Definitions containing à bas
We've found 73 definitions:
A bas-relief, painting, or structural motif resembling such an ornament.
A binary compound of boron and arsenic, BAs, used as a semiconductor, sometimes alloyed with gallium arsenide.
Refers to any aspect of sculpture which is flat or in the bas relief style.
same as Bas-relief
— Webster Dictionary
some as Bas-relief
— Webster Dictionary
A small bas-relief metal tablet used as a decoration for book covers in the 15th-17th centuries.
A decorative ornament worked in low relief or bas relief, such as a piece of cameo jewelry.
a description of sculpture such as bas-relief in metal
— Webster Dictionary
the art or the description of scupture such as bas-relief in metal; toreumatography
— Webster Dictionary
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a French department in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence. Its inhabitants are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes which was the former name of the department until 13 April 1970.
a work sculptured in relief, as a cameo, or in bas-relief (in this sense used loosely)
— Webster Dictionary
the art of copying works in relief, or of engraving as to give the subject an embossed or raised appearance; -- used in representing coins, bas-reliefs, etc
— Webster Dictionary
a peculiarity in the design of bas-relief by which the heads of human figures are kept at the same height from the ground, whether the personages are seated, standing, or mounted on horseback; -- called also isokephaleia
— Webster Dictionary
on a painting, and sometimes in a bas-relief, mosaic picture, or the like, that part of the scene represented, which is nearest to the spectator, and therefore occupies the lowest part of the work of art itself. Cf. Distance, n., 6
— Webster Dictionary
Plaine is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
Corthera Inc., formerly BAS Medical, is a biopharmaceutical company committed to acquiring, developing and commercializing therapies for illnesses in the acute care setting. Corthera™s lead product candidate, relaxin, is currently being evaluated in a global, phase 2/3 clinical trial for acute decompensated heart failure. Corthera has worldwide rights to develop and commercialize relaxin.
a kind of fine pottery, the most remarkable being what is called jasper, either white, or colored throughout the body, and capable of being molded into the most delicate forms, so that fine and minute bas-reliefs like cameos were made of it, fit even for being set as jewels
— Webster Dictionary
Songololo is a town in Bas-Congo Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A Zoophorus in Medieval architecture is a sculptured frieze between the architrave and cornice with a continuous bas-relief of animals, fabulous beasts, creatures from Hell, sea monsters, centaurs, mermaids, unicorns and Zodiac signs.
Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock in Stone Mountain, Georgia, United States. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet MSL and 825 feet above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain is well-known not only for its geology, but also for the enormous bas-relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world. The carving depicts three figures of the Confederate States of America: Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee, and Jefferson Davis. Stone Mountain is more than 5 miles in circumference at its base, and is surrounded by the Stone Mountain Park. The summit of the mountain can be reached by a walk-up trail on the west side of the mountain only, or by the Skyride aerial tram.
Hoffen is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. On January 1, 1975 the commune merged with those of Hermerswiller and Leiterswiller.
A Business Analyst is someone who analyzes the existing or ideal organization and design of systems, including businesses, departments, and organizations. BAs also assess business models and their integration with technology.
Wanze is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège. It consists of the former municipalities of Wanze, Antheit, Bas-Oha, Huccorgne, Moha and Vinalmont.
Altenheim is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region of northeastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Altenheimois or Altenheimoises
Bas-Rhin is a department of France. The name means "Lower Rhine". It is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the Alsace region, with 1,079,013 inhabitants in 2006.
Assia is an Algerian-born French singer with Kabyle origins. Her albums mixed French variety, rhythm and blues, and Oriental music. She had great success with her hit singles "Elle est à toi" and "Là-bas".
a Florentine sculptor, tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini; his work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of his productions; did a "Descent from the Cross" in bas-relief, in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
The Beauceron is a guard dog and herding dog breed falling into the working dog category whose origins lie in the plains of Northern France. The Beauceron is also known as Berger de Beauce or Bas Rouge.
Tabou Department is one of the departments of Côte d'Ivoire. It is one of four departments in Bas-Sassandra Region. It is served by Tabou Airport.
German sculptor, born at Münich, of an old family of sculptors; studied at Rome; has adorned his native city with his works both in bas-reliefs and statues, at once in single figures and in groups; did frescoes and cartoons also (1802-1848).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
|Robbia, Luca Delia|
Robbia, Luca Delia
Italian sculptor, born in Florence, where he lived and worked all his days; executed a series of bas-reliefs for the cathedral, but is known chiefly for his works in enamelled terra-cotta, the like of which is named after him, "Robbia-ware" (1400-1482).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor from Florence. He is, in part, known for his work in bas-relief, a form of shallow relief sculpture that, in Donatello's case, incorporated significant 15th-century developments in perspectival illusionism.
Embossing and debossing are processes of creating either raised or recessed relief images and designs in paper and other materials. An embossed pattern is raised against the background, while a debossed pattern is sunken into the surface of the material. Also see: bas relief.
Sansar is a 1971 Bollywood drama film directed by Dilip Bose. The film stars Navin Nischol, Anupama and Nirupa Roy. The music score for this movie was by Chitragupta. Poet Sahir Ludhianvi penned the lyrics for seven songs in the movie. Two of the numbers went on to become very popular : Bas Ab Tarsaana Chhodo and Haathon Mein Kitaab Baalon Mein Gulaab
Richelieu was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1867 to 1935. It was created by the British North America Act of 1867 and was amalgamated into the Richelieu—Verchères electoral district in 1933. In 1968, a new electoral district was created under the same name which is now known as Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour.
Matadi is the chief sea port of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the capital of the Bas-Congo province. It has a population of 245,862. Matadi is situated on the left bank of the Congo River 148 km from the mouth and 8 km below the last navigable point before rapids make the river impassable for a long stretch upriver. It was founded by Sir Henry Morton Stanley in 1879.
An "overdoor" is a painting, bas-relief or decorative panel, generally in a horizontal format, that is set, typically within ornamental mouldings, over a door, or was originally intended for this purpose. The overdoor is usually architectural in form, but may take the form of a cartouche in Rococo settings, or it may be little more than a moulded shelf for the placement of ceramic vases, busts or curiosities. An overmantel serves a similar function above a fireplace mantel. From the end of the sixeenth century, at first in interiors such as the Palazzo Sampieri, Bologna, where Annibale Carracci provided overdoor paintings, they developed into a minor genre of their own, in which the trompe l'oeil representations of stone bas-reliefs, or vases of flowers, in which Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer specialized, were heightened by sotto in su perspective, in which the light was often painted to reproduce the light, diffused from below, that was entering the room from its windows. Overdoors of such flower pieces, allegorical subjects, and landscapes were favoured through the end of the eighteenth century. French, Dutch and Flemish animalier artists such as Jean-Baptiste Oudry and Jan Weenix were often commissioned to paint sets of overdoors with groups of live or dead game and dogs for country houses or hunting lodges.
In geology, a chott or shebka is a dry lake in the Saharan area of Africa that stays dry in the summer, but receives some water in the winter. These lakes have changing shores and are dry for much of the year. They are formed by the waters of the spring thaw from the peaks of the Atlas mountain range, with occasional rainwater or groundwater discharge from sources in the Sahara, such as from the Bas Saharan Basin.
|Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo|
Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Boma is a port town, on the Congo River some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As of 2009 it had an estimated population of 527,725. Boma was the capital city of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo from 1 May 1886 to 1926, when the capital was moved to Léopoldville. The port handles exports of tropical timber, bananas, cacao, and palm products.
an Italian sculptor and designer, born at Florence; his first notable work was a grand fresco in the palace of Malatesta at Rimini in 1400, but his most famous achievement, which immortalised his name, was the execution of two doorways, with bas-relief designs, in the baptistery at Florence; he spent 50 years at this work, and so noble were the designs and so perfect the execution that Michael Angelo declared them fit to be the gates of Paradise (about 1378-1455).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Buta is a town and seat of Buta Territory in the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, lying on the Rubi River, a tributary of the Itimbiri River. It is headquarters of the Bas-Uele District, Orientale Province. As of 2009 it had an estimated population of 50,130. It is home to an airport and lies on the defunct narrow gauge railway from Bumba to Isiro. In early 2005 the town was the centre of an outbreak of pulmonary plague.
Welche is a Gallo-Romance dialect of Lorrain spoken in Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin in the western part of Alsace in France. The varieties of this dialect include those of Bruche, Villé, Lièpvre, Kaysersberg and of Orbey. Welche is a dialect without numeric strength. Welche is the French spelling of Welsch, a German word given to foreigners, derived from the term Walha. The word has the same linguistic roots as "Welsh", but the Welche dialect is not at all similar to the Welsh language.
L'Oblat is the last novel by the French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans, first published in 1903. It is the final book in Huysmans' cycle of four novels featuring the character Durtal, a thinly disguised portrait of the author himself. Durtal had already appeared in Là-bas, En route and La cathédrale, which traced his conversion to Catholicism. In L'Oblat, Durtal becomes an oblate, reflecting Huysmans' own experiences in the religious community at Ligugé. Like many of Huysmans' other novels, it has little plot. The author uses the book to examine the Christian liturgy, express his opinions about the state of Catholicism in contemporary France and explore the question of suffering.
The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family, as well as one of six recognized Basset breeds in France; furthermore, Bassets are scent hounds that were originally bred for the purpose of hunting rabbits and hare. Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset Hounds are usually Bicolors or Tricolors of standard hound coloration.
The Remade are a fictional group of bio-engineered people in the novels and stories by China Miéville set in the world of Bas-Lag. Bas-Lag itself is a mix of magic and technology, and the Remade are an example of this. They are usually criminals who are punished for their crimes by the addition or alteration of body parts, which may be either organic or mechanical, though the mechanical additions occur mostly in New Crobuzon. The Remade are extremely varied in nature, ranging from those who have had their legs or lower bodies replaced with steam powered engines, to others who have had animal and human body parts attached to them. The nature of the Remaking often reflects the nature of the crime: in Perdido Street Station, a man who stole a painting of a garuda was punished by grafts of feathers, non-functional wings, and a metal beak, to make him look like a grotesque parody of a garuda, while a man who would not give information on accomplices has his mouth 'erased'. There also tend to be "fads" for particular forms of remaking where such ironic punishments are not specified. Because their new body parts sometimes grant them newfound abilities, Remade may serve specialized purposes in society, often as indentured servants and slaves. In Perdido Street Station, Remades with their heads twisted around and fitted with mirror helmets are used against the slake-moths, giant insects which could not safely be looked at, while Remade prostitutes cater to every form of sexual perversion.
In two-dimensional works of art, such as painting, printmaking, photography or bas-relief, repoussoir is an object along the right or left foreground that directs the viewer's eye into the composition by bracketing the edge. It became popular with Mannerist and Baroque artists, and is found frequently in Dutch seventeenth-century landscape paintings. Jacob van Ruisdael, for example, often included a tree along one side to enclose the scene. Figures are also commonly employed as repoussoir devices by artists such as Paolo Veronese, Peter Paul Rubens and Impressionists such as Gustave Caillebotte.
Exordium is a 2003 EP album by Dutch symphonic metal band After Forever. Another version of this album was released in 2004, with a bonus DVD entitled Insights. "The Evil That Men Do" is a cover of the Iron Maiden song, while "One Day I'll Fly Away" is a metal version of a ballad originally sung by Randy Crawford. This is the first recording of the band with new guitarist Bas Maas, who replaced Mark Jansen. Exordium is the first After Forever album to enter the Dutch Top 100 chart, where it remained for two weeks, peaking at #56.
A quadriga is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast. It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests. It is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing. Quadrigas were emblems of triumph; Victory and Fame often are depicted as the triumphant woman driving it. In classical mythology, the quadriga is the chariot of the gods; Apollo was depicted driving his quadriga across the heavens, delivering daylight and dispersing the night. The word quadriga may refer to the chariot alone, the four horses without it, or the combination.
an eminent sculptor, born at York; was brought up in London, where his father carried on business as a moulder of plaster figures; his love of drawing and modelling soon marked him out as an artist, and helped by friends he devoted himself to art; exhibited at the age of 12, and won the silver medal of the Royal Academy at 14; for some years he supplied the Wedgwoods with designs for their famous pottery, and in 1787 he went to Rome, which for seven years became his home; in 1810 became professor of Sculpture to the Royal Academy; besides many fine statues of eminent men and much exquisite work in bas-reliefs, he executed a series of noble designs illustrating Homer, Dante, and Æschylus; he was a Swedenborgian by religious creed (1755-1826).
— The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Albé is a commune in the Bas Rhin département in Alsace in north-astern France. It is located 2 km northeast of Villé, on the left bank of the river Giessen close to the valley of Erlenbach, from which it derives its name. To the North and West it is bounded by mountains leading to the communes of Hohwald and Breitenbach. To the East is the peak of Ungersberg. Numerous streams flow from this mounting and the buttresses of the Champ du Feu to the north, which merge to form the brook of the Erlenberg. This river formerly flowed down the main street of the village, but has now been covered. The village is at approximately 300 m altitude. Until 1867 the village was known by its German name Erlenbach. The name Albé was formally adopted in 1919. Under Louis XIV it was awarded a coat of arms emblazoned "Azure, three chevrons Argent". The Azure perhaps suggests the river and the three chevrons a narrow boxed valley.
The abacost, abbreviation for the French "à bas le costume", was the distinctive wear for men that was promoted by Mobutu Sese Seko as part of his authenticité programme in Zaire, between 1972 and 1990. Zairians were banned from wearing Western-style suits with shirt and tie to symbolise the break with their colonial past. The abacost was a lightweight short-sleeved suit, worn without a tie, though sometimes with a cravat. It closely resembled a Mao suit. The abacost was seen as the uniform of Mobutu's supporters, especially those who had benefited from his kleptocratic regime. When Mobutu announced a transition to multiparty democracy in 1990, he said that the Western suit and tie would be allowed, but that he continued to favor the abacost and it would still be considered the national dress. Subsequently, when the transitional government was sworn in, all its members were wearing abacosts. The abacost fell out of favour after Mobutu's departure.
The Tricholomataceae are a large family of mushrooms within the Agaricales. A classic "wastebasket taxon", the family is inclusive of any white-, yellow-, or pink-spored genera in the Agaricales not already classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae, Lepiotaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Pluteaceae, or Entolomataceae. The name derives from the Greek trichos meaning hair and loma meaning fringe or border, although not all members display this feature. Arnolds and Bas also place the genera of the Hygrophoraceae within this family, but this classification is not accepted by the majority of fungal taxonomists. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has greatly aided in the demarcation of clear monophyletic groups among the Tricholomataceae. So far, most of these groups have been defined cladistically rather than being defined as formal Linnean taxa, though there have been several cases in which older proposed segregates from the Tricholomataceae have been validated by evidence coming from molecular phylogenetics. As of 2006, validly published families segregated from the Tricholomataceae include the Hydnangiaceae, Lyophyllaceae, Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Omphalotaceae, Physalacriaceae, and Pleurotaceae.
Le Vaisseau, situated in the Neudorf area of Strasbourg, France, is a project headed by the General Council of the Bas-Rhin and a place where science and technology can be discovered through playful ways and means. Although it is particularly geared towards children and young people aged between 3 and 15 years old, the Vaisseau also attracts families, schools, groups and tourists as well as businesses. Through its desire to be accessible to all, the Vaisseau offers the opportunity for children of all ages and nationalities to come together and discuss everything to do with science, something which is facilitated by the fact that all of the permanent exhibitions in the Vaisseau are not only trilingual, but also available in Braille. The motto at the Vaisseau is “learning while having fun”. The project itself aims to serve as a support for parents and teachers alike in their roles as educators, and through this offers them many different activities: tri-lingual interactive exhibitions, temporary exhibitions, a large educational garden, 3D films, workshops and much more.
A baluster — also called spindle or stair stick — is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc. The earliest examples are those shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and apparently had Ionic capitals. As an architectural element the balustrade did not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but baluster forms are familiar in the legs of chairs and tables represented in Roman bas-reliefs, where the original legs or the models for cast bronze ones were shaped on the lathe, or in Antique marble candelabra, formed as a series of stacked bulbous and disc-shaped elements, both kinds of sources familiar to Quattrocento designers. The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance: late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and Verona. These quattrocento balustrades are likely to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents; they form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading. Rudolf Wittkower withheld judgement as to the inventor of the baluster but credited Giuliano da Sangallo with using it consistently as early as the balustrade on the terrace and stairs at the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, with employing balustrades even in his reconstructions of antique structures, and, importantly, with having passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Wittkower distinguished two types, one symmetrical in profile that inverted one bulbous vase-shape over another, separating them with a cushionlike torus or a concave ring, and the other a simple vase shape, whose employment by Michelangelo at the Campidoglio steps, noted by Wittkower, was preceded by very early vasiform balusters in a balustrade round the drum of Santa Maria delle Grazie, and railings in the cathedrals of Aquileia and Parma, in the cortile of San Damaso, Vatican, and Antonio da Sangallos crowning balustrade on the Santa Casa at Loreto, finally installed in 1535., and liberally in his model for the Basilica of Saint Peter Because of its low center of gravity, this "vase-baluster" may be given the modern term "dropped baluster".
Ronggeng is a type of Javanese dance in which couples exchange poetic verses as they dance to the music of a rebab or violin and a gong. Ronggeng might be originated from Java, but also can be found in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula. Ronggeng probably has existed in Java since ancient time, the bas reliefs in Karmawibhanga section on 8th century Borobudur displays the scene of travelling entertainment troupe with musicians and female dancers. In Java, a traditional ronggeng performance features a traveling dance troupe that travels from village to village. The dance troop consists of one or several professional female dancers, accompanied by a group of musicians playing musical instruments: rebab and gong. The term "ronggeng" also applied for this female dancers. During a ronggeng performance, the female professional dancers are expected to invite some male audiences or clients to dance with them as a couple with the exchange of some tips money for the female dancer, given during or after the dance. The couple dances intimately and the female dancer might perform some movements that might be considered too erotic by standard of modesty in Javanese court etiquette. In the past, the erotic and sexual nuance of the dance gave ronggeng a shady reputation as prostitution disguised in the art of dance.
Spiritual naturalism and naturalistic spirituality are interchangeable terms for the same philosophical perspective, with the latter term more commonly used. Book searches for the two find no usage for Naturalistic Spirituality before 1956 whereas Spiritual Naturalism may have first been proposed by Joris-Karl Huysmans in 1895 in his book En Route - “Huysmans was the first to defect to 'Spiritual Naturalism' and eventually to a form of mysticism; he was followed by Maupassant:” and “In 'En Route' Huysmans started upon the creation of what he called ‘Spiritual Naturalism,’ that is, realism applied to the story of a soul. ...”. Coming into prominence as a writer during the 1870s, Huysmans quickly established himself among a rising group of writers, the so-called Naturalist school, of whom Émile Zola was the acknowledged head…With Là-bas, a novel which reflected the aesthetics of the spiritualist revival and the contemporary interest in the occult, Huysmans formulated for the first time an aesthetic theory which sought to synthesize the mundane and the transcendent: "spiritual Naturalism". This new approach carried him through the remaining volumes of his "spiritual autobiography"
General Quarters or Battle Stations is an announcement made aboard a naval warship to signal the crew to prepare for battle or imminent damage. When the call to General Quarters is announced, the crew prepares the ship to join battle. Off-duty or sleeping crewmembers report to their stations and prepare for action, watertight doors and fireproof doors between bulkheads are shut and security is increased around sensitive areas, such as the bridge and engineering rooms. While the term 'General Quarters' is used in navies such as the United States Navy, other navies, such as the Royal Navy use the term 'Action Stations'. In French, the term is Aux postes de combat, and was formerly branle-bas de combat, literally meaning that sleeping hammocks should be cleared off the gun deck, rolled, and stowed on the upper deck of the ship as protection against musket fire. The German Navy uses the term "Gefechtsstationen", meaning literally "combat stations". In Spanish the expression is "Zafarrancho de combate". The Dutch Koninklijke Marine uses "Gevechtswacht op post".
Dinamo is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line. It is located under Leningradsky Avenue, and named after the nearby Dinamo Stadium. The station was opened in 1938 as part of the second stage of the system. The station is situated at the depth of 39.6 metres and follows a tri-vaulted deep-level pylon design. Designed by Ya. Likhtenberg and Yury Revkovsky, the station features a sport-themed decoration with bas-reliefs designed by Ye. Yason-Manzer depicting sportsmen in various practices in the vestibules and the central hall. The pylons, faced with red tagilian marble and onyx have porcelain medallions also showing sportsmen. The walls are faced with onyx, white and grey marble, neately tiled together. The floor is reveted with black marble, although the platforms were initially covered with asphalt. The station has two identical vestibules, each on the northern side of the Leningradsky Avenue, and the architect for the vestibules was Dmitry Chechulin. The station daily passenger traffic is 52,500 although this is an annual average and is subject to heavy changes depending on events taking place at the nearby stadium.
Aleijadinho was a Colonial Brazil-born sculptor and architect, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil. Born in Vila Rica, whose name was later changed to Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1738 he was the son of Manuel Francisco da Costa Lisboa, a Portuguese man and his African slave, Isabel. His father, a carpenter, had immigrated to Brazil where his skills were so in demand that he appears to have been elevated to the position of architect. When Antonio was young his father married and he was raised in his father's home along with his half siblings. It was there he is presumed to have learned the fundamentals of sculpture, architecture and the combination of the two. Antonio first appears as a day laborer working on the Church of Our Lady of Carmel in the town of Ouro Preto, a church designed by his father. Within a very short time he had become a noted architect himself and had designed and constructed the Chapel of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. He had also executed the carvings on the building, the most notable being a round bas-relief depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous, and perhaps the most elaborate. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels. The material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of an architectural frieze on the façade of a building, the octagonal Tower of the Winds in the Roman agora at Athens bears relief sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze. A pulvinated frieze is convex in section. Such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture.
Bucranium, plural bucrania was a common form of carved decoration in Classical architecture used to fill the metopes between the triglyphs of the frieze of Doric temples. A bas-relief or painted decor consisting of a series of ox-skulls draped or decorated with garlands of fruit or flowers was a Roman motif drawn from marble altars, which have survived in some number; the motif was also later used on Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical buildings. The name is generally considered to be a reference to the practice of garlanding sacrificial oxen, the heads of which were displayed on the walls of the temples, a practice with a long history reaching back to the sophisticated Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in eastern Anatolia, where cattle skulls were overlaid with white plaster. A rich and festive Doric order was employed for the Basilica Aemilia on the Forum Romanum at Rome; enough of it was standing for Giuliano da Sangallo to make a drawing, c 1520, reconstructing the facade; the alternation of the shallow libation dishes called paterae with bucrania in the metopes reinforce the solemn sacrificial theme. With time, during the sixteenth century, the connection with sacrifices faded and bucrania became part of a decorative vocabulary that evoked "Roman-ness".
Jacques Lipchitz was a Cubist sculptor. Jacques Lipchitz was born Chaim Jacob Lipchitz, in a Litvak family, son of a building contractor in Druskininkai, Lithuania, then within the Russian Empire. At first, under the influence of his father, he studied engineering, but soon after, supported by his mother he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian. It was there, in the artistic communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, that he joined a group of artists that included Juan Gris and Pablo Picasso as well as where his friend, Amedeo Modigliani, painted Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz. Living in this environment, Lipchitz soon began to create Cubist sculpture. In 1912 he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d'Automne with his first solo show held at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie L’Effort Moderne in Paris in 1920. In 1922 he was commissioned by the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania to execute five bas-reliefs. With artistic innovation at its height, in the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called transparent sculptures. Later he developed a more dynamic style, which he applied with telling effect to bronze compositions of figures and animals.
Monte Carlo officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name also refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues also includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, and Saint Michel. The permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, and Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the western end of the quarter is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth". It is also the location of the Hôtel de Paris, the Café de Paris, and the Salle Garnier. The eastern part of the quarter includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, and the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort. At its eastern border one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, and just 5 miles further east is the western border of Italy.
Palenque was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 226 BC to its fall around 1123 AD. After its decline, it was absorbed into the jungle, which is made up of cedar, mahogany, and sapodilla trees, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen about 150 m above sea level. It stays at a humid 26°C with roughly 2160 mm of rain a year. Palenque is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings that the Mayas produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the many monuments; historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the 5th century and extensive knowledge of the city-state's rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque was Pacal the Great whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions.
Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century. There is a marshland called the Poitevin Marsh on the Gulf of Poitou, on the west coast of France, just north of La Rochelle and west of Niort. Many of the Acadians who settled in what is now Nova Scotia beginning in 1604 and later to New Brunswick, came from the region of Poitou. After the Acadians were deported by the British beginning in 1755, a number of Acadians eventually took refuge in Poitou and in Québec. A large portion of these refugees also migrated to Louisiana in 1785 and following years became known as Cajuns. Perhaps paradoxically, during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Poitou had been a hotbed of Huguenot activity among the nobility and bourgeoisie and was severely impacted by the French Wars of Religion. Post revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a strong counter-reformation effort was made by the French Roman Catholic Church, this in part was subsequently in 1793 responsible for the three-year-long open revolt against the French Revolutionary Government in the Bas-Poitou. Indeed during Napoleon’s Hundred Days in 1815, the Vendée stayed loyal to the Restoration Monarchy of King Louis XVIII and Napoleon was forced to send 10,000 troops under General Lamarque to pacify the region.
The conjoint was a basic medical qualification in the United Kingdom administered by the United Examining Board. It is now no longer awarded. The Conjoint Board was superseded in 1994 by the United Examining Board, which lost its permission to hold qualifying medical examinations after 1999. Medical education at the London Teaching Hospitals began some centuries before there was a university in London to award medical degrees. Those who had taken BAs at Oxford or Cambridge, or occasionally started their pre-clinical education at universities further afield, could return there to take medical examinations, but it was open to most to take the examinations of the London medical corporations. As the early 19th century law restricting medical employment in the British military to those who had qualifications in both medicine and surgery was taken to require diplomas from different organisations, it became customary to take both the Licence of the Society of Apothecaries and the Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. These corporations diverged: the Society of Apothecaries added surgery to their examination, to grant a Licence in Medicine and Surgery as a complete qualification. The surgeons then teamed up with the Royal College of Physicians of London who paired their Licentiate diploma with the MRCS to create the English Conjoint Diploma in 1884.
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking, explaining the city's Germanic name. In 2006, the city proper had 272,975 inhabitants and its urban community 467,375 inhabitants. With 759,868 inhabitants in 2010, Strasbourg's metropolitan area is the ninth largest in France. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 884,988 inhabitants in 2008. Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine. Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is fused into the Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a bridge of unity between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the University of Strasbourg, currently the largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.
Angkor Wat is the largest Hindu temple complex and the largest religious monument in the world. The temple was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation – first Hindu, then Buddhist. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors. Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple mountain and the later galleried temple, based on early Dravidian Architecture, with key features such as the Jagati. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.
A klismos or klismos chair is a type of ancient Greek chair, familiar from depictions of ancient furniture on painted pottery and in bas-reliefs from the mid-fifth century BCE onwards. In epic, klismos signifies an armchair, but no specific description is given of its form; in Iliad xxiv, after Priam's appeal, Achilles rises from his thronos, raises the elder man to his feet, goes out to prepare Hector's body for decent funeral and returns, to take his place on his klismos. A vase-painting of a satyr carrying a klismos chair on his shoulder shows how light such chairs were. The curved, tapered legs of the klismos chair sweep forward and rearward, offering stability. The rear legs sweep continuously upward to support a wide concave backrest like a curved tablet, which supports the sitter's shoulders, or which may be low enough to lean an elbow on. The klismos fell from general favour during the Hellenistic period; nevertheless, the theatre of Dionysus at the foot of the Acropolis, Athens, of the first century CE, has carved representations of klismoi. Where a klismos is represented in Roman portraits of seated individuals, the sculptures are copies of Greek works. The fall of the klismos might be due to a design flaw, the legs of the chair are bending outwards and without any further support the legs will spread out and break when sat upon.
Trajan's Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate. It is located in Trajan's Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Completed in AD 113, the freestanding column is most famous for its spiral bas relief, which artistically describes the epic wars between the Romans and Dacians. Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, both ancient and modern. The structure is about 30 metres in height, 35 metres including its large pedestal. The shaft is made from a series of 20 colossal Carrara marble drums, each weighing about 32 tons, with a diameter of 3.7 metres. The 190-metre frieze winds around the shaft 23 times. Inside the shaft, a spiral staircase of 185 stairs provides access to a viewing platform at the top. The capital block of Trajan's Column weighs 53.3 tons, which had to be lifted to a height of c. 34 m. Ancient coins indicate preliminary plans to top the column with a statue of a bird, probably an eagle, but after construction, a statue of Trajan was put in place; this statue disappeared in the Middle Ages. On December 4, 1587, the top was crowned by Pope Sixtus V with a bronze figure of St. Peter, which remains to this day.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. Bordered by France on three sides, one side borders the Mediterranean Sea. It has an area of 2.02 km², and a population of 36,371, making Monaco the second smallest, and the most densely populated country in the world. Monaco has a land border of only 4.4 km, a coastline of 4.1 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires district, which is 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Monaco is known for its land reclamation, which has increased its size by an estimated 20%. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Even though Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he still has immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units.
Antonio Gamberelli, nicknamed Antonio Rossellino for the colour of his hair, was an Italian sculptor. His older brother, from whom he received his formal training, was the painter Bernardo Rossellino. Born in Settignano, now a part of Florence, he was the youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stonecutters. He is said to have studied under Donatello and is remarkable for the sharpness and fineness of his bas-relief. His most important works are the funeral monument of Beato Marcolino for the Blackfriar Church, Forlì, and the monument of Infante James of Coimbra, cardinal of Portugal in the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte, Florence. The portrait bust of Matteo Palmieri in the Bargello is signed and dated 1468. In 1470 he made the monument for the Duchess of Amalfi, Mary of Aragon, in the Church of Monte Oliveto, Naples; the relief of the Nativity over the altar in the same place is also probably his. A statue of John the Baptist as a boy is in the Bargello; also a delicate relief of the Madonna and Child, an Ecce Homo, and a bust of Francesco Sassetti. The so-called Madonna del Latte on a pillar in the Church of Santa Croce is a memorial to Francesco Neri, who fell by the stab intended for Lorenzo de' Medici. Other reliefs of the Madonna and Child are in the Via della Spada, Florence, and in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. In the latter place is the bust of Giovanni di San Miniato, a doctor of arts and medicine, signed and dated 1456. Working in conjunction with Mino da Fiesole, Rossellino executed the reliefs of the Assumption of Mary and the Martyrdom of St. Stephen for the pulpit at Prato. A marble bust of the boy Baptist in the Pinacoteca, Faenza, and a Christ Child in the Louvre are attributed to Rossellino by some authorities.
The Low Countries is the coastal region of north western Europe, consisting of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, around the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level. Historically, due to the lack of clear geographical boundaries except for the North Sea in the west, "low countries" implied all land downstream the big rivers including parts of modern day northern France and western Germany, but after the economical and political emergence of the Flemish and Dutch fiefdoms in the 15th and 16th century, the term became synonymous with the seceding Northern Netherlands into the Dutch Republic, and the remaining Southern Netherlands, nowadays Belgium and Luxembourg. The term is particularly appropriate to the era of the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Europe when strong centrally governed nations were slowly forming and territorial governance was in the hands of a noble or of a noble house. But today the term is still frequently used to signify Belgium and the Netherlands as a whole, especially in a cultural and non-political context. Historically, after the Roman denomination of it as Gallia Belgica, the region politically had its origins in Middle Francia, more precisely its northern part which became the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia. After the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia, the Low Countries were brought under the rule of various stronger neighbors. Their possessions can be renamed into the Burgundian Netherlands and the succeeding Habsburg Netherlands, also called the United Seventeen Provinces, and later for the Southern parts as the Spanish Netherlands and Austrian Netherlands, whereas the northern parts formed the autonomous Dutch Republic. At times they reached a form of unity as the United Seventeen Provinces in the 16th Century, and later the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in the 19th Century. The name of the Netherlands itself, along with French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish names for the Netherlands, les Pays-Bas, i Paesi Bassi, Países Baixos and los Países Bajos, is based on this historical context.