Definitions containing "bounty," mutiny of the

We've found 250 definitions:

Tea dance

Tea dance

A tea dance, or thé dansant is a summer or autumn afternoon or early-evening dance from four to seven, sometimes preceded in the English countryside by a garden party. The function evolved from the concept of the afternoon tea, and J. Pettigrew traces its origin to the French colonization of Morocco. Books on Victorian Era etiquette such as Party-giving on Every Scale, included detailed instructions for hosting such gatherings. By 1880 it was noted "Afternoon dances are seldom given in London, but are a popular form of entertainment in the suburbs, in garrison-towns, watering-places, etc." Tea dances were given by Royal Navy officers aboard ships at various naval stations, the expenses shared by the captain and officers, as they were shared by colonels and officers at barrack dances in mess rooms ashore. The usual refreshments in 1880 were tea and coffee, ices, champagne-cup and claret-cup, fruit, sandwiches, cake and biscuits. Even after the introduction of the phonograph the expected feature was a live orchestra – often referred to as a palm court orchestra – or a small band playing light classical music. The types of dances performed during tea dances included Waltzes, Tangos and, by the late 1920s, The Charleston.

— Freebase

William Bligh

William Bligh

Vice Admiral William Bligh, FRS, RN was an officer of the British Royal Navy and a colonial administrator. A historic mutiny occurred during his command of HMS Bounty in 1789; Bligh and his loyal men made a remarkable voyage to Timor, after being set adrift in the Bounty's launch by the mutineers. Fifteen years after the Bounty mutiny, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales in Australia, with orders to clean up the corrupt rum trade of the New South Wales Corps, resulting in the so-called Rum Rebellion.

— Freebase

Mutinous

Mutinous

disposed to mutiny; in a state of mutiny; characterized by mutiny; seditious; insubordinate

— Webster Dictionary

Charles Laughton

Charles Laughton

Charles Laughton was an English stage and film actor and director. Laughton was trained in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and first appeared professionally on the stage in 1926. He played a wide range of classical and modern parts, making a big impact in Shakespeare at the Old Vic. His film career took him to Hollywood, but he also collaborated with Alexander Korda on some of the most notable British films of the era, including The Private Life of Henry VIII. Among Laughton's biggest film-hits were The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Mutiny on the Bounty, Ruggles of Red Gap, Jamaica Inn, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Big Clock. In his later career, he took up stage directing, notably in the Caine Mutiny Court Martial, and George Bernard Shaw's Don Juan in Hell, in which he also starred. He directed the acclaimed thriller The Night of the Hunter. In 1927, he was cast in a play with his future wife Elsa Lanchester, with whom he lived and worked until his death. They had no children.

— Freebase

Fletcher Christian

Fletcher Christian

Fletcher Christian was master's mate on board HMS Bounty during William Bligh's voyage to Tahiti for breadfruit plants. In the mutiny on the Bounty, Christian seized command of the ship from William Bligh on 28 April 1789.

— Freebase

Bounty hunter

Bounty hunter

A bounty hunter captures fugitives for a monetary reward. Other names, mainly used in the United States, include bail enforcement agent and fugitive recovery agent. Sometimes, such an individual is referred to as a bounty killer if a murder is required to collect the bounty.

— Freebase

Queen Anne's Bounty

Queen Anne's Bounty

Queen Anne's Bounty was a fund established in 1704 to augment the incomes of the poorer clergy of the Church of England. The bounty was funded by the tax on the incomes of all Church of England clergy, which was paid to the Pope until the Reformation, and thereafter to the Crown. In 1890, the total amount distributed was £176,896. On 2 April 1947, by the Church Commissioners Measure 1947, the functions and assets of Queen Anne's Bounty were merged with the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to form the Church Commissioners.

— Freebase

quine

quine

[from the name of the logician Willard van Orman Quine, via Douglas Hofstadter] A program that generates a copy of its own source text as its complete output. Devising the shortest possible quine in some given programming language is a common hackish amusement. (We ignore some variants of BASIC in which a program consisting of a single empty string literal reproduces itself trivially.) Here is one classic quine: ((lambda (x) (list x (list (quote quote) x))) (quote (lambda (x) (list x (list (quote quote) x))))) This one works in LISP or Scheme. It's relatively easy to write quines in other languages such as Postscript which readily handle programs as data; much harder (and thus more challenging!) in languages like C which do not. Here is a classic C quine for ASCII machines: char*f="char*f=%c%s%c;main() {printf(f,34,f,34,10);}%c"; main(){printf(f,34,f,34,10);} For excruciatingly exact quinishness, remove the interior line breaks. Here is another elegant quine in ANSI C: #define q(k)main(){return!puts(#k" q("#k")");} q(#define q(k)main(){return!puts(#k" q("#k")");}) Some infamous Obfuscated C Contest entries have been quines that reproduced in exotic ways. There is an amusing Quine Home Page.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Mutineer

Mutineer

mū-ti-nēr′, n. one guilty of mutiny.—v.i. to mutiny.—n. and v.i. Mū′tine (Shak.).

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Mutiny

Mutiny

mū′ti-ni, v.i. to rise against authority in military or naval service: to revolt against rightful authority:—pr.p. mū′tinying; pa.t. and pa.p. mū′tinied.n. insurrection against constituted authority, esp. naval or military: revolt, tumult, strife.—adj. Mū′tinous, disposed to mutiny: seditious.—adv. Mū′tinously.—n. Mū′tinousness.—Mutiny Act, an act passed by the British parliament from year to year, to regulate the government of the army, from 1689 down to 1879, when it was superseded by the Army Discipline and Regulation Act, modified by the Army Act of 1881. [O. Fr. mutiner, mutin, riotous, meute, a sedition—L. motus, rising—movēre, motum, to move.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

quots.

quots.

Plural form of quot..

— Wiktionary

Mutiny

Mutiny

Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly situated individuals to openly oppose, change or overthrow an authority to which they are subject. The term is commonly used for a rebellion among members of the military against their superior officer, but can also occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against an authority figure. During the Age of Discovery, mutiny particularly meant open rebellion against a ship's captain. This occurred, for example, during Magellan's famous journeys around the world, resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the execution of another and the marooning of others, and on Henry Hudson's Discovery, resulting in Hudson and others being set adrift in a boat.

— Freebase

True Blue

True Blue

True Blue is a 1996 British sports film based on the book True Blue: The Oxford Boat Race Mutiny by Daniel Topolski and Patrick Robinson. It follows the 1987 Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race and the disagreement amongst the Oxford team known as the "Oxford mutiny". For the US DVD release, the film was retitled Miracle at Oxford.

— Freebase

Spithead

Spithead

Spithead is an area of the Solent and a roadstead off Gilkicker Point in Hampshire, England. It is protected from all winds, except those from the southeast. It receives its name from the Spit, a sandbank stretching south from the Hampshire shore for 5 km; and it is 22.5 km long by about 6.5 km in average breadth. Spithead has been strongly defended since 1864 by fortifications complementing those of Portsmouth. The Fleet Review is a British tradition that usually takes place at Spithead, where the monarch reviews the massed Royal Navy. In 1797 there was a mutiny, the Spithead mutiny, in the Royal Navy fleet at anchor at Spithead.

— Freebase

Clark Gable

Clark Gable

William Clark Gable was an American film actor. Though arguably best known for his role as Rhett Butler in the epic Gone with the Wind, which earned him his third nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor, he was also nominated for Mutiny on the Bounty, and he won for It Happened One Night. His other notable films include Manhattan Melodrama and The Misfits. Starting as a stage actor, Gable appeared as an extra in silent films between 1924 and 1930, and progressed to supporting roles with a few films for MGM in 1931. The next year he landed his first leading Hollywood role and became a leading man in more than 60 movies over the next three decades. Gable appeared opposite some of the most popular actresses of the time. Joan Crawford, who was his favorite actress to work with, was partnered with Gable in eight films; Myrna Loy worked with him seven times, and he was paired with Jean Harlow in six productions. He also starred with Lana Turner in four features, and with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each. Gable's final film, The Misfits, paired him with Marilyn Monroe.

— Freebase

Ben Hecht

Ben Hecht

Ben Hecht was an American screenwriter, director, producer, playwright, and novelist. Called "the Shakespeare of Hollywood", he received screen credits, alone or in collaboration, for the stories or screenplays of some seventy films and as a prolific storyteller, authored thirty-five books and created some of the most entertaining screenplays and plays in America. Film historian Richard Corliss called him "the" Hollywood screenwriter, someone who "personified Hollywood itself." The Dictionary of Literary Biography - American Screenwriters calls him "one of the most successful screenwriters in the history of motion pictures." He was the first screenwriter to receive an Academy Award for Original Screenplay, for the movie Underworld. The number of screenplays he wrote or worked on that are now considered classics is, according to Chicago's Newberry Library, "astounding," and included films such as, Scarface, The Front Page, Twentieth Century, Barbary Coast, Nothing Sacred, Some Like It Hot, Gone with the Wind, Gunga Din, Wuthering Heights, His Girl Friday, Spellbound, Notorious, Monkey Business, A Farewell to Arms, Mutiny on the Bounty, and Casino Royale. He also provided story ideas for such films as Stagecoach. In 1940, he wrote, produced, and directed, Angels Over Broadway, which was nominated for Best Screenplay. In total, six of his movie screenplays were nominated for Academy Awards, with two winning.

— Freebase

Irving Thalberg

Irving Thalberg

Irving Grant Thalberg was an American film producer during the early years of motion pictures. He was called "The Boy Wonder" for his youth and his extraordinary ability to select the right scripts, choose the right actors, gather the best production staff and make hundreds of very profitable films, including Grand Hotel, China Seas, Camille, Mutiny on the Bounty and The Good Earth. His films carved out a major international market, "projecting a seductive image of American life brimming with vitality and rooted in democracy and personal freedom," states biographer Roland Flamini. He was born in Brooklyn, NY, and as a child was afflicted with a congenital heart disease that doctors said would kill him before he reached the age of thirty. After graduating high school he took night classes in typing and worked as a store clerk during the day. He then took a job as a secretary at Universal Studios’ New York office, and was later made studio manager for their Los Angeles facility, where he oversaw production of a hundred films during his three years with the company. Among the films he produced was The Hunchback of Notre Dame. He then partnered with Louis B. Mayer’s studio and, after it merged with two other studios, helped create Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He was made head of production of MGM in 1925, at the age of twenty-six, and after three years MGM became the most successful studio in Hollywood as a result of his supervision. During his twelve years with MGM, until his early death at age 37, he produced four hundred films, most of which bore his imprint, and their production had adapted his innovations. Among those innovations were story conferences with writers, sneak previews to gain early feedback, and extensive re-shooting of scenes to improve the film. In addition, he introduced horror films to audiences and coauthored the “Production Code,” guidelines for morality followed by all studios. During the 1920s and 1930s, he synthesized and merged the world of stage drama and literary classics with Hollywood films.

— Freebase

Leading actor

Leading actor

A leading actor, leading actress, star, or simply lead, plays the role of the protagonist in a film or play. The word lead may also refer to the largest role in the piece and leading actor may refer to a person who typically plays such parts or an actor with a respected body of work. Some actors are typecast as leads, but most play the lead in some performances and supporting or character roles in others. Sometimes there is more than one significant leading role in a dramatic piece, and the actors are said to play co-leads; a large supporting role may be considered a secondary lead. Award nominations for acting often reflect such ambiguities. Thus, sometimes two actors in the same performance piece are nominated for Best Actor or Best Actress -- categories traditionally reserved for leads. For example, in 1935 Clark Gable, Charles Laughton and Franchot Tone were each nominated for the Best Actor Academy Award for Mutiny on the Bounty. There can even be controversy over whether a particular performance should be nominated in the Best Actor/Actress or Best Supporting Actor/Actress category. A title role is often but not necessarily the lead.

— Freebase

Quota

Quota

kwō′ta, n. the part or share assigned to each.—n. Quot′ity (Carlyle), the number of individuals in a collection. [It.,—L. quotus, of what number?—quot, how many?]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Quote

Quote

kwōt, v.t. to repeat the words of any one: to adduce for authority or illustration: to give the current price of: to enclose within quotation marks: (Shak.) to set down in writing.—v.i. to make a quotation.—adj. Quō′table, that may be quoted.—ns. Quō′tableness, Quōtabil′ity.—adv. Quō′tably.—ns. Quōtā′tion, act of quoting: that which is quoted: the current price of anything; Quōtā′tion-mark, one of the marks used to note the beginning and the end of a quotation—generally consisting of two inverted commas at the beginning, and two apostrophes at the end of a quotation; but a single comma and a single apostrophe are frequently used; Quō′ter. [O. Fr. quoter, to number—Low L. quotāre, to divide into chapters and verses—L. quotus, of what number?—quot, how many?]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Jabba the Hutt

Jabba the Hutt

Jabba the Hutt is a fictional character appearing in George Lucas's space opera film saga Star Wars. He is depicted as a large, slug-like alien. His appearance has been described by film critic Roger Ebert as "Dickensian", a cross between a toad and the Cheshire Cat. In the original theatrical releases of the original Star Wars trilogy, Jabba the Hutt first appeared in Return of the Jedi, though he is mentioned in both Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back, and a previously deleted scene involving Jabba the Hutt was added to the 1997 theatrical re-release and subsequent home media releases of Star Wars. Jabba's role in Star Wars is primarily antagonistic; he is introduced as the crime boss who has a bounty on Han Solo's head. He is about 600 years old, a Hutt crime lord and gangster who employs a retinue of criminals, bounty hunters, smugglers, assassins and bodyguards to operate his criminal empire. In his palace on the desert planet Tatooine, he keeps a host of entertainers at his disposal: slaves, droids and alien creatures. Jabba has a grim sense of humour, an insatiable appetite, and affinities for gambling, slave girls and torture. The character was incorporated into the Star Wars merchandising campaign that corresponded with the theatrical release of Return of the Jedi. Besides the films, Jabba the Hutt is featured in Star Wars literature and is sometimes referenced by his full name, Jabba Desilijic Tiure. Jabba the Hutt's image has since played an influential role in popular culture, particularly in the United States. The name is used as a satirical literary device and a political caricature to underscore negative qualities such as morbid obesity and corruption.

— Freebase

almoner

almoner

a title given to a royal officer charged with the duty of distributing alms or bounty on behalf of a monarch

— Wiktionary

allowance

allowance

That which is allowed; a share or portion allotted or granted; a sum granted as a reimbursement, a bounty, or as appropriate for any purpose; a stated quantity, as of food or drink; hence, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provisions fall short.

— Wiktionary

opulence

opulence

abundance, bounty, profusion

— Wiktionary

mutiny

mutiny

To commit mutiny.

— Wiktionary

insurrection

insurrection

An organized opposition to an authority; a mutiny; a rebellion

— Wiktionary

mutineer

mutineer

someone who participates in mutiny

— Wiktionary

mutinous

mutinous

Likely to commit mutiny.

— Wiktionary

mutinous

mutinous

Of, pertaining to, or constituting mutiny.

— Wiktionary

on ones head

on ones head

Assigned by government authorities as a bounty or penalty.

— Wiktionary

emeritum

emeritum

A bounty awarded to a soldier upon the completion of his term of service.

— Wiktionary

bounties

bounties

Plural form of bounty.

— Wiktionary

mutinies

mutinies

Plural form of mutiny.

— Wiktionary

bligh

Bligh, William Bligh, Captain Bligh

British admiral; was captain of the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789 when part of the crew mutinied and set him afloat in an open boat; a few weeks later he arrived safely in Timor 4,000 miles away (1754-1817)

— Princeton's WordNet

bountied

bountied

rewarded or able to be rewarded by a bounty

— Princeton's WordNet

bounty hunter

bounty hunter

a hunter who kills predatory wild animals in order to collect a bounty

— Princeton's WordNet

captain bligh

Bligh, William Bligh, Captain Bligh

British admiral; was captain of the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789 when part of the crew mutinied and set him afloat in an open boat; a few weeks later he arrived safely in Timor 4,000 miles away (1754-1817)

— Princeton's WordNet

william bligh

Bligh, William Bligh, Captain Bligh

British admiral; was captain of the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789 when part of the crew mutinied and set him afloat in an open boat; a few weeks later he arrived safely in Timor 4,000 miles away (1754-1817)

— Princeton's WordNet

east india company

East India Company

an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia; in the 18th century it assumed administrative control of Bengal and held it until the British army took over in 1858 after the Indian Mutiny

— Princeton's WordNet

lucknow

Lucknow

a city in northern India in Uttar Pradesh; during the Indian Mutiny its British residents were besieged by Indian insurgents

— Princeton's WordNet

lucknow

Lucknow

the British residents of Lucknow were besieged by Indian insurgents during the Indian Mutiny (1857)

— Princeton's WordNet

mutinous

mutinous

disposed to or in a state of mutiny

— Princeton's WordNet

mutinous

mutinous

consisting of or characterized by or inciting to mutiny

— Princeton's WordNet

mutiny

mutiny

engage in a mutiny against an authority

— Princeton's WordNet

"Bounty," Mutiny of the

"Bounty," Mutiny of the

a mutiny which took place on the ship Bounty, on the 28th April 1789, bound from Otaheite to the West Indies, on the part of 25 of the crew, who returned to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others in an open boat. Bligh reached England after a time, reported the crime, to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders and the execution of others. Those who escaped founded a colony on Pitcairn Island.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pitcairn Island

Pitcairn Island

An island in Polynesia, in the south Pacific Ocean. It was discovered in 1767 by Philip Carteret, uninhabited until 1790 when settled by mutineers from the English ship, Bounty. The settlement was discovered in 1808; the population was removed temporarily to Tahiti in 1831 and to Norfolk Island (between New Caledonia and New Zealand) in 1856. Some later returned to Pitcairn and their descendents constitute the present population of this British colony. The island is named for the midshipman who first sighted it from the ship. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p958 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p422)

— U.S. National Library of Medicine

Naija

Naija

An Arabic/Islamic name for a girl meaning "prosperous" and "successful"

— Editors Contribution

Centesimation

Centesimation

the infliction of the death penalty upon one person in every hundred, as in cases of mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Decimate

Decimate

to select by lot and punish with death every tenth man of; as, to decimate a regiment as a punishment for mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Excite

Excite

to call to activity in any way; to rouse to feeling; to kindle to passionate emotion; to stir up to combined or general activity; as, to excite a person, the spirits, the passions; to excite a mutiny or insurrection; to excite heat by friction

— Webster Dictionary

Mutine

Mutine

to mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Mutineer

Mutineer

one guilty of mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Mutinies

Mutinies

of Mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Mutinied

Mutinied

of Mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Mutinying

Mutinying

of Mutiny

— Webster Dictionary

Mutiny

Mutiny

to rise against, or refuse to obey, lawful authority in military or naval service; to excite, or to be guilty of, mutiny or mutinous conduct; to revolt against one's superior officer, or any rightful authority

— Webster Dictionary

Allowance

Allowance

that which is allowed; a share or portion allotted or granted; a sum granted as a reimbursement, a bounty, or as appropriate for any purpose; a stated quantity, as of food or drink; hence, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provisions fall short

— Webster Dictionary

Beneficence

Beneficence

the practice of doing good; active goodness, kindness, or charity; bounty springing from purity and goodness

— Webster Dictionary

Bounties

Bounties

of Bounty

— Webster Dictionary

Laissez faire

Laissez faire

noninterference; -- an axiom of some political economists, deprecating interference of government by attempts to foster or regulate commerce, manufactures, etc., by bounty or by restriction; as, the doctrine of laissez faire; the laissez faire system government

— Webster Dictionary

Largesse

Largesse

liberality; generosity; bounty

— Webster Dictionary

Largesse

Largesse

a present; a gift; a bounty bestowed

— Webster Dictionary

Munificence

Munificence

the quality or state of being munificent; a giving or bestowing with extraordinary liberality; generous bounty; lavish generosity

— Webster Dictionary

Premium

Premium

a reward or recompense; a prize to be won by being before another, or others, in a competition; reward or prize to be adjudged; a bounty; as, a premium for good behavior or scholarship, for discoveries, etc

— Webster Dictionary

Subvention

Subvention

a government aid or bounty

— Webster Dictionary

Taste

Taste

to have perception, experience, or enjoyment; to partake; as, to taste of nature's bounty

— Webster Dictionary

Tenth

Tenth

the tenth part of the annual profit of every living in the kingdom, formerly paid to the pope, but afterward transferred to the crown. It now forms a part of the fund called Queen Anne's Bounty

— Webster Dictionary

Revolt

Revolt

rē-vōlt′, v.i. to renounce allegiance: to be grossly offended: to mutiny: to be shocked.—v.t. to cause to rise in revolt: to shock.—n. a rebellion: insurrection, desertion: a change of sides: fickleness.—n. Revol′ter.—adj. Revol′ting, causing a turning away from: shocking: repulsive.—adv. Revol′tingly. [O. Fr. revolte—It. rivolta—L. revolvĕre, to roll back, re-, back, volvĕre, volutum, to turn.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Annat

Annat

an′at, Annate, an′āt, n. the first-fruits, or one year's income, or a specified portion of such, paid to the Pope by a bishop, abbot, or other ecclesiastic, on his appointment to a new see or benefice. It was abolished in England in 1534, and next year the right was annexed to the crown, the fund thus arising being administered for the benefit of the Church of England, afterwards transferred to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, next to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: (Scots law) the half-year's stipend payable for the vacant half-year after the death of a parish minister, to which his family or nearest of kin have right under an act of 1672. [Low L. annata—L. annus, a year.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Exhibit

Exhibit

egz-ib′it, v.t. to hold forth or present to view: to present formally or publicly.—n. (law) a document produced in court to be used as evidence: something exhibited: an article at an exhibition.—ns. Exhib′iter, Exhib′itor; Exhibi′tion, presentation to view: display: a public show, esp. of works of art, manufactures, &c.: that which is exhibited: an allowance or bounty to scholars in a university; Exhibi′tioner, one who enjoys an exhibition at a university; Exhibi′tionist.—adjs. Exhib′itive, serving for exhibition: representative; Exhib′itory, exhibiting.—Make an exhibition of one's self, to behave foolishly, exciting ridicule. [L. exhibēre, -itumex, out, habēre, -itum, to have.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Premium

Premium

prē′mi-um, n. a reward: a prize: a bounty: payment made for insurance: the difference in value above the original price or par of stock—opp. to Discount: anything offered as an incentive.—adjs. Prē′mial, Prē′miant.—v.t. Prē′miate, to reward with a premium.—At a premium, above par (see Par). [L. præmiumpræ, above, emĕre, to buy.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Queen

Queen

kwēn, n. the wife of a king: a female sovereign: the best or chief of her kind: a queen-bee or queen-ant: of playing-cards, one with the queen painted on it: the piece in chess which is the most deadly in attack.—v.i. to play the queen.—ns. Queen′-app′le, Queen′ing, the name of several varieties of apple; Queen′-bee, the sole female of a bee-hive, considerably larger than an ordinary bee; Queen′-con′sort, the wife of the reigning sovereign—opp. to Queen′-reg′nant, holding the crown in her own right; Queen′craft, craft or policy on the part of a queen; Queen′dom, queenly rule or dignity: the realm of a queen; Queen′-dow′ager, the widow of a deceased king; Queen′hood, the state of being a queen; Queen′let, a petty queen.—adjs. Queen′-like, Queen′ly, like a queen: becoming or suitable to a queen.—n. Queen′liness.—adv. Queen′ly, like a queen.—ns. Queen′-moth′er, a queen-dowager, the mother of the reigning king or queen; Queen′-of-the-mead′ows, the meadow-sweet; Queen′-post (archit.), one of two upright posts in a trussed roof, resting upon the tie-beam, and supporting the principal rafters; Queen′-rē′gent, a queen who reigns as regent; Queen's′-arm, a musket; Queen′ship, the state, condition, or dignity of a queen; Queen′-stitch, a square or chequer pattern in embroidery stitch.—Queen Anne's Bounty, a fund for augmenting the incomes of the poorer clergy of England, set aside in 1703; Queen Anne style (archit.), the style popular in the early part of the 18th century, the buildings plain and simple, with classic cornices and details, and frequently with large windows divided by mullions; Queen of heaven, a title often given to the goddess Astarte or Ashtoreth: among Roman Catholics, a title for the Virgin Mary; Queen of the May=May-queen (see May); * Queen's Bench (court of: see King); * Queen's colour, one of the pair of colours belonging to each regiment in our army; * Queen's counsel (see Counsel); * Queen's English, correct use of the English language; * Queen's evidence (see Evident); * Queen's messenger (see Message); Queen's metal, an alloy consisting chiefly of tin; Queen's tobacco pipe, the facetious designation of a peculiarly shaped kiln which used to be situated at the corner of the tobacco warehouses belonging to the London Docks, and in which contraband goods were burned; Queen's ware, a variety of Wedgwood ware, otherwise known as cream-coloured ware; Queen's yellow, the yellow subsulphate of mercury. [A.S. cwén; Goth. kwēns, Ice. kván, kvæn.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Royal

Royal

roi′al, adj. regal, kingly: magnificent: illustrious: magnanimous: enjoying the favour or patronage of the sovereign: of more than common size or excellence.—n. a large kind of paper (19 by 24 in. for writing-paper, 20 by 25 for printing-paper): (obs.) a royal person, a king: a gold coin: a sail immediately above the topgallant sail: one of the shoots of a stag's head: a small mortar: a tuft of beard on the lower lip, an imperial.—n. Roy′alet, a petty king.—v.t. Roy′alise (Shak.), to make royal.—ns. Roy′alism, attachment to kings or to kingly government; Roy′alist, an adherent of royalism: a cavalier during the English civil war: in American history, an adherent of the British government: in French history, a supporter of the Bourbons—also adj.adv. Roy′ally.—n. Roy′al-mast, the fourth and highest part of the mast from the deck, commonly made in one piece with the topgallant mast.—adj. Roy′al-rich (Tenn.), rich as a king.—n. Roy′alty, kingship: the character, state, or office of a king: majesty: the person of the king or sovereign: fixed sum paid to the Crown or other proprietor, as on the produce of a mine, &c.: kingdom: royal authority: a royal domain: (Scot.) the bounds of a royal burgh.—Royal bounty, a fund from which the sovereign grants money to the female relatives of officers who die of wounds; Royal cashmere, a thin material of pure wool; Royal fern (Osmunda regalis), the most striking of British ferns; Royal horned caterpillar, a large bombycid moth of the United States; Royal household, the body of persons in the service of the sovereign.—The Royals, a name formerly given to the first regiment of foot in the British army. [Fr.,—L. regalis, regal.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

bit paired keyboard

bit paired keyboard

(alt.: bit-shift keyboard) A non-standard keyboard layout that seems to have originated with the Teletype ASR-33 and remained common for several years on early computer equipment. The ASR-33 was a mechanical device (see EOU), so the only way to generate the character codes from keystrokes was by some physical linkage. The design of the ASR-33 assigned each character key a basic pattern that could be modified by flipping bits if the SHIFT or the CTRL key was pressed. In order to avoid making the thing even more of a kluge than it already was, the design had to group characters that shared the same basic bit pattern on one key.Looking at the ASCII chart, we find: high low bits bits 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 010 ! " # $ % & ' ( ) 011 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This is why the characters !"#$%&'() appear where they do on a Teletype (thankfully, they didn't use shift-0 for space). The Teletype Model 33 was actually designed before ASCII existed, and was originally intended to use a code that contained these two rows: low bits high 0000 0010 0100 0110 1000 1010 1100 1110 bits 0001 0011 0101 0111 1001 1011 1101 1111 10 ) ! bel # $ % wru & * ( " : ? _ , . 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ' ; / - esc del The result would have been something closer to a normal keyboard. But as it happened, Teletype had to use a lot of persuasion just to keep ASCII, and the Model 33 keyboard, from looking like this instead: ! " ? $ ' & - ( ) ; : * / , . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + ~ < > × | Teletype's was not the weirdest variant of the QWERTY layout widely seen, by the way; that prize should probably go to one of several (differing) arrangements on IBM's even clunkier 026 and 029 card punches.When electronic terminals became popular, in the early 1970s, there was no agreement in the industry over how the keyboards should be laid out. Some vendors opted to emulate the Teletype keyboard, while others used the flexibility of electronic circuitry to make their product look like an office typewriter. Either choice was supported by the ANSI computer keyboard standard, X4.14-1971, which referred to the alternatives as “logical bit pairing” and “typewriter pairing”. These alternatives became known as bit-paired and typewriter-paired keyboards. To a hacker, the bit-paired keyboard seemed far more logical — and because most hackers in those days had never learned to touch-type, there was little pressure from the pioneering users to adapt keyboards to the typewriter standard.The doom of the bit-paired keyboard was the large-scale introduction of the computer terminal into the normal office environment, where out-and-out technophobes were expected to use the equipment. The typewriter-paired standard became universal, X4.14 was superseded by X4.23-1982, bit-paired hardware was quickly junked or relegated to dusty corners, and both terms passed into disuse.However, in countries without a long history of touch typing, the argument against the bit-paired keyboard layout was weak or nonexisten

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

BNF

BNF

1. [techspeak] Acronym for Backus Normal Form (later retronymed to Backus-Naur Form because BNF was not in fact a normal form), a metasyntactic notation used to specify the syntax of programming languages, command sets, and the like. Widely used for language descriptions but seldom documented anywhere, so that it must usually be learned by osmosis from other hackers. Consider this BNF for a U.S. postal address:  <postal-address> ::= <name-part> <street-address> <zip-part>  <personal-part> ::= <name> | <initial> "."  <name-part> ::= <personal-part> <last-name> [<jr-part>] <EOL>                | <personal-part> <name-part>  <street-address> ::= [<apt>] <house-num> <street-name> <EOL>  <zip-part> ::= <town-name> "," <state-code> <ZIP-code> <EOL> This translates into English as: “A postal-address consists of a name-part, followed by a street-address part, followed by a zip-code part. A personal-part consists of either a first name or an initial followed by a dot. A name-part consists of either: a personal-part followed by a last name followed by an optional jr-part (Jr., Sr., or dynastic number) and end-of-line, or a personal part followed by a name part (this rule illustrates the use of recursion in BNFs, covering the case of people who use multiple first and middle names and/or initials). A street address consists of an optional apartment specifier, followed by a street number, followed by a street name. A zip-part consists of a town-name, followed by a comma, followed by a state code, followed by a ZIP-code followed by an end-of-line.” Note that many things (such as the format of a personal-part, apartment specifier, or ZIP-code) are left unspecified. These are presumed to be obvious from context or detailed somewhere nearby. See also parse. 2. Any of a number of variants and extensions of BNF proper, possibly containing some or all of the regexp wildcards such as * or +. In fact the example above isn't the pure form invented for the Algol-60 report; it uses [], which was introduced a few years later in IBM's PL/I definition but is now universally recognized. 3. In science-fiction fandom, a ‘Big-Name Fan’ (someone famous or notorious). Years ago a fan started handing out black-on-green BNF buttons at SF conventions; this confused the hacker contingent terribly.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Obfuscated C Contest

Obfuscated C Contest

(in full, the ‘International Obfuscated C Code Contest’, or IOCCC) An annual contest run since 1984 over Usenet by Landon Curt Noll and friends. The overall winner is whoever produces the most unreadable, creative, and bizarre (but working) C program; various other prizes are awarded at the judges' whim. C's terse syntax and macro-preprocessor facilities give contestants a lot of maneuvering room. The winning programs often manage to be simultaneously (a) funny, (b) breathtaking works of art, and (c) horrible examples of how not to code in C.This relatively short and sweet entry might help convey the flavor of obfuscated C: /* * HELLO WORLD program * by Jack Applin and Robert Heckendorn, 1985 * (Note: depends on being able to modify elements of argv[], * which is not guaranteed by ANSI and often not possible.) */ main(v,c)char**c;{for(v[c++]="Hello, world! )"; (!!c)[*c]&&(v--||--c&&execlp(*c,*c,c[!!c]+!!c,!c)); **c=!c)write(!!*c,*c,!!**c);} Here's another good one: /* * Program to compute an approximation of pi * by Brian Westley, 1988 * (requires pcc macro concatenation; try gcc -traditional-cpp) */ #define _ -F<00||--F-OO--; int F=00,OO=00; main(){F_OO();printf("%1.3f ",4.*-F/OO/OO);}F_OO() { _-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ _-_-_-_ } Note that this program works by computing its own area. For more digits, write a bigger program. See also hello world.The IOCCC has an official home page at http://www.ioccc.org/.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Marine

Marine

A Marine is a member of an infantry force that specializes in naval operations such as amphibious assault. In some countries, a marine force is often part of a navy, but can also be under army or independent command. Historically, tasks undertaken by marines have included providing protection from war while at sea, reflecting the pressed nature of the ships' company and the risk of mutiny. Other tasks would include boarding of vessels during combat or capture of prize ships and providing manpower for raiding ashore in support of the naval objectives. Marine elements would also contribute to the campaign ashore, in support of the military objective. With the industrialization of warfare in the 20th century the scale of landing operations increased; thus brought with it an increased likelihood of opposition and a need for co-ordination of various military elements. Marine forces evolved to specialize in the skills and capabilities required for amphibious warfare.

— Freebase

Humphrey Bogart

Humphrey Bogart

Humphrey DeForest Bogart was an American actor and is widely regarded as an American cultural icon. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Bogart as the greatest male star in the history of American cinema. After trying various jobs, Bogart began acting in 1921 and became a regular in Broadway productions in the 1920s and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced the demand for plays, Bogart turned to film. His first great success was as Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest, and this led to a period of typecasting as a gangster with films such as Angels with Dirty Faces and B-movies like The Return of Doctor X. Bogart's breakthrough as a leading man came in 1941, with High Sierra and The Maltese Falcon. The next year, his performance in Casablanca raised him to the peak of his profession and, at the same time, cemented his trademark film persona, that of the hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other successes followed, including To Have and Have Not; The Big Sleep; Dark Passage and Key Largo, with his wife Lauren Bacall; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre; In a Lonely Place; The African Queen, for which he won his only Academy Award; Sabrina; and The Caine Mutiny. His last movie was The Harder They Fall. During a film career of almost 30 years, he appeared in 75 feature films.

— Freebase

Destroyer minesweeper

Destroyer minesweeper

Destroyer minesweeper was a designation given by the United States Navy to a series of destroyers that were converted into high-speed ocean-going minesweepers for service during World War II. The hull number for such a ship began "DMS". Forty-two ships were so converted, beginning with the USS Dorsey, converted to DMS 1 in late 1940, and ending with the USS Earle, converted to DMS-42 in mid 1945. The type is now obsolete, its function having been taken over by purpose-built ships, designated as "minesweeper" with hull numbers beginning MMD. The original ships were obsolete four-stack destroyers built during and after World War I with usable power plants. The number 4 boiler, fourth stack, and torpedo tubes were removed, depth charge racks repositioned forward from the stern and angled outboard, and the stern modified to support sweep gear: davits, winch, paravanes, and kites. Two 60-kilowatt turbo-generators replaced the three original 25-kilowatt generators to improve capability for sweeping magnetic and acoustic mines. Conversion of the initial seventeen ships was completed in October and November 1940, and included eight Wickes class and nine Clemson class destroyers. An additional Wickes class destroyer was converted in 1941. The fictional USS Caine from Herman Wouk's novel The Caine Mutiny was a converted Clemson class ship. The 24 later ships in the series were Gleaves class destroyers built during the war.

— Freebase

Herman Wouk

Herman Wouk

Herman Wouk is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American author whose novels include The Caine Mutiny, The Winds of War and War and Remembrance. His brother, Victor Wouk was an electrical engineer, a pioneer in the development of electric and hybrid vehicles.

— Freebase

Guard of Honor

Guard of Honor

Guard of Honor is a Pulitzer Prize winning novel by James Gould Cozzens published in 1948. The novel is set during World War II, with most of the action occurring on or near a fictional Army Air Forces base in central Florida. The action occurs over a period of approximately 48 hours. The novel is chapterless in form, using three progressively longer parts entitled "Thursday", "Friday" and "Saturday". From dates on various memoranda quoted, the story takes place on September 2, 3, and 4, 1943. Before entering the USAAF in 1943, Cozzens had already published 10 novels; his duties included writing speeches and articles for Henry H. Arnold, commanding general of the USAAF. Cozzens worked in the USAAF Office of Information Services, a liaison and "information clearinghouse" between the military and the civilian press. One of the functions of his office was in controlling news, and it became Cozzens’ job to defuse situations potentially embarrassing to Arnold. One such incident occurred in April 1945: African-American officers protested the segregation of officer club facilities in what became known as the Freeman Field Mutiny. Cozzens included a fictional but similar incident in Guard of Honor, not as a dramatic recreation of the incident but as backdrop for his analysis of the relationship between fate and the character and personality of leaders. Although several African-American characters appear in Guard of Honor, none are point-of-view figures.

— Freebase

Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue a livelihood in the New World. He went to Hispaniola and later to Cuba, where he received an encomienda and, for a short time, became alcalde of the second Spanish town founded on the island. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, an expedition which he partly funded. His enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored. Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others. He also used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter; she would later bear Cortés a son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died peacefully but embittered, six years later.

— Freebase

Ranchi

Ranchi

Ranchi is the capital of and the second-most populous city in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand State was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. The name Ranchi comes from the original Oraon village Archi at the site. Archi derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave or archi. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished; Archi became Rachi, and Rachi became Ranchi. One historically significant neighborhood is Doranda, between the Hinoo & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny. The present Purani Ranchi marks the site of the old village of Archi.

— Freebase

Poilu

Poilu

Poilu is a warmly informal term for a French World War I infantryman, meaning, literally, hairy one. The term came into popular usage in France during the era of Napoleon Bonaparte and his massive citizen armies, though the term grognard was also common. It is still widely used as a term of endearment for the French infantry of World War I. The word carries the sense of the infantryman's typically rustic, agricultural background. Beards and bushy moustaches were often worn. The image of the dogged, bearded French soldier was widely used in propaganda and war memorials. The stereotype of the Poilu was of bravery and endurance, but not always of unquestioning obedience. At the disastrous Chemin des Dames offensive of 1917 under General Robert Nivelle, they were said to have gone into no man's land making baa'ing noises — a collective bit of gallows humor signaling the idea that they were being sent as lambs to the slaughter. Outstanding for its mixture of horror and heroism, this spectacle proved a sobering one. As the news of it spread, the French high command soon found itself coping with a widespread mutiny. A minor revolution was averted only with the promise of an end to the costly offensive.

— Freebase

Omoo, a narrative of adventures in the South seas

Omoo, a narrative of adventures in the South seas

Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas is Herman Melville's sequel to Typee, and, as such, was also autobiographical. After leaving Nuku Hiva, the main character ships aboard a whaling vessel which makes its way to Tahiti, after which there is a mutiny and the majority of the crew are imprisoned on Tahiti. The book follows the actions of the narrator as he explores Tahiti and remarks on their customs and way of life. The novel was composed in 1846 and published in London and New York in the spring of 1847.

— Freebase

Heroína

Heroína

The Heroína was a privately owned frigate that was operated as a privateer under a license issued by the United Provinces of the River Plate. It was under the command of American-born Colonel David Jewett and has become linked with the Argentine claim to sovereignty of the Falkland Islands. This stems from a ceremony that took place on 6 November 1820, where Jewett formally claimed the Falkland Islands for the United Provinces. The Buenos Aires businessman Patrick Lynch acquired the French frigate Braque at some point in 1819/1820. The exact date is unknown with dates for the transaction ranging from August 1819 until January 1820. Initially it was planned to name the ship Tomás Guido but that name was considered inappropriate as Guido, Chief Secretary of the Army, was still alive at the time. After naming her Heroína and fitting out the ship to act as a privateer, Lynch obtained a corsair license from the Buenos Aires Supreme Director José Rondeau. Colonel David Jewett, an American privateer was given command of Heroína in 1820 and set out on a voyage marked by misfortune, a mutiny, and scurvy. In July 1820, Jewett captured the Portuguese frigate Carlota that was en route to Lisbon. In doing so, Jewett crossed the line between privateer and pirate, since his corsairs license restricted his activities to Spanish ships. Jewett continued to capture ships of other flags causing further controversy.

— Freebase

One Cup

One Cup

One Cup is an Australian short documentary film, produced and released by Scarab Studio and Mutiny Media. Its crew included Dominic Allen, Joel Betts, Nicholas Hansen, Greta Costello, Dylan Tromp. Filmed in the mountains of Timor-Leste in January 2006, One Cup depicts the struggles and health concerns of coffee farming communities in Timor-Leste, Asia. Featuring then Foreign Minister José Ramos-Horta, Oxfam Program Director Keryn Clark and Timorese coffee farmers, One Cup attempts to illustrate benefits offered by the international fair trade system. Unlike the documentary film Black Gold, which looks at the issues around fair trade One Cup attempts to show positive benefits of the fair trade system.

— Freebase

Marines

Marines

A marine, or naval infantry, is a member of an infantry force that specializes in naval operations such as amphibious assault. In some countries, a marine force is often part of a navy, but can also be under army or independent command. Historically, tasks undertaken by marines have included providing protection from war while at sea, reflecting the pressed nature of the ships' company and the risk of mutiny. Other tasks would include boarding of vessels during combat or capture of prize ships and providing manpower for raiding ashore in support of the naval objectives. Marine elements would also contribute to the campaign ashore, in support of the military objective. With the industrialization of warfare in the 20th century the scale of landing operations increased; thus brought with it an increased likelihood of opposition and a need for co-ordination of various military elements. Marine forces evolved to specialize in the skills and capabilities required for amphibious warfare.

— Freebase

Yosemite Sam

Yosemite Sam

Yosemite Sam is an American animated cartoon character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons produced by Warner Bros. Animation. The name is somewhat alliterative and is inspired by Yosemite National Park. Along with Elmer Fudd, he is the de facto archenemy of Bugs Bunny. He is commonly depicted as an extremely grouchy gunslinging prospector, outlaw, pirate, or cowboy with a hair-trigger temper and an intense hatred of rabbits, Bugs particularly. In cartoons with non-Western themes, he uses various aliases, including "Chilkoot Sam" in 14 Carrot Rabbit, "Riff Raff Sam" in Sahara Hare, "Sam Schulz" in Big House Bunny, "Seagoin' Sam" in Buccaneer Bunny, "Shanghai Sam" in Mutiny on the Bunny, and "Sam Von Schamm the Hessian" in Bunker Hill Bunny and many others. During the Golden Age of American animation, Yosemite Sam appeared in 33 shorts.

— Freebase

Quartering Acts

Quartering Acts

Quartering Act is a name given to a minimum of two Acts of British Parliament in the 18th century. Parliament enacted them to order local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with any needed accommodations or housing. It also required colonists to provide food for any British soldiers in the area. Each of the Quartering Acts was an amendment to the Mutiny Act and required annual renewal by Parliament. They were originally intended as a response to issues that arose during the French and Indian War and soon became a source of tension between the inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies and the government in London, England. These tensions would later fuel the fire that led to the Revolutionary War.

— Freebase

Hodson, Major William

Hodson, Major William

a noted leader during the Indian Mutiny; joined the Indian Army in 1845, fought through the first Sikh War, and subsequently held a civil post in the Punjab; on the outbreak of the Mutiny he became head of the Intelligence Department, and won celebrity as the daring but wild leader of an irregular cavalry regiment known as Hodson's Horse; he took part in the sieges of Delhi, and at Lucknow captured the Mogul Emperor; shot down with his own hand the young princes, and a few months later fell himself while storming a palace in the city (1821-1858).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nana Sahib

Nana Sahib

a Hindu traitor, his real name Dundhu Panth, of Brahman descent, adopted son of the ex-Peshwa of the Mahrattas, whose pension from the British Government was not continued to Nana on his death, and which rendered the latter the deadly foe to British rule in India, and the instigator, on the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, of the massacre of Cawnpore; he had on the outbreak of the Mutiny in question offered his services to a British general, and placed himself at the head of the mutineers; the miscreant escaped, and his fate was never known; b. 1820. See Cawnpore.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Tantia Topee

Tantia Topee

the most daring and stubborn of Nana Sahib's lieutenants during the Indian Mutiny; in alliance with the Rani of Jhansi he upheld for a time the mutiny after the flight of his chief, but was finally captured and executed in 1859.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bountii

Bountii

Bountii (pronounced “bounty”) is a new price search engine. Emerging from the Y Combinator class of 2007, they focus on the incredibly popular and competitive category of electronics, currently crawling over 30 merchants. Bountii says they differentiate themselves from other price search engines by digging deeper into the prices. Their data includes shipping and handling, and finds especially low prices normally hidden from basic searches, like the ones Costco only shows at check out. The system can add shipping and handling by zip code.There are many players in the crowded field of Product Search. Some competitors include: Twenga, TheFind, Crowdstorm, and Retrevo.

— CrunchBase

Bugcrowd

Bugcrowd

Crowdsourced security testing. Bugcrowd runs managed bug bounty programs for web and mobile applications.

— CrunchBase

Crown in Town

Crown in Town

Contend for the coveted Crown in Town award and be celebrated as the best business in your community. Crown in Town holds a competition each year for an industry in a city, for example Best Pizza in Pittsburgh or Best Restaurant in Rochester. Businesses use social tools to collect votes and offer a “Kings Bounty” to the top voter or promoter. This could be a cash prize or a free product or service for a year. The revenue model is freemium subscription based and is 17/mo or $150/yr to upgrade.

— CrunchBase

Relativity Media PL

Relativity Media PL

Relativity Media, LLC is a media and entertainment company that focuses on creating, financing and distributing first class, studio-quality entertainment content and intellectual property across multiple platforms, as well as making strategic partnerships with, and opportunistic investments in, media and entertainment-related companies and assets. Relativity owns and operates Rogue, a company that specializes in the production and distribution of lower-budget genre films, which has had particular success within the horror genre with films including The Unborn and The Strangers. Building upon its foundation of financing and producing films, Relativity has grown to include music, sports and television divisions and the next-generation social network iamrogue.com. Relativity also owns and operates RelativityREAL, Relativity™s television arm, which has become one of the leading suppliers of reality television with more than 20 shows in episodic or pilot. RelativityREAL is run by Tom Forman; his past successes include Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and Kid Nation.To date, Relativity has committed to, produced and/or financed more than 200 studio-quality motion pictures through 2014. Released films have accumulated more than $13.0 billion in worldwide box office revenue. Relativity™s recent films include Dear John, Brothers, The Wolfman, It™s Complicated, Zombieland, Couples Retreat, The Bounty Hunter and, most recently, Get Him to the Greek, Robin Hood and Grown Ups. Upcoming films for Relativity include The Fighter, Despicable Me, Charlie St. Cloud, Salt, Nanny McPhee 2, The Social Network as well as James Cameron’s Sanctum in 3D and Wes Craven™s My Soul To Take in 3D. Twenty-nine of the company™s films have opened at No. 1 at the box office. Relativity films have earned 43 Oscar® nominations, including nods for Nine, A Serious Man, Frost/Nixon, Atonement, American Gangster and 3:10 to Yuma. Forty-eight of Relativity™s films have each generated more than $100 million in worldwide box-office receipts.

— CrunchBase

Bligh, Wm.

Bligh, Wm.

a naval officer; served under Captain Cook; commanded the Bounty at Tahiti, when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment, and set him adrift, with 18 others, in an open boat, in which, after incredible privations, he arrived in England; was afterwards governor of N.S. Wales, but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct (1753-1817).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Calas, Jean

Calas, Jean

a tradesman of Toulouse, whose son committed suicide, and who was charged with murdering him to prevent his going over to the Catholic Church; was tried, convicted, and sentenced to torture and death on the wheel (1762); after which his property was confiscated, and his children compelled to embrace the Catholic faith, while the widow escaped into Switzerland. Voltaire, to his immortal honour, took up her case, proved to the satisfaction of the legal authorities in France the innocence of the victims, got the process revised, and Louis XV. to grant a sum of money out of the royal bounty for the benefit of the family.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Pitcairn Island

Pitcairn Island

a small volcanic island 2½ m. long and 1 broad, solitary, in the Pacific, 5000 m. E. of Brisbane, where, in 1790, nine men of H.M.S. Bounty who had mutinied landed with six Tahitians and a dozen Tahitian women; from these have sprung an interesting community of islanders, virtuous, upright, and contented, of Christian faith, who, having sent a colony to Norfolk Island, numbered in 1890 still 128.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Aliquot

Aliquot

al′i-kwot, adj. such a part of a number as will divide it without a remainder. [L. aliquot, some, several—alius, other, quot, how many.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Quotidian

Quotidian

kwō-tid′i-an, adj. every day: occurring daily.—n. anything returning daily: (med.) a kind of ague that returns daily. [Fr.,—L. quotidianusquot, as many as, dies, a day.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Quotient

Quotient

kwō′shent, n. (math.) the number which shows how often one number is contained in another.—n. Quōtī′ety, the proportionate frequency of an event. [Fr.,—L. quotiens, quoties, how often?—quot, how many?]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

Launch

Launch

A launch is a large motorboat. Originally it was the largest boat carried by a warship. The word comes from the Portuguese lancha "barge", from Malay lancha, lancharan, "boat," from lanchar "velocity without effort," "action of gliding smoothly". In the 1700s a launch was used to set the large anchors on a ship. They had a square transom and were about 24 feet long. In 1788 Captain Bligh was set adrift in the "Bounty’s Launch".

— Freebase

Varmint hunting

Varmint hunting

Varmint hunting is the practice of hunting vermin, generally small mammals targeted as a means of pest control, rather than for food. Varminter may refer to a varmint hunter, or describe hunting equipment either specifically designed for, or suitable for varmint hunting, such as a varmint rifle. Varmint hunters may hunt to protect their own property, for a bounty offered by another landowner or the government, or simply for sport.

— Freebase

Oceanus

Oceanus

Oceanus was a pseudo-geographical feature in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the World Ocean, an enormous river encircling the world. Strictly speaking, Oceanus was the ocean-stream at the Equator in which floated the habitable hemisphere. In Greek mythology, this world-ocean was personified as a Titan, a son of Uranus and Gaea. In Hellenistic and Roman mosaics, this Titan was often depicted as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and horns and the lower body of a serpent. On a fragmentary archaic vessel of circa 580 BC, among the gods arriving at the wedding of Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis, is a fish-tailed Oceanus, with a fish in one hand and a serpent in the other, gifts of bounty and prophecy. In Roman mosaics, such as that from Bardo he might carry a steering-oar and cradle a ship. Some scholars believe that Oceanus originally represented all bodies of salt water, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, the two largest bodies known to the ancient Greeks. However, as geography became more accurate, Oceanus came to represent the stranger, more unknown waters of the Atlantic Ocean, while the newcomer of a later generation, Poseidon, ruled over the Mediterranean.

— Freebase

Kea

Kea

The Kea is a large species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. About 48 cm long, it is mostly olive-green with a brilliant orange under its wings and has a large, narrow, curved, grey-brown upper beak. The Kea is the world's only alpine parrot. Its omnivorous diet includes carrion, but consists mainly of roots, leaves, berries, nectar, and insects. Now uncommon, the Kea was once killed for bounty due to concerns by the sheep-farming community that it attacked livestock, especially sheep. It received full protection only in 1986. The Kea nests in burrows or crevices among the roots of trees. Kea are known for their intelligence and curiosity, both vital to their survival in a harsh mountain environment. Kea can solve logical puzzles, such as pushing and pulling things in a certain order to get to food, and will work together to achieve a certain objective.

— Freebase

Prize money

Prize money

Prize money has a distinct meaning in warfare, especially naval warfare, where it was a monetary reward paid out to the crew of a ship for capturing or sinking an enemy vessel. The claims for the bounty are usually heard in a Prize Court. This article covers the arrangements of the British Royal Navy, but similar arrangements were used in the navies of other nations, and existed in the British Army and other armies, especially when a city had been taken by storm.

— Freebase

Snatch

Snatch

Snatch is a 2000 comedy-crime film written and directed by British filmmaker Guy Ritchie, featuring an ensemble cast. Set in the London criminal underworld, the film contains two intertwined plots: one dealing with the search for a stolen diamond, the other with a small-time boxing promoter named Turkish who finds himself under the thumb of a ruthless gangster known as Brick Top. The film features an assortment of colourful characters, including Irish Traveller Mickey O'Neil, arms-dealer Boris "the Blade" Yurinov, professional thief and gambling addict Franky "Four-Fingers", American gangster-jeweller "Cousin Avi", and bounty hunter Bullet-Tooth Tony. It is also distinguished by a kinetic direction and editing style, a circular plot featuring numerous ironic twists of chance and causality, and a fast pace. The film shares themes, ideas and motifs with Ritchie's first film, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels. It is also filmed in the same visual style and features many of the same actors, including Jones, Statham, and Ford.

— Freebase

Renegade

Renegade

Renegade is an American television series that ran for 110 episodes spanning 5 seasons, first broadcast between September 19, 1992 and April 4, 1997. The series was created by Stephen J. Cannell. Executive Producers included Cannell, Stu Segall, Bill Nuss and Richard C. Okie. The series stars Lorenzo Lamas as Reno Raines, a police officer who is framed for a murder he had not committed. Raines goes on the run and joins forces with Native American bounty hunter Bobby Sixkiller, played by Branscombe Richmond. Stephen J. Cannell also had a recurring role as the main villain, crooked police officer Donald 'Dutch' Dixon.

— Freebase

Erect-crested Penguin

Erect-crested Penguin

The Erect-crested Penguin is a penguin from New Zealand. It breeds on the Bounty and Antipodes Islands. This is a small-to-medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin, at 50–70 cm and weighing 2.5–6 kg. As in all penguin species, the male is slightly larger than the female and the birds weigh the most prior to moulting. It has bluish-black to jet black upperparts and white underparts, and a broad, bright yellow eyebrow-stripe which extends over the eye to form a short, erect crest. Its biology is poorly studied and only little information about the species has emerged in the past decades. Erect-crested Penguins nest in large colonies on rocky terrain. It presumably feeds on mainly krill and squid like other crested penguin species. The binomial commemorates the British zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater. This species is threatened by population decline, and a small breeding range restricted to two locations. The current population is estimated at 130,000 to 140,000. In addition to being listed as an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, the Erect-crested Penguin is listed as endangered and granted protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

— Freebase

Riddim

Riddim

Riddim is the Jamaican Patois pronunciation of the English word "rhythm," but in dancehall/reggae parlance it refers to the instrumental accompaniment to a song. Thus, a dancehall song consists of the riddim plus the "voicing" sung by the deejay. The resulting song structure may be taken for granted by dancehall fans, but is in many ways unique. A given riddim, if popular, may be used in dozens—or even hundreds—of songs, not only in recordings, but also in live performances. Some "classic" riddims, such as "Nanny Goat" and "Real Rock" are essentially the accompaniment tracks to the original 1960s reggae songs with those names. Since the 1980s, however, riddims started to be originally composed by producers/beatmakers, who give the riddims original names and, typically, contract artists to "voice" over them. Thus, for example, "Diwali" is the name not of a song, but of a riddim created by Lenky Marsden, subsequently used as the basis for several songs, such as Sean Paul's "Get Busy" and Bounty Killer's "Sufferer." "Riddims are the primary musical building blocks of Jamaican popular songs.... At any given time, ten to fifteen riddims are widely used in dancehall recordings, but only two or three of these are the now ting.... In dancehall performing, those whose timing is right on top of the rhythm are said to be "riding di riddim".

— Freebase

Bail bondsman

Bail bondsman

A bail bond agent, or bondsman, is any person or corporation that will act as a surety and pledge money or property as bail for the appearance of persons accused in court. Although banks, insurance companies and other similar institutions are usually the sureties on other types of contracts such entities are reluctant to put their depositors' or policyholders' funds at the kind of risk involved in posting a bail bond. Bail bond agents, on the other hand, are usually in the business to cater to criminal defendants, often securing their customers' release in just a few hours. Bail bond agents are almost exclusively found in the United States and its former commonwealth, the Philippines. In most other countries bail is usually much less and the practice of bounty hunting is illegal. The industry is represented by various trade associations, with the American Bail Coalition forming an umbrella group in the United States.

— Freebase

No Doubt

No Doubt

No Doubt is an American rock band from Anaheim, California, that formed in 1986. Since 1989 the group has consisted of vocalist Gwen Stefani, guitarist Tom Dumont, bassist Tony Kanal, and drummer Adrian Young. Since 1995, in live performances they have been supported by trumpeter and keyboardist Stephen Bradley and trombonist and keyboardist Gabrial McNair. The ska sound of their first album No Doubt failed to make an impact. The Beacon Street Collection is a raw expression of their sound, inspired by ska punk and released independently by the band under their own record label. The album sold over 100,000 copies in 1995, over three times as many as their first album sold. The band's diamond-certified album Tragic Kingdom helped launch the third-wave ska revival of the 1990s, and "Don't Speak", the third single from the album, set a record when it spent 16 weeks at the number one spot on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart. The group's next album, Return of Saturn, despite the Top 40 hit single "Simple Kind of Life", did not match the success of their previous but received critical praise and was nominated for Best Rock Album at the 43rd Grammy Awards. 15 months later, the band reappeared with Rock Steady, which incorporated reggae and dancehall music into their work. The album was primarily recorded in Jamaica and featured collaborations with Jamaican artists Bounty Killer, Sly and Robbie, and Lady Saw. The album produced two Grammy-winning singles, "Hey Baby" and "Underneath It All". On 22 November 2002, No Doubt received the Key to the City of Anaheim, given by the Mayor of Anaheim, Tom Daly in Disneyland during the band's appearance on 'Breakfast with Kevin and Bean' where they performed 5 songs. After 2004 tour the band embarked on a four-year hiatus. In 2008, the band resumed working slowly on their sixth album, titled Push and Shove, and released their single "Settle Down". They have sold over 33 million albums worldwide.

— Freebase

Frobisher

Frobisher

Frobisher is a fictional character who appeared in the Doctor Who Magazine comic strip based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who in the 1980s. He was a companion of the Sixth and Seventh Doctors. Frobisher is a Whifferdill, one of a shape-changing extraterrestrial race. What is assumed to be his natural form, as seen in his first comic strip appearance, is humanoid, pale yellow in color, three to four feet in height, with a round, featureless head, and wearing spectacles. However, he preferred to spend his free time in the form of a penguin. When he first appeared in The Shape Shifter, written by Steve Parkhouse with art by John Ridgway, Frobisher was a private investigator calling himself "Avan Tarklu". He came across the Doctor when an enemy, Dogbolter, had placed a bounty on the Doctor. After infiltrating the TARDIS, instead of turning the Doctor in for the money, Tarklu decided that he liked the Time Lord and helped him against Dogbolter. He then joined the Doctor on his journeys. He assumed the name of Frobisher because he felt that it sounded British and thought that the Doctor would like that.

— Freebase

Saturnalia

Saturnalia

Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honour of the deity Saturn held on December 17 of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through December 23. The holiday was celebrated with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: gambling was permitted, and masters provided table service for their slaves. The poet Catullus called it "the best of days." In Roman mythology, Saturn was an agricultural deity who reigned over the world in the Golden Age, when humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labor in a state of social egalitarianism. The revelries of Saturnalia were supposed to reflect the conditions of the lost mythical age, not all of them desirable. The Greek equivalent was the Kronia. Although probably the best-known Roman holiday, Saturnalia as a whole is not described from beginning to end in any single ancient source. Modern understanding of the festival is pieced together from several accounts dealing with various aspects. The Saturnalia was the dramatic setting of the multivolume work of that name by Macrobius, a Latin writer from late antiquity who is the major source for the holiday. In one of the interpretations in Macrobius's work, Saturnalia is a festival of light leading to the winter solstice, with the abundant presence of candles symbolizing the quest for knowledge and truth. The renewal of light and the coming of the new year was celebrated in the later Roman Empire at the Dies Natalis of Sol Invictus, the "Birthday of the Unconquerable Sun," on December 25.

— Freebase

Pitcairn Islands

Pitcairn Islands

The Pitcairn Islands, officially named the Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form a British Overseas Territory. The four islands – Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno – are spread over several hundred miles of ocean and have a total land area of about 47 square kilometres. Only Pitcairn, the second largest and measuring about 3.6 kilometres from east to west, is inhabited. The islands are inhabited by the descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians who accompanied them, an event retold in numerous books and films. This history is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only about 48 inhabitants, Pitcairn is the least populous jurisdiction in the world. The United Nations Committee on Decolonisation includes the Pitcairn Islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

— Freebase

Gun.Smoke

Gun.Smoke

Gun.Smoke is a vertical scrolling shooter arcade game created by Capcom in 1985. The game, which has a Western theme, centers around a character named Billy Bob, a bounty hunter who is after vicious criminals of the Wild West. Despite its name and theme, it has no connection to the western TV series Gunsmoke.

— Freebase

Home on the Range

Home on the Range

Home on the Range is a 2004 American animated musical western comedy feature film produced by Disney Animation Burbank and released by Walt Disney Pictures on April 2, 2004, and was named after the popular country music western song "Home on the Range". The 45th feature in the Walt Disney Animated Classics, it was the last traditionally animated Disney film until in 2009, it renamed Walt Disney Animation Studios, and the first film to be used with Toon Boom Animation's digital animation and ink & paint software. The first film to be used with Toon Boom Animation's digital animation and ink & paint software, was a 2009 Disney traditionally animated movie, The Princess and the Frog, and this is the last Disney animated film to be released on VHS. Set in the old west, the plot centers on a mismatched trio of dairy cows – brash, adventurous Maggie, prim, proper, british-like Mrs. Calloway and ditzy, happy-go-lucky Grace – who must capture an infamous cattle rustler, for his bounty, in order to save their idyllic farm from foreclosure.

— Freebase

Mother Nature

Mother Nature

Mother Nature is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it in the form of the mother. Images of women representing mother earth, and mother nature, are timeless. In prehistoric times, goddesses were worshipped for their association with fertility, fecundity, and agricultural bounty. Priestesses held dominion over aspects of Incan, Algonquian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Slavonic, Germanic, Roman, Greek, Indian, and Iroquoian religions in the millennia prior to the inception of patriarchal religions.

— Freebase

Brigham, Cumbria

Brigham, Cumbria

The village of Brigham, near the town of Cockermouth, Cumbria, England, has existed as a settlement since neolithic times. Brigham was an early centre of Christianity in Cumbria. The church of St Bridget's, was originally a Norman building, and is situated at the far north of the village, known as Low Brigham; it contains several fragments of pre-Norman crosses and other early carved stones. A disused quarry is situated in the centre of the village, above which runs the main street of High Brigham. The quarry is bisected by the road called Stang Lonning. Newer housing estates known as High Rigg and The Hill are at the west and east of the village. Until the closure of the Cockermouth and Workington Railway in 1966, Brigham had a railway station. At one time there was also a second station serving the hamlet of Broughton Cross, 1 km west of the main village. The village gave its name to HMS Brigham, a Ham class minesweeper. The ship's bell from this vessel is now in St Bridget's Church of England primary school in the village. Until a more modern fire alarm system was installed, this bell was rung as the fire alarm for the school. The family of Bounty mutineer Fletcher Christian are buried in the graveyard at St. Bridget's. Fletcher himself, born and raised in the township of Eaglesfield within Brigham parish, and christened at St. Bridget's, is thought to be buried on Pitcairn Island, though some have claimed that he returned secretly to England.

— Freebase

Choc ice

Choc ice

A choc ice is the British English term for a generic frozen dessert generally consisting of a block of rectangular ice cream — typically vanilla flavour — thinly coated with chocolate. Views vary as to whether it is a choc ice if it has a stick. In many countries, there are numerous versions of this dessert produced under different brand names. One notable brand is Klondike. The first one was sold in the United States in 1922 and named after the Klondike River in Alaska and Canada. The concept was patented in the UK and sold on to major confectionery brands such as Walls. On 14 July 2012 the term 'choc ice' became the focus of a racism row when footballer Rio Ferdinand seemingly endorsed a tweet by a Twitter user who had used the term pejoratively in criticising fellow footballer Ashley Cole, suggesting Cole was figuratively "black on the outside, white on the inside". The equivalent in France for the term black outside and white inside is the Bounty, a chocolate bar consisting of coconut inside while the U.S. English equivalent is Oreo.

— Freebase

Bounty

Bounty

When the Lucian Alliance puts a bounty on SG-1's heads, Cameron Mitchell finds himself a target while attending his high school reunion.

— Freebase

John Cleveland

John Cleveland

John Cleveland was an English poet. The son of an usher in a charity school, Cleveland was born in Loughborough, and educated at Hinckley Grammar School. Admitted to Christ's College, Cambridge, he graduated BA in 1632 and became a fellow of St John's College in 1634. At St John's Cleveland became college tutor and lecturer on rhetoric, and was much sought after. A staunch Royalist, he opposed the election of Oliver Cromwell as member for Cambridge in the Long Parliament, and lost his college post as a result in 1645. Joining Charles I, by whom he was welcomed, he was appointed to the office of Judge Advocate at Newark. In 1646, however, he lost this office, and wandered about the country dependent on the bounty of the Royalists. In 1655 he was imprisoned at Yarmouth, but released by Cromwell, to whom he appealed, and went to London, where he lived till his death. His best work is satirical, slightly reminiscent of Hudibras; his other poems are considered mediocre. The Poems were published in 1656.

— Freebase

Mother goddess

Mother goddess

Mother goddess is a term used to refer to a goddess who represents motherhood, fertility, creation, or who embodies the bounty of the Earth. When equated with the Earth or the natural world such goddesses are sometimes referred to as Mother Earth or as the Earth Mother. Many different goddesses have represented motherhood in one way or another, and some have been associated with the birth of humanity as a whole. Others have represented the fertility of the earth.

— Freebase

Themes

Themes

Themes is a 1989 compilation album of works by Greek electronic composer and artist Vangelis. It featured some previously released tracks from Vangelis's other albums, as well as some pieces from movie soundtracks that had not previously been released. The album is notable because it marked the first official appearances of Vangelis' music from the films Blade Runner, The Bounty and Missing. Of these three film scores, only the Blade Runner soundtrack has since received an official release. The album stayed for 13 weeks in the UK and Swiss charts, topping out at #11 and #20, respectively, on 13 August 1989, as well as reaching #25 in Sweden and #46 in Germany.

— Freebase

Three Strikes

Three Strikes

Three Strikes is a black & white comic book series from Oni Press written by Nunzio DeFilippis and Christina Weir, featuring art by Brian Hurtt. Three Strikes is a crime drama about Rey Quintana, a young man with a troubled past who is trying to make something of his life when he makes a bad decision and shoplifts a present for his girlfriend. Sentenced to more than 20 years for his minor crime due to California's "Three Strikes And You're Out" laws, Rey goes on the run. The story is also about bounty hunter Noah Conway, an ex-cop who has screwed up his personal life and who has no sympathy for lawbreakers like Rey. When Rey goes on the run, Noah is hired to bring him in, and the two men both undergo radical transformations as one hunts the other.

— Freebase

Quota System

Quota System

The Quota System, introduced by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger in 1795, required each English county to provide a quota of men for the Royal Navy, based on its population and the number of its seaports — London, for example, had to provide 5,704 quotamen, while Yorkshire had to provide 1,081. The counties found it difficult to meet the quotas. Some offered high cash bounties to inexperienced volunteers, creating resentment among the regular seamen who, despite their experience, had received only a small fraction of that bounty on their own volunteering. Sometimes, the counties resorted to sending convicted criminals in lieu of punishment, further creating ill feeling among ships' companies, and sometimes introducing typhus. Britain ended the quota system, along with impressment, in 1815 at the close of the Napoleonic Wars, when much of the fleet was decommissioned, and the supply of unemployed seamen was more than adequate to man the remaining ships.

— Freebase

Bridget

Bridget

Bridget is a fictional character in Arc System Works's Guilty Gear video game series. Bridget first appeared in the 2002 video game Guilty Gear X2. In the series, the androgynous character was born in a village where the birth of same-gender twins is considered bad luck; therefore, his family named and raised him as a girl. When Bridget grows up, he decides to prove himself as a bounty hunter. Bridget was created as "a cute character" by Daisuke Ishiwatari, who wanted to vary the games' cast. Due to the character's appearance, he was initially described as female by video game sources. When they became aware of his biological gender, reviewers included Bridget on lists of best androgynous and cross-dressing characters, as well as debated his sexual orientation. Despite these discussions, Bridget has become a popular character among gamers, and critics have described him as "a memorable character" in the series.

— Freebase

Talbiyah

Talbiyah

The Talbiyah is a Muslim prayer invoked by the pilgrims as a conviction that they intend to perform the Hajj only for the glory of Allah. Talbiyah is repeatedly invoked during the Hajj, or pilgrimage, upon putting on the Ihram, so the pilgrims can purify and rid themselves of worldly concerns. The text of the talbiyah is: Labbayka Allāhumma Labbayk. Labbayk Lā Sharīka Laka Labbayk. Inna l-Ḥamda, Wa n-Niʻmata, Laka wal Mulk, Lā Sharīka Lak. In Arabic: لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ لاَشَرِيْكَ لَكَ IPA transcription: translated as: "Here I am at Thy service O Lord, here I am. Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partners. Thine alone is All Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is The Sovereignty. Thou hast no partners." The Shia version of the talbiyah is exactly the same as the Sunni one but ends with an extra "Labbaik." There is disagreement among grammarians of Arabic as to the origin of the expression labbayka. The most prevalent explanation analyses it as the verbal noun labb + ay + ka. The dual is said to indicate repetition and frequency.

— Freebase

Shakespeare, William

Shakespeare, William

great world-poet and dramatist, born in Stratford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire; his father, John Shakespeare, a respected burgess; his mother, Mary Arden, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer, through whom the family acquired some property; was at school at Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, a yeoman's daughter, at 18, she eight years older, and had by her three daughters; left for London somewhere between 1585 and 1587, in consequence, it is said, of some deer-stealing frolic; took charge of horses at the theatre door, and by-and-by became an actor. His first work, "Venus and Adonis," appeared in 1593, and "Lucrece" the year after; became connected with different theatres, and a shareholder in certain of them, in some of which he took part as actor, with the result, in a pecuniary point of view, that he bought a house in his native place, extended it afterwards, where he chiefly resided for the ten years preceding his death. Not much more than this is known of the poet's external history, and what there is contributes nothing towards accounting for either him or the genius revealed in his dramas. Of the man, says Carlyle, "the best judgment not of this country, but of Europe at large, is slowly pointing to the conclusion that he is the chief of all poets hitherto—the greatest intellect, in our recorded world, that has left record of himself in the way of literature. On the whole, I know not such a power of vision, such a faculty of thought, if we take all the characters of it, in any other man—such a calmness of depth, placid, joyous strength, all things in that great soul of his so true and clear, as in a tranquil, unfathomable sea.... It is not a transitory glance of insight that will suffice; it is a deliberate illumination of the whole matter; it is a calmly seeing eye—a great intellect, in short.... It is in delineating of men and things, especially of men, that Shakespeare is great.... The thing he looks at reveals not this or that face, but its inmost heart, its generic secret; it dissolves itself as in light before him, so that he discerns the perfect structure of it.... It is a perfectly level mirror we have here; no twisted, poor convex-concave mirror reflecting all objects with its own convexities and concavities, that is to say, withal a man justly related to all things and men, a good man.... And his intellect is an unconscious intellect; there is more virtue in it than he himself is aware of.... His art is not artifice; the noblest worth of it is not there by plan or pre-contrivance. It grows up from the deeps of Nature, through this noble sincere soul, who is a voice of Nature.... It is Nature's highest reward to a true, simple, great soul that he got thus to be part of herself." Of his works nothing can or need be said here; enough to add, as Carlyle further says, "His works are so many windows through which we see a glimpse of the world that was in him.... Alas! Shakespeare had to write for the Globe Playhouse; his great soul had to crush itself, as it could, into that and no other mould. It was with him, then, as it is with us all. No man works save under conditions. The sculptor cannot set his own free thought before us, but his thought as he could translate into the stone that was given, with the tools that were given. Disjecta membra are all that we find of any poet, or of any man." Shakespeare's plays, with the order of their publication, are as follows: "Love's Labour's Lost," 1590; "Comedy of Errors," 1591; 1, 2, 3 "Henry VI.," 1590-1592; "Two Gentlemen of Verona," 1592-1593; "Midsummer-Night's Dream," 1593-1594; "Richard III.," 1593; "Romeo and Juliet," 1591-1596 (?); "Richard II.," 1594; "King John," 1595; "Merchant of Venice," 1596; 1 and 2 "Henry IV.," 1597-1598; "Henry V.," 1599; "Taming of the Shrew," 1597 (?); "Merry Wives of Windsor," 1598; "Much Ado about Nothing," 1598; "As You Like It," 1599; "Twelfth Night," 1600-1601; "Julius Cæsar," 1601; "All's Well," 1601-1602 (?); "Hamlet," 1602, "Measure for Measure," 1603; "Troilus and Cressida," 1603-1607 (?); "Othello," 1604; "Lear," 1605; "Macbeth," 1606; "Antony and Cleopatra," 1607; "Coriolanus," 1608; "Timon," 1608; "Pericles," 1608; "Cymbeline," 1609; "Tempest," 1610; "Winter's Tale," 1610-1611; "Henry VIII.," 1612-1613 (1564-1616).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

pees

pees

Something a chipmunk eats. Listed online in "what do chipmunk eat?"

— Editors Contribution

and there was much rejoicing

and there was much rejoicing

[from the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail.]Acknowledgement of a notable accomplishment. Something long-awaited, widely desired, possibly unexpected but secretly wished-for, with a suggestion that something about the problem (and perhaps the steps necessary to make it go away) was deeply disturbing to hacker sensibilities.In person, the phrase is almost invariably pronounced with the same portentious intonation as the movie. The customary in-person (approving) response is a weak and halfhearted “Yaaaay...”, with one index finger raised like a flag and moved in a small circle. The reason for this, like most of the Monty Python oeuvre, cannot easily be explained outside its original context.Example: "changelog entry #436: with the foo driver brain damage taken care of, finally obsoleted BROKEN_EVIL_KLUDGE. Removed from source tree. (And there was much rejoicing)."

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

ASCII art

ASCII art

The fine art of drawing diagrams using the ASCII character set (mainly |, -, /, , and +). Also known as character graphics or ASCII graphics; see also boxology. Here is a serious example: o----)||(--+--|<----+ +---------o + D O L )||( | | | C U A I )||( +-->|-+ | +-//-+--o - T C N )||( | | | | P E )||( +-->|-+--)---+--|(--+-o U )||( | | | GND T o----)||(--+--|<----+----------+ A power supply consisting of a full wave rectifier circuit feeding a capacitor input filter circuit And here are some very silly examples: |///| ____/| ___ |\_/| ___ | | o.O| ACK! / \_ |` '| _/ | | =(_)= THPHTH! / / / | (o)(o) U / C _) (__) /// _____ //// | ,___| (oo) / / | / /------- U (__) /____ || | /---V `v'- oo ) / ||---W|| * * |--| || |`. |_/ //-o-\ ____---=======---____ ====___ /.. .. /___==== Klingons rule OK! // ---\__O__/--- \ \_ /_/ There is an important subgenre of ASCII art that puns on the standard character names in the fashion of a rebus. +--------------------------------------------------------+ | ^^^^^^^^^^^^ | | ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ | | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | | ^^^^^^^ B ^^^^^^^^^ | | ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | +--------------------------------------------------------+ " A Bee in the Carrot Patch " Within humorous ASCII art, there is for some reason an entire flourishing subgenre of pictures of silly cows. Four of these are reproduced in the examples above, here are three more: (__) (__) (__) (/) ($$) (**) /-------/ /-------/ /-------/ / | 666 || / |=====|| / | || * ||----|| * ||----|| * ||----|| ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ Satanic cow This cow is a Yuppie Cow in love Finally, here's a magnificent example of ASCII art depicting an Edwardian train station in Dunedin, New Zealand: .-. /___ |___| |]_[| / I JL/ | JL .-. i () | () i .-. |_| .^. /_ LJ=======LJ /_ .^. |_| ._/___._./___\_._._._._.L_J_/.-. .-.\_L_J._._._._._/___._./___._._._ ., |-,-| ., L_J |_| [I] |_| L_J ., |-,-| ., ., JL |-O-| JL L_J%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%L_J JL |-O-| JL JL IIIIII_HH_'-'-'_HH_IIIIII|_|=======H=======|_|IIIIII_HH_'-'-'_HH_IIIIII_HH_ -------[]-------[]-------[_]----.=I=./----[_]-------[]-------[]--------[]- _/\_ ||\_I_//

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

click of death

click of death

A syndrome of certain Iomega ZIP drives, named for the clicking noise that is caused by the malady. An affected drive will, after accepting a disk, will start making a clicking noise and refuse to eject the disk. A common solution for retrieving the disk is to insert the bent end of a paper clip into a small hole adjacent to the slot. “Clicked” disks are generally unusable after being retrieved from the drive.The clicking noise is caused by the drive's read/write head bumping against its movement stops when it fails to find track 0 on the disk, causing the head to become misaligned. This can happen when the drive has been subjected to a physical shock, or when the disk is exposed to an electromagnetic field, such as that of the CRT. Another common cause is when a package of disks is armed with an anti-theft strip at a store. When the clerk scans the product to disarm the strip, it can demagnetize the disks, wiping out track 0.There is evidence that the click of death is a communicable disease; a “clicked” disk can cause the read/write head of a "clean" drive to become misaligned. Iomega at first denied the existence of the click of death, but eventually offered to replace free of charge any drives affected by the condition.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

foobar

foobar

[very common] Another widely used metasyntactic variable; see foo for etymology. Probably originally propagated through DECsystem manuals by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1960s and early 1970s; confirmed sightings there go back to 1972. Hackers do not generally use this to mean FUBAR in either the slang or jargon sense. See also Fred Foobar. In RFC1639, “FOOBAR” was made an abbreviation for “FTP Operation Over Big Address Records”, but this was an obvious backronym. It has been plausibly suggested that “foobar” spread among early computer engineers partly because of FUBAR and partly because “foo bar” parses in electronics techspeak as an inverted foo signal; if a digital signal is active low (so a negative or zero-voltage condition represents a "1") then a horizontal bar is commonly placed over the signal label.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

fool

fool

As used by hackers, specifically describes a person who habitually reasons from obviously or demonstrably incorrect premises and cannot be persuaded by evidence to do otherwise; it is not generally used in its other senses, i.e., to describe a person with a native incapacity to reason correctly, or a clown. Indeed, in hackish experience many fools are capable of reasoning all too effectively in executing their errors. See also cretin, loser, fool file.The Algol 68-R compiler used to initialize its storage to the character string "F00LF00LF00LF00L..." because as a pointer or as a floating point number it caused a crash, and as an integer or a character string it was very recognizable in a dump. Sadly, one day a very senior professor at Nottingham University wrote a program that called him a fool. He proceeded to demonstrate the correctness of this assertion by lobbying the university (not quite successfully) to forbid the use of Algol on its computers. See also DEADBEEF.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

nadger

nadger

[UK, from rude slang noun nadgers for testicles; compare American & British bollixed] Of software or hardware (not people), to twiddle some object in a hidden manner, generally so that it conforms better to some format. For instance, string printing routines on 8-bit processors often take the string text from the instruction stream, thus a print call looks like jsr print:"Hello world". The print routine has to nadger the saved instruction pointer so that the processor doesn't try to execute the text as instructions when the subroutine returns. See adger.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

segmentation fault

segmentation fault

[Unix] 1. [techspeak] An error in which a running program attempts to access memory not allocated to it and core dumps with a segmentation violation error. This is often caused by improper usage of pointers in the source code, dereferencing a null pointer, or (in C) inadvertently using a non-pointer variable as a pointer. The classic example is:    int i;    scanf ("%d", i);  /* should have used &i */ 2. To lose a train of thought or a line of reasoning. Also uttered as an exclamation at the point of befuddlement.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

timesharing

timesharing

[now primarily historical] Timesharing is the technique of scheduling a computer's time so that they are shared across multiple tasks and multiple users, with each user having the illusion that his or her computation is going on continuously. John McCarthy, the inventor of LISP, first imagined this technique in the late 1950s. The first timesharing operating systems, BBN's "Little Hospital" and CTSS, were deplayed in 1962-63. The early hacker culture of the 1960s and 1970s grew up around the first generation of relatively cheap timesharing computers, notably the DEC 10, 11, and VAX lines. But these were only cheap in a relative sense; though quite a bit less powerful than today's personal computers, they had to be shared by dozens or even hundreds of people each. The early hacker comunities nucleated around places where it was relatively easy to get access to a timesharing account.Nowadays, communications bandwidth is usually the most important constraint on what you can do with your computer. Not so back then; timesharing machines were often loaded to capacity, and it was not uncommon for everyone's work to grind to a halt while the machine scheduler thrashed, trying to figure out what to do next. Early hacker slang was replete with terms like cycle crunch and cycle drought for describing the consequences of too few instructions-per-second spread among too many users. As GLS has noted, this sort of problem influenced the tendency of many hackers to work odd schedules.One reason this is worth noting here is to make the point that the earliest hacker communities were physical, not distributed via networks; they consisted of hackers who shared a machine and therefore had to deal with many of the same problems with respect to it. A system crash could idle dozens of eager programmers, all sitting in the same terminal room and with little to do but talk with each other until normal operation resumed.Timesharing moved from being the luxury of a few large universities runing semi-experimental operating systems to being more generally available about 1975-76. Hackers in search of more cycles and more control over their programming environment began to migrate off timesharing machines and onto what are now called workstations around 1983. It took another ten years, the development of powerful 32-bit personal micros, the Great Internet Explosion before the migration was complete. It is no coincidence that the last stages of this migration coincided with the development of the first open-source operating systems.

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Scott, Sir Walter

Scott, Sir Walter

the great romancer, born in Edinburgh, through both father and mother of Scottish Border blood; his father, a lawyer, a man "who passed from the cradle to the grave without making an enemy or losing a friend," his mother a little kindly woman, full of most vivid memories, awakening an interest in him to which he owed much; was a healthy child, but from teething and other causes lost the use of his right limb when 18 months old, which determined, to a marked extent, the course of his life; spent many of the months of his childhood in the country, where he acquired that affection for all natural objects which never left him, and a kindliness of soul which all the lower animals that approached him were quick to recognise; he was from the first home-bred, and to realise the like around his own person was his fondest dream, and if he failed, as it chanced he did, his vexation was due not to the material loss it involved, but to the blight it shed on his home life and the disaster on his domestic relationships; his school training yielded results of the smallest account to his general education, and a writer of books himself, he owed less to book-knowledge than his own shrewd observation; he proceeded from the school (the High School, it was) at 15 to his father's office and classes at the University, and at both he continued to develop his own bent more than the study of law or learning; at his sixteenth year the bursting of a blood-vessel prostrated him in bed and enforced a period of perfect stillness, but during this time he was able to prosecute sundry quiet studies, and laid up in his memory great stores of knowledge, for his mind was of that healthy quality which assimilated all that was congenial to it and let all that did not concern it slip idly through, achieving thereby his greatest victory, that of becoming an altogether whole man. Professionally he was a lawyer, and a good lawyer, but the duties of his profession were not his chief interest, and though he received at length a sheriffship worth £300 a year, and a clerkship to the court worth £1500, he early turned his mind to seek promotion elsewhere, and chose a literary career. His first literary efforts were translations in verse from the German, but his first great literary success was the publication, in 1802, of "The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border," and in this he first gave evidence both of the native force and bent of his genius; it gave the keynote of all that subsequently proceeded from his pen. This was followed the same year by "Cadzow Castle," a poem instinct with military ardour, and this by "The Lay of the Last Minstrel" in 1805; the first poem which gained him popular favour, by "Marmion" in 1808, and by "The Lord of the Isles" in 1814. Much as the rise of Scott's fame was owing to his poetical works, it is on the ground of his prose writings, as the freest and fullest exhibition of his genius, that it is now mainly founded. The period of his productivity in this line extended over 18 years in all, commencing with the year 1814. This was the year of the publication of "Waverley," which was followed by that of "Guy Mannering," "The Antiquary," "Rob Roy," "Old Mortality," and "The Heart of Midlothian" in the year 1819, when he was smitten down by an illness, the effects of which was seen in his after-work. "The Bride of Lammermoor," "Ivanhoe," "The Monastery," "The Abbot," "Kenilworth," and "The Pirate" belong to the years that succeeded that illness, and all more or less witness to its sorrowful effects, of which last "The Abbot" and "The Monastery" are reckoned the best, as still illustrating the "essential powers" of Scott, to which may be added "Redgauntlet" and "The Fortunes of Nigel," characterised by Ruskin as "quite noble ones," together with "Quentin Durward" and "Woodstock," as "both of high value." Sir Walter's own life was, in its inner essence, an even-flowing one, for there were in it no crises such as to require a reversal of the poles of it, and a spiritual new birth, with crucifixion of the old nature, and hence it is easily divisible, as it has been divided throughout, into the three natural periods of growth, activity, and death. His active life, which ranges from 1796 to 1826, lay in picturing things and traditions of things as in youth, a 25 years' period of continuous crescent expansiveness, he had learned to view them, and his slow death was the result, not of mere weariness in working, but of the adverse circumstances that thwarted and finally wrecked the one unworthy ambition that had fatally taken possession of his heart. Of Scott Ruskin says, "What good Scott had in him to do, I find no words full enough to express...

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher

discoverer of America, on Oct. 12, 1492, after two months of great peril and, in the end, mutiny of his men, born in Genoa; went to sea at 14; cherished, if he did not conceive, the idea of reaching India by sailing westward; applied in many quarters for furtherance; after seven years of waiting, was provided with three small vessels and a crew of 120 men; first touched land at the Bahamas, visited Cuba and Hayti, and returned home with spoils of the land; was hailed and honoured as King of the Sea; he made three subsequent visits, and on the third had the satisfaction of landing on the mainland, which Sebastian Cabot and Amerigo Vespucci had reached before him; he became at last the victim of jealousy, and charges were made against him, which so cut him to the heart that he never rallied from the attack, and he died at Valladolid, broken in body and in soul; Carlyle, in a famous passage, salutes him across the centuries: "Brave sea-captain, Norse sea-king, Columbus my hero, royalist sea-king of all" (1438-1506).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lawrence, John, Lord

Lawrence, John, Lord

the "Saviour of India," born of Irish parentage at Richmond, Yorkshire; entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1829, and on the annexation of the Punjab was appointed Commissioner and afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; by his justice and the reforms he carried through he so won the esteem of the Sikhs that at the Mutiny he was able to disarm the Punjab mutineers, raise 50,000 men, and capture Delhi; returning to England he received a pension of £1000 a year, was made successively baronet and Privy Councillor, and sent out again as Governor-General of India in 1863; his rule was characterised by wise policy and sound finance; he disapproved of English interference in Afghan affairs; he was raised to the peerage in 1869 (1811-1879).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Outram, Sir James

Outram, Sir James

British general, surnamed by Napier the "Bayard of India," born in Derbyshire, began his military career in Bombay, served in the Afghan War and the war with Persia, played an important part in the suppression of the Mutiny, marching to the relief of Lucknow, magnanimously waived his rank in favour of Havelock, and fought under him (1803-1863).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Punjab

Punjab

"five rivers," a province in the extreme NW. of India, watered by the Indus and its four tributaries, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravee, and Sutlej; its frontiers touch Afghanistan and Cashmir. Mountain ranges traverse the N., W., and S; little rain falls; the plains are dry and hot in summer. There is little timber, cow-dung is common fuel; the soil is barren, but under irrigation there are fertile stretches; wheat, indigo, sugar, cotton, tobacco, opium, and tea are largely grown; cotton, silk, lace, iron, and leather are manufactured; indigo, grain, cotton, and manufactured products are exported in exchange for raw material, dyes, horses, and timber. The population is mixed, Sikhs, Jats, and Rajputs predominate; more than a half are Mohammedan, and more than a third Hindu. Lahore is the capital, but Delhi and Amritsar are larger towns. Several railways run through the province. The natives remained loyal throughout the Mutiny of 1857-58, Sikhs and Pathans joining the British troops before Delhi.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ar`rah

Ar`rah

a town in Bengal, 36 m. from Patna; famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bareilly

Bareilly

a city in NW. India, the chief town in Rohilkhand, 153 m. E. of Delhi, notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bentinck, Lord William Henry Cavendish

Bentinck, Lord William Henry Cavendish

Indian statesman, governor of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms. Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835, became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any mark on home politics (1774-1839).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Bithur

Bithur

a town on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m. above Cawnpore, where Nana Sahib lived, and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny of 1857.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Campbell, Sir Colin, Lord Clyde

Campbell, Sir Colin, Lord Clyde

born in Glasgow, son of a carpenter named Macliver; entered the army, and rose rapidly; served in China and the Punjab; commanded the Highland Brigade in the Crimea; won the day at Alma and Balaclava; commanded in India during the Mutiny; relieved Lucknow, and quelled the rebellion; was made field-marshal, with a pension of £2000, and created Lord Clyde; he was one of the bravest soldiers of England (1792-1863).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Canning, Charles John, Earl

Canning, Charles John, Earl

grandson of the succeeding; after service in cabinet offices, was made Governor-General of India, 1856, in succession to Lord Dalhousie; held this post at the time of the Mutiny in 1857; distinguished himself during this trying crisis by his discretion, firmness, and moderation; became viceroy on the transfer of the government to the crown in 1858; died in London without issue, and the title became extinct (1812-1862).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Cawnpore

Cawnpore

a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Delhi

Delhi

on the right bank of the Jumna, once the capital of the Mogul empire and the centre of the Mohammedan power in India; it is a great centre of trade, and is situated in the heart of India; it contains the famous palace of Shah Jahan, and the Jama Masjid, which occupies the heart of the city, and is the largest and finest mosque in India, which owes its origin to Shah Jahan; it is walled, is 51 m. in circumference, and divided into Hindu, Mohammedan, and European quarters; it was captured by Lord Lake in 1803, and during the Mutiny by the Sepoys, but after a siege of seven days retaken in 1857.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

East India Company

East India Company

founded in 1600; erected its first factories on the mainland in 1612 at Surat, but its most profitable trade in these early years was with the Spice Islands, Java, Sumatra, &c.; driven from these islands by the Dutch in 1622, the Company established itself altogether on the mainland; although originally created under royal charter for purely commercial purposes, it in 1689 entered upon a career of territorial acquisition, which culminated in the establishment of British power in India; gradually, as from time to time fresh renewals of its charter were granted, it was stripped of its privileges and monopolies, till in 1858, after the Mutiny, all its powers were vested in the British Crown.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin

Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin

soldier and administrator in India, born at Frodesley, Shropshire; was actively engaged in the first Sikh War and in the Mutiny; served under Sir Henry Lawrence, whose Life he partly wrote (1819-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Elgin, James Bruce, 8th Earl of

Elgin, James Bruce, 8th Earl of

statesman and diplomatist, born in London; governor of Jamaica and Canada; negotiated important treaties with China and Japan; rendered opportune assistance at the Indian Mutiny by diverting to the succour of Lord Canning an expedition that was proceeding to China under his command; after holding office as Postmaster-General he became Viceroy of India (1861), where he died; his Journal and Letters are published (1811-1863).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Frere, Sir Henry Bartle Edward

Frere, Sir Henry Bartle Edward

a distinguished diplomatist and colonial governor, born near Abergavenny; entering the East India Company in 1834, he rendered important services as administrator in Mahratta and as Resident in Sattara in 1847; as the chief-commissioner in Sind he did much to open up the country by means of canals, roads, etc.; during the Mutiny, which arrested these works of improvement, he distinguished himself by the prompt manner in which he suppressed the rising in his own province; from 1862 to 1867 he was governor of Bombay; in 1867 was knighted, and five years later carried through important diplomatic work in Zanzibar, signing the treaty abolishing the slave-trade; his last appointment was as governor of the Cape and High-Commissioner for the settlement of South African affairs; the Kaffir and Zulu Wars involved him in trouble, and in 1880 he was recalled, having effected little (1815-1884).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Goorkhas

Goorkhas

or Gurkhas, a brave and powerful native race in Nepal claiming Hindu descent; in 1814 they were subdued by the British, and have since rendered valuable service to Britain in the Mutiny, in the Afghan and in the Sikh Wars; there are now ten regiments of Goorkhas.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Grant, Sir James Hope

Grant, Sir James Hope

General, brother of Sir Francis Grant, born at Kilgraston, Perthshire; first distinguished himself in the Sikh Wars, and took a leading part in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny; in 1859 he commanded the British forces in China, and captured Pekin; was created a G.C.B. in 1860 and a general in 1872; he published several works bearing upon the wars in which he had been engaged (1808-1875).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Havelock, Sir Henry

Havelock, Sir Henry

British general, born at Bishop Wearmouth; entered the army in 1815, and embarked in the service for India in 1823; served in the Afghan and Sikh Wars, as also in Persia; on the outbreak of the Mutiny he was in 1857 sent to the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow, the latter of which places he entered on 25th Sept., where, being beleagured, he entrenched himself in the Residency, and held his own until November, when Sir Colin Campbell came to his relief, but his health had been undermined from his anxieties, and he died on the 22nd of that month; for his services on this occasion a baronetcy and a pension of £1000 was conferred on him, but it was too late, and the honour with the pension was transferred to his son; he was a Christian soldier, and a commander of the Puritan type (1795-1857).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Inglis, Sir John

Inglis, Sir John

English general; entered the army at 19, served in Canada in 1837; was sent to India, and distinguished himself in the Punjab in 1848; at the outbreak of the Mutiny was stationed at Lucknow, where he heroically defended the residency for 87 days till the relief of the city by Havelock and Outram (1814-1862).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jeypore

Jeypore

a native state in Rajputana; has been under British protection since 1818, and was loyal at the Mutiny; the soil is rocky and sandy, but there is much irrigation; copper, iron, and cobalt are found; enamelled gold ware and salt are manufactured; education is well provided for; at the capital, Jeypore (159), the handsomest town in India, there is a State college and a school of art; its business is chiefly banking and exchange.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Jodhpur

Jodhpur

largest Rajputana State, under British protection since 1818; is backward in government, education, agriculture, and manufactures; tin, lead, and iron are found; salt is made at Sambhar Lake. The state revolted at the Mutiny. Jodhpur (62), the capital, is 350 m. SW. of Delhi, and is connected by rail with Jeypore and Bombay.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Lucknow

Lucknow

fourth city in India, cap. of the prov. of Oudh, on the Gumti, a tributary of the Ganges, 200 m. NW. of Benares; is a centre of Indian culture and Mohammedan theology, an industrial and commercial city. It has many magnificent buildings, Canning and Martinière Colleges, various schools and Government offices. It manufactures brocades, shawls, muslins, and embroideries, and trades in country products, European cloth, salt, and leather. Its siege from July 1857 to March 1858, its relief by Havelock and Outram, and final deliverance by Sir Colin Campbell, form the most stirring incidents of the Indian Mutiny.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Meerut

Meerut

an Indian town in the North-West Provinces, on the Nuddi, 40 m. NE. of Delhi; is capital of a district of the same name, and an Important military station; it is noted as the scene of the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nicholson, John

Nicholson, John

an Indian officer, born in Dublin, son of a physician; served in the Sikh Wars, and at the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857 in the Punjab crushed it in the bud; led the attack at the siege of Delhi, Sept. 14, but fell mortally wounded as the storming party were entering the Cabul Gate (1821-1857).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Nore, Mutiny at the

Nore, Mutiny at the

a mutiny in the fleet stationed at the Nore, an anchorage off Sheerness, in the Thames, which broke out on May 20, 1797, and was not suppressed till June 15, for which the ringleaders were tried and hanged.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount

English statesman, born, of an Irish family, at Broadlands, Hants; was educated at the universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge; succeeded to his father's title, an Irish peerage, in 1802, and entered Parliament in 1807 as member for Newport, Isle of Wight; during his long career he subsequently represented Cambridge University (1811-1831), Bletchingly, South Hampshire, and Tiverton; from 1809 to 1828 under five Premiers he was Junior Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary at War; and separating himself finally from the Tory party, he joined Earl Grey's Cabinet as Foreign Secretary in 1830; contrary to all expectation he kept the country out of war, and during the next 11 years he associated England's influence with that of France in Continental affairs; returning to office in 1846, he remained at his old post till 1851, steering England skilfully through the Spanish troubles and the revolutionary reaction of 1848; a vote of censure on his policy was carried in the Lords in 1850, but, after a five hours' speech from him, the Commons recorded their approval; he resigned owing to differences with the Premier, Lord John Russell; in 1852 joined Lord Aberdeen's coalition ministry, and on its fall became himself Prime Minister in 1855; he prosecuted the Crimean War and the Chinese War of 1857, and suppressed the Great Mutiny in India; defeated in 1858, he returned to office next year with a cabinet of Whigs and Peelites; his second administration furthered the cause of free trade, but made the mistake of allowing the Alabama to leave Birkenhead; he was Prime Minister when he died; a brusque, high-spirited, cheery man, sensible and practical, unpretending as an orator, but a skilful debater, he was a great favourite with the country, whose prosperity and prestige it was his chief desire to promote (1784-1865).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Patna

Patna

the seventh city of India, in Bengal, at the junction of the Son, the Gandak, and the Ganges; is admirably situated for commerce; has excellent railway communication, and trades largely in cotton, oil-seeds, and salt. It is a poor city with narrow streets, and except the Government buildings, Patna College, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a mosque, has scarcely any good buildings. At Dinapur, its military station, 6 m. to the W., mutiny broke out in 1857. It is famous for its rice, but this is largely a re-export.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Peishwah

Peishwah

the name of the overlord or chief minister of Mahratta chiefs in their wars with the Mohammedans, who had his head-quarters at Poonah, the last to hold office putting himself under British protection, and surrendering his territory; nominated as his successor Nana Sahib, who became the chief instigator of the Mutiny of 1857, on account, it is believed, of the refusal of the British Government to continue to him the pension of his predecessor who had adopted him.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Roberts, Lord

Roberts, Lord

born at Cawnpore, educated in England; entered the Bengal Artillery in 1851; served throughout the Indian Mutiny, commanded in the Afghan War, and achieved a brilliant series of successes, which were rewarded with honours on his return to England; was made commander-in-chief of the Madras army in 1881, commander-in-chief in India in 1885, and commander of the forces in Ireland in 1895; b. 1832.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Russell, Sir William Howard

Russell, Sir William Howard

a celebrated war correspondent, born near Dublin; was educated at Trinity College, called to the English bar in 1850, had already acted for some years as war correspondent for the Times before his famous letters descriptive of the Crimean War won him a wide celebrity; subsequently acted as correspondent during the Indian Mutiny, American Civil War, Franco-German War, &c.; accompanied the Prince of Wales to India in 1875; knighted in 1895; b. 1821.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sikhs

Sikhs

a native religious and military community, scattered, to the number of nearly two millions, over the Punjab, and forming some fifteen States dependent on the Punjab government; founded (1469) by Baber Nanak as a religious monotheistic sect purified from the grosser native superstitions and practices; was organised on a military footing in the 17th century, and in the 18th century acquired a territorial status, ultimately being consolidated in to a powerful military confederacy by Ranjit Singh, who, at the beginning of the 19th century, extended his power over a wider territory. In 1845-46 they crossed their E. boundary, the Sutlej, and invaded English possessions, but were defeated by Gough and Hardinge, and had to cede a considerable portion of their territory; a second war in 1848-49 ended in the annexation of the entire Punjab, since when the Sikhs have been the faithful allies of the English, notably in the Indian Mutiny.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sindia

Sindia

the hereditary title of the Mahratta dynasty in Gwalior, Central India, founded in 1738 by Ranojee Sindia, who rose from being slipper-bearer to the position of hereditary prime minister of the Mahrattas; these princes, both singly and in combination with other Mahratta powers, offered determined resistance to the British, but in 1803 the confederated Mahratta power was broken by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and a large portion of their territory passed into British hands. Gwalior having been restored (1805), and retaken in 1844, the Sindia dynasty was reinstated under a more stringent treaty, and Boji Rao Sindia proved faithful during the Mutiny, receiving various marks of good-will from the British; was succeeded by his adopted son, a child of six, in 1886.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

White, Sir George Stewart

White, Sir George Stewart

English general, has had a brilliant career; entered the army in 1853; won the Victoria Cross twice over; served in the Mutiny, in the Afghan Campaign (1879-1880), in the Nile Expedition (1885), in the Burmese War (1885-1887), and was made Commander-in-Chief in India in 1893, Quartermaster-General in 1898, and is now distinguishing himself by his generalship and heroism in the South African War; b. 1835.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Wood, Sir Evelyn

Wood, Sir Evelyn

soldier, born in Essex; served in the Indian Mutiny War, and received the V.C., also in the Ashanti, in the Zulu, in the Transvaal (1880-1881) Wars, and in Egypt in 1882; b. 1838.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Carlyle, Thomas

Carlyle, Thomas

born in the village of Ecclefechan, Annandale, Dumfriesshire; son of James Carlyle, a stone-mason, and afterwards a small farmer, a man of great force, penetration, and integrity of character, and of Margaret Aitken, a woman of deep piety and warm affection; educated at the parish school and Annan Academy; entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14, in the Arts classes; distinguished himself early in mathematics; enrolled as a student in the theological department; became a teacher first in Annan Academy, then at Kirkcaldy; formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving; threw up both school-mastering and the church; removed to Edinburgh, and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia, and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews, the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies," proved "epoch-making" in British literature, wrote a "Life of Schiller"; married Jane Welsh, a descendant of John Knox; removed to Craigenputtock, in Dumfriesshire, "the loneliest nook in Britain," where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus," written in 1831, a radically spiritual book, and a symbolical, though all too exclusively treated as a speculative, and an autobiographical; removed to London in 1834, where he wrote his "French Revolution" (1837), a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures, and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century; delivered three courses of lectures to the élite of London Society (1837-1840), the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship," afterwards printed in 1840; in 1840 appeared "Chartism," in 1843 "Past and Present," and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets"; all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question," which to the last he regarded, as a subject of the realm, the most serious question of the time, seeing, as he all along taught and felt, the social life affects the individual life to the very core; in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell," and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend, John Sterling, concluded (1858-1865) his life's task, prosecuted from first to last, in "sore travail" of body and soul, with "The History of Friedrich II. of Prussia, called Frederick the Great," "the last and grandest of his works," says Froude; "a book," says Emerson, "that is a Judgment Day, for its moral verdict on men and nations, and the manners of modern times"; lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born, as he had left instructions to be. "The man," according to Ruskin, his greatest disciple, and at present, as would seem, the last, "who alone of all our masters of literature, has written, without thought of himself, what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear, if the will to hear had been in them ... the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man, and just for the love of God" (1795-1881).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

a great poet and wise man, the greatest, it is alleged, the world has seen since Shakespeare left it, and who, being born in Frankfort-on-the-Main 10 years before Robert Burns, died in the small duchy of Weimar the same year as Sir Walter Scott; was the son of an imperial chancellor, a formal man and his pedagogue in boyhood, and of Elizabeth Textor, daughter of the chief magistrate of the city, a woman of bright intelligence, who was only eighteen at the time of his birth. Spiritually and bodily he was the most perfectly formed, symetrically proportioned, justly balanced, and completely cultivated man perhaps that ever lived, whose priceless value to the world lies in this, that in his philosophy and life there is found the union in one of what to smaller people appears entirely and absolutely antagonistic, of utmost scientific scepticism and highest spiritual faith and worth. "He was filled full with the scepticism, bitterness, hollowness, and thousandfold contradictions of his time, till his heart was like to break; yet he subdued all this, rose victorious over this, and manifoldly, by word and act, showed others that came after how to do the like." Carlyle, who is never done recalling his worth, confesses an indebtedness to him—which he found it beyond his power to express: "It was he," he writes to Emerson, "that first proclaimed to me (convincingly, for I saw it done): 'behold, even in this scandalous Sceptico-Epicurean generation, when all is gone but hunger and cant, it is still possible that Man be Man.'" "He was," says he, "king of himself and his world;... his faculties and feelings were not fettered or prostrated under the iron sway of Passion, but led and guided in kindly union under the mild sway of Reason; as the fierce primeval elements of chaos were stilled at the coming of Light, and bound together, under its soft vesture, into a glorious and beneficent Creation." His life lies latent in his successive works, above all in "Goetz," in "Werter," in "Faust," and in "Meister"; but as these have not been duly read it has not yet been duly written, though an attempt is being made to do so in the said connection. Of the last of the four works named, Carlyle, who has done more than any one else yet to bring Goethe near us, once said, "There are some ten pages of that book that, if ambition had been my object, I would rather have written than all the literature of my time." "One counsel," says Carlyle, "he has to give, the secret of his whole poetic alchemy, 'Think of living! Thy life is no idle dream, but a solemn reality. It is thy own, it is all thou hast to front eternity with.'" "Never thought on thinking," he has said, Nie ans Denken gedacht. "What a thrift," exclaims Carlyle, "of faculty here!" Some think he had one weakness: he lived for culture, believed in culture, irrespective of the fact and the need of individual regeneration. And Emerson, who afterwards in his "Representative Men" did Goethe full justice, in introducing him as, if not a world-wise man, at all events as a world-related, once complained that "he showed us the actual rather than the ideal." To which Carlyle answered, "That is true; but it is not the whole truth. The actual well seen is the ideal. The actual, what really is and exists; the past, the present, and the future do all lie there" (1749-1832).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Ruskin, John

Ruskin, John

art-critic and social reformer, born in London, son of an honourable and a successful wine-merchant; educated with some severity at home under the eye of his parents, and particularly his mother, who trained him well into familiarity with the Bible, and did not object to his study of "Robinson Crusoe" along with the "Pilgrim's Progress" on Sundays, while, left to his own choice he read Homer, Scott, and Byron on week days; entered Christ's Church, Oxford, as a gentleman Commoner in 1837, gained the Newdigate Prize in 1839, produced in 1843, under the name of "A Graduate of Oxford," the first volume of "Modern Painters," mainly in defence of the painter Turner and his art, which soon extended to five considerable volumes, and in 1849 "The Seven Lamps of Architecture," in definition of the qualities of good art in that line, under the heads of the Lamps of Sacrifice, of Truth, of Power, of Beauty, of Life, of Memory, and Obedience, pleading in particular for the Gothic style; these were followed in 1851 by "Pre-Raphaelitism" (q. v.), and 1851-53 by the "Stones of Venice," in further exposition of his views in the "Seven Lamps," and others on the same and kindred arts. Not till 1862 did he appear in the rôle of social reformer, and that was by the publication of "Unto this Last," in the Cornhill Magazine, on the first principles of political economy, the doctrines in which were further expounded in "Munera Pulveris," "Time and Tide," and "Fors Clavigera" (q. v.), the principles in which he endeavoured to give practical effect to by the Institution of St. George's Guild, with the view of commending "the rational organisation of country life independent of that of cities." His writings are numerous, several of them originally lectures, and nearly all on matters of vital account, besides many others on subjects equally so which he began, but has had, to the grief of his admirers, to leave unfinished from failing health, among these his "Præterita," or memories from his past life. The most popular of his recent writings is "Sesame and Lilies," with perhaps the "Crown of Wild Olive," and the most useful that of the series beginning with "Unto this Last," and culminating in "Time and Tide." He began his career as an admirer of Turner, and finished as a disciple of Thomas Carlyle, but neither slavishly nor with the surrender of his own sense of justice and truth; Justice is the goddess he worships, and except in her return to the earth as sovereign he bodes nothing but disaster to the fortunes of the race; his despair of seeing this seems to have unhinged him, and he is now in a state of fatal collapse; his contemporaries praised his style of writing, but to his disgust they did not believe a word he said; he sits sadly in these days at Brantwood, in utter apathy to everything of passing interest, and if he thinks or speaks at all it would seem his sense of the injustice in things, and the doom it is under, is not yet utterly dead—his sun has not even yet gone down upon his wrath; the keynote of his wrath was, Men do the work of this world and rogues take the pay, selling for money what God has given for nothing, or what others have purchased by their life's blood; b. 1819. He died 20th January 1900.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Thackeray, William Makepeace

Thackeray, William Makepeace

novelist, born in Calcutta, educated at the Charterhouse and at Trinity College, Cambridge; after leaving college, which he did without taking a degree, travelled on the Continent, making long stays at Rome and Paris, and "the dear little Saxon town (Weimar) where Goethe lived"; his ambition was to be an artist, but failing in that and pecuniary resources, he turned to literature; in straitened circumstances at first wrote for the journals of the day and contributed to Punch, in which the well-known "Snob Papers" and "Jeames's Diary" originally appeared; in 1840 he produced the "Paris Sketch-Book," his first published work, but it was not till 1847 the first of his novels, "Vanity Fair," was issued in parts, which was followed in 1848 by "Pendennis," in 1852 by "Esmond," in 1853 by "The Newcomes," in 1857 by "The Virginians," in 1862 by "Philip," and in 1863 by "Denis Duval"; in 1852 he lectured in the United States on "The English Humorists of the Eighteenth Century," and in 1855 on "The Four Georges," while in 1860 he was appointed first editor of Cornhill. When "Vanity Fair" was issuing, Mrs. Carlyle wrote her husband: "Very good indeed; beats Dickens out of the world"; but his greatest effort was "Esmond," which accordingly is accounted "the most perfect, artistically, of his fictions." Of Thackeray, in comparison with Dickens, M. Taine says, he was "more self-contained, better instructed and stronger, a lover of moral dissertations, a counsellor of the public, a sort of lay preacher, less bent on defending the poor, more bent on censuring man; brought to the aid of satire a sustained common-sense, great knowledge of the heart, consummate cleverness, powerful reasoning, a store of meditated hatred, and persecuted vice with all the weapons of reflection... His novels are a war against the upper classes of his country" (1811-1863).

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Danton, Georges Jacques

Danton, Georges Jacques

"The Titan of the Forlorn Hope" of the French Revolution, born at Arcis-sur-Aube, "of good farmer people ... a huge, brawny, black-browed man, with a waste energy as of a Hercules"; an advocate by profession, "esurient, but with nothing to do; found Paris and his country in revolt, rose to the front of the strife; resolved to do or die"; the cause threatened, he threw himself again and again into the breach defiant, his motto "to dare, and to dare, and again to dare," so as to put and keep the enemy in fear; "Let my name be blighted," he said, "what am I? The cause alone is great, and will live and not perish"; but the "Sea-green" (q. v.) viewed him with jealousy, held him suspect, had him arrested, brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal, the severity of whose proceedings under him he had condemned, and sentenced to the guillotine; a reflection of his in prison has been recorded: "Oh, it were better to be a poor fisherman than to meddle with governing of men." "No weakness, Danton," he said to himself on the scaffold, as his heart began to sink within him as he thought of his wife. His last words were to Samson the headsman: "Thou wilt show my head to the people, it is worth showing"; words worthy of the brother of Mirabeau, who died saying, "I wish I could leave my head behind me, France needs it just now"; a man fiery-real, as has been said, genuine to the core, with many sins, yet lacking that greatest of sins, cant. "He was," says Mr. Belloc, "the most French, the most national, the nearest to the mother of all the Revolutionary group. He summed up France ... when we study him, we see France" (1759-1794). See Carlyle's "French Revolution."

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Hunt, Holman

Hunt, Holman

painter, born in London; became a pupil of Rossetti, and "his greatest disciple," and joined the Pre-Raphaelite movement; he began with "worldly subjects," but soon quitted these "virtually for ever" under Rossetti's influence, and "rose into the spiritual passion which first expressed itself in his 'Light of the World,'" with this difference, as Ruskin points out, between him and his "forerunner," that whereas Rossetti treated the story of the New Testament as a mere thing of beauty, with Hunt, "when once his mind entirely fastened on it, it became ... not merely a Reality, not merely the greatest of Realities, but the only Reality"; in this religious realistic spirit, as Ruskin further remarks, all Hunt's great work is done, and he notices how in all subjects which fall short of the religious element, "his power also is shortened, and he does those things worst which are easiest to other men"; his principal works in this spirit are "The Scape-Goat," "The Finding of Christ in the Temple," "The Shadow of Death," and the "Triumph of the Innocents," to which we may add "The Strayed Sheep," remarkable as well for its vivid sunshine, "producing," says Ruskin, "the same impressions on the mind as are caused by the light itself"; b. 1827.

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Spenser, Edmund

Spenser, Edmund

author of the "Faërie Queene," and one of England's greatest poets; details of his life are scanty and often hypothetical; born at London of poor but well-connected parents; entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, as a "sizar" in 1569, and during his seven years' residence there became an excellent scholar; took a master's degree, and formed an important friendship with Gabriel Harvey; three years of unsettled life followed, but were fruitful in the production of the "Shepheards' Calendar" (1579), which at once placed him at the head of the English poets of his day; had already taken his place in the best London literary and political circles as the friend of Sir Philip Sidney and Leicester, and in 1580 was appointed private secretary to Lord Grey, then proceeding to Ireland as the Lord Deputy, and although his master soon returned to England Spencer continued to make his home in Ireland, where he obtained some civil appointments, and in 1591 entered into possession of a considerable portion of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Desmond, adjacent to his house, Kilcolman Castle, co. Cork; seems to have been a pretty stern landlord, and, as expounded in his admirable tract, "A View of the Present State of Ireland," the advocate of a policy of "suppression and repression"; consequently was little loved by the Irish, and on the outbreak of Tyrone's rebellion in 1598 his house was sacked and burned, and he himself forced to flee to London, where he died a few weeks later "a ruined and heart-broken man"; the rich promise of the "Shepheards' Calendar" had been amply fulfilled in the "Complaints," "Amoretti," "Colin Clout's Come Home Again," the "Epithalamium" the finest bridal song in any language, and above all in the six published books of "The Faërie Queene" (1589 and 1596), in which all his gifts and graces as a poet are at their best; "He may be read," says Professor Saintsbury, "in childhood, chiefly for his adventure; in later youth, for his display of voluptuous beauty; in manhood, for his historical and ethical weight; in age, for all combined" (1552-1599).

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Stevenson, Robert Louis Balfour

Stevenson, Robert Louis Balfour

novelist and essayist, grandson of the preceding, born at Edinburgh, where in 1875 he was called to the bar, after disappointing his father by not following the family vocation of engineering; had already begun to write for the magazines, and soon abandoned law for the profession of letters, in which he rapidly came to the front; in 1878 appeared his first book, "An Inland Voyage," quickly followed by "Travels with a Donkey," "Virginibus Puerisque," "Familiar Studies"; with "Treasure Island" (1883) found a wider public as a writer of adventure and romance, and established himself permanently in the public favour with "Kidnapped" (1886, most popular story), "The Master of Ballantrae," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," &c.; his versatility in letters was further revealed in his charming "A Child's Garden of Verse," "Ballads," "Memories and Portraits," and "A Footnote to History" (on Samoan politics); in 1890 failing health induced him to make his home in the island of Samoa, where he died and is buried; "His too short life," says Professor Saintsbury, "has left a fairly ample store of work, not always quite equal, seldom quite without a flaw, but charming, stimulating, distinguished as few things in this last quarter of a century have been" (1850-1894).

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ASCII

ASCII

[originally an acronym (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) but now merely conventional] The predominant character set encoding of present-day computers. The standard version uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including early drafts of ASCII prior to June 1961) used fewer. This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters — a major win — but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S ß. or the ae-ligature æ which is a letter in, for example, Norwegian). It could be worse, though. It could be much worse. See EBCDIC to understand how. A history of ASCII and its ancestors is at http://www.wps.com/tex/definition/index.Computers are much pickier and less flexible about spelling than humans; thus, hackers need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them. Every character has one or more names — some formal, some concise, some silly. Common jargon names for ASCII characters are collected here. See also individual entries for bang, excl, open, ques, semi, shriek, splat, twiddle, and Yu-Shiang Whole Fish.This list derives from revision 2.3 of the Usenet ASCII pronunciation guide. Single characters are listed in ASCII order; character pairs are sorted in by first member. For each character, common names are given in rough order of popularity, followed by names that are reported but rarely seen; official ANSI/CCITT names are surrounded by brokets: <>. Square brackets mark the particularly silly names introduced by INTERCAL. The abbreviations “l/r” and “o/c” stand for left/right and “open/close” respectively. Ordinary parentheticals provide some usage information.!Common: bang ; pling; excl; not; shriek; ball-bat; <exclamation mark>. Rare: factorial; exclam; smash; cuss; boing; yell; wow; hey; wham; eureka; [spark-spot]; soldier, control."Common: double quote; quote. Rare: literal mark; double-glitch; snakebite; <quotation marks>; <dieresis>; dirk; [rabbit-ears]; double prime.#Common: number sign; pound; pound sign; hash; sharp; crunch ; hex; [mesh]. Rare: grid; cross­hatch; oc­to­thorpe; flash; <square>, pig-pen; tic­tac­toe; scratchmark; thud; thump; splat .$Common: dollar; <dollar sign>. Rare: currency symbol; buck; cash; bling; string (from BASIC); escape (when used as the echo of ASCII ESC); ding; cache; [big money].%Common: percent; <percent sign>; mod; grapes. Rare: [doub

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Schiller, Friedrich

Schiller, Friedrich

German poet and dramatist, born at Marbach on the Neckar, son of an army-surgeon; bred first to law and then to medicine, but took chief interest in philosophy and literature, to the cultivation of which he by-and-by devoted his life; his first work, a play, "The Robbers," which on its publication in 1782 produced quite a ferment, and was followed in 1783 by two tragedies, "Fresco" and "Kabale und Liebe"; but it was with "Don Carlos" in 1787 his mature authorship began, and this was followed by the "History of the Netherlands" and "History of the Thirty Years' War," to be succeeded by "Wallenstein" (1799), "Maria Stuart" (1800), "The Maid of Orleans" (1801), "The Bride of Messina" (1803), and "Wilhelm Tell" (1804); he Wrote besides a number of ballads and lyrics; in 1794 his friendship with Goethe began, and it was a friendship which was grounded on their common love for art, and lasted with life; he was an earnest man and a serious writer, and much beloved by the great Goethe (1759-1805). See Carlyle's "Life of Schiller," and his essay on him in his "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Milton, John

Milton, John

poet, born in London, son of a scrivener; graduated at Cambridge, and settled to study and write poetry in his father's house at Horton, 1632; in 1638 he visited Italy, being already known at home as the author of the "Hymn on the Nativity," "Allegro," "Penseroso," "Comus," a mask, and "Lycidas," an elegy on his friend King, who was drowned in the Irish Sea in 1637, besides much excellent Latin verse; the outbreak of the Civil War recalled him, and silenced his muse for many years; settling in London he took pupils, married in 1643 Mary Powell, and became active as a writer of pamphlets on public questions; his first topic was Church Government, then his wife's desertion of him for two years called forth his tracts on Divorce, a threatened prosecution for which elicited in turn the "Areopagitica, a Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing"; his father died in 1647, his wife in 1652; under the Common wealth he was "Secretary of Foreign Tongues," and successfully defended the execution of Charles I. in his Latin "Defence of the English People," and other bitter controversial works; he married in 1656 his second wife, who died two years later; the Restoration gave him back to leisure and poetry; his greatest work, "Paradise Lost," was composed rapidly, dictated to his daughters, and completed in 1663, but not published till 1667; 1671 saw "Paradise Regained" and "Samson Agonistes"; he had been blind since 1652; he married Elizabeth Minshull in 1663, who comforted him in his closing years; a man of fervent, impulsive temperament, and a lover of music, he was sincere in controversy, magnanimous in character, and of deep religious faith; the richness, melody, and simplicity of his poetry, the sublimity of his great theme, and the adequacy of its treatment, place him among the greatest poets of the world; in later years he leaned to Arianism, and broke away from the restraints of outward religious practice; his last prose work, a Latin treatise on "Christian Doctrines," was lost at the time of his death, and only recovered 150 years later (1608-1674).

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Byron, George Gordon, sixth Lord

Byron, George Gordon, sixth Lord

an English poet, born in London, son of Captain Byron of the Guards, and Catherine Gordon of Gight, Aberdeenshire; spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother, now a widow, and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, spending, when at the latter, his vacations in London, where his mother had taken a house; wrote "Hours of Idleness," a poor first attempt, which called forth a severe criticism in the Edinburgh Review, and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel; wrote first part of "Childe Harold," "awoke one morning and found himself famous"; produced the "Giaour," "Bride of Abydos," "Hebrew Melodies," and other work. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth, but she had not returned his affection, and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank, an heiress, who in a year left him never to return, when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England, and he never came back; on the Continent, moved from place to place, finished "Childe Harold," completed several short poems, and wrote "Don Juan"; threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece, risked his all in the emancipation of the latter, and embarking in it, died at Missolonghi in a fit, at the age of 36. His poems, from the character of the passion that breathed in them, made a great impression on his age, but the like interest in them is happily now passing away, if not already past; the earth is looking green again once more, under the breath, it is believed, of a new spring-time, or anyhow, the promise of such. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824).

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Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri

the great poet of Italy, "the voice of ten silent centuries," born in Florence; was of noble birth; showed early a great passion for learning; learned all that the schools and universities of the time could teach him "better than most"; fought as a soldier; did service as a citizen; at thirty-five filled the office of chief magistrate of Florence; had, while but a boy of ten, "met a certain Beatrice Portinari, a beautiful girl of his own age and rank, and had grown up in partial sight of her, in some distant intercourse with her," who became to him the ideal of all that was pure and noble and good; "made a great figure in his poem and a great figure in his life"; she died in 1290; he married another, "not happily, far from happily; in some civic Guelf-Ghibelline strife he was expelled the city, and his property confiscated; tried hard to recover it, even 'with arms in his hand,' but could not, and was doomed, 'whenever caught, to be burned alive'; invited to confess his guilt and return, he sternly answered: 'If I cannot return without calling myself guilty, I will never return.'" From this moment he was without home in this world; and "the great soul of Dante, homeless on earth, made its home more and more in that awful other world ... over which, this time-world, with its Florences and banishments, flutters as an unreal shadow." Dante's heart, long filled with this, brooding over it in speechless thought and awe, bursts forth at length into "mystic unfathomable song," and this, his "Divine Comedy" (q. v.), the most remarkable of all modern Books, is the result. He died after finishing it, not yet very old, at the age of 56. He lies buried in his death-city Ravenna, "shutout from my native shores." The Florentines begged back his body in a century after; the Ravenna people would not give it (1265-1321). See Carlyle's "Heroes and Hero-Worship," and Dean Plumptre's "Life of Dante."

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Kingsley, Charles

Kingsley, Charles

canon of Westminster and chaplain to the Queen, born at Holne Vicarage, near Dartmoor; studied at Cambridge; became rector of Eversley, in Hampshire, in 1844; was the author in 1848 of a drama, entitled "The Saint's Tragedy," with St. Elizabeth of Hungary for heroine, which was followed successively by "Alton Locke" (1849), and "Yeast" (1851), chiefly in a Socialistic interest; "Hypatia," a brilliant book in the interest of early Christianity in Alexandria and "Westward Ho!" a narrative of the rivalry of England with Spain in the days of Elizabeth, and besides other works, including "Two Years Ago," "Water Babies," and "Hereward the Wake," he was the author of the popular ballads of "The Three Fishers," "The Starlings," and "The Sands of Dee"; his writings had a great influence on his contemporaries, particularly on young men; Professor Saintsbury writes an appreciative estimate of Kingsley (1819-1875).

Kingsley, Henry

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Molière, Jean Baptiste Poquelin

Molière, Jean Baptiste Poquelin

great French comic dramatist, born in Paris; studied law and passed for the bar, but evinced from the first a proclivity for the theatre, and soon associated with actors, and found his vocation as a writer of plays, which procured him the friendship of Lafontaine, Boileau, and other distinguished men, though he incurred the animosity of many classes of society by the ridicule which he heaped on their weaknesses and their pretensions, the more that in his satires his characters are rather abstract types of men than concrete individualities; his principal pieces are, "Les Précieuses Ridicules," "L'École des Femmes," "Le Tartuffe," "Le Misanthrope," "George Dandin," "L'Avare," "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme," "Les Fourberies de Scapin," "Le Malade malgré Lui," "Les Femmes Savantes," and "Le Malade Imaginaire"; though seriously ill, he took part in the performance of this last, but the effort was too much for him, and he died that night; from the grudge which the priests bore him for his satires on them he was buried without a religious service (1622-1673).

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Corneille, Pierre

Corneille, Pierre

the father of French tragedy, born at Rouen, the son of a government legal official; was bred for the bar, but he neither took to the profession nor prospered in the practice of it, so gave it up for literature; threw himself at once into the drama; began by dramatising an incident in his own life, and became the creator of the dramatic art in France; his first tragedies are "The Cid," which indeed is his masterpiece, "Horace," "Cinna," "Polyeucte," "Rodogune," and "Le Menteur"; in his verses, which are instinct with vigour of conception as well as sublimity of feeling, he paints men as they should be, virtuous in character, brave in spirit, and animated by the most exalted sentiments. Goethe contrasts him with Racine: "Corneille," he says, "delineated great men; Racine, men of eminent rank." "He rarely provokes an interest," says Professor Saintsbury, "in the fortunes of his characters; it is rather in the way that they bear their fortune, and particularly in a kind of haughty disdain for fortune itself... He shows an excellent comic faculty at times, and the strokes of irony in his serious plays have more of true humour in them than appears in almost any other French dramatist" (1606-1684).

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Emerson, Ralph Waldo

Emerson, Ralph Waldo

an American philosophic thinker and poet, of English Puritan descent, born at Boston, where he started in life as a Unitarian preacher and pastor, an office he resigned in 1832 for literature, in which he found he would have freer and fuller scope to carry out his purpose as a spiritual teacher; in 1833 he paid a visit to England, and in particular a notable one to Craigenputtock (q. v.), with the inmates of which he formed a lifelong friendship; on his return the year after, he married, a second time as it happened, and, settling down in Concord, began his career as a lecturer and man of letters; by his "Essays," of which he published two series, one in 1841 and a second in 1844, he commended himself to the regard of all thinking men in both hemispheres, and began to exercise an influence for good on all the ingenuous youth of the generation; they were recognised by Carlyle, and commended as "the voice of a man"; these embraced subjects one and all of spiritual interest, and revealed transcendent intellectual power; they were followed by "Representative Men," lectures delivered in Manchester on a second visit to England in 1847, and thereafter, at successive periods, by "Society and Solitude," "English Traits," "The Conduct of Life," "Letters and Social Aims," besides a long array of poems, as well as sundry remarkable Addresses and Lectures, which he published; he was a man of exceptional endowment and great speculative power, and is to this day the acknowledged head of the literary men of America; speculatively, Carlyle and he were of the same school, but while Carlyle had "descended" from the first "into the angry, noisy Forum with an argument that could not but exasperate and divide," he continued pretty much all his days engaged in little more than in a quiet survey and criticism of the strife; Carlyle tried hard to persuade him to "descend," but it would appear Emerson never to his dying day understood what Carlyle meant by the appeal, an appeal to take the devil by the throat and cease to merely speculate and dream (1803-1882).

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Fichte, Johann Gottlieb

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb

a celebrated German philosopher, born in Upper Lusatia; a man of an intensely thoughtful and noble nature; studied theology at Jena, and afterwards philosophy; became a disciple of Kant, and paid homage to him personally at Königsberg; was appointed professor of Philosophy at Jena, where he enthusiastically taught, or rather preached, a system which broke away from Kant, which goes under the name of "Transcendental Idealism," and which he published in his "Wissenschaftslehre" and his "System der Sittenlehre"; obliged to resign his chair at Jena on a charge of atheism, he removed to Berlin, where he rose into favour by his famous "Address to the Germans" against the tyranny of Napoleon, and after a professorate in Erlangen he became head of the New University, and had for colleagues such men as Wolff, Humboldt, Scheiermacher, and Neander; he fell a victim to the War of Independence which followed, dying of fever caught through his wife and her nursing of patients in the hospitals, which were crowded with the wounded; besides his more esoterico-philosophical works, he was the author of four of a popular cast, which are worthy of all regard, on "The Destiny of Man," "The Nature of the Scholar," "The Characteristics of the Present Age," and "The Way to the Blessed Life"; "so robust an intellect, a soul so calm," says Carlyle, "so lofty, massive, and immovable, has not mingled in philosophic discussion since the time of Luther ... the cold, colossal, adamantine spirit, standing erect and clear, like a Cato Major among degenerate men; fit to have been the teacher of the Stoa, and to have discoursed of Beauty and Virtue in the groves of Academe" (1762-1814).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sand, George

Sand, George

the assumed name of Aurore Dupin, notable French novelist, born in Paris; married Baron Dudevant, a man of means, but with no literary sympathies; became the mother of two children, and after nine years effected a separation from him (1831) and went to Paris to push her way in literature, and involved herself in some unhappy liaisons, notably with Alfred de Musset (q. v.) and Chopin; after 1848 she experienced a sharp revulsion from this Bohemian life, and her last twenty-five years were spent in the quiet "Châtelaine of Nohant" (inherited) in never-ceasing literary activity, and in entertaining the many eminent littérateurs of all countries who visited her; her voluminous works reflect the strange shifts of her life; "Indiana," "Lélia," and other novels reveal the tumult and revolt that mark her early years in Paris; "Consuelo," "Spiridion," &c., show her engaged with political, philosophical, and religious speculation; "Elle et Lui" and "Lucrezia Floriani" are the outcome of her relations with Musset and Chopin; the calm of her later years is reflected in "La Petite Fadette," "François le Champi," and other charming studies of rustic life; her "Histoire de ma Vie" and posthumous letters also deserve notice; her work is characterised by a richly flowing style, an exuberant imagination, and is throughout full of true colour and vivid emotion (1804-1876).

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Shelley, Percy Bysshe

Shelley, Percy Bysshe

born at Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, eldest son of Sir Timothy Shelley, a wealthy landed proprietor; was educated at Eton, and in 1810 went to Oxford, where his impatience of control and violent heterodoxy of opinion, characteristic of him throughout, burst forth in a pamphlet "The Necessity of Atheism," which led to his expulsion in 1811, along with Jefferson Hogg, his subsequent biographer; henceforth led a restless, wandering life; married at 19 Harriet Westbrook, a pretty girl of 16, a school companion of his sister, from whom he was separated within three years; under the influence of William Godwin (q. v.) his revolutionary ideas of politics and society developed apace; engaged in quixotic political enterprises in Dublin, Lynmouth, and elsewhere, and above all put to practical test Godwin's heterodox view on marriage by eloping (1814) to the Continent with his daughter Mary, whom he married two years later after the unhappy suicide of Harriet; in 1816, embittered by lord Eldon's decision that he was unfit to be trusted with the care of Harriet's children, and with consumption threatening, he left England never to return; spent the few remaining years of his life in Italy, chiefly at Lucca, Florence, and Pisa, in friendly relations with Byron, Leigh Hunt, Trelawney, &c.; during this time were written his greatest works, "Prometheus Unbound," "The Cenci," his noble lament on Keats, "Adonais," besides other longer works, and most of his finest lyrics, "Ode to the South Wind," "The Skylark," &c.; was drowned while returning in an open sailing-boat from Leghorn to his home on Spezia Bay; "An enthusiast for humanity generally," says Professor Saintsbury, "and towards individuals a man of infinite generosity and kindliness, he yet did some of the cruellest and some of not the least disgraceful things from mere childish want of realising the pacta conventa of the world;" Shelley is pre-eminently the poet of lyric emotion, the subtle and most musical interpreter of vague spiritual longing and intellectual desire; his poems form together "the most sensitive," says Stopford Brooke, "the most imaginative, and the most musical, but the least tangible lyrical poetry we possess" (1792-1821).

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Spencer, Herbert

Spencer, Herbert

systematiser and unifier of scientific knowledge up to date, born at Derby, son of a teacher, who early inoculated him with an interest in natural objects, though he adopted at first the profession of a railway engineer, which in about eight years he abandoned for the work of his life by way of literature, his first effort being a series of "Letters on the Proper Sphere of Government" in the Nonconformist in 1842, and his first work "Social Statics," published in 1851, followed by "Principles of Psychology" four years after; in 1861 he published a work on "Education," and his "First Principles" the following year, after which he began to construct his system of "Synthetic Philosophy," which fills a dozen large volumes, and has established his fame as the foremost scientific philosopher of the time. Following in the lines of Auguste Comte and John Stuart Mill, he takes a wider sweep than either of them, fills the field he occupies with fuller and riper detail, resolves the whole of science into still more ultimate principles, and works the whole up into a more compact and comprehensive system. He is valiant before all for science, and relegates everything and every interest to Agnosticism that cannot give proof of its scientific rights. "What a thing is in itself," he says, "cannot be known, because to know it we must strip it of all that it becomes, of all that has come to adhere to it." The ultimate thus arrived at he finds to be, and calls, Energy, and that therefore, he says, we don't and can't know. That a thing is what it becomes seems never to occur to him, and yet only the knowledge of that is the knowledge of the ultimate of being, which is the thing he says we cannot know. To trace life to its roots he goes back to the cell, whereas common-sense would seem to require us, in order to know what the cell is, to inquire at the fruit. This is the doctrine of St. John, "The Word was God." In addition to agnosticism another doctrine of Spencer's is Evolution, but in maintaining this he fails to see he is arguing for an empty conception barren of all thought, which thought is the alpha and omega of the whole process, and is as much an ultimate as and still more so than the energy in which he absorbs God. Indeed, his philosophy is what is called the Aufklärung (q. v.) in full bloom, and in which he strips us of all our spiritual content or Inhalt, and under which he would lead us out of "Houndsditch" (q. v.), not with, but without, all that properly belongs to us; b. 1820.

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Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour

English composer, born in London; won the Mendelssohn scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, and by means of it completed his musical education at Leipzig; in 1862 composed incidental music for "The Tempest," well received at the Crystal Palace; since then has been a prolific writer of all kinds of music, ranging from hymns and oratorios to popular songs and comic operas; his oratorios include "The Prodigal Son" (1868), "The Light of the World," "The Golden Legend," &c., but it is as a writer of light and tuneful operas (librettos by W. S. Gilbert, q. v.) that he is best known; these began with "Cox and Box" (1866), and include "Trial by Jury," "The Sorcerer" (1877), "Pinafore," "Patience" (1881), "Mikado" (1885), &c., in all of which he displays great gifts as a melodist, and wonderful resource in clever piquant orchestration; received the Legion of Honour in 1878, and was knighted in 1883; b. 1842.

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Tennyson, Alfred, Lord

Tennyson, Alfred, Lord

poet-laureate, born at Somersby, in Lincolnshire, son of a clergyman, and of aristocratic descent; was educated at the grammar school of Louth and at Trinity College, Cambridge, which latter he left without taking a degree; having already devoted himself to the "Ars Poetica," an art which he cultivated more and more all his life long; entered the university in 1828, and issued his first volume of poems in 1830, though he had four years previously contributed to a small volume conjointly with a brother; to the poems of 1830 he added others, and published them in 1833 and 1842, after which, endowed by a pension from the Civil List of £200, he produced the "Princess" in 1847, and "In Memoriam" in 1850; was in 1851 appointed to the laureateship, and next in that capacity wrote his "Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington"; in 1855 appeared his "Maud," in 1859 the first four of his "Idylls of the King," which were followed by "Enoch Arden" and the "Northern Farmer" in 1864, and by a succession of other pieces too numerous to mention here; he was raised to the peerage in 1884 on the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone; he was a poet of the ideal, and was distinguished for the exquisite purity of his style and the harmony of his rhythm; had a loving veneration for the past, and an adoring regard for everything pure and noble, and if he indulged in a vein of sadness at all, as he sometimes did, it was when he saw, as he could not help seeing, the feebler hold regard for such things had on the men and women of his generation than the worship of Mammon; Carlyle thought affectionately but plaintively of him, "One of the finest-looking men in the world," he writes to Emerson; "never had such company over a pipe!... a truly interesting son of earth and son of heaven ... wanted a task, with which that of spinning rhymes, and naming it 'art' and 'high art' in a time like ours, would never furnish him" (1809-1892).

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Thomson, James

Thomson, James

the poet of the "Seasons," born, the son of the parish minister, at Ednam, Roxburghshire; was educated and trained for the ministry at Edinburgh University, but already wooing the muse, he, shortly after his father's death in 1725, went to London to push his fortune; his poem "Winter," published in the following year, had immediate success, and raised up a host of friends and patrons, and what with tutoring and the proceeds of "Summer," "Spring," "Autumn," various worthless tragedies, and other products of his pen, secured a fair living, till a pension of £100 from the Prince of Wales, to whom he had dedicated the poem of "Liberty," and a subsequent £300 a year as non-resident Governor of the Leeward Islands, placed him in comparative affluence; the "Masque of Alfred," with its popular song "Rule Britannia," and his greatest work "The Castle of Indolence" (1748), were the outcome of his later years of leisure; often tediously verbose, not infrequently stiff and conventional in diction and trite in its moralisings, the poetry of Thomson was yet the first of the 18th century to shake itself free of the town, and to lead, as Stopford Brooke says, "the English people into that new world of nature which has enchanted us in the work of modern poetry" (1700-1748).

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Browne, Sir Thomas

Browne, Sir Thomas

physician and religious thinker, born in London; resided at Norwich for nearly half a century, and died there; was knighted by Charles II.; "was," Professor Saintsbury says, "the greatest prose writer perhaps, when all things are taken together, in the whole range of English"; his principal works are "Religio Medici," "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors," and "Hydriotaphia, or Urn-Burial, a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk"; "all of the very first importance in English literature,..." adds the professor, "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite, and a sort of key to the others;" "a man," says Coleridge, "rich in various knowledge, exuberant in conceptions and conceits, contemplative, imaginative, often truly great, and magnificent in his style and diction.... He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast, with a strong tinge of the fantastic. He meditated much on death and the hereafter, and on the former in its relation to, or leading on to, the latter" (1605-1682).

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Browning, Robert

Browning, Robert

poet, one of the two greatest in the Victorian era, born in Camberwell; early given to write verses; prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary; his first poem "Pauline" (q. v.) published in 1833, which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835, "Sordello" in 1840; after a time, in which he was not idle, appeared, with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics," in 1855 his "Men and Women," and in 1868 "The Ring and the Book" (q. v.), his longest poem, and more analytic than poetic; this was succeeded by a succession of others, finishing up with "Asolando," which appeared the day he died at Venice; was a poet of great subtlety, deep insight, creative power, and strong faith, of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of; lies buried in Westminster Abbey; of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury, "Timor mortis non conturbabat, 'the fear of death did not trouble him.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang, not like most poets, Love and Death, but Love and Life.... 'James Lee,' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra,' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century." His creed was an optimism of the brightest, and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889).

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Doré, Gustave

Doré, Gustave

a French painter and designer, born in Strasburg; evinced great power and fertility of invention, having, it is alleged, produced more than 50,000 designs; had a wonderful faculty for seizing likenesses, and would draw from memory groups of faces he had seen only once; among the books he illustrated are the "Contes Drolatiques" of Balzac, the works of Rabelais and Montaigne, Dante's "Inferno," also his "Purgatorio" and "Paradiso," "Don Quixote," Tennyson's "Idylls," Milton's works, and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner"; among his paintings were "Christ Leaving the Prætorium," and "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem"; he has left behind him works of sculpture as well as drawings and pictures; his art has been severely handled by the critics, and most of all by Ruskin, who treats it with unmitigated scorn (1832-1883).

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Knox, John

Knox, John

the great Scottish Reformer, born at Giffordgate, Haddington, in 1505; studied at Glasgow University; took priest's orders; officiated as a priest, and did tutoring from 1530 to 1540; came under the influence of George Wishart, and avowed the Reformed faith; took refuge from persecution in St. Andrews Castle in 1547; was there summoned to lead on the movement; on the surrender of the castle was taken prisoner, and made a slave in a French galley for 19 months; liberated in 1549 at the intercession of Edward VI., came and assisted the Protestant cause in England; was offered preferments in the Church, but declined them; fled in 1553 to France, from the persecution of Bloody Mary; ministered at Frankfort and Geneva to the English refugees; returned to Scotland in 1555, but having married, went back next year to Geneva; was in absence, in 1557, condemned to be burned; published in 1558 his "First Blast against the Monstrous Regiment of Women"; returned to Scotland for good in 1559, and became minister in Edinburgh; saw in 1560 the jurisdiction of the Pope abolished in Scotland; had successive interviews with Queen Mary after her arrival at Leith in 1561; was tried for high-treason before the Privy Council, but acquitted in 1563; began his "History of the Reformation in Scotland" in 1566; preached in 1567 at James VI.'s coronation in Stirling; was in 1571 struck by apoplexy; died in Edinburgh on the 24th November 1572, aged 67, the Regent Morton pronouncing an éloge at his grave, "There lies one who never feared the face of man." Knox is pronounced by Carlyle to have been the one Scotchman to whom, "of all others, his country and the world owe a debt"; "In the history of Scotland," he says, "I can find properly but one epoch; we may say it contains nothing of world interest at all but this Reformation by Knox.... It is as yet a country without a soul ... the people now begin to live ... Scottish literature and thought, Scottish industry, James Watt, David Hume, Walter Scott (little as he dreamt of debt in that quarter), and Robert Burns, I find Knox and the Reformation acting on the heart's core of every one of these persons and phenomena; I find that without the Reformation they would not have been; or," he adds, "the Puritanism of England and of New England either"; and he sums up his message thus: "Let men know that they are men, created by God, responsible to God; who work in any meanest moment of time what will last through eternity. This great message," he adds, "Knox delivered with a man's voice and strength, and found a people to believe him."

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Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin

the great Protestant Reformer, born at Eisleben, in Prussian Saxony, the son of a miner, was born poor and brought up poor, familiar from his childhood with hardship; was sent to study law at Erfurt, but was one day at the age of 19 awakened to a sense of higher interests, and in spite of remonstrances became a monk; was for a time in deep spiritual misery, till one day he found a Bible in the convent, which taught him for the first time that "a man was not saved by singing masses, but by the infinite grace of God"; this was his awakening from death to life, and to a sense of his proper mission as a man; at this stage the Elector of Saxony was attracted to him, and he appointed him preacher and professor at Wittenberg; on a visit to Rome his heart sank within him, but he left it to its evil courses to pursue his own way apart; if Rome had let him alone he would have let it, but it would not; monk Tetzel arrived at Wittenberg selling indulgences, and his indignation was roused; remonstrance after remonstrance followed, but the Pope gave no heed, till the agitation being troublesome, he issued his famous "fire-decree," condemning Luther's writings to the flames; this answer fired Luther to the quick, and he "took the indignant step of burning the decree in 1520 at the Elster Gate of Wittenberg, Wittenberg looking on with shoutings, the whole world looking on"; after this Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms, and he appeared there before the magnates, lay and clerical, of the German empire on April 17, 1521; how he demeaned himself on that high occasion is known to all the world, and his answer as well: "Here stand I; I can do no other; so help me God"; "it was the grandest moment in the modern history of man"; of the awakening this produced Luther was the ruling spirit, as he had been the moving one, and he continued to be so to the end of his life; his writings show the man as well as his deeds, and amid all the turmoil that enveloped him he found leisure to write and leave behind him 25 quarto volumes; it is known the German Bible in use is his work, executed by him in the Castle of Wartburg; it was begun by him with his back to the wall, as it were, and under the protestation, as it seemed to him, of the prince of darkness himself, and finished in this obstructive element pretty much throughout, the New Testament in 1522, the Pentateuch in 1523, and the whole, the Apocrypha included, in 1534; he was fond of music, and uttered many an otherwise unutterable thing in the tones of his flute; "the devils fled from his flute," he says; "death-defiance on the one hand, and such love of music on the other, I could call these," says Carlyle, "the two opposite poles of a great soul, between these two all great things had room.... Luther," he adds, "was a true great man, great in intellect, in courage, in affection, and integrity,... great as an Alpine mountain, but not setting up to be great at all—his, as all greatness is, an unconscious greatness" (1488-1546).

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Marlowe, Christopher

Marlowe, Christopher

English dramatist and poet, precursor of Shakespeare; son of a shoemaker at Canterbury; besides a love poem entitled "Hero and Leander," he was the author of seven plays, "Tamburlaine," in two parts, "Doctor Faustus," "The Jew of Malta," "Edward the Second," "The Massacre of Paris," and "Dido," the first four being romantic plays, the fifth a chronicle play, and the last two offering no particular talent; he dealt solely in tragedy, and was too devoid of humour to attempt comedy; "In Marlowe," says Prof. Saintsbury, "two things never fail him long—a strange, not by any means impotent, reach after the infinite, and the command of magnificent verse"; his life was a short one (1564-1593).

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Quinet, Edgar

Quinet, Edgar

a French man of letters, born at Bourg, in the department of Ain; was educated at Bourg and Lyons, went to Paris in 1820, and in 1823 produced a satire called "Les Tablettes du Juif-Errant," at which time he came under the influence of Herder (q. v.) and executed in French a translation of his "Philosophy of Humanity," prefaced with an introduction which procured him the friendship of Michelet, a friendship which lasted with life; appointed to a post in Greece, he collected materials for a work on Modern Greece, and this, the first fruit of his own view of things as a speculative Radical, he published in 1830; he now entered the service of the Revue des Deux Mondes, and in the pages of it his prose poem "Ahasuérus" appeared, which was afterwards published in a book form and soon found a place in the "Index Expurgatorius" of the Church; this was followed by other democratic poems, "Napoleon" in 1835 and "Prometheus" in 1838; from 1838 to 1842 he occupied the chair of Foreign Literature in Lyons, and passed from it to that of the Literature of Southern Europe in the College of France; here, along with Michelet, he commenced a vehement crusade against the clerical party, which was brought to a head by his attack on the Jesuits, and which led to his suspension from the duties of the chair in 1846; he distrusted Louis Napoleon, and was exiled in 1852, taking up his abode at Brussels, to return to Paris again only after the Emperor's fall; through all these troubles he was busy with his pen, in 1838 published his "Examen de la Vie de Jésus," his "Du Genie des Religions," "La Révolution Religieuse au xixe Siècle," and other works; he was a disciple of Herder to the last; he believed in humanity, and religion as the soul of it (1803-1875).

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Racine, Jean

Racine, Jean

great French tragic poet, born at La Ferté Milon, in the dep. of Aisne; was educated at Beauvais and the Port Royal; in 1663 settled in Paris, gained the favour of Louis XIV. and the friendship of Boileau, La Fontaine, and Molière, though he quarrelled with the latter, and finally lost favour with the king, which he never recovered, and which hastened his death; he raised the French language to the highest pitch of perfection in his tragedies, of which the chief are "Andromaque" (1667), "Britannicus" (1669), "Mithridate" (1673), "Iphigénie" (1774), "Phèdre" (1677), "Esther" (1688), and "Athalie" (1691), as well as an exquisite comedy entitled "Les Plaideurs" (1669); when Voltaire was asked to write a commentary on Racine, his answer was, "One had only to write at the foot of each page, beau, pathétique, harmonieux, admirable, sublime" (1639-1699).

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Swift, Jonathan

Swift, Jonathan

born at Dublin, a posthumous son, of well-connected parents; educated at Kilkenny, where he had Congreve for companion, and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was a somewhat riotous and a by no means studious undergraduate, only receiving his B.A. by "special grace" in 1686; two years later the Revolution drove him to England; became amanuensis to his mother's distinguished relative Sir William Temple, whose service, however, was uncongenial to his proud independent nature, and after taking a Master's degree at Oxford he returned to Dublin, took orders, and was presented to the canonry of Kilroot, near Belfast; the quiet of country life palling upon him, he was glad to resume secretarial service in Temple's household (1696), where during the next three years he remained, mastering the craft of politics, reading enormously, and falling in love with Stella (q. v.); was set adrift by Temple's death in 1699, but shortly afterwards became secretary to Lord Berkeley, one of the Lord-Deputies to Ireland, and was soon settled in the vicarage of Laracor, West Meath; in 1704 appeared anonymously his famous satires, the "Battle of the Books" and the "Tale of a Tub," masterpieces of English prose; various squibs and pamphlets followed, "On the Inconvenience of Abolishing Christianity," &c.; but politics more and more engaged his attention; and neglected by the Whigs and hating their war policy, he turned Tory, attacked with deadly effect, during his editorship of the Examiner (1710-11), the war party and its leader Marlborough; crushed Steele's defence in his "Public Spirit of the Whigs," and after the publication of "The Conduct of the Allies" stood easily the foremost political writer of his time; disappointed of an English bishopric, in 1713 reluctantly accepted the deanery of St. Patrick's, Dublin, a position he held until the close of his life; became loved in the country he despised by eloquently voicing the wrongs of Ireland in a series of tracts, "Drapier's Letters," &c., fruitful of good results; crowned his great reputation by the publication (1726) of his masterpiece "Gulliver's Travels," the most daring, savage, and amusing satire contained in the world's literature; "Stella's" death and the slow progress of a brain disease, ending in insanity, cast an ever-deepening gloom over his later years (1667-1745).

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Crabbe, George

Crabbe, George

an English poet, born at Aldborough, in Suffolk; began life as apprentice to an apothecary with a view to the practice of medicine, but having poetic tastes, he gave up medicine for literature, and started for London with a capital of three pounds; his first productions in this line not meeting with acceptance, he was plunged in want; appealing in vain for assistance in his distress, he fell in with Burke, who liberally helped him and procured him high patronage, under which he took orders and obtained the living of Trowbridge, which he held for life, and he was now in circumstances to pursue his bent; his principal poems are "The Library," "The Village," "The Parish Register," "The Borough," and the "Tales of the Hall," all, particularly the earlier ones, instinct with interest in the lives of the poor, "the sacrifices, temptations, loves, and crimes of humble life," described with the most "unrelenting" realism; the author in Byron's esteem, "though Nature's sternest painter, yet the best" (1754-1832).

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Defoe, Daniel

Defoe, Daniel

author of "Robinson Crusoe," born in London; bred for the Dissenting ministry; turned to business, but took chiefly to politics; was a zealous supporter of William III.; his ironical treatise, "The Shortest Way with Dissenters" (1703), which, treated seriously, was burned by order of the House of Commons, led to his imprisonment and exposed him for three days to the pillory, amidst the cheers, however, not the jeers, of the mob; in prison wrote a "Hymn to the Pillory," and started his Review; on his release he was employed on political missions, and wrote a "History of the Union," which he contributed to promote. The closing years of his life were occupied mainly with literary work, and it was then, in 1719, he produced his world-famous "Robinson Crusoe"; has been described as "master of the art of forging a story and imposing it on the world for truth." "His circumstantial invention," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "combined with a style which exactly fits it by its simplicity, is the root of the charm of his great story" (1661-1731).

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Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles

celebrated English novelist, born at Landport, Portsmouth; son of a navy clerk, latterly in great straits; was brought up amid hardships; was sent to a solicitor's office as a clerk, learned shorthand, and became a reporter, a post in which he learned much of what afterwards served him as an author; wrote sketches for the Monthly Magazine under the name of "Boz" in 1834, and the "Pickwick Papers" in 1836-37, which established his popularity; these were succeeded by "Oliver Twist" in 1838, "Nicholas Nickleby" in 1839, and others which it is needless to enumerate, as they are all known wherever the English language is spoken; they were all written with an aim, and as Ruskin witnesses, "he was entirely right in his main drift and purpose in every book he has written," though he thinks we are apt "to lose sight of his wit and insight, because he chooses to speak in a circle of stage fire.... Allowing for his manner of telling them, the things he tells us are always true"; being a born actor, and fain in his youth to become one, he latterly gave public readings from his works, which were immensely popular; "acted better," says Carlyle, who witnessed one of these performances, "than any Macready in the world; a whole tragic, comic, heroic theatre visible, performing under one hat, and keeping us laughing—in a sorry way some of us thought—the whole night"; the strain proved too much for him; he was seized with a fit at his residence, Gad's Hill, near Rochester, on June 8, 1870, and died the following morning; he was a little man, with clear blue intelligent eyes, a face of most extreme mobility, and a quiet shrewdness of expression (1812-1870).

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Dryden, John

Dryden, John

a celebrated English poet, "glorious John," born in Northamptonshire, of a good family of Puritan principles; educated at Westminster School and Cambridge; his first poetic production of any merit was a set of "heroic stanzas" on the death of Cromwell; at the Restoration he changed sides and wrote a poem which he called "Astræa Redux" in praise of the event, which was ere long followed by his "Annus Mirabilis," in commemoration of the year 1666, which revealed at once the poet and the royalist, and gained him the appointment of poet-laureate, prior to which and afterwards he produced a succession of plays for the stage, which won him great popularity, after which he turned his mind to political affairs and assumed the role of political satirist by production of his "Absalom and Achitophel," intended to expose the schemes of Shaftesbury, represented as Achitophel and Monmouth as Absalom, to oust the Duke of York from the succession to the throne; on the accession of James II. he became a Roman Catholic, and wrote "The Hind and the Panther," characterised by Stopford Brooke as "a model of melodious reasoning in behalf of the milk-white hind of the Church of Rome," and really the most powerful thing of the kind in the language; at the Revolution he was deprived of his posts, but it was after that event he executed his translation of Virgil, and produced his celebrated odes and "Fables" (1631-1700).

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Eliot, George

Eliot, George

the nom de plume of Mary Ann Evans, distinguished English novelist, born at Arbury, in Warwickshire; was bred on evangelical lines, but by-and-by lost faith in supernatural Christianity; began her literary career by a translation of Strauss's "Life of Jesus"; became in 1851 a contributor to the Westminster Review, and formed acquaintance with George Henry Lewes, whom she ere long lived with as his wife, though unmarried, and who it would seem discovered to her her latent faculty for fictional work; her first work in that line was "Scenes from Clerical Life," contributed to Blackwood in 1856; the stories proved a signal success, and they were followed by a series of seven novels, beginning in 1858 with "Adam Bede," "the finest thing since Shakespeare," Charles Reade in his enthusiasm said, the whole winding up with the "Impressions of Theophrastus Such" in 1879; these, with two volumes of poems, make up her works; Lewes died in 1878, and two years after she formally married an old friend, Mr. John Cross, and after a few months of wedded life died of inflammation of the heart; "she paints," says Edmond Scherer, "only ordinary life, but under these externals she makes us assist at the eternal tragedy of the human heart... with so much sympathy," he adds, "the smile on her face so near tears, that we cannot read her pages without feeling ourselves won to that lofty toleration of hers" (1819-1880).

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Froude, James Anthony

Froude, James Anthony

an English historian and man of letters, born at Totnes, Devon; trained originally for the Church, he gave himself to literature, his chief work being the "History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada," in 12 vols., of which the first appeared in 1854 and the last in 1870, but it is with Carlyle and his "Life of Carlyle" that his name has of late been most intimately associated, and in connection with which he will ere long honourably figure in the history of the literature of England, though he has other claims to regard as the author of the "Nemesis of Faith," "Short Studies on Great Subjects," a "Life of Cæsar," a "Life of Bunyan," "The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century," and "English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century"; he ranks as one of the masters of English prose, and as a man of penetration, insight, and enlarged views, if somewhat careless about minor details (1818-1894).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Goldsmith, Oliver

Goldsmith, Oliver

English man of letters, born at Pallas or Pallasmore, co. Longford, Ireland, and celebrated in English literature as the author of the "Vicar of Wakefield"; a born genius, but of careless ways, and could not be trained to any profession, either in the Church, in law, or in medicine, though more or less booked for all three in succession; set out on travel on the Continent without a penny, and supported himself by his flute and other unknown means; came to London, tried teaching, then literature, doing hack-work, his first work in that department being "An Inquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe," which was succeeded by his "Citizen of the World"; became a member of the "Literary Club," and associated with Johnson, Reynolds, Burke, and others; produced poems, "The Traveller" and the "Deserted Village," besides comedies, such as "She Stoops to Conquer"; lived extravagantly, and died in debt; wrote histories of Greece and Rome, and "Animated Nature"; was a charming writer (1728-1774).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Gower, John

Gower, John

an English poet, contemporary and friend of Chaucer, but of an older school; was the author of three works: "Speculum Meditantis," the "Thinker's Mirror," written in French, lost for long, but recovered lately; "Vox Clamantis," the "Voice of One Crying," written in Latin, an allegorising, moralising poem, "cataloguing the vice of the time," and suggested by the Wat Tyler insurrection, 1381; and "Confessio Amantis," "Confession of a Lover," written in English, treating of the course of love, the morals and metaphysics of it, illustrated by a profusion of apposite tales; was appropriately called by Chaucer the "moral Grower"; his tomb is in St. Mary's, Southwark (1325-1408).

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Irving, Washington

Irving, Washington

popular American essayist and historian, born of British parentage in New York, was delicate in early life; his education suffered accordingly, and he travelled in Europe, 1804-6, visiting Italy, France, and England; returning to New York he was called to the bar, put he devoted himself to a literary career, only interrupted by one period of commercial life, and occasional short terms of diplomatic service; he first won fame by his "History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker," 1809, a good-natured satire on the Dutch settlers; the years 1815-32 he spent in Europe studying and writing; his "Sketch-Book," 1819-20, was very successful, as were "Bracebridge Hall," "Tales of a Traveller," and other volumes which followed it; going to Spain in 1826 he began his researches in Spanish history which resulted in "The Life of Columbus," "The Conquest of Granada," and other works which introduced English readers to the Spain of the 15th and 16th centuries; on his return to America he was treated with great respect by his countrymen; declining the honours they would have given him had he turned aside to politics, he continued to write; among his latest works were "Mahomet and his Successors" and a "Life of Washington"; much courted in society, he was kind and generous in disposition; his writings are marked by humour, observation, and descriptive power; these qualities with an excellent style place him in the foremost rank of American authors; he died, unmarried, at Tarrytown, New York (1783-1859).

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Locke, John

Locke, John

English philosopher, the father of modern materialism and empiricism, born in Wrington, Somerset; studied medicine, but did not practise it, and gave himself up to a literary life, much of it spent in the family of the celebrated Earl of Shaftesbury, both at home with it and abroad; his great work is his "Essay on the Human Understanding" in 1690, which was preceded by "Letters on Toleration," published before the expulsion of James II., and followed by the "Treatise on Government" the same year, and "Thoughts on Education" in 1693; his "Essay" was written to show that all our ideas were derived from experience, that is, through the senses and reflection on what they reveal, and that there are no innate ideas; "Locke," says Prof. Saintsbury, "is eminently" (that is, before all his contemporaries) "of such stuff as dreams are not made of"—is wholly a prosaic practical man and Englishman (1632-1704).

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Mill, John Stuart

Mill, John Stuart

logician and economist, born in London, son of the preceding; was educated pedantically by his father; began to learn Greek at 3, could read it and Latin at 14, "never was a boy," he says, and was debarred from all imaginative literature, so that in after years the poetry of Wordsworth came to him as a revelation; entered the service of the East India Company in 1823, but devoted himself to philosophic discussion; contributed to the Westminster Review, of which he was for some time editor; published his "System of Logic" in 1843, and in 1848 his "Political Economy"; entered Parliament in 1865, but lost his seat in 1868, on which he retired to Avignon, where he died; he wrote a book on "Liberty" in 1859, on "Utilitarianism" in 1863, on "Comte" in 1865, and on "Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy" the same year, and left an "Autobiography"; he was a calm thinker and an impartial critic; he befriended Carlyle when he went to London, and Carlyle rather took to him, but divergences soon appeared, which, as it could not fail, ended in total estrangement; he had an Egeria in a Mrs. Taylor, whom he married when she became a widow; it was she, it would almost seem, who was responsible for the fate of Carlyle's MS. (1806-1873).

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Musset, Alfred de

Musset, Alfred de

the premier poet of modern French literature, born in Paris of good parentage; wayward and impulsive in youth, he would settle to no occupation, till his already awakened taste for poetry receiving a powerful stimulus through contact with Victor Hugo, led him to embrace the profession of letters; two volumes of poetry were published before he achieved, in 1833, his first signal success with the dramas "André del Sarto" and "Les Caprices de Marianne"; in the same year began his famous liaison with George Sand (q. v.), involving him in the ill-fated expedition to Venice, whence he returned in the spring of 1834 shattered in health and disillusioned; from one unhappy love intrigue he passed to another, seeking in vain a solace for his restless spirit, but reaping an experience which enriched his writings; "Confessions d'un Enfant du Siècle" appeared in 1836, and is a significant confession of his life at this time; two years later he was appointed librarian at the Home Office, and in 1847 his charming comedy, "Un Caprice," was received with enthusiasm; in 1852 he was elected to the Academy, but his work was done, and already an ill-controlled indulgence in alcohol had fatally undermined his never robust strength; his writings, besides possessing the charm of an exquisite style, heightened by an undertone of true tenderness, are chiefly remarkable for the intense sincerity of feeling, albeit of a limited range, which animates them, and which finds its highest expression in his four great lyrical pieces, "Les Nuits"; his fine instinct for dramatic situation and gift of witty dialogue are manifest in the dramas already mentioned, as also in many others; of his prose works, "Le Fils du Titien," "Mademoiselle Mimi Pinson," and the "Confessions" are his best; he was a handsome man, with fascinating manners (1810-1857).

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Pope, Alexander

Pope, Alexander

eminent English poet, born in London, of Roman Catholic parents; was a sickly child, and marred by deformity, and imperfectly educated; began to write verse at 12 in which he afterwards became such a master; his "Pastorals" appeared in 1709, "Essay on Criticism" in 1711, and "Rape of the Lock" in 1712, in the production of which he was brought into relationship with the leading literary men of the time, and in particular Swift, between whom and him a lifelong friendship was formed; in 1715-20 appeared his translation of the "Iliad," and in 1723-25 that of the "Odyssey," for which two works, it is believed, he received some £9000; afterwards, in 1728, appeared the "Dunciad," a scathing satire of all the small fry of poets and critics that had annoyed him, and in 1732 appeared the first part of the famous "Essay on Man"; he was a vain man, far from amiable, and sometimes vindictive to a degree, though he was capable of warm attachments, and many of his faults were due to a not unnatural sensitiveness as a deformed man; but as a poet he is entitled to the homage which Professor Saintsbury pays when he characterises him as "one of the greatest masters of poetic form that the world has ever seen" (1688-1744).

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Reformation

Reformation

the great event in the history of Europe in the 16th century, characterised as a revolt of light against darkness, on the acceptance or the rejection of which has since depended the destiny for good or evil of the several States composing it, the challenge to each of them being the crucial one, whether they deserved and were fated to continue or perish, and the crucial character of which is visible to-day in the actual conditions of the nations as they said "nay" to it or "yea," the challenge to each at bottom being, is there any truth in you or is there none? Austria, according to Carlyle, henceforth "preferring steady darkness to uncertain new light"; Spain, "people stumbling in steep places in the darkness of midnight"; Italy, "shrugging its shoulders and preferring going into Dilettantism and the Fine Arts"; and France, "with accounts run up on compound interest," had to answer the "writ of summons" with an all too indiscriminate "Protestantism" of its own.

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Sistine Chapel

Sistine Chapel

celebrated chapel of the Vatican at Rome, constructed by order of Pope Sixtus IV., and decorated with frescoes by Michael Angelo, representing a succession of biblical subjects, including among others the "Creation of the World," the "Creation of Man," the "Creation of Woman," the "Temptation of Eve," the "Deluge," "Judith and Holophernes," "David and Goliath," "The Last Judgment," &c.

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Sophocles

Sophocles

Athenian tragic poet, born at Colonos, a suburb of Athens; when but 16, such was his musical talent, he was selected to lead the choir that sang the song of triumph over the victory of Salamis; his first appearance as a dramatist was in 488 B.C., when he had Æschylus as his rival and won the prize, though he was seven years afterwards defeated by Euripides, but retrieved the defeat the year following by the production of his "Antigone." That same year one of the 10 strategi (or generals) and he accompanied Pericles in his war against the aristocrats of Samos. He wrote a number of dramas, over 100 it is alleged, but only 7 survive, and these in probable order are "Ajax," "Antigone," "Electra," "Oedipus Tyrannus," "Trachineæ," "Oedipus Coloneus," and "Philoctetes." Thus are all his subjects drawn from Greek legend, and they are all alike remarkable for the intense humanity and sublime passion that inspires them and the humane and the high and holy resolves they stir up.

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Tacitus, Cornelius

Tacitus, Cornelius

Roman historian, born presumably at Rome, of equestrian rank, early famous as an orator; married a daughter of Agricola, held office under the Emperors Vespasian, Domitian, and Nerva, and conducted along with the younger Pliny the prosecution of Marius Priscus; he is best known and most celebrated as a historian, and of writings extant the chief are his "Life of Agricola," his "Germania," his "Histories" and his "Annals"; his "Agricola" is admired as a model biography, while his "Histories" and "Annales" are distinguished for "their conciseness, their vigour, and the pregnancy of meaning; a single word sometimes gives effect to a whole sentence, and if the meaning of the word is missed, the sense of the writer is not reached"; his great power lies in his insight into character and the construing of motives, but the picture he draws of imperial Rome is revolting; b. about A.D. 54.

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Taylor, Isaac

Taylor, Isaac

a voluminous writer on quasi-philosophic subjects, born in Lavenham, Suffolk; passed his life chiefly at Ongar engaged in literary pursuits; contributed to the Eclectic Review, Good Words, and wrote amongst other works "Natural History of Enthusiasm," "Natural History of Fanaticism," "Spiritual Despotism" and "Ultimate Civilisation" (1787-1865). His eldest son, Isaac, entered the Church, and rose to be rector of Settrington, in Yorkshire, and was collated to a canonry of York in 1885; has a wide reputation as a philologist, and author of "Words and Places," and "The Alphabet, an Account of the Origin and Development of Letters," besides "Etruscan Researches," "The Origin of the Aryans," etc.; b. 1829.

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Theosophy

Theosophy

a mystic philosophy of very difficult definition which hails from the East, and was introduced among us by Madame Blavatsky, a Russian lady, who was initiated into its mysteries in Thibet by a fraternity there who professed to be the sole custodiers of its secrets as the spiritual successors of those to whom it was at first revealed. The radical idea of the system appears to be reincarnation, and the return of the spirit to itself by a succession of incarnations, each one of which raises it to a higher level until, by seven stages it would seem, the process is complete, matter has become spirit, and spirit matter, God has become man, and man God, agreeably somewhat to the doctrine of Amiel, that "the complete spiritualisation of the animal element in us is the task of our race," though with them it seems rather to mean its extinction. The adherents of this system, with their head-quarters at Madras, are numerous and wide-scattered, and form an organisation of 300 branches, having three definite aims: (1) To establish a brotherhood over the world irrespective of race, creed, caste, or sex; (2) to encourage the study of comparative philosophy, religion, and science; and (3) to investigate the occult secrets of nature and the latent possibilities of man. The principal books in exposition of it are, "The Secret Doctrine," "Isis Unveiled," "The Key to Theosophy," by Mme. Blavatsky; "Esoteric Buddhism," "The Occult World," &c., by Sinnett; "The Ancient Wisdom," "The Birth and Evolution of the Soul," &c., by Annie Besant.

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Thoreau, Henry David

Thoreau, Henry David

an American author who, next to his friend and neighbour Emerson, gave the most considerable impulse to the "transcendental" movement in American literature, born in Concord, where his life was mostly spent, of remote French extraction; was with difficulty enabled to go to Harvard, where he graduated, but without distinction of any sort; took to desperate shifts for a living, but simplified the problem of "ways and means" by adopting Carlyle's plan of "lessening your denominator"; the serious occupation of his life was to study nature in the woods around Concord, to make daily journal entries of his observings and reflections, and to preserve his soul in peace and purity; his handicrafts were unwelcome necessities thrust upon him; "What after all," he exclaims, "does the practicalness of life amount to? The things immediate to be done are very trivial; I could postpone them all to hear this locust sing. The most glorious fact in my experience is not anything I have done or may hope to do, but a transient thought or vision or dream which I have had"; his chief works are "Walden," the account of a two years' sojourn in a hut built by his own hands in the Concord Woods near "Walden Pool," "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac River," essays, poems, etc. (1817-1862).

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Wagner, Wilhelm Richard

Wagner, Wilhelm Richard

the great musical composer, born at Leipzig; showed early a faculty for music, and began the enthusiastic study of it under Beethoven; in 1835 became conductor of the orchestra of the theatre of Magdeburg, and held the same post afterwards at Riga and Königsberg; his principal works were "Rienzi" (1840), "The Flying Dutchman" (1843), "Tannhäuser" (1845), "Lohengrin" (1850), "Tristan and Isolde" (1859), "The Mastersingers of Nürnberg" (1859-60), and the "Ring of the Nibelungen," the composition of which occupied 25 years; this last was performed in 1876 at Bayreuth in a theatre erected for the purpose in presence of the emperor of Germany and the principal musical artists of the world; "Parsifal" was his last work; his musical ideas were revolutionary, and it was some time before his works made their way in England (1813-1883).

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Æs`chylus

Æs`chylus

the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant—the "Suppliants," the "Persæ," the "Seven against Thebes," the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

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Arnold, Matthew

Arnold, Matthew

poet and critic, eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby; professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867; inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851; commissioned twice over to visit France, Germany, and Holland, to inquire into educational matters there; wrote two separate reports thereon of great value; author of "Poems," of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift, "Essays on Criticism," "Culture and Anarchy," "St. Paul and Protestantism," "Literature and Dogma," &c.; a man of culture, and especially literary culture, of which he is reckoned the apostle; died suddenly at Liverpool. He was more eminent as a poet than a critic, influential as he was in that regard. "It is," says Swinburne, "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged," and is being now judged (1822-1888).

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Blake, William

Blake, William

poet, painter, and engraver, born in London, where, with rare intervals, he spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood; apprenticed to an engraver, whom he assisted with his drawings; started on original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter; devoted his leisure to poetry; wrote "Songs of Innocence," "Marriage of Heaven and Hell," "Gates of Paradise," and "Songs of Experience"; was an intensely religious man of deep spiritual insight, most vivid feeling and imagination; illustrated Young's "Night Thoughts," Blair's "Grave," and the "Book of Job." He was a man of stainless character but eccentric habits, and had for wife an angel, Catherine Boucher (1757-1828).

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Browning, Elizabeth Barrett

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett

née Barrett, poetess, born at Carlton Hall, Durham; a woman of great natural abilities, which developed early; suffered from injury to her spine; went to Torquay for her health; witnessed the death by drowning of a brother, that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her; published in 1838 "The Seraphim," and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children"; fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846, who immediately took her abroad, settling in Florence; wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese," in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows," and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh," "a novel in verse," and in 1860 "Poems before Congress"; ranks high, if not highest, among the poetesses of England; she took an interest all through life in public affairs; her work is marked by musical diction, sensibility, knowledge, and imagination, which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861).

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Diogenes the Cynic

Diogenes the Cynic

born in Sinope, in Pontus, came to Athens, was attracted to Antisthenes (q. v.) and became a disciple, and a sansculotte of the first water; dressed himself in the coarsest, lived on the plainest, slept in the porches of the temples, and finally took up his dwelling in a tub; stood on his naked manhood; would not have anything to do with what did not contribute to its enhancement; despised every one who sought satisfaction in anything else; went through the highways and byways of the city at noontide with a lit lantern in quest of a man; a man himself not to be laughed at or despised; visiting Corinth, he was accosted by Alexander the Great: "I am Alexander," said the king, and "I am Diogenes" was the prompt reply; "Can I do anything to serve you?" continued the king; "Yes, stand out of the sunlight," rejoined the cynic; upon which Alexander turned away saying, "If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." D'Alembert declared Diogenes the greatest man of antiquity, only that he wanted decency. "Great truly," says Carlyle, but adds with a much more serious drawback than that (412-323 B.C.). See "Sartor Resartus," bk. iii. chap. 1.

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Edgeworth, Maria

Edgeworth, Maria

novelist, born at Blackbourton, Berks; from her fifteenth year her home was in Ireland; she declined the suit of a Swedish count, and remained till the close of her life unmarried; amongst the best known of her works are "Moral Tales," "Tales from Fashionable Life," "Castle Rackrent," "The Absentee," and "Ormond"; her novels are noted for their animated pictures of Irish life, and were acknowledged by Scott to have given him the first suggestion of the Waverley series; the Russian novelist, Turgenief, acknowledges a similar indebtedness; "in her Irish stories she gave," says Stopford Brooke, "the first impulse to the novel of national character, and in her other tales to the novel with a moral purpose" (1766-1849).

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Euphemism

Euphemism

is in speech or writing the avoiding of an unpleasant or indelicate word or expression by the use of one which is less direct, and which calls up a less disagreeable image in the mind. Thus for "he died" is substituted "he fell asleep," or "he is gathered to his fathers"; thus the Greeks called the "Furies" the "Eumenides," "the benign goddesses," just as country people used to call elves and fairies "the good folk neighbours."

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Fielding, Henry

Fielding, Henry

a famous novelist, who has been styled by Scott "the father of the English novel," born at Sharpham Park, Glastonbury, son of General Edmund Fielding and a cousin of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (q. v.); was educated at Eton and at Leyden, where he graduated in 1728; led for some years a dissipated life in London, and achieved some celebrity by the production of a series of comedies and farces, now deservedly sunk into oblivion; in 1735 he married Miss Charlotte Cradock, and after a brief experiment as a theatre lessee studied law at the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar; literature was, however, his main pursuit, and in 1742 he came to the front with "Joseph Andrews," a burlesque on Richardson's "Pamela," in which his powers as a novelist first showed themselves; in 1743 followed three volumes of "Miscellanies," including "Jonathan Wild"; after his wife's death he turned again to law, but in 1745 we find him once more engaged in literature as editor of the True Patriot and afterwards of the Jacobite's Journal; "Tom Jones," his masterpiece, appeared in 1749, and three years later "Amelia"; journalism and his duties as a justice of the peace occupied him till 1754, when ill-health forced him abroad to Lisbon, where he died and was buried. Fielding is a master of a fluent, virile, and attractive style; his stories move with an easy and natural vigour, and are brimful of humour and kindly satire, while his characters in their lifelike humanness, with all their foibles and frailties, are a marked contrast to the buckram and conventional figures of his contemporary Richardson; something of the laxity of his times, however, finds its way into his pages, and renders them not always palatable reading to present-day readers (1707-1754).

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Gibbon, Edward

Gibbon, Edward

eminent historian, born at Putney, near London, of good parentage; his early education was greatly hindered by a nervous complaint, which, however, disappeared by the time he was 14; a wide course of desultory reading had, in a measure, repaired the lack of regular schooling, and when at the age of 15 he was entered at Magdalen College, Oxford, he possessed, as he himself quaintly puts it, "a stock of erudition which might have puzzled a doctor, and a degree of ignorance of which a schoolboy might have been ashamed"; 14 months later he became a convert to Roman Catholicism, and in consequence was obliged to quit Oxford; in the hope of reclaiming him to the Protestant faith he was placed in the charge of the deistical poet Mallet, and subsequently under a Calvinist minister at Lausanne; under the latter's kindly suasion he speedily discarded Catholicism, and during five years' residence established his learning on a solid foundation; time was also found for the one love episode of his life—an amour with Suzanne Curchod, an accomplished young lady, who subsequently became the wife of the French minister M. Neckar, and mother of Madame de Staël; shortly after his return to England in 1758 he published in French an Essay on the Study of Literature, and for some time served in the militia; in 1774, having four years previously inherited his father's estate, he entered Parliament, and from 1779 to 1782 was one of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations; in 1776 appeared the first volume of his great history "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," the conception of which had come to him in 1764 in Rome whilst "musing amongst the ruins of the Capitol"; in 1787 his great work was finished at Lausanne, where he had resided since 1783; modern criticism, working with fresh sources of information, has failed to find any serious flaw in the fabric of this masterpiece in history, but the cynical attitude adopted towards the Christian religion has always been regarded as a defect; "a man of endless reading and research," was Carlyle's verdict after a final perusal of the "Decline," "but of a most disagreeable style, and a great want of the highest faculties of what we would call a classical historian, compared with Herodotus, for instance, and his perfect clearness and simplicity in every part"; he, nevertheless, characterised his work to Emerson once as "a splendid bridge from the old world to the new" (1737-1794).

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Gray, Thomas

Gray, Thomas

English poet, born in Cornhill, London, for whom Horace Walpole conceived a warm attachment, which, after a brief rupture, lasted with life; gave himself up to the study of Greek literature, and began to cultivate the muse of poetry; produced in 1747 "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College," and in 1750 his well-known "Elegy written in a Country Churchyard"; these were followed by the "Pindaric Odes," the "Progress of Poesy," and the "Bard," which was finished in 1757; in 1760 he was presented by the Duke of Grafton with the professorship of Modern History in Cambridge, a sinecure office with £400 a year. "All is clear light," says Stopford Brooke, "in Gray's work. Out of the love of Greek he drew his fine lucidity.... He moved with easy power over many forms of poetry, but there is naturalness and no rudeness in the power. It was adorned by high ornament and finish.... The 'Elegy' will always remain one of the beloved poems of Englishmen; it is not only a piece of exquisite work; it is steeped in England" (1716-1771).

Great Commoner

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Hawthorne, Nathaniel

Hawthorne, Nathaniel

American novelist, born at Salem, Massachusetts; his early ambition was to be a literary man, and "Twice-told Tales" was the first production by which he won distinction, after the publication of which he spent some months at Brook Farm (q. v.), leaving which he married and took up house at Concord; from 1848 to 1850 he held a State appointment, and in his leisure hours wrote his "Scarlet Letter," which appeared in the latter year, and established his fame as a master of literature; this was followed by "The House of the Seven Gables," "The Snow Image," "The Blithedale Romance," and by-and-by "The Marble Faun," and "Our Old Home" (1804-1864).

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Holmes, Oliver Wendell

Holmes, Oliver Wendell

a celebrated American author, born the son of a Congregational minister, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and graduated in arts and medicine at Harvard; became professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Dartmouth College, but resigned and settled in Boston as a general practitioner; in 1847 he was elected to the chair of Anatomy in Harvard, a position he held till his resignation in 1882; a successful professor, it is as an essayist, novelist, and poet that he is remembered; the appearance of "The Autocrat at the Breakfast-Table," with its quaint humour, fresh thought, and charming egotism took literary America by storm; the "Professor" and the "Poet at the Breakfast-Table" followed in after years, and remain his most widely popular works; "Elsie Venner," a novel dealing with the problem of heredity, "The Guardian Angel," "Songs of Many Seasons," "Memoirs of Motley and of Emerson," are some of his many works, all of which have the impress of his bright, engaging personality (1809-1894).

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Jonson, Ben

Jonson, Ben

dramatist, born at Westminster, posthumous son of a clergyman of Scottish descent; was in his youth first a bricklayer, afterwards a soldier in the Netherlands, whence he returned about 1592; married a shrew, and became connected with the stage; he was one of the most learned men of his age, and for forty years the foremost, except Shakespeare, in the dramatic and literary world; killing his challenger in a duel nearly cost him his life in 1598; he was branded on the left thumb, imprisoned, and his goods confiscated; in prison he turned Catholic, but twelve years later reverted to Protestantism; the opening of the century brought an unpleasant difference with Dekker and Marston, and saw the famous Mermaid Club at its zenith; for nine years after Shakespeare's death he produced no dramas; in 1619 he received a degree, M.A., from Oxford, the laureateship, and a small pension from the king; now a widower, he founded with Herrick, Suckling, Carew, and others the Apollo Club at the Devil Tavern; in the new reign he turned again to dramatic work with sadly diminished power; he died in poverty, but was buried in Westminster Abbey, his tombstone bearing the words "O rare Ben Jonson"; he wrote at least sixteen plays, among them "Every Man is his Humour" (1598), in which Shakespeare acted, "The Poetaster" (1601), which vexed Dekker, the tragedy of "Sejanus" (1603), "The Silent Woman" (1609), a farcical comedy, Dryden's favourite play, and his most elaborate and masterly work, "The Alchemist" (1610); he wrote also thirty-five masques of singular richness and grace, in the production of which Inigo Jones provided the mechanism; but his best work was his lyrics, first of which stands "Drink to me only with thine eyes," whose exquisite delicacy and beauty everybody knows (1573-1637).

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Novalis

Novalis

the nom de plume of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a German author, born at Wiederstädt, near Mansfeld, one of the most prominent representatives of the Romantic school of poets, author of two unfinished romances entitled "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" and "Lehrlinge zu Sais," together with "Geistliche Lieder" and "Hymnen an die Nacht"; was an ardent student of Jacob Boehme (q. v.), and wrote in a mystical vein, and was at heart a mystic of deep true feeling; pronounced by Carlyle "an anti-mechanist—a deep man, the most perfect of modern spirit seers"; regarded, he says, "religion as a social thing, and as impossible without a church" (1772-1801). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Paton Sir Joseph Noel

Paton Sir Joseph Noel

poet and painter, born at Dunfermline; became a pattern designer, but afterwards studied in Edinburgh and London, and devoted himself to art; his early subjects were mythical and legendary, later they have been chiefly religious; he was appointed Queen's Limner for Scotland in 1865, knighted in 1867, and in 1876 received his LL.D. from Edinburgh University; his "Quarrel" and "Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania" are in the National Gallery, Edinburgh; the illustrations of the "Dowie Dens o' Yarrow," and the series of religious allegories, "Pursuit of Pleasure," "Lux in Tenebris," "Faith and Reason," &c., are familiar through the engravings; "Poems by a Painter" appeared in 1861; b. 1821.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Reade, Charles

Reade, Charles

English novelist, born at Ipsden, in Oxfordshire; studied at Oxford; became a Fellow of Magdalen College, and was called to the bar in 1842; began his literary life by play-writing; studied the art of fiction for 15 years, and first made his mark as novelist in 1852, when he was nearly 40, by the publication of "Peg Woffington," which was followed in 1856 by "It is Never too Late to Mend," and in 1861 by "The Cloister and the Hearth," the last his best and the most popular; several of his later novels are written with a purpose, such as "Hard Cash" and "Foul Play"; his most popular plays are "Masks and Faces" and "Drink" (1814-1884).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rossini, Gioacchino

Rossini, Gioacchino

celebrated Italian composer of operatic music, born at Pesaro; his operas were numerous, of a high order, and received with unbounded applause, beginning with "Tancred," followed by "Barber of Seville," "La Gazza Ladra," "Semiramis," "William Tell," &c.; he composed a "Stabat Mater," and a "Mass" which was given at his grave (1792-1868).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

a celebrated French philosopher, and one or the great prose writers of French literature, born in Geneva, the son of a watchmaker and dancing-master; was apprenticed to an engraver, whose inhuman treatment drove him at the age of 16 into running away; for three years led a vagrant life, acting as footman, lackey, secretary, &c.; during this period was converted to Catholicism largely through the efforts of Madame de Warens, a spritely married lady living apart from her husband; in 1731 he took up residence in his patroness's house, where he lived for nine years a life of ease and sentiment in the ambiguous capacity of general factotum, and subsequently of lover; supplanted in the affections of his mistress, he took himself off, and landed in Paris in 1741; supported himself by music-copying, an occupation which was his steadiest means of livelihood throughout his troubled career; formed a liaison with an illiterate dull servant-girl by whom he had five children, all of whom he callously handed over to the foundling hospital; acquaintance with Diderot brought him work on the famous Encyclopédie, but the true foundation of his literary fame was laid in 1749 by "A Discourse on Arts and Sciences," in which he audaciously negatives the theory that morality has been favoured by the progress of science and the arts; followed this up in 1753 by a "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which he makes a wholesale attack upon the cherished institutions and ideals of society; morosely rejected the flattering advances of society, and from his retreat at Montlouis issued "The New Héloïse" (1760), "The Social Contract" (1762), and "Émile" (1762); these lifted him into the widest fame, but precipitated upon him the enmity and persecution of Church (for his Deism) and State; fled to Switzerland, where after his aggressive "Letters from the Mountains," he wandered about, the victim of his own suspicious, hypochondriacal nature; found for some time a retreat in Staffordshire under the patronage of Hume; returned to France, where his only persecutors were his own morbid hallucinations; died, not without suspicion of suicide, at Ermenonville; his "Confessions" and other autobiographical writings, although unreliable in facts, reflect his strange and wayward personality with wonderful truth; was one of the precursive influences which brought on the revolutionary movement (1712-1778).

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Sardou, Victorien

Sardou, Victorien

a popular French playwright, born at Paris; gave up medicine for literature, and his first successes were "Monsieur Garat" and "Les Prés Saint-Gervais," both in 1800; from that date his popularity and wealth began to flow in upon him; his work has been taken up by Sarah Bernhardt, for whom he wrote "Fédora," "Théodora," and "La Tosca" (1887); a number of his plays have been translated into English, such as "A Scrap of Paper," "Diplomacy," &c.; was elected to the Academy in 1877; his plays are characterised by clever dialogue and stage effects, and an emotionalism rather French than English; b. 1831.

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia

Seven Sages of Greece

Seven Sages of Greece

Solon of Athens, his motto "Know thyself"; Chilo of Sparta, his motto "Consider the end"; Thales of Miletus, his motto "Whoso hateth suretyship is sure"; Bias of Priene, his motto "Most men are bad"; Cleobulus of Lindos, his motto "Avoid extremes"; Pittacus of Mitylene, his motto "Seize Time by the forelock"; Periander of Corinth, his motto "Nothing is impossible to industry."

— The Nuttall Encyclopedia