A1, A2, B1 and B2. Above this level, the "Proficient User" divisions are certified by the DALF. The examinations are available in three varieties: "DELF Prim" which is for Primary school students, "DELF Junior et Scolaire" which is aimed at secondary-school aged students and "DELF Tous Publics" which is aimed at adults. Each variety is worth exactly the same and results in the awarding of the same diploma, but the material is varied to ensure that it is appropriate for the target cohort.
|Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe|
Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe
The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe is one of France's six national theatres. It is located at 2 rue Corneille in the 6th arrondissement of Paris on the left bank of the Seine, next to the Luxembourg Garden. It was originally built between 1779 and 1782, in the garden of the former Hôtel de Condé, to a Neoclassical design by Charles De Wailly and Marie-Joseph Peyre, originally in order to house the Comédie Française, which, however, preferred to stay at the Théâtre-Français in the Palais Royal. The new theatre was inaugurated by Marie-Antoinette on April 9, 1782. It was there that The Marriage of Figaro play was premiered two years later. An 1808 reconstruction of the theater designed by Jean Chalgrin was officially named the Théâtre de l'Impératrice, but everyone still called it the Odéon. It burned in 1818. The third and present structure, designed by Pierre Thomas Baraguay, was opened in September 1819. In 1990, the theater was given the sobriquet 'Théâtre de l'Europe'. It is a member theater of the Union of the Theatres of Europe.
French Guinea was a French colonial possession in West Africa. Its borders, while changed over time, were in 1958 those of the independent nation of Guinea. French Guinea was established in 1891, taking the same borders as the previous colony of Rivières du Sud. Prior to 1882, the coastal portions of French Guinea were part of the French colony of Senegal. In 1891, Rivières du Sud was placed under the colonial lieutenant governor at Dakar, who had authority over the French coastal regions east to Porto-Novo. In 1894 Rivières du Sud, Coted'Ivoire and Dahomey were separated into 'independent' colonies, with Rivières du Sud being renamed the Colony of French Guinea. In 1895, French Guinea was made a dependent colony, and its Governor then became a Lieutenant Governor to a Governor-General in Dakar. In 1904, this was formalised into the Afrique Occidentale Française. French Guinea, along with Senegal, Dahomey, Cote-d'Ivoire and Upper Senegal and Niger each were ruled by a lieutenant governor, under the Governor General in Dakar.
A film society is a membership club where people can watch screenings of films which would otherwise not be shown in mainstream cinemas. In Spain and Ireland they are known as "Cineclubs," and in Germany they are known as "Filmclubs". They usually have an educational aim, introducing new audiences to different audiovisual works through an organized and prepared program of screenings. Editorial output reinforces the work of these organisations, as they produce hand-programmes, brochures, schedules, information sheets, and even essays, supporting the significance of their exhibitions. A common feature that may characterize a film society screening is that they either begin with an introduction of the film to the audience and/or end with the promotion of a debate / discussion about the film, where assistants, organizers and sometimes the filmmakers themselves, exchange their views. There are networks in many different countries, and these are organized into federations, councils, collectives, and local networks. Famous film societies include Amos Vogel's Cinema 16, Cinémathèque Française, and the Film Society of Lincoln Center in New York City.
Absalom Nyinza, popularly Abbi, is an Afro-jazz and Afro-fusion musician from Kenya. He is backed by the Kikwetu band. He sings in several languages, including Swahili, English, French, his native Luhya and some other tribal languages. Abbi started his career in 1993 being a member of a cappella gospel group The Boyz, which was later renamed Safari. He toured the United Kingdom and Germany with the band. Later he was part of Achieng Abura's band, and toured Spain during that time. His solo debut album, Mudunia was released in 2003. At the 2004 Kisima Music Awards he won two categories: Best male and Most Promising artist. His second album Indigo was released in August 2007. He has performed at Festival Mundial and North Sea Jazz festivals in the Netherlands and toured other countries a well. His music has been produced by Tedd Josiah of Blu Zebra studios. He has campaigned for the Global Call to Action Against Poverty. He is among the Kenyan artistes who have been sponsored by the Alliance Française in Nairobi.
Charles Lamoureux was a French conductor and violinist. He was born in Bordeaux, where his father owned a café. He studied the violin with Narcisse Girard at the Paris Conservatoire, taking a premier prix in 1854. He was subsequently engaged as a violinist at the Opéra and later joined the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire. In 1860 he was a co-founder of the Séances Populaires de Musique de Chambre and in 1872 he founded a quartet which eventually took on the proportions of a chamber orchestra. Having journeyed to England and assisted at a Handel festival, he thought he would attempt something similar in Paris. Having come into a fortune through marriage, he put on the performances himself, leading to the foundation of the Société Française de l'Harmonie Sacrée. In 1873 Lamoureux conducted the first performance in Paris of Handel's Messiah. He also gave performances of Bach's St Matthew Passion, Handel's Judas Maccabaeus, Gounod's Gallia, and Massenet's Eve. As funds ran out, Lamoureux took up posts at the Opéra-Comique and the Opéra which were short-lived, due to Lamoureux's tendency to quarrel over their productions.
Brie is a historic region of France most famous for its dairy products, especially Brie cheese. It was once divided into three sections ruled by different feudal lords: the western Brie française, corresponding roughly to the modern department of Seine-et-Marne in the Île-de-France region; the eastern Brie champenoise, forming a portion of the modern department of Marne in the historic region of Champagne; and the northern Brie pouilleuse, forming part of the modern department of Aisne in Picardy. The Brie forms a plateau with few eminences, varying in altitude between 300 and 500 feet in the west, and between 500 and 650 feet in the east. Its scenery is varied by forests of some size—the chief being the Forêt de Senart, the Forêt de Crécy, and the Forêt d'Armainvilliers. The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes; the subsoil is limestone. The Marne and its tributaries the Grand Morin and the Petit Morin are the chief rivers, but the region is not abundantly watered and the rainfall is only between 20 and 24 inches. Main towns: ⁕Brie-Comte-Robert ⁕Château-Thierry
Aval, in Spain, is a joint commitment to payment of an obligation in favor of the creditor or beneficiary. It is granted by a third party, in case the principal debtor does not fulfil the obligation of payment of a credit title. The practice of requesting an aval from a prospective lender has become commonplace since the 2008 global financial crisis. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word is derived from the French à val; according to the Trésor de la langue française, it is probably an abbreviation of the formula à valoir. The endorsement implies that a third party, known as a surety or guarantor, is jointly liable for the full amount of the debt with the principal debtor. The third party commits himself to cover the payment of the amount of the credit title and its interest, in case the original debtor does not fulfil his or her obligation. Normally the prospective lender may require a guarantor for the loan if the prospective borrower's credit is inadequate. This assures the bank or other lender that, if the borrower defaults, the guarantor can be held responsible for the remainder of the loan left unpaid.
The Milice française, generally called the Milice, was a paramilitary force created on January 30, 1943 by the Vichy regime to help fight the French Resistance during World War II. The Milice's formal head was Prime Minister Pierre Laval, although its Chief of operations and de facto leader was Secretary General Joseph Darnand. It participated in summary executions and assassinations, helping to round up Jews and résistants in France for deportation. It was the successor to Joseph Darnand's Service d'ordre légionnaire militia. The Milice frequently resorted to torture to extract information or confessions from those whom they interrogated. The French Resistance considered the Milice more dangerous than the Gestapo and SS because they were Frenchmen who spoke the language fluently, had extensive knowledge of the towns and countryside, and knew people and informants. Milice troops wore a blue uniform coat, brown shirt and a wide blue beret. Its newspaper was Combats. It employed full-time and part-time personnel, and had a youth wing. The Milice's armed forces were officially known as the Franc-Garde. Contemporary photographs show the Milice armed with a variety of weapons captured from Allied forces.
In the French formal garden, a bosquet is a formal plantation of trees, at least five of identical species planted as a quincunx, or set in strict regularity as to rank and file, so that the trunks line up as one passes along either face. Symbolic of order in a humanized and tamed Gardens of the French Renaissance and Baroque Garden à la française landscape, the bosquet is an analogue of the orderly orchard, an amenity that has been intimately associated with pleasure gardening from the earliest Persian gardens of the Achaemenids. Bosquets are traditionally paved with gravel, as the feature predates Budding's invention of the lawnmower, and since the maintenance of turf under trees is demanding. The shade of paired bosquets flanking a parterre affords both relief from the sunny glare and the pleasure of surveying sunlit space from shade, another Achemenid invention. As they mature, the trees of the bosquet form an interlacing canopy overhead, and they are frequently limbed-up to reveal the pattern of identical trunks. Lower trunks may be given a lime wash to a selected height, which emphasizes the pattern. Clipped outer faces of the trees may be pleached.
An aviso, a kind of dispatch boat or advice boat, survives particularly in the French Navy, equivalent to the modern sloop. The Dictionnaire de la Marine Française 1788 – 1792 describes avisos as "small boats designed to carry orders or advices". French World War I avisos, used also during World War II, had displacement 300-700 tons, speed 13-20 knots, main armament usually of two 100 mm guns, two 138 mm guns or four 100 mm guns. In English they are often referred to as sloops. Colonial avisos, such as the Bougainville-class aviso intended for overseas service, were larger. The Portuguese Navy built avisos to operate in the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese built 1st Rate avisos of 2,400 tons and 2nd Rate avisos of 1,200 to 1,700 tons. In 1932 the Portuguese Flower-class sloops were also classified as 2nd Rate avisos. Modern avisos have grown to become combat-capable ships, smaller than a corvette but larger than patrol ships. They typically have roles in anti-submarine warfare and coastal defence. In NATO classification they are usually recognized as corvettes.
A learned society is an organization that exists to promote an academic discipline or profession, or a group of related disciplines or professions. Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some qualification, or may be an honor conferred by election. This is the case with the oldest learned societies, such as the Polish Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana, the Italian Accademia dei Lincei, the Académie Française, the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina or the Royal Society of London. Most learned societies are non-profit organizations. Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline. Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership. Learned societies are of key importance in the sociology of science, and their formation assists in the emergence and development of new disciplines or professions. Societies can be very general in nature, such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, specific to a given discipline, such as the Modern Language Association, or specific to a given area of study, such as the Royal Entomological Society.
|Bay of Fundy|
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word "Fendu", meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese fondo, meaning "funnel". The bay was also named Baie Française by explorer/cartographer Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts which resulted in a failed settlement attempt on St. Croix Island. The Bay of Fundy is known for having the highest tidal range in the world. Rivaled by Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, King Sound in Western Australia, Gulf of Khambhat in India, and the Severn Estuary in the UK, it has one of the highest vertical tidal ranges in the world. The Guinness Book of World Records declared that Burntcoat Head, Nova Scotia has the highest tides in the world: “The Natural World, Greatest Tides: The greatest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundy.... Burntcoat Head in the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, has the greatest mean spring range with 14.5 metres and an extreme range of 16.3 metres.”
The word grisette has referred to a French working-class woman from the late 17th century and remained in common use through the Belle Époque era, albeit with some modifications to its meaning. It derives from gris, and refers to the cheap grey fabric of the dresses these women originally wore. The 1694 edition of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française described a grisette as simply "a woman of lowly condition". By the 1835 edition of the dictionary, her status had risen somewhat. She was described as: "a young working woman who is coquettish and flirtatious." This usage can be seen in one of Oliver Wendell Holmes' early poems 'Our Yankee Girls': "the gay grisette, whose fingers touch love's thousand chords so well...". In practice, "young working woman" referred primarily to those employed in the garment and millinery trades as seamstresses or shop assistants, the few occupations open to them in 19th century urban France, apart from domestic service. The sexual connotations which had long accompanied the word are made explicit in Webster's Third New International Dictionary which lists one of its meanings as a young woman who combines part-time prostitution with another occupation. Webster's quotes an example from Henry Seidel Canby's 1943 biography of Walt Whitman:
Vincent Voiture, French poet, was the son of a rich merchant of Amiens. He was introduced by a schoolfellow, the count Claude d'Avaux, to Gaston, Duke of Orléans, and accompanied him to Brussels and Lorraine on diplomatic missions. Although a follower of Gaston, he won the favour of Cardinal Richelieu, and was one of the earliest members of the Académie française. He also received appointments and pensions from Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He published nothing in book form, but his verses and his prose letters were the delight of the coteries, and were copied, handed about and admired more perhaps than the work of any contemporary. He had been early introduced to the Hôtel de Rambouillet, where he was the especial friend of Julie d'Angennes, who called him her "dwarf king." His ingenuity in providing amusement for the younger members of the circle ensured his popularity, which was never seriously threatened except by Antoine Godeau, and this rivalry ceased when Richelieu appointed Godeau bishop of Grasse. When at the desire of the duc de Montausier nineteen poets contributed to the Guirlande de Julie, which was to decide the much-fêted Julie in favour of his suit, Voiture refused to take part. The quarrel between the Uranistes and the Jobelins arose over the respective merits of a sonnet of Voiture addressed to a certain Uranie, and of another composed by Isaac de Benserade, till then unknown, on the subject of Job.
Lui is a French adult entertainment magazine created in November 1963 by Daniel Filipacchi, a fashion photographer turned publisher, Jacques Lanzmann, a jack of all trades turned novelist, and Frank Ténot, a press agent, pataphysician and jazz critic.. The objective was to bring some charm "à la française" to the market of men's magazines, following the success of Playboy in the USA, launched just a decade before. France, indeed, in the first half of 20th century had an outstanding reputation for erotic publications, feeding also foreign market and inspiring also ersatz French-flavoured magazines abroad, when, for example, US publishers used French-sounding titles like Chère and Dreamé or placed tricolour flags on the covers, attempting to attract the casual buyer. It was anyway a semi-clandestine circulating material, not allowed to be freely displayed or openly bought. In this sense Playboy changed the way 'soft-pornography', can be publicly circulated. This magazine was particularly successful from its origins to the early eighties, afterwards it began a long decline. It was published regularly till November 1987. After 1987 there was a further attempt to relaunch the title but the publication ceased again in 1994. Passed into the hands of the media group of Michel Birnbaum, after a transient stimulus, it became a pornographic magazine with episodic dissemination. It was published every three months.
The French Community was an association of states. In 1958 it replaced the French Union, which had itself succeeded the French colonial empire in 1946. The constitution of the Fifth Republic, which created the French Community, was a consequence of the war in Algeria. The 1 million French colonists there were determined to resist any possible moves towards Algerian independence, and to press their point they held massive demonstrations in Algiers on 13 May 1958. The trouble, which threatened to escalate into a civil war, provoked a political crisis in France and precipitated the collapse of the Fourth Republic. General Charles de Gaulle was recalled to power and a new constitution was drawn up. Initially De Gaulle seemed to confirm the Algerian settlers’ hopes that he would support them, ending a speech to them with the cry “Algerie Francaise”, but privately he indicated that he had no intention of maintaining control of 9 million Algerians for the benefit of one million settlers. This attitude was manifest in the new constitution, which provided for the right of the overseas territories to request complete independence. On 28 September 1958 a referendum was held throughout the French Union and the new constitution was approved, by universal suffrage, in all of the territories except French Guinea, which voted instead to take the option of complete independence. The territorial assemblies of the remaining overseas territories were then allowed four months, dating from the promulgation of the constitution, i.e. until 4 February 1959, to select one of the following options in accordance with articles 76 and 91 of the constitution: 1. Preserve the status of overseas territory 2. Become a member state of the French Community 3. Become an overseas department
Pétanque is a form of boules where the goal is, while standing inside a starting circle with both feet on the ground, to throw hollow metal balls as close as possible to a small wooden ball called a cochonnet or jack. It is also sometimes called a bouchon or le petit. The game is normally played on hard dirt or gravel, but can also be played on grass, sand or other surfaces. Similar games are bocce and bowls. The current form of the game originated in 1907 in La Ciotat, in Provence, in southern France. The English and French name pétanque comes from petanca in the Provençal dialect of the Occitan language, deriving from the expression pès tancats, meaning "feet together" or more exactly "feet anchored". The casual form of the game of pétanque is played by about 17 million people in France, mostly during their summer vacations. It is also widely played in neighboring Spain. There are about 600,000 players licensed with the International Federation of Petanque and Provencal game, 375,000 in France with the Fédération Française de Pétanque et Jeu Provençal and some 3,000 in England. In the United States has 1,500 members in 40 clubs, and estimates about 30,000 play nation wide. Another 20,000 or so play in Quebec, Canada. Additionally, pétanque clubs have arisen in cities throughout the United States in recent years. Petanque is also played in Southeast Asia due to the French presence in the area during the last centuries: Laos, north Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. The Pétanque World Championships is the international competition and takes place every two years, while the main individual pétanque tournament takes place every year in Marseille, with more than 10,000 participants and more than 150,000 spectators.